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Prostitution in Ancient India Author(s): Sukumari Bhattacharji Reviewed work(s): Source: Social Scientist, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Feb., 1987), pp. 32-61 Published by: Social Scientist Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3520437 . Accessed: 28/01/2013 04:28
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SUKUMA RI BHAT1'ACHARJI*
Inadia in Prostitution Ancient
we lover, lhowever hearoftheillicit of work India. At first literary ancient of spouse. Whatdistinlover a married jara andjatini-male and female or prostitute her client the lover from professional suchan illicit guished we hear for is theregularpayment favoursreceived. Whlen merely ofan of ; mayor maynothavebeenan exchange gift in a case there lover illicit daysof remote have been optional. In thie giftsmust of mutualconsent such gifts was yet unknown, or when mnoney currency economy barter to in to were equivalent payment cash. We haveobliquereferences women wheleave us guessing but for gifts theirfavours, theconitexts given being in to she or whether agreed oblige was the ther womiian a willingpartner Vedic evenin theearliest for the giftsshe received. Butclearly, return and unions age, love outside wedlock was a familiarphenomenon manner. in lust by promoted mere are mentioned quitean uninhibited of in centuas appears theliterature a few Prostitution a profession much in have beencommon society the riesafter Vedasalthoughit must and the the Vedic literature betweeni twelfth the earlier. After earliest Books ll-VII), we havea vastliterature B.C. ninthcenturies (i.e., Rgvedca, celnturies In B.C. anld the the covers periodbetween eighth thefiftlh which of of illicit we hearof thewoman easyvirtue, thewife's too, this literature, loveaffairs.' and love but is Extra-marital mayhave beenvoluntary unpaid there as of of by regarded themalepartner a form service thepossibility it being for whichhe was obligedto payin someform. Butas longas it was contract was not it and to person, wasa temporary confined a particular muhtittia for The later Pali term (lasting an as regarded a profession. such muhturtika temporary signified purely Sanskrit or equivalent instant), its or may no with lastingrelationship obligation.Suchaffairs have unions of on or depending theattitude thepartners. beenvoluntary professional, of because they arosea section womenwho,either there Gradually, of because early or unsatis. widowhood, couldnotfindsuitablehusbands, if had life especially they been married or othersocial pressures factory enjoyed so deniedan honourable and status or abducted forcibly violated, or in eventsaway as gifts religious secular or in society, had beengiven
Calcutta. *FormerlyProfessorof Saliskrit,Jadavpur UJniversity,
of occurs in the Rgveda,the most THE EARLIEST mention prostitution
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PROS UTIrliloNIN ANCIENTr INDIA
forced takeup prostitutiona profession. as to such womenwerefrequently in And whenthey did so, theyfoundthemselves a unique position: they constituted onlysection of women who had to be theirown bread the and guardians. All the others-maidendaughters,sisters,wives, winners had who took up prostitution to masters or sons.2 So, vomfen husbands,
wards of men: fathers, brothers, widows and maidservants-were
customers to had sureof an indeperndenit be reasonably livelihood;their for makeita viableproposition' them.
the did It is easy to see that all avenues to pkostitution. not offer same kindof economicsecuT:ity.A,raped woman had littlechanceof an honourable ; marriageand social rehabilitationso, reducedto prostitution, she had to accept whatevercamc hcr way. This also held true forthe wantonmaid a old maid turned prostitute. Bult youngwidowor a pretty or an unhappilymarried attractivewoman could perhaps choose her of and name her price,at least in the beginning hercareerwhile partner of husband'sor in-laws'home. she stillenjoyedthe protection herfather's, whenprostitution India arose in We have absolutely no way of knowing or how'muchthe prostitute a recognizable received way of as profession by
and monoandry, the wife being regarded as the privateproperty her of husband. The terms sadizaranior samranya (common), synonyms for her as a womaii not possessedby one man ; thisis distinguish prostitute, does not belongto one man butobliges thedesideratum. Whena wonman and vararnukhya3 varaiadhu as the terms varastri. many, Ilaraflgana, signify, of one mani,she looks after sinceshe is not the responsibility atny herself. she does by acceptingpayment fron each of themenshe obliges; she then can be botught This becomespanyastri,one whosefavours withmoney. must have been slow, The processof the emergenceof prostitution
as and was payment.Its emerQence recognition a profession presumably withthe institution strict of concomitant inarriagerules, especially
as a moreregularizedformof prostitution recognized a social instituition. Early Buddhist literature, to especiallythe Jatakas, bear testimony the of categories prostitutes, and incidentally existenceof different provides about theirfeesas also of theirfinancial some information position. surpluswas produced,a surplus whichalso earnedprosperity from abroad tradeand commerce. It also presupposes through the riseof petty principalities,the breakdownof tribalsociety, the riseof thejoint or extended familyand thiesocial subjugation of women in general. In a settled the womangraduallylost social mobility agricultural community, and a measure of freedomthat she had been enjoying before. She became man's ward,possession, Also, withthe accumulation objectof enijoynment.
from regionto regionandfrom to age. Bythelater Vedic varying age or to age,i.e.,around eighth seventh t:he century B.C.,we havereferences
an Professional prostitution presupposes economic condition which in
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we sacrificial to officiating fees priests.polyanidry disappeared except somesmallpockets. is in the Buddhist texts thatwe see as In them first professionals. hence prostitution to be institutionalized had so thatthere of was an assurance a steadysupply readypayment. away fromthevillage-and lateralso from towns--where could go anL1 meni seek theircompany.Thisitself regarded a minor was as by couldbe expiated taking sinon thehusband's which part. Suchfees of includedhorses. an upapataka by mild the comparatively candrayana textsrevealto us vow. and in by to enjoyed abandoned men. childrenand marriedwith children. Brahmin sages Dalbhya Caikitayana and Astavakra were said to be associated Svetaketu's nephew withtheteaching in constitutessection. someofthechanniels whichwomen Another by old of of was channel thesupply prostitutes young virgins given awayas gifts and occasions. The number suchgirlsgiven of on special religious secular is In awayto brahmins.In theKurIIandPancala regions5 inhabited theMadrasand by the the Sindhu-Sauviras. follows Magadha. These clearlypartofa are ritual. in theAitareya especially the andSankhayana is Aranyakas.gold and also women various categories-unmarried. Vedic literature. Pleraure had therefore. Societywas now polygamous. their and ensured security prosperity.she belonged girl.cattle. others. laterVedic guests.We also hear ofthe or husbandswholived on thewife's income jayopojivins jayajivins. sons-inlaw staggering. wife wasmore zealouslyguardedand jealously watchedover. her some man. Social ostracism on theone handandprofessionall of solidarity theguild type association of on theother. The Mahabharata of the Vrsnis4 endswith womenof thesetribes abducted barbarian being by brigands. In theMahabharata6 oferotics which a prostitution Ksemendra prostitution. the Vratyasukta she the oftheAtharvaieda. ture are and There various the myths legends regarding origin prostituof account thedestruction the Yadavas and of tion. says that wickedmothers their give daughters. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sucha manabandoned as hershe was forcedto adoptprostitution a profession.One married without and theMatsya. in to as Whether an unmarried a wifeor a widow."0 All these cameto prostitution.' Vatsyayana hisKamasutra oni instructions how a chaste shouldbe seduced detailed gives girl cleverly she to when until yields a nan's lust. whichshe earned sellingherself.purana7 we are given fictitious accountsof the originof This content downloaded on Mon. the property rights. so othermen couldnot approach without trespassing on theowner's outside home.9 Presumably. prostitute mentioned an apparently in with obscene altercation theneophyte In (brahmacarin).34 SOCIALSCIENTIST the ofprivate property. It is in this rolethat has persisted ritual literashe fertility in and downtheages.It musthave for beena longand tortuous process womenofthisprofession congrefor to gate in a 'red lightarea'. to be paidfor. priests. the Although later Vedic literature tacitly assumesand sometimes evenovertly menitions it prostitutes. times hearofdaksinas.
To theupperclassof courtesans sometimes came menof refined aesthetic sensibilities intellectual and ability.r epigraphy Imanlyevidences itsexistectce As townships cities of and arosealong thetrade routes northerni around sixth in India the century B. institution arose in the troubled period offoreign invasion before the and after earlycenturies Kalidasa. century literature and bea. Jatakas notknow do them. assumes theirexistence function an establiand as shedtradition.Such prostitution b yiing women and giving to saidto grow in this donorswere rich life and live in heaven a long for time. A. In e Vidarbha. merchants.. onwards.. arecalledVaisikcatantra. Theythemselves trainedin thevarious were arts including for literature. obvious oine solulife wasprostitutioa. others would still he marry.C. Kautilya says thatp-rostitutes recruited fromfour wereborn as prostituttes' or sources:either they daughters.Yet anothersource supply theroyal of was palace.D. courtiers Of tion for theirfuture would had someofthem the rest few alter but sometimes courses marry native were opento them. Somehe could others would enjoy he and abandorn.D. ma 'And pretty idswere joyed bytie kingfor a mo-nth then such sentaway.C.13 for a abhorrent manner procuring of for wvomnen Finally. in thefifth century A. A maidis hispalace.'5 Fromthe sixth A. EvenKautilya doesnotassociateprofessional dancers witlh temple prostitution. soldiersandmen ofvariouis trades. In +the Vats-3gulma region.they had to keepa troupe of in artistes thedifferent inreadiniess the cultivated fields for customer. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .enjoythem somne to king couldsummon for pretty days andthen sendthem ministers' wives away. theywere in purchased. Wlhen women cme outofthe palace. We hearthathe whogavea hostofprostitutestheSungodwent to to theregion thesunafter of death."' captured war. and amongthem were fortunate. totally temple was them thetemples.4 Temple dancers not appear do before lastfew the centuries and B. arementioned frequentlytheearly in ceinturies in someregions. employ as maidservants. Thesecourtesans trained many were in arts andif they wereyoungand pretty theycouldamassa fortune. their training quitelengthy elaborate. song.[ON PROSTITUT IN ANCIENT INDIA 35 wonders what priest witi hundreds such0 a did of women. Greek after Alexander notmention do visitors them. had visits bJing the to oblige king paying to by (on summoned) thepalace. for these This content downloaded on Mon. hence theywere obliged provide to entertainment thehostesses tiieFrenchsalons ofthe lastcentury like of or theJapanese geisha girls. so Since entertainment their was primary they to provide had function. Manyofthiese would later finid wayto brothels their or to slavemarkets. internal maritime and tradeflourished these. evidently the exceptionally but only young accomplished beautiful.l). music variousother and kindsofpleasure. the Evidently. The A.and townsand in cities becamecentres wlhere courtesans plied theirtrade and attracted moneyfromtravellers.D. dance. course.'2or theywere or women had been who punished adultery. was and We here texts of composed suchtraining.
for names courtesans. in a thani prostitute Jatadhara's who salabhanjika.23 with ritually who the B.j9 Atiskadvariand apaskadvari.27 couldalsobelong theroyal case another kept and could also be exclusively by one man. couldalso be enjoyedat will.30 of nameofthemistress oneindivithe also mention1s rupqjiva. The Jatakasm:ention in and janapadakalyani are mentioned several bhani itthi.29 Disguisedas a wifeshecould helpa Vatsyayana by manescapeand couldalso be employed thestateas a spy.C. women.23 numerous categories thevarious the through ages. silpakarika. Kulata prakasaviin theactress. in are mentioned the Taittiriya bare bosoms anld dress fancy with women also to and entertains is given sensuality.36 SOCIAL SCIENTIST pleaprovideall kindsofaesthetic couldnot herself courtesan Butevery for investment and also recurring sure. shewho walks among sadharani. are courtesans oIne. a tribe. different times havemany weFromtheearliest and and the agru.17 TheAtharvaveda to nakedness (i.but in timesof crisis harem28 to She to couldbe forfeited thestate. so theyhad to makean initial royal the a and maintaining troupeof artistes.it also signifies socialand financial variations temporal also synonyms testify The ofcourtesans. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Theganikamustinitially byan entire later of the of of at the disposal all the members a gana.22 In theMahavrata pumscali. she who Pajayitri. Prahmana. training cameto heraid.gamaniyo.a frivolous the knows pumscali.nariyo. with ganika.. who baresherself she men. Royalcourtsalso patronlized of train singers and hisfavourites by who couldbe enjoyed theking and dancers singers as and whocouldalso be employed spies. in which 48 her enjoying was fined panas.16 the woman The Rgvedaknowsthehasra.e. mentions ktinbhadasiand paricarika maidservants enutury nati. treasury their own maintained cites of courtesans prosperous and towns Chief such and dancinggirls. of presence theinstitution to thewidespread . political dictlonary. a prostitute common The Kamasutra in the second or first a brahmacarin. and nagarasoiannadasi. If a manforcibly owedthestate income halfhermonthly 12 herhe wasfined panas.and includes Somelater names of or unit. She enjoyed for two days' inicome a month. constituent a confederacy.'3themahanagnii. ofgreat in many)is mentioned the atharaveda.vesi.Occasionally. wanton anldsvairini. theopenlydefiled social different ranks. is no other or cannotbe explainedby regional of This profusion synonyms of status the only. shewhois engaged artsand crafts. in thearts liketheganika her The rupajivawasnot accomplished and was in onlystock tradeas thename signifies her beauty charm.24muhuttia2` who women can be enjoyed beautiful most in texts thesenseofthe Buddhist a have connoted woman janapada.3' Another and Functions in Variations Status This content downloaded on Mon. rupajivaatnd nasta.20 termsforthe are in figures sometexts.2' Samanya and sadharani generic rite the pairs woman.
alorng signals (samjna) the foreign spies.eightboard drums. pipe playing writing. mistress vita. umbrellas. painting. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . swords. arts.instant musicalinstrumetnts.D. architecture. of in coffers times national to too had to paypartofherincome thestate usually to a woman. making. camps and jewels. the and and shampooing the artofattracting captivating garlands. her husbandwas knownas was a housewife vandhaki by maintained a vandhaki. Samalataka The mentions Sania. prostitute's attainrnents-writing. harlot. rare A. to catch free in and the too.33 all varabadhu. reading thouights others. teachers train sonsofprostitutesbe chief of and of on (rangopajivin) thestage.34 and detecting wickedand miurderin-g deluding whichorginallymeanta Sudra woman latercame to mean a whilevrsali. danlcing. bad men and women.dice. versechess. The rupadasi was unaccomplished man. fighting. making. had become This content downloaded on Mon. be mastered her. of whichstand for a prostitute woman who lefthome to become a publicwomanand was a married turnedwhore. as singing. cooks. was a low common crisis. jewellery. arrangement. acting.elephants. Thewives actors others similar and who languages the useof various profession have beentaught be withtheir relatives madeuse of in shall.. rams. varangana. playing arithemetic. Likethevannadasi of in employed thepersonal atltendance a wealthy on in mentioned the Jatakasshe could entertain custonlers herownor slaveof was a female someotherperson. of manufacture cents the anddrum. ability shooting arrows. of absolutely amongthe women the gentry. playing music'al such on instruments as vina(lyre). of dressing knowledge thesignsofgoodor up. on instrumnents.the most centuries whichbytheearly men among them. maintenance of with mind othersshall be endowed actors to the the shiall They. the from state.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 37 and was dual man is avarudldha. perfume rods. fencing."5 by the accomthe It is clearthat prostitute especially ganika. etc.gemswhichantidotepoison. Kulata list Jain workwe have an exhaustive of the In a sixthcentury on the singing.offered something plished viz. Theganika sometimes rupajiva received training arts thevarious and arts and femaleslaves actresses such those who teach prostitutes. Altogether to were arts seventy-two and sciences to interpret omens. phalanx canopies. reading.a courtesan Kasi whohad Other common and late names are of a retinue 500 ganikadasis. The randa out but to whopretended be engagedin penance wasactually an old hag customers. chess.A vandhaki or maintaining being vandhakiposa. horses. varamukhya. and of. of and Apablhramsa in Prakrite proficiency the science poetry. pumsula and lanjika are later synonymsof harlots.2 Theganikadasi serve under a-nd independent setup her ownestawho couldalso become theganika of blishment.
Slhewas patronizedby the kingwho visitedlher sometimes. the collection. the Serving husband forthe wifewhatresidence thepreceptor's is in house is to themanand householdduty to thewoman. a twelfth text century says thatthe state received 25% to 30% oftheprostitute's income. read in the Manusalnhita:"The sacramentof We is marriage to a feiale what initiation is with thesacred thread to a male. Because of herhighfeesnone but the mostwealthy could approach her.and apparently expensive she edulcation could frequently nameherprice. especially husband in-laws.wlich. man an wife the whocaredforcultured female went thebrothel it. of beauty. moredifficult ascertain income thewomen to the of 'kept'in seclusionby a manor of the unorganized individual women in plyingthe trade isolatedpocketsor even.rupaji&a. Bhatti38 parivvayam39 and denote two different typesof fees. mancoercionanidcheating.37 a steady in deterioration thestatus of the woman1and the Sudra followedhis codification the social norm of the-towtn's (nagaraka) tastesin womeni. Taxes to the State paytaxes to the state but a careful leadsto theconclusion study that almostall categories had an actual or potential obligation paying for taxes. The Naninmayasundarikatta. depended thedegree nature the and of organizationi. a fixed at it while was muclh rate.trainling accomplishand mentbeloniged a superiorsocial status. and the brothel flourished because cateredto thecultured it man-aboutTheganika because her youth.vesya and vandhakihad to This content downloaded on Mon. .Vasadavatta Matliura of charged very high rates night. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . only the richest merchants could paysuchfees.Withan extensive."36 This series neat equations of deprivethe womanof her education. also thereby and but indirectly doom herto thelossof herhusband's attention.38 SOCIAL SCIENTISi accomplishiment. TheplayMrcchakatika We have seen that the ganika.as also by wealthy merchants. She alone enijoyedposition a where longas heryouth as and beauty lasted could she notbe exploited. home. brothels organized enjoyed greater from security thestate lieu in of thetaxesthey paid while individuals whopaid 'hush-money' extorto tionistofficers couldhardlydemandanyprotection from inijustice. oni however.D. at Similarly. Manu to for company belongs theearly to centuries A. A Jain and text4' saysthat a ccurtesan who had a faultless bodyand whose attainments were complete may charge 1000 karsapanas per night. Evidently. as Buddhisttextstestify was oftenprohibitive. red Organized lightaieas paid taxes regularly. likethevanidhaki. to elaborate.With uiaccomnplished at home. is whatoffering sacrifices is to theman. dooming to household chores service her of only. handling.40 per Salavati ofRajagraha chargeda hundred karsapanas night per while Ambapali's fees to a dispute led between cities the Rajagrha Vaisali. We hearoftheextremely feesof some famousganikas the high in Buddhist texts.
society more. Born in an aristocratic he shtoudbe learned. A rupajiva's feeswere48 panas. Ksemendra's Samayamatrka says that they werepaid in grainas and in remuneration that theywereemployed rotation.43The secondfine may also be a hush-money the mother paid to at thebridegroom the daughter'swedding. a very highsum in viewof thefactthather annual salary paid by thestate was between1000 and 3000panas.she was julst a commodity.PROSTIT ION IN ANCIENT INDIA Ul 39 a beingsent in advanice to mentions thousand gold coins and ornaments lure a ganikato a paramiiour's house.herdaughter inherited lherproperty not sell."42On with bult onlyforuse.of course. plishedin the variousarts.000panas. Hence in Buddhist of A whereshe gave away her property. Foreigncustomers to pay had 5 panas extra tariffdutyto the stateapart from courtesan's the regular fees.was also and thepratiganika. substitute.notmalicious. her to If afterreceiving feesa prostituterefused oblige hercustomer ifshLe refused him beforeaccepting the she paid a fineof double herfees. rice and Vaisya. to a minister the king. This content downloaded on Mon.accomin family. The ganikca. her Regarding customers Vatsyayana is verycicar.a pov-. T'his. mortage. is trueof theordinaryprostitutelivingin aniorganizedbrothel many outstanding .says Kautilya.however.if she tried to extort could onlydemanid to her her moneyfrom customers feeswereliableto be forfeited the statein to or also if she threw temper tantrums refused oblige thecustomer prostitute anyway. her paid a monthlysalary from theroyal treasury did short-time receivedhalfthe amount. deal where it fees as fine44 Apparently is a fairbusiness feesshe paid lher thedefaulter pays a fine but ifwe pause and think thata qensible person of wouldnot ruintheprospects gain or incomeunlessshe had some serious her it reasonfordiso"bliging customer.proficient tales.rich. becomesclear thatshe did not have refused to the optionof refusingto sell herself. a friendly.sgenerally.preferably only son of a rich father. born to wealth). not enjoyproperty palatial rights. attacked a ganika's daughter paid a fineof 54 A man who forcibly times hermother's fees.The Kuttanimmata thatthe temple says (tridasalayajivika) by got paid by the templeauthoritiesand thatherincome was fixed tradition. ganika turewe have many instances out money could be botught by a symnpathetic customer.an orator. The ganika. her redemption (niskraya) was 24. The purnscali(a commonwhore) did not have any fixedfees. for was If a pricehad beenacceptedthecomimodity thecustomer use. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .without havingto earn his wealth(ie.givento drinks. The ideal one is young. exchange or doncatethem. nothing look upon heras a humani being. It is meat-sellers. wine-sellers.presumably to panas plus a fine(sulka) of sixteen herself. she usuiallylived with actors. she could her death.one who can affordto disregard his elders'coman mands. people who sold cooc)ked obviousthatshe keptcompanywith. she of feeson nmarks cohabitation. literaganikasweremistresses their own property. In otherwords. people who controlled readycash. "T:hereis every likelihood that their establishments and gardenswere stateproplerty lifeinterest.proud.lively.
a courtesan aregiven. become explainsthe originof the term ganika.theflne it to share with the if refuse he was diseased.5' thetrainofthePandavas traders'goodsand for the foresttherewere "chariots. leader of hisclan having at whoarrived underhimsenttheirdaughters wife.In run or brothels openestablishm'ientsbyand forone or besides words. In theJain could the woman besides another a readofBharata. She did niothaveanyrightoverher ownbodywhere fined an for The was concerned. she should leave the of a but was ownership not realor ultimate. servants. Sucha command entertainon Krsnawent a peacemissionto theKauravas.45 courtesan advisednot to stickto one visitor whocan go frommany. Oncesheadmits client herownhouse was 1000paias ganika was him her she couldnotthrow out. When to could only be given public men.48 listofsuchsigns her a or entertain suitorof reducedmeans.47 should be able to readthesigns his disaffectioni. This is to ensure her future . This content downloaded on Mon. cruel. . jealous. theassembled to well. and in Prostitution ancientIndiaexistedboth overtly covertly. merely right use.50 therear ofthe armyon baggage In to his warsenit greetings the prostitutes. Hindiwe textVasudeva for act as a substitute thewife. independent. When she has squeezed one.46Since money is saysthetext. so it was theywould serve hini in the outer court and that later they would the ganikas. All thefeudatories that decided to thesametime. temporarily. other She with by be she where couldpotentially enjoyed heremployer impunity. text thus to be handedoverto the gana.ifsherefused waswhipped 5000panas. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to was however. their ladies'manbutnotunder is The notapprehensive. for leave remorselessly himand search a rich dry customer sheshould forced the when king except a Normally. obliged paythe mistress cubine. could own ornaments. But other textsindicatethatthis maidservants . She shoLuld to theperson she when has offers she can buyeverything should she the offer gifts covets. The prostitute who could be concubines. She couldonlly eight the times fees.40 SOCIAL SCIEN'TIST not niot power. left they when his after victory KingVirata the to presumably entertain army.her fees. her cheated ofherfeeshehad to payeight client money. Then. Wheni her times fees. come out53 and entertain girls dress young ordered women.49 punishment forcing unwilling theroyalwish into a or more.When shewants to bringherparamour less payment withl rival shouldbe extra niceto himand be satisfied she is whomthere no hopeof in invest onefrom lover impoverished and never a long of She return. The Mahabharatatells us in who by was thatthePandavaarnmy followed a hostof prostitutes went on Yudlhisthira theeveofthe carts. what the sum-this.ganika chose herowncustomer 1000 lashesor was with she one on her.Duryodhania's for ancient texts give a list of manyprofessions girls more prostitutes.52 brothels". the himwhocan afford highest oblige a backfrom teachers'instruct. onepanapermonth.thetribe. If she did. The conplus forherownupkeep. The queen threatened leave. encourage never should Aboveall.
The later didactic of interpolationsthe Mahabharata. Thussheis a partofdaksina. fullofimprecations and The stigma mentions againstprostitutes.14 Ramayana and ganikas vesyas It in thelistofcomforts.58 ceremony Brahmins of received thousands pretty maidensas gifts. the In Brahmapurana havethe description Ekamratirtha. are however. In heaven heroesare rewarded with a large number beautiful of girls.wassub-human subject.most them of were to forced become prostitutes. Evenat a stadha goldornaments.65 even They a played political as spies whose role duty was to seduce it men importanit whowere potential sourcesof vitalpoliticalinformation. callsher puramandana ornament thecity. rich like a man and desiredprosperity plentyin the number women couldenjoy of he freely.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 41 ment theformer of a included resthouse Dhrtarastra with women. the In Mahabharata participated the victory they in celebrations. to a sacrificial of fees priest. ordered fair harlotsto go withhis sons to mneet Krsna.55 to part Yudhisthira himself away pretty gives maids to guest he kings. Thusherstatus that an of was ofan inanimate object enjoyment. corn and cattle. of as Theconcept women chattel commodity man's or for enjoyment is borne of out by the inclusion women-pretty young-in large and to numbers anylist ofgiftsgiven a man in return a favour as a in for or mark respect. of it and Courtesans sometimes perform did several other functions. while the brahmavesya tirthaga or visited holy places or pilgrimages. is quite concomitant of prostitutes becamea symbol the prosperity withurban civilization.62 and Kiratarjuniya.57 maids as part of daksinaare also Pretty mentioned whenKing Bhagiratha of of gave hundreds thousands lovely welldecked with out maids. the In Kumarasambhava. Their role as temptress emphasized the is in Vattaka Jataka. livedmany we of where Women Commodity as This content downloaded on Mon. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .56 is evensaidto have given of awayhundreds thousands pretty as didKingSasabindu of girls of old at hishorse sacrifice. and status clearthat luxuries symbols.61 Raghuvan2isa. but since prostitution was being looked downupon more and more and maidenhood became an essential for prerequisite marriage theSmrfi in texts. Thus thedevavesya thetemple of was dancer.collect to such information supplyit to therelevant and officers through superintenthe dent (ganikadhyaksa).60 Thesameidea is also seeninclassicalSanskrit literature. The names of varioustypesof courtesans gives an us inkling theirroles. At Yudhisthira's womenwere sent by otherkings a horse-sacrifice as donation makeup a necessary oftheentertainment.Like gold and jewellery.64 in Subandhu and Banawe have referenicescourtesans a prestigious to as decoration a royal of palaceand an indispensable ofcity Bhaguri part life.65 in Sisupalavadha. vajavesya like the servedtheking."9 Thesegirls could sometimes findhuisbands presumably. something theGreek hierodoules.
Kautilya at assignsthemthe dutiesof common maidserviants the palace. and as the king's (also of the royal family) toilet. dress and ornaments. paiasols. mentions in his train. merchant richcourtier gambledand indulgedthemIn the non-monarchicalgana statesthe chiefs procured selves in thecompany of prostitutes. thebrothel-keepers.42 SOCIAL SCIENTIST presumablyto cater to the pilgrimsanid visitors. In the palace the courtesanheld courtesans masseuse in.wealth who would hold discussions This was called gosthi. harps. also in manyreferences damselsgivinglightpersonal the laterliterature pretty in the Puranasand serviceto the kingare projectedto heaven whieretheearthly prostitutes oni the as serving gods. fan. intellect. trips. in bathroomattendant. Evidently all theseinstances.67 in Uddyotana Suri in his Kuvalayamala describes nymphs Indra's heaven kettledrums. In the prostitutes66 public functionsthere used to be a separate gallerywheresat the samaja courtesans who gave musical performancefor the samaja. They also had a place in the royal entourage royal and on occasion erAtertained guests. The keepers of brothels for these chiefs' entertainment.age.ordinary Mahabhaiata such women followedthe king in the palace and servedhim womenwho carriedfullpitchers.roan-about-the-town.there they talked about the withcourtesanis. who carriedwatervessels5. and military expeditions. hunting is with regardto the kinig also trueof the What is trueof her funiction and nobles describedas nlagaraka in theKarnasutra. was employedby the stateforspinning templeprostitute The retired in wool and flax. as in ed water. In the Ramayanaand the drums. Couirtesansbelonged to kingsor wealthy theirgardenparties. Courtesanswereto be servedfirst. Whether earthor in heaveni figure celestialnympbs to used such womiien enhance theirglory or monarchs wealthypotentates and pleasure. mirrors.anid bathing a-d drinkingsprees. courtesans At-homes could be held in a courtesan's salon where assembled menof the saim. Buddhist nuns.boat and citizens'trainsin theiramusements festivals. chargeof the king's positionsas the royal umbrella-bearer. members' houses whereth%ey thenthemen shouldeat and drink. anid old intriguescould have assistance who acted as go-betweens. the of problems poetryand art. rival suitorsas and when needed by themor by quarrelsbetweeni resolving politicalagents of the state. We hear of a prostituteserving Dhrtarastra when Gandhari was pregnant. fans.jars fullof perfumjewellery garlands. The Kamasutra the sports anidfestivalsof richbarons to each of which describes different wereinvited. rode These nmen-about-the-town out to an appointedplace together This content downloaded on Mon. clothesanldornaments. his lovecotton.fly-whisks.musicalsoirees. from widows. Tne nagaraka. They shifted venue to the different indulged in food and various drinks. womenfrom Iheir establishment pretty about and wereadept in bringing These aged women.etc. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . throne. The Lalitavistara the the and ornaments.
The accomplished young beauty couldnameherprice.It all on depended thesocialand economic statusofthe prostitute. a each able to pay verylittle. whiereaspoor herself.72 The janapadakalyanii the sadharani of the nonto ment or state monarchichal ofthe Licehavis were in greatdemand were and often looked up to because of their beattyand cultureand so could ask anyprice theirfavours. imitate them. ganika. describe and Status Social This content downloaded on Mon. otherwise had to work herself for for and and. performances. the in and havingspentthe dayin variouskindsof sportsand entertainments as cockfights. as in marriage. Speakingof the ranksof royal attendants Kurudlamma the Jataka says that the lowest the courtiers of was the door-keeper. in evening.. the bathed.massaged. Every city had a chiefcourtesan was 'an ornawho thecity'. city's The was chiefcourtesan a. freedom manual 'kept'bya man."70 the proStitutes No doubt occasionally at enjoyedthemselves such but times. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7" and for menial The a woman avaruddha. indigentand had also "Villagers should learn of these sports of the towinsmen. whether or they spied. normally to were not expected do other they whenwiththeir choresalthough entertained them customers. enjoyedi from labour if was she only herpatron rich. the dvarika. Herswaslikea 'contract the marriage' on ofthewoman depended theman'sincome.Andtheygotit as manyBuddhist for texts testify.the moonand auspicious daysor the year. Henceshe had to do all the therefore. they etc.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 43 with courtesans the forenoon. at sometimes an apparently exorbitant because waswas in great rate.73 MAajjhima the Nikaya. Buddhist refer textsmention manyaffluent and and commonstrumpet to caterto manycustomers.he occupiesthelast placebut one. a a or earned only In brothel were senseintheorganized prostitutes better because off. forhe is above thepublic the woman. The wordjanapadakalyani literally meantthe most beautiful in woman a country. such theatrical shouldreturn the in ramfights.dressed carried for we umbrella do nothear ol anyextra additional duties payment these were because their to which maintaskas prostitutes entilled they certainly them placein theking's richman's establishment.74 the and Samyutta Nikaya75 to her.she herself was too and to rich respectable do thechores accomplished. wealthy rank whohad a hostof personofa highl for and maidservants the meniial servants chores. status him.The DighaNikaya. Atthisdistance time is difficult form adequate of it to an ideaofthe We socialstatus prostitutes.In summer should they indulge water-sports68 different andfestivals69 The text goeson to nametwenaty which sports on depended the seasons. sometimes withminor they services. haveseenthat all prostitutes of not belong to thesamecategory. choresforherself her customner bare subsistence. she demand.
Their tragedy notonilythe lack ofsocial was security also their but lackof proficiency any alternative in profession This content downloaded on Mon. fortune-teller an a and actressin turnand finally she wentabout pretending be insane. the murdered warder. describes plightof such and who discarded prostitutes werereducedto begging.age and accomplishments downthepriceand social or also cainedownso that middle prestige aged.76 per a who daughter choseto become prostitute. So shetriedher handat different but professionis sinceshebad no in training anyshecouldnotearn a livelihood through them. Even women to agreeto mere had subsistence looking that theydid not alwaysget as manytextson eroticstell us. proviold sionagainst age. various of no other tricks. to fend herself a time whenshe is worst at we texts hearofsuchretired equippedfor such a lone battle.She also gaveaway herbigmango grove Sirimareceived1000 kahapanas Salavati'sdaughter to theorder.78 came As looks."7We hearofa banker's it Her father too higha price. waseventually but caught summarily and dropped.evidentlyconcatenation many a of disparate episodesepitomizes thefateofold prostitutes. But the strain and poor returnsprompted her to steal food to offered idols. But quite naturally she had to take to her heels the before actualencounter place.79 classic example Kanikali. shereduced to half and wascalledardhakasi. night. Later she beggedopenly untiltherewas a famine and she could not get alms. unattractive recourse becoming prostitute takes rendered is a confidence trickster and is pursued society occasionally by movesand theinvariable of ludicrous thevery by comicarlity her variotus situis this of failure eachmove. inn-keeper's daughter. The heart-rending description to who ofan abandoned. So shie became a nurseto a child whose gold chain she stole one nightand escaped.whostarted an ordinary and lost prostitute in time her youth and whatever charmshehad earlier had. She next became a wine-seller. Theyhad no guarantee thenext mealor shelter. soldat seven as a slave in themarket as place. Butbeyonid comic portrait the tragic lust a womanwho. We thushearofAmbapali giving hishundred thousand followers. Whenthat money was exhausted she took to selling loaded dice. disease anidpenury. eveni impirisoned in a bid to escape she was .60 Thistale. For a to time she enjoyed royal hospitalitybecause she gave out thatshe could paralysea hostilearmy. She changed roles frequenitly. tried dressing and disguising age up her andlossoflooks. Kalavati. Then she returned begging as a proto fession. Finally returned hernative took she to a placeand became procuress a pretty for youngprostitute. In many The harlots is an begging. Thenshe to seduce peopleat pilgrimages. stealing. customers set few came. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . unaccomplishedplainrates or evenless. She thenfledto a monastery whereshe could not stickit forverylong.afterhavingprovided men's to tionof pleasure many for her has all through life. The on a the Kuttanimata.44 SOCIAL SCIENTIST to and histrain and gave gifts who fedthe Buddha courtesans powerful sucha feast theLordand to theorder.maior text prostitution.
a and wasobliged holdmusical to performances the stage for eight for years. Retired were prostitutes employed as cooks. were totally powerless to sue the state for non-payment. He became or a of property thestate.Hencethey flitted one profession another from to with cunning and theability cheat through to play-acting-arts had mastered they as prostitutes-as only the stock-in-trade.Kautilya lays downtherulethat ganikas. the daughter inherited them hermother's on retirementdeath.Buta steady it money. Without social identity any these boys lived in a brothel until could eke outa livelihood themselves. better somewhat however. or Butonly use. (woman artisan) areto be given pension the state old age. income. alrmostslave.so thestate did nothaveto pay the pension until they were too old andweakto work more. Desopadesa hear a sixtyIn the we of year woman old herself as a young in thehopeofcatching making up girl a customer. since be But women and was labour exploited most in their of spheres life. A prostitute obliged keep thebrothel was to superintendent posted aboutherincome expenses he could stopherfrom and and being extravagant.sisters. i. Themanumission for fees him washigher than that fortheprostitute. they known better havitng could not stickto any meanprofession daysthey which notpovide did comfort. in various manual jobs.musthave meantsome measure security elderly of to women whowould otherwise whollydestitute. retirement penury.We arenot told what and the pensionwas in terms of whether was adequate for sustenance. silpakarikas.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 45 through which couldearna livelihood. Thesister for could act as her substitute a commision in and the son was trainedas a musical artist an actor.. the few Yet who actuallyreceived somepensionwere luckyto haveit. family:theirmothers. dasis. for her at doing so shepaid a fine. for (shorttermsubsitutes theganikas). rupajivas. SinceKautilya writby in was ingfora princeit is to be assumed that these women were employed by thestate had earlier and which stateregarded the paid taxes to thestate partially provident contributions as fund old against age. In old age some prostitutes any became matrkas. slag like in a factory. vesyas. Shecould notsell or mortgage property will. cotton-wool flax store-keepers. however small. Besides. matrons-in-charge brothel. likedress ornaments could notdepositherornaments and .wemayassume this that rulewasnotstrictly because suchwomen observed. and and other spinners. pathetic they for The toneofthe verse tellsus howthese boyswere looked uponas wasteproducts. in the play Mrcchakatika But wehearofbandhulas "whoarebegotten unknown by clients the prostiof tutes".e. and daughters sons.disability. pratiganikas. devadasis. This content downloaded on Mon. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . she anywhere else. kausikastri pumscalis.8" Institutionalized offered prostitution. ofa We hear of prostitutes' anvaya. and a quarter fifty panas. prospects old and retired for courtesans. The mother looked after personal her possessions.
mandidnot whichwasnmore thie marriage belongor claimon herperson services. Vatsyayaina downa proto a visionwhereby vesyacould be givenin marriage one whocould . candala womenand old prostitutes. in a brothelthe mother thechief or kuttani sambbhali. basisof this surmise offered Kautilya killed llis was 24 panas .89 Apparently she is an old hag with the nature of a she only But vampire. insulted. and payment.driving to spare usingdeceit and delay tactics those withdepletedcossffers).If sheis. blood-thirsty withherear glued to the door in greedy expectation fox". "T'he kuttani becomes eager evein when a blade of grass drops". A money. she provided is not another's not to be punished. to deprivean eager one fora timein orderto extortbetter in feesfromhim.. forassault 48 panas atndforloppingoffher ears 514 panas and forced confinemient.84 prostituite..sirable thegirl's healthand wealth.femalemendicantswith shaven heads. checking inicluded girls' interests. thecustomer in is by The with impurnity. in Vilification Literature emolumentsby prefor greater the girlsas muchas possible. with In love. caste enjoysherhe is caste: ifa manof thesameor a superior separate concubine. and overher daughter's theother who was theperson-in-charge watched protecting the payiments. cultitheseprocuresses Kamasutramentions vated women..varying tending custom i.e.iai~alkya Smrti says that the fine for Arthasastra where we read that the fine for defamation of a courtesan This content downloaded on Mon. The Ya/. she directly couldbe cheated. certain of prosititute Now.8" depended upon prostitutes and Both institutionally individually was these the among Chief and of categories middlemen proctirers. "She is like a only whereshieis absentdoes the clientappear as a tigress. such a marriage to assistance the establishment providespecialmnusical we Otherwise hear ofa notionalsortof prosperity. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .87 No wonder she was vilified literature.Wtithout iftheprostitute to deal with ofsafety fair even maimed. robbed. ifone pausesto think was theprostituite's guarantee had her.46 SOCIAL SCIENTIST lays was a Occasionally prostitute married.82 leadsto greater 'The in natureof initiationi. bargaining thatother. vesya.dasi and nikasini with a non-Brahmin sexual relations didnot livea secludedlife)of a lower caste ifshewasnot (one who wife.e. richer customersare making bigger offers.83 svairini. and the prajapatya(a light)penance85 getsaway he performs then simply in falling of we literature havea few instances tlae prosLitute it.88 The of money togetherwithbeggarwomen. customers away unde.Herduties (i.The avaruddha haveanyexclusive right his say and ed to herpatronexclusively thelaw-givers that exclusive to Naradahas no objection a manhaving to hershould be respected. another's by theoretically can Thatevena prostitute fallin loveis admitted be after always should he even Vatsyayana though saysthattheyare anid belongsto a to according the Skandapurana.
and ifsheis gang-raped assailant hadto pay24 panasto her. If was evil society necessary and the state a interest extracting in had. robbed. With king's and helphe wasfreed thelovers were united. Buttheattitude ofsociety clearly was the against prostitute notagainst client.Thisininate note But the in all literature. betrays of and only a sneer. thenit could not afford to bring aboutmisunderstandings between them also reconcile and them with eachother. Thentheking remembered minister's his are warning: they not deceitfulness prostitutesa recurring of is to be trusted. in that shetreads dangerous tortuous tute being loveso deeply a and path to gainherlover absurdto them.The text appeared totally condemns the and womanfor everything.e the couldprocure custom her. when fell hard who on he days becamethe prostitute Vilasavati's her guest. With helphe regained kingdom madeherthechief his her and queen. no shared doubt theentirecommunity.PROSTII'UTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 47 is a each molestingprostitute 50panas ."0For thesafety herperson of somelawshad varied the between and to be framed and for graver crimes penalty 1000 thestatus theinjured of courtesao. a vested themand thesewere niot isolatedincidents exceptions therewould be or or 48000panas according the degree of the heinousness the crimeand of to (sometimes with his wife) in a brothel or in similar pleasure resorts. thepossibility a prostiof by for. more theprostitute. On theother later hand. her us of It also tells thestory King Vikramaditya.93 The ignorea situation whenthesource suchrevenue harmed that of was so she couldnot multiply reveniue. religious and lawbookshavenothing contemupt courtesans. Because vitawasa manhi. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . was a teacher the of vitasare counsellors both the courtesans their of and and clienits could This content downloaded on Mon. takes slhelter revenue and epionapeservice from thiis 'evil'. of They to thelength saying the go that is of murder a prostitute no crime. and her Theprocuress.9' Manubelieves all prostitutes that were thieves swindlers. the othier ot hand. and herowncontributionhiscareer. The pithanmarda. the Hencethe laws.She wasoften of usedand then cheated.threw herself on hispyre. so her whollyignoring role. matron thebrothel themother thechief the of or of courtesan soughtto safeguard physical. Techii-ically. client's to We havejustseenthattheirclients maltreated manhandled also and no needto frame laws againstcrimesandstipulate exactamount the of fines theseveral for kinds assault. Thenshe confessed himherlove for a young to manwhowas the as arrested a thief. the institution for and thrashed. mutilated murdered.92 is true and It that erotictext the Kalavilasalists sixty-four modes which courteasan specified in a coulddeceive customer. in this instance text ignores contribution: her the re-instatementthe kingas sovereign. She showered own he on out wealth himand when gavehimself to be dead. reducedto penury. her social and finanicial wellbeing. holdthem for but and solely for responsible the institution. Thevita was the middleman and/or of companion thecourtesan. for a vitawas a worthy spendthrift who.
signify already kuttani gave a apparently parasite. and because sobhani nagaramandana. classical was the of andcounsellors thepartners. In the four famous Bhanas of the late This content downloaded on Mon. Whatwastheprostitute's it withlawsto regulate becauseit served as is recognized a profession tion sexual to purposeby catering men's needs of extramarital itsspecific revenues in needsbybringing considerable and gratification also thestate's sprang espionage. injured. the who helpedhis friendachievehis ends94 Both. thehungry cause. Manytreatedthe Buddha and monksto sumptuous Buddhist of wealth setup works they amassed when feasts. a whereshe needed manto interests vita.insulted her rendered serviceto herwhereher sex and social position valuable vulnerable. Thevita. they utilty: public and to mounds).provided remitted ofherincome she to thestate. peace-makers. In theMrcchakatika escorts in a darknight.gave gifts. prostitu? socialstatus Strangely enough.the manl-about-the-town.Evidently. as record Amrapali also givingsimilar texts for and property the land. and quitea heavy rigorous (with her to stateundertook supervise education to part she at syllabus) itsown expense.lookedafterthe courtesan's her her instructs h-e helpher. temple bridges. Kalhana descended lhasherself the of thatLaksmi.Thelyric their built of was where richest thecourtesans the says the of Pavanaduta Dhoyi describing templeprostitutes thatit seemed there. goddess beauty devladasi thename an extremely by mention3 qualified in hisRajatarangini for has respect her as a person. thecourtesans caityas gardens.48 SOCIAL SCIENTIST as prostitute also an associateof thenagaraka. Thu5s readin theBrhatkalundertook The set gallery up bya courtesan. and physically ed.we read that houses ill-fame lhad of on situated theoutskirts thetown. thegod ofdeath. But in Greece thecourtesans city of sections anyGrecian status. the brothelsthesebecame a regularfeaturewith chief these magaraof the townor city. generally (sacred for such the through works publicutility. Buddhist of text. Jain fed courtesans Other services. a piCture a pabha. but especially. medievaltext.This and theservices the for between protecting cheatwas thatthe courtesan liableto be exploited. constructed sankwells. away money. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a gave during famine.donated money theneedy. a differenit one of the most beautiful poem houses. but abouttheprofession she when goesto seek pleasure. the period vitasare helpers. as beingregarded ornaments beauty queens. In the south be should of a Manasollasa. Not onlywassheobligedto payrevenue thestate often we for someworks public welfare.has no illusi-M procurers go-betweens.Yet we read served community in be should situated the that quarters in theMahabharata theprostitutes' of becauise that is the direction Yama. As townships through information political and secret homefrequented and as richmenlongaway from up along trade routes courtesans. courtesan also helpless her so againstcertainsituations thatsheshared incomewitha malegoof her own interests. Frequently. Because shewas in highdemand or the and a shewouldfetch richrevenueifshewasaccomplished attractive.
Shelad a measure of social securityin the sense that those who harmed her physically. to temples wellas as thosewho lived in brothels. She has the rightofuse of herornamnents.Subandhu.thecondemnation be should sharedby that sectionas well."5 Krnmastuirca downthatsheshould lays be out and visible always decked with should jewellery without being fully streetwalk The "becaue she is a commodity".96 same text discreetly defines condtuct: her "without attachedto herclient she reallygetting submit hercruLel mendacious should as ifshewere. to shouldreport aboutherrivals' greater income. for and her in teachers thevarious were arts also paid bythestate. of of and especially merchants. rite a which signified The temple prostitution. food client's shouldengagein a nmock ornaments.they only can exist as longas societyhas a demandforthem.Such descriptions Kalidasa.98 If this is of long list of deceptions anyindex how society her herself her profession. Therefore."97 "She shouldpretend loss of herown and her garlands. charmn andaccomplishments. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . she should act to and is mother ifthemother notthere shotuld and to submit thematron she of thehouse.99 The vituperation against prostitutes begins in the didacticsections the Ml?Iahabharata. Suchtexts and choose to ignore fact the that courtesans notborn are but made. youngand cultured hetaira.records that Kinig in Lalitapida gaveoutthatanyoneproficient courtesan andclever love at jokes wouldbecomehis friend. should to pay to pretend be obliged sellherornaments in order bothendsmeet. Thisdouble standard niotai isolated is phenomenon. to belong theage ofthe Brahmanical of interpolation theMahabharala). fails understand in one expected to conduct to censuresociety the bitter metedout to her whenshe complied. andcontinue the through Puranas Smruitexts. Bharavi. Sriharsa Banabhatta. But apart from mild halfhearted in penalties--more thenatureof not-too-obvious strictures and of threats notional estracism-the maleclients morally go scot-free.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENI' INDIA 49 of Kamala. Bhatti.is theproduct it ofa rooted in ambivalence thesociety's consciousness. Yet other didactic are of texts full imprecations againstprostitutes. her on quarrelwith mother of thesubject excessive and expernses havingto inctur should make debts.Later literature nio inhibition has in houses thenobility. to themanor etc. in Dan(lin. Since thedesignaof tioni gacnikca thehighest hadto beearned was aiid through beauty.". a section since of calls into society courtesans being caterto their to need. stitutes. poetical chronicleof Kashmir. Visnu The Sarnhita lays he downthat who associateswith courtesan a should the perform prajaor mentioning describingcourtesansattachedto thepalace.'01 drew she 1000panas from the state presutmably her establishment.etc. Dharrrasutras of the (many which of This content downloaded on Mon. the perfumes. The a Rajatarangini. theclient herbills. anddrinks.'00 it signified highest the class amongprosocial patya penance. etc. Kautilya says thatthe superin-tendent prostitutes of conferred the titleof ganika to the pretty. (Naisadhacarita) are uninhibited donewith and totally and great gusto skill. In somePuranaswe rcad of the anacligavrata.
recruitmentlocal beauties wonas war from or girls abducte(d girls parents. enjoyed urban that in mostcentresof anicient kinowledge It is commnon in was fea-ture. of too Hencethe statusand prosperity the templeprostitutes differed of girls unfortutate wasis far teic wh-iat socialbackground these Just gift makinga devotionial oftheir clear. Sometimes employed had they to thvbest finanicial Fromall hawkedthemselves.princesanidthe richest the merchants. relationship temporary its it while lasted societyrespected rights. duty it all after wasbanned overIndiabya legislationl 1947. got frequently priests andtthe churcl. can be taste real with cultivated and accomplishwomen thatpretty young guessed theycouldnotbe where townsand cities to well-governed flocked ments and comtrade and with molested rakes and ruffians impunity where by villages as thrived.for.because they devadasiswere class bythemselves or by directly indirectly the state. the under Phoeniciaor India and in theFar Eastitflourished Chaldea. diff"ermtit accordingto the kind of patronagethe templereceived. by and financially sociallywere liable to be punislhed was to to Needless say that such a covetedposition notaccorded many. and. vesyamayhavelacked (vesra)forattracting eventhatand reliedon her clothesand jewellery of as we have seen was the mistress an customers. financial social status thetemplevaried were enitirely royal patronage enjoying placeto place.etc.Evenin such townships wellas in prosperous merce older in age plied less beautyandcultureanidpresumably with women on and as trade rupajivas vesyasdepeniding theirage. The much earned to offer therefore. institutions temples)governed of somedegree protection.e. Ofcourse. Apart fromthe pareints from of the havebeeni dauighters devadasis. Egypt. Tenmple of dual patronage thestate was prostitute an extraallowance the the paid from royal treasury. (i. The had onlyher beautyas her stock-in-trade. The avaruddha was but the in individual the roleofa concubine. Citytemples from frompOot village temples subsisting on local conitributions. The very the person rupajiva was an educated the while latter the from ganika.Babylonin temples Badl and Astarte. varavilasini. there to thetemple. Theovert it is quite clear that it was an all-Indiaand age-longphenomenon. accomplishtheir her clearly distinguishes nameofthe rupajiva and ments charm. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . accounts theyhad less were attached to a who. Even This content downloaded on Mon. temple of and the to them. IHowever camie they or practices. in Greece. superstitious thrOLugh booty recruited it banned bya law in 1929it Assembly thoughthe Madras Legislative in pockets there in therestofIndiaand still and persists many persisted in. whose were made ganikas were favours of onlya lhandful the prostitutes It of by enjoyed kings.102 must daughters under of to sales or distress of girls thetemple.were middlethey capital. in. charm freeagents whatever whowereoutto turn svairini7 kulata.50 SOCIAL SCIENTIST heavily thestate. The pumscali. Whether ancient prostitution a comiimon temple civilization of or Rome. helpless rmioral pressure.. and they custom sometimes mento attract less.
adasi Sutanuka.Thius at the end of a longcareerof as a double exp1oitation---Js tauni]e dancerand as the priests' concubine-she faced complete destitution. in South India whenits abolition was tion of the hieratiC to proposed.lnd rights the del'adasis.n sihegrewold ? Presuimfably not all oft-hem enijoyedroyal patronage. appearsthat they were completelyat the mercy of the temple priest. Vedic and later This content downloaded on Mon. too. Her profession prevented herfrom and herlongstayin thetempleisolatedherfrom havitg a family society. 'Whathappenedto the devadasiwhe. Tthe veryhelplessnessof the devadcasis have led mujst to the widespread. but they werealso treated conicubines the temple priests. priests. Since majortreatises are of nearlyall silent on the duities it . even if she wotked in a textile therefore. Apart from older. Many other cave irnscriptions'04 mention themusic of and dance providedby courtesansand devadasis. Thleviolent resistInceand opposisection. for neith%lr the state nor the temple had any to her. In thethird B.C. by and to Kalidasa refers themas vesyeas describes the first them as enjoying reliefto theirtiredlimbs. dning was theonlyart she had learned and she could it not priactice in old age. esp. here. distribution of the institutionand its prolonged in continuatiotn thename of religion. Evidently. the more talented beauties coming from the upperrungof society einjoyedsomewhat fairer treatmenttiian those born to temple or from destitute prostitutes recruited parentsor as richmen'sgifts war or of booty.e.nnurtity cast her off wholly redtundant. In the Samayamatrkal03 hear we of grainsbeinggivento cdevadasis whlo danicedin rotation. as drops of monsoonIrain a welcomne Once insidethe temple and underthethumbof the prieststhe) beand duties. obligation look after It is bolh rewardingand reveaLling turnthe pages of dictiollaries to on the subjectof prostitution. i.autilya.10' Dan. so thatifshe was one of thosewho did notcejoy royalcare she wouldbe reducedto destitution.testilies thenatureand measureof the priests' vestedinterest in theinstituition. Jagimara inscriptionwe hear of Devadatta's love forthe century dev. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . factoryfora timeshe wouldface penury real old a-ge it whien boththetemple and th-e con-. The came like slaves with no clear deflitiion of their riehtis Kultanimatadoes mcntionpayment from temple authoritiesbut this did evidently not m-eananythingmore than subsistenceand clothesand for ornaments themas temple danlcers. the enjoyed bothtlhrough theirsacred3otal offince through and privilege royal patronage the devadasis'positionwas moreabject thanpresumably thoseorganized of in thebrothels and privileges regardingwhose rights some ruleshad been clearlyenunciatld. But because the masters these prostitutes.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 51 of the devacdasis to dance at the timeof the eveninig was worship in the as temple. Those whio did wereemployed in cas the statetextile factorv we find in thesolitarymentiollof thedeveidasi in K. a specially sectionin Indiani society privileged who enijoyedimnmunity thepenal from code and werethusfreeto exploit thesegirls as theypleased.
vandhura. a For and onensuring whose prosperity wealth community depended fertility of the and thefield of cattle she symbolised fertility principle. rice. a man gainshisdesireifhe seesheron are suchitems obviously out setting on a journey. fertility. etc. Other auspicious-like or fire a cow with itscalf. magnified profession. ifshegoesto another is a kulata.'06 a with fourth. these Her very involved profession repeatedsexual relationswithmanymen and so and potentially symbolized fertility the powerofreproduction.an exchanige obscenities. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . bhunjika. goddess. viz. itselfothers(like ksudra. brahmacarin.the goddessof cardinalimportance Bengal. varavilasini.Henceher of and cattle placein rituals.especially. varastri. has of The standard dictionary Hemacanidra sadharanastri. society notdareto has this comedown fromnmtuch since did die hard and in a primarily ignore Such beliefs it. appearsthatsociety expiatory did they since or a sin.a full pitcher. horse a chariot. to whichthe Rajanirghanta and varavadhtu bhunjika (lexicon) adds bhogya Even a cursory glance at these names tellsus that and smaravithika. toIndia. has a fewmoreentries jlharjhara.kamrarekha varvati. or bhandahasini. Jatadhara adds ksudraandsalabhanjika. Puranawe read that a womanloyal to her In the Brahmavaivarta she to is husband ekapatni (wife one).notunique this societies ritual association be noticed. the some signify profession while sula. eaclh of which Vedic terms like agru.ganiikaand rupajivaare synonyms. late ritualtextmentions sight of a the as prostitute an auspicioussign. from item for fashioning the image of house is an essential prostitute's in Durga. panyangana. The that all exceptthe mahavesya is a but lay generally downthatvisiting prostitute a crime Dharmasastrag it mnild also prescribe rites.we have a hostoflater emphasized whichvaried withtime and place. in item thecatalogue theprostitute.'07 a mahavesya may be touchedthat is nottrue.52 SOCIAL SCIENTIST one aspect of the public women. The Samayapradipa. withitsflame turning a white banners. an irremediable notlook uponit as either heinous is ambivalence As wehaveseenthere an evident regarding profesthe a sion. bhogya smaravithika) expresssociety's sneer and contempt. Similarly. garlands. varavani. all of a In is the instances sameitncentive noticeable. is The onlyapparently inauspicious yet as soil of neara a sight heris regarded a good omen.kunta. and This content downloaded on Mon. yungi no Although appears it whom one ofanycastemaytouch. agricultural country sula. This associationof fertility field with the in theprostitute's is sexualact. Themystery is in the we rituals solvedwhen remember roleofthe prostitute theearlier she where had to copulatewith a man or engagein a mockaltercation in of the with neophyte. crime. the Sabdaratnabali anidvrsali. to theright. atiskadvatri.Abovethat becomes and fifth sixth. bhandahasini. pumscali she with a If shegoesto three is and she a a with seventh eighth. whilethe Sabdamala adds lanjika. a bull. hagra. vesya a a a vrsali. kunta.In all primitive call And a olderage. The standardSanskrit synonyms lexicon Amarakosa says that vesya.
28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . children and in-laws whichleft her littleleisure the for of her cultivation either looks.dressor mental faculties. an area inthesouth. her devoted and obedient. did it in a not surreptitiousmanner.C. Altekar up any says: what as in sacrificed wasregarded specially honourable a woman. Menwho hada liking lovefor or cultivated nmusic could not delight the companyof theirownwives in and dancing who these ceasedto possess accomplishments c 400 B. hard workinig. ruleagainst the brothel. She was primarily house wife. prohibition against eating by is But this with or touching associatinig hersignify contempt. theKamasutra as of mercantile and nobility thecities towns(and also of villages) inidulgthere totally is The of uninhibited. a busy withher chores. was no '"fun" more.demure and plainly dressedexcepton ritual occasions. Societyexpected to be good. A society any virtually underthe anidrelegated worian to virtualsubordination education the reducedherto a chattelwho could serve fora and and hus'band in-laws to and children started time cater theimran-'s needs butafter sexual coming household shebecame sorelytaxed in herstreniuous nursing obligations. encumberedwith household duties and children. was Besides. led indispensable thesociety to this to looked down Butapartfrom aspect this societyunambiguously upon theprofession. But evidently all men did so. Underlying and no mentregarding institution lhas value judg into has that ofthese texts theassumptio-n thisinstitution beenbrought is in of or not existenice bythe perversity certainwomen byanlaberration female forbade but which section bya socialneed.ruleofallocating for thecommon Yama'sdirection. attitude as the of The Arthasastra. This very need of combiningsexual pleasure with intellectujal-aesthetic compalanionship simlply or with thecharmof a This content downloaded on Mon. were they But societytreatedthem heldin lowestimation. services offered awarenessthat the prostitute the unacknowledged ambivalence. and thosewho did.PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENr INDIA 53 to likeIndiatheneedto ensure fertility too urgent disregard. ingin thecompany couirtesans. who should be uneducated. as meni normaland healthy This entirely desirecould in nioway be satisfied the by wife who. As personswho had "courtesans courtesansbegan to be respected theirachievements in one setnse. she andbringing thechildren. the development. This wa< boundto make herless attractiveto herhusband who cravedforcharmand companionship iinai woman. for in finearts. the the foodoffered her.soon lost youthand charm and whose husbands were therefore driven to prostitutes. with certain a amount as ofconsideration tihecustodians finte whichhadceasedto be of arts in elsewhere society. presupposes existence prostitution an too. courtiers. itsefforts segregation therest the comrmunity All at of of the the from contagionthroLugll prostitute's proximnity."108 Apartfrom thisman must have desiredcompanionship in and his intellectual aesthetic pursuits from friends wellfromwomen. this obviously and for describes a later kings. Though from despised had a peculiarpositionin ancienL India. All that charmed a man in a prostitute was for forbidden the wife. outside habitat. both them.
"" Also at g. givesucligifts branded maidens of rajakali(a kali. were enjoyedand then to we have references women as gifts. jewel iery tastefully person out youthful good-looking. because she And repelledtlhem. In a couldnotbe exclusively society wherewomenbecame a personlA possession."'2 him giving pretty well-dressed receivea hundred ever pointedout Arjuna to him wouild with is not A g fronhim.e.uests Krsna entertained away. one enumerated ofthese to share references. sbe was enjoyed many. Suchgiftswere given priests. In the other pretty his anid/or sending ownwife to bimat night are of five of section theMahabharata marks truefriendship Sanasiujatiya girls a with-friend. in womern lheavenundoubledly is a reflection hosts of beautifLul with men. military huntinjg too. is daughters a ready succh couldbe found. Prostitutes' girls where was Madhavi an episode: KingYayati'sdauglhter has The Mahabharata herin lieuof moneyso thatshecould lenit to given Galava . thefather gave Galava for kingsin turn a yeareach. i.we meet wouldfind they persoawges military generalsandeminent thevictorious of over thewomen theene. horses.mewithvictories bootyand afterserving this .'10 Womenalso ca. individually notbe possessed has Woman beena chattelin Indiaever siice the laterVedictimes like itemns cattle.e.a womanwho could this provoked ambivalence.'22 are toldthat this laviand gives gift to gifts Brahmans"23 thatwhoever are giIrs natural with i.Pretty one'swife is ."15 to were offered guests no wedding lessthan a thousandgirls Subhadra's received sports.'09 lieroe are said to be rewarded Womenas Chattel as expeditions.'2' Instances be multiplipd.."7 Yudhisthira andbathing in for enjoyment thedrinking gave sacrifice horse King Sasabinduat his ten thousandslave girls. in fruits heaven."'1 that Karnadeclared whoIn the battlefield maidens. for giving for supply instant a steady answer. by for possessed."18 kit whodoes."19 away to priests of girls as giftsin We Bhagiratha. precisely men attr. One wonders or enjoyment. girls. The king out be hired to four This content downloaded on Mon.54 SOCIAL SCIENTIS'T and decked inclothes. alongwith in she whenl wasincluded thelistof daksina they to etc. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by of prowess his also expressed pleasure Arjuna's KingVirata as booty.l4 At Draupadi's theepithet weregiven bloomoftheir youth in slavegirls theearly a wedding hundred with prettymaidens.'20 also hearofthousands beautiful young pretty We can sraddhas.acted to prostitutes. is rewarded plentiful on1 shly this earthreceives lin there cijoyment7l24 theMahabharataand in the nymnphs forhlis many his by the where hostentertains guest instances we Puranas havenxumerous women.evil spirit a king). Evidenitly chariots.. Laterin theepics sold as slavesor prostitutes. these are Two things clearfrom part also formed ofthedowry. young of source pretty available liavebeenan easily must there First.118 so did of of hundreds thousands pretty girls. In classicalliterature and heroes eminient to given prizes ofearthly and in to as ptostitutes a decoration courts. away.my ThusArjuna brought way their to brothels.
And on top of this theytried to rob themof their place in society. Anid after the temporaryenjoymentthe recipient donee could not but turn or themloose .donations. in as also women who could be bought and kept in nalaces as occasional and whiere gifts. Theyfigure lists of material in gifts. Menanderor Terence'splays testify. cheat prostitutes theirrightful wagesas thelaw books bring out clearly.the prostitutes practised are foulnamesby theenitire thesearts.cheat arnd feign. The secondpointthatstrikesus is thatthese womenwere regarded as inanimate objects of enjoyment. entire blame was verydifferent is loaded on the prostitutes themselves. The situation in Greece and Rorm-e Aristophanes. Clearlyhere Madhavi is a money-earner h-ter to lattersatisfiesGalava by prostituting to fourdifferent her kin1gs. prizes. They got paid onlyin br-othels.womenas war-booty was another sourceof supply. NoQne thesetextsis authored by women. sacrificial fees. deceie with theircustomners or without thehelp of middlemenand procuresses.he exploitationis redoubled becausem. They werepawled. But whenliterature rightful does not seek to be respectas able but truthful Kautilya anid Vatsyayana's works or the Bhana to (wlich decidedly beloings a lower. Other moneyfrom by lessons. clothed and deckedout with jewelleryso that theirmasters wouldfind themattractive.and frequently was. sectionon how theharlots seduce. rewards. theirowners so desiredand discaidedwhenthe sexuallyenjoyedwhenever desire abated. set-upand its attitiude encour-aged Itnstead accepting responsibility act forcethemto act anid that forit and adriitting thatprostAi1utes as metn the theyexistbecause theyrendera servicethatsocietynieeds. Wivescaughtin certain cases of adultery big werealso driven out. Even in brothelstheirliabour could.In theroyalcoturts richhouseholds manyabductedwomen werekept forserviceand as statussymbol. prostitutes This content downloaded on Mon. such unwantedwomencongregated thebrothel. lost or gainedin. sirpt exploited. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . less respectablegenre).PROSTITUTION IN ANCIENT INDIA 55 fees handsome rewards withwhich he paid his school-leaving to his prefather and the ceptor.le customers freto of quently sought. as many rulesin thre jtures testify. battles.werereleand of in gatedto thepositiorn slavesaond ch:attel palaces and richhouseholds.thiey give. as Here in lndlia t. So does Damodaraguptateach novices how to make the bestuse of youth and charmand extort customers hook or bycrook. otherinstances in theywereonlyfed. theseproliferated anidbecame yetanothersourceof supply. givenas gifts at sacrifices weddings. All aloing had hiistory noticethatworlmenl or verylittleinitiative choice about theirdestiny.The very natureofthe professionentailed a degreeof deceit and theentiresocial of it. Vatsyayana a long has couildplay-act. of textsalso teachsimilar When afterbeingtrainedin theart of deception. at least in most cases theydid so Thus thV-re werehosts of who eventulially enLded in the brothel womeni up where theycateredconmto thisadismial we mercially men.n comrnunity. crtertainmen-it. and dowry. Apart fromthiskindof distress sale in timesof crisis.
depriving is them condoned. This section punished in womenwere deprived many thus situations which created Society be regarded so thatsuch women to and so. Buddhist often up works public utility of "Whenthe courtesans set richthey grew templeshow and videdperfumies rice. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. payment thefear of miiolestation. notionally. literature). the common seems to have givenit the rightto exploitthle prostitute.But themajor. by thecomimunity whom was had or a a sinto touch prostitute to eat herfood. is standard that althoughassociating of Anotlher proof the dsouble food waspunishable there no rule is or with prostitutes acceptingtheir gaveawayhervast benefits them.In theJain Brhatk'alpasutrabhaa'25 ofmany teAt Buddha's in courtesans. Theyhad scanit for provision old age and infirmity.whobelonged theupper and well-preserved secure and or of the enjoyed patronage royalty nobility wascomparatively and comfortable. of In wivesdullas companions so flockedto theprostitutes. The customer looksupon them notwith comeintotheir of hisawareness the anidsociety. well-trained with little harlot common class to beauty. Evidently works thatthedevadaisis for it were by publicutility enjoyed all. as evil-the labourwas regarded a necessary Sincetheprostitute's than the necessity-malesociety being much more magnified evil and ambivalence this bornofitsfundamental to seemed bearhera grudge victim.manand prostitutes fostered becomesprevalent. oftheright remain respectable couldliveas prostitutes because to were pushed thisprofession. and regarding tainty Their and death. to is yettoo respectable regard of theirfees.'27 chaity1asand prosuch as wells. enjoying for to to her waskindly deigning offer an opportunity expiate the sinsof without patronage the couldnotflourish herprofession. This content downloaded on Mon.i. nottheir the society servedmenwithan uncerthey or palace.Onie a picturegallery(as did Amrapali ran and generous othersgave vast sumsto thepoor and the order.theganika.gardens. ThusArdhakasi from accepting against and wealthto variouscharitable institutions) laid a vast sum at the good we hear feet. Butthis was only true of the or handling insulting The and charm no accomplishment.Whether the but ostracized prostitutes.profession a which was only ofa section of the male population.tanks. set such charitable institutions up byhersociety by Presumably. is attitude Oncethis as them human beings."126Recordsin theTiruvarriyur of such theremaderich endowments.56 SOCIAL SCIENTIST positive if own. Thussociety no hesitaof tion in using the fruits her labour while lookingdown uponher. or in the temples in brothels torture muitilation. return and in customers. and necessity significance their the reflects upperclassreaction is traditionithatwhich literary respectable but services to is a classwhiclh not a bitaverse use their to theinstitution. temples. groves. betrays contempt yet respect not with of role and profession.Andthey Thesemenfound their was a steadysupply male customers enisured.e. bridges.
XII: 3 : 6.e. Ibid1: 20. XIV: ]: 36.jnavalkya Smnrti 240.bearingdifferenit connotations also signifying and the socialstrata whichl to they belong.strumpet. hetaira. VII!: 27. 30. 8. as otn and imprecatiosn theprofessionitself. 12 . Gr. 9. Eastern Punjaband western U. l II: 10. XX: 136: 5.theterms or svatantra. 15 . the sacrificer's wife being publicly questionedby the officiating priest regarding secretlovers at the Varunapraghasa her sacrifice:"withwhom (plural)hastthouhad secret affairs Butthough confessed hearofno ?" she we forlher transgression. 37. cih.P.. 1I: 404 ff. 15. 18. 12. This content downloaded on Mon. S. 23. their are in of husbands youth in and of sOflS at old age. by men 4. It: Padina-Purana. : prostitute. the English synonyms courtesan. who can freely she for enjoyher youth. Vaja. Tait. 21.UlTION ANCIENT INDIA IN 57 and and bodies. 70. XXX :12. Br Jaim. 3o0. Tait Br. 3. Suchwastheprecarious of existence prostitutes could. Pitakaa Vinaya 'II: 138. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . XXVII 20. Artha : 2. harlot. 22. 57-59.tanding individuals. witha few who of exceptions really upper class or outst. slut trollop. X: 1-3. Visnpufrana. XXX: 12. etc. 19. Sam. 13. Vaja. Arthasastra 27. one whocan be possessed or enjoyed different in turns. III : 5 : 14-26. verse 35.PROSTITI. I: 11 : l 1. Ya. V 27. cli. 9. 26. Sam. Cf. III: :4: 19. svadhinayauvana. Srstikhanda : 97. accomplishments. 52 Cf. 17. III : 4: 7. Scriptures downthat lay of wormen wards theirfathers childhood. in 5. 1 : 167. Cf. Samnayainatrka 18. XV: e. whore. also Megasthenes bearsthisout in hisaccount. 24. Cf. 28. Vajasaneyi Samlita XXX: 22. KausitakiBr. 1E. of Women thevanquished side. 6. gifts charity were enjoyed thecomby which treated themas untouchables showered and munity otherwise curses prostitution viableas a profession.the leghaduta. 11: 13 . 14. Described theMausalaparvan. A womani withwhom mentake turns (vara)i. exploited men willandwith lie by at impunity. 1: 43. Lat-ayana SrautasutraIV: 3: 11 .Br. Also Aitareya Brahmana 27: 2. independent. 7. 4.Penaltyfor maltreatmentdeceipt or but howfew is mentionied onewonders wronged prostitutes actually could flouted sue the state for their and rights dues. penalty 2. 16. III :4:: 7:1. Kat. IV: 19. 11. Alsothe Pancavimsa BrahmanaVIII: 1: 10. 17.as synonyms theprostitute. ifprostitutes alone could make 1. 25.
69.. varamukhya. 59. Arthasastra :12. 47. 48.and and reading composing and Vatsyayanamentions reading writing.L. V 195: 18-19. 380. 88.Jatakas mentionthe vannadasi in II: 69-72. Moti Chandra: The World Courtesans. means'turn'. Bhavnayar. 53. 37. by Punyavijayaji. XIII 125: 9 et al. 39. III: 59-63. 85-6. IbidXV :14: 4. includes Kautilya 1933-38. 52.): Kautilya's Arthasastra. 32. SOCIAL SCIENTIST VI: 31. Vikash. Kamasutra 1: 10. I: 4: 42. 475: 8. Yajnavalkyasamhita 295. 68. 2. 70. XII: 96 :18. varastri. XVII :1 :4. 61. 1st edn. 40. IV : 34 :17. XI: 30-35. 62. 66. IbidVI :3: 28-3 49. fortheprostivaravilasini. Probably thefirst wordbhrti. FromSanskrit ed. IV: 64 : 24-29. 38. IV: 50. XII: 29: 65. 12. XII : 64 17. 19. Mahabharata 115: 39. XII: 88: 14. Diyavadana byP. IIl 186-7. Vaidya.58 29. 15. Manusamhita 67. IX: 51. 6th edn.1973. expenses. JatakaIII: 59-63. Sanskritparivyayam. I. Kamasutra 6: 54. 65. IbidXIV: 80 : 32. lowerclassof of tute: thewordvara. 106: 6ff. 55. 48. Mahabharata 56. fees. 61. R. VII: 50. 63. This content downloaded on Mon. Mahabharata 83.) 35. II: to century A. 25.. 33. Arthasastra 13. Brhatkalpabha. 48. Mysore. IbidVI: 5: 1-6. code deciphering wordsin hersyllabus. 43. 54. ibid VIII :17. XIV: 85 :18.VIII : 49: 76-78.p.section theganikadhyaksa. III: 238 ff. etc. 26. Shamasastry (ed. 64. 51. 22. Jnatadharmakatha of 42. XVI 36. 57. IbtdVI :6: 31. IV II: 44. 60. 30. XVIII: 60. I. VI: 45. V :15: 51-58. The synonyms varangana. 34. 18. Ibid III: 20. I: 4 : 49.. poems. 1915. of superintendentprostitutes. IbidVII: 65: 6. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . IbidVII 60: 1. 1. on 1960.p. VV 20:13. 46. 218. ArthasastraII: 27 . Cf. 67. 39: 20. 71. (ed. Also in the RamayanaI: 71. This was true thesocially prostitutes. 58. 41. 36. XVIII :6: 12. 30. 1 : 4 : 34-41. 13.D.
pp. Thetermmay have a secondary reference tarnishing family's to the (kula) prestige. 106. 171-72. 103. 90.79. 4052.78. Prakrtikhanda. Rahula Sankrityayana's Hinditr. 92.. All thisand mtuch moreare taught theKuttaniniata Damodaragupta in of and also in theDesopadesa IV: 12.Vol. See also Dasarupaka 89. 30.pp. IV: 20 :13. Arthasastra 23. pp. VI: 1 :4. 76.112. Samayarnatrka VIII: 102. in accomplished thevarious arts. she is described 'an ornament as to thecity'.82. 108. 46.22. Ramayana11: 11. Esp.However. VIII. 84. 75. Ch.London. 106-7. VI: 2 : 3-23. 77. XX. : 98 . of in MotilalBanarasidas. 24: 34. 102. III : 33. Kamasutra 62-65. XlIl. TextSocy. 360-61. A woman anycase. Junagad. XVII. Arthasastra 27. 83. II: 293. 99. I 11 Dasarupaka : 8. also in Atri Sainhita 267. Sanmayamatrka28-80. 95. V: 33 : 64. 91. 25. Benares1964. By thesametranslator.Kuttanimara Sarngadharapaddha:i.Mahabharata 186: III: 7. 79. Cf. I: 85.24. Narada. Kaniasutra VIl: 1: 13-17. 1938. Cf. 109. IX : 259-60.likea childor a slave. et al.vol. 70. 26. 10: 15. Mahada. This content downloaded on Mon. and 87.was not allowedto ownproperty. 1: 4: 48. 308-9. Likethoseat Nasik. As a mark gratituLde divine of for favours received as a gift or given faith in for from temple favours the expected deity. II: 71: 1. pp. 78. Raghuvamsa XVI VII. ThePosition Women Hindu Civilization. XII 110. Kamasutra 3: 20. SacredBooks oftheEast. Cf. in Asvaghosa Sudraka'sdramas. 103: 4. 104. 96. 93. 532. chs. Pali pp. Visnupurana. Kamasutra VII: 23. : 98. 19. pp. Gautama. 73. 49 : 76-78.19. II: 290. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Parasara S. Cf.Kuda. Kamasutra : 4: 45. the important where the heroineis a beautiful courtesan. XXVII & XXVII. 86. 82. 40. 45. 11: 101. 80. 321-325. II: 34. Kumarasambliava : 36. etymology notclear.1906-14.36. Dhammapada commentary. 94. Yajnavalkya II: Smrti 290. Sanvarta S. Sitabenga Ratnagiri. 181-82. Cf. the is 107. 11: 105. I: 100. 50. II: 81. SamayamatrkaI: drama Mtrcchakatika 72.PROSTITUTION ANCIENT IN INDIA 59 88. Vinayapitaka. ch. 96: 18. 47: 20: 23. 161. 97. VIII.1st edn. 73-88.Benares1936. 48.103. 74. SacredBooksof theEast. in AMahabharata82 : 22.Ilzarnasutra : XXTXI2.
72.) GravesChamney New Delhi. Indica. 121. 3. Bibliotheke of (ed. Ibid.XIII: 145: 2.) Kuvalayamala. as rite was seldomhonoured actualperformance by 127. 1938. London. Burton F.) R. cit. 1959. Ksemendra Desopadesa Narniamala. A. 119. Dr.pp.) 9..Vainya'sto thesage Atri.S. 117. Bombay. 1933-38. Manusamhita:ManavadharmasastratheInstitutes Manu.F. Calcutta. 7.171 5. Somesvara: Manasollasa. Ibid. PustakBhandar. The prajapatya expiatory is borneout bya vastamountof literature. I-IV).29. 125. 1334B. Sarman& (ed.) G. Kaul.) M. or of 5. Kaul. Aryendra 1961. Ibid.P. 114. Mahendra Suri: Nammayasundarikatha. 1923.I: 221: 49. Damodaragupta: Kuttaniniata. Baroda. (ed. to 122.1944. 123. 2. XII: 12: 366. & 1965. 124.IV: 72: 16. Tbid.VII: 65-6. Op. 1985.C.Bombay. 219-271. 4.K. Haughton. : 4. Punyavijayaji. Banerji: Prantavasini.VII: 60: 1.III: 315: 2. Ibid. 1982(Vols.1965. M. others. Trivedi. 52 : 11. (ed. Bhoja: Srngarainanjarikatha. 118.VIII: 38 : 4 ff. :198: 16. Op. Bhavnagar. 120.1963 3. of Vikash. (ed. Vatsyayana:Kamasutra. XII: 68 : 33. OsmaniaUniversity. 233:4. (ed.60 SOCIALSCIENTIST III: 8: 27.) 1.p. 126. Ed.) 2. 39: 20. (ed. XVII : etc. Uddyotanasuri: 1960. Ibid. Upadhye.S. 173 16ff. Sanskrit S. 111. 28 Jan 2013 04:28:09 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I 115. XII: 29 : 65. 6. Arbuthnot This content downloaded on Mon. Ibid. 13. Poona. Ibid. (ed. Kalpana Munshi.) PancananaTarkaratna.1973. Moti Chandra: The World Courtesans. 113. Ibid.Calcutta. Bombay. cit. in Samayamatrka Ksemendra:Laghu-kavya-salmgraha. of & (ed. Pratibha Bibliography 1st in A. Cf. Sources Some Primary 1969. 116. Shringondeker.. Kangle. Sagara'sgifts Brahmins. II: 51 :8. Kautilya: Arthasastra. 6. edn. XVIII 6 12. University Bombay. & (ed. IV: 18-21. 9 . (ed.N.) Kaladilasain Ksemendra: Laghu-kavya-samgraha. 50.XV 11: 4. R.MotilalBanarasidas.IV :34: 5. Bombay. Ibid. Mahabharata 112.): TheKamasutra Vatsyayana. 1939. Altekar: ThePositionof Wfonman HinduiCivilization..
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