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JACOB LEWIS BOURJAILY
c) We are to compute the total force acting on the plane by directly integrating over σ 2 /2 0 . Let us proceed to compute the force directly F = da σ2 q 2 d2 = 2 0 8π 2 0 2 2 dudθ q d = , 8π 2 0 u3/2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 =− , 2 16π 0 u d2 q 2 d2 , 16π 0 d4 ∴F =− q2 1 z. ˆ 4π 0 (2d)2 rdrdθ , (r2 + d2 )3/2
d) We are to compute the work required to remove the charge from its position to inﬁnity. By direct computation, we see that the work required is
Fd = −
∞ 0 d
dz q2 = 2 z 16π
q2 . 16π 0 d
e) Let us compute the potential energy of the charge-image-charge system and compare this result with that of part (d) above. From the deﬁnition of potential energy, we see that q2 . 8π 0 d This is precisely twice the energy required to pull the charge q to inﬁnity. This is expected: the energy is twice that of the original system because we also have energy associated with the electric ﬁeld of the image charge. In the original system, there is only the electric ﬁeld of a single charge. Furthermore, notice that the position and hence energy of the image charge depends on the charge and position of q. This implies that it is negligent to consider q moving in a static ﬁeld produced by q . U= 2.2 Let us consider the problem of a point charge q located inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. a) We are to ﬁnd the potential function describing the inside of the sphere. This problem is superﬁcially similar to that discussed in Jackson’s text regarding a charge located outside a conducting, grounded sphere. It should be clear that if the charge is located at the point r, then, by axial symmetry, the image charge must be located along the direction of r at a distance of r > a—if the method of image charges applies. Therefore, the potential at a point x will be given in the form 1 q q ϕ(x) = + , 4π 0 |x − r| |x − r | Because the sphere is grounded, we must have identical to that required for the situation must have that q q =− and a r In particular, this implies that q 1 ∴ ϕ(x) = 4π 0 (x2 + r2 − 2xr cos θ)1/2 ϕ(x) = 0 ∀x| x = a. This situation is described in Jackson and therefore we r a = . a r − r x2 + a
− 2x a cos θ r
c) Let us compute the force acting on the charge q. x ) = 0 ∀x |x3 = 0. Up to a sign which we will set a posteriori. We are to ﬁnd an integral expression for the potential in cylindrical coordinates. Hence. x ) = − . Neither of the two situations alters the work above because neither would eﬀect the interior of the sphere—only the outside. ∂n Because the space is empty of charges. 2. Hence. the ﬁrst integral identically vanishes and we must only consider the boundary integral. x ) ∂x3 =− x3 =0 x3 − x3 ((x1 − x1 )2 + (x2 − x2 2x3 ((x1 − x1 )2 + (x2 − x2 )2 + x2 ) 3 3/2 )2 + (x3 − x3 . if the sphere were kept at ﬁxed potential V or if there were total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces. In particular. . Because we have already derived this expression in class—and in Jackson—up to a redeﬁnition of r and r . We call on the simple symmetry of the charge-image-charge system noting that this is identical to the charge distribution induced by the image charge on the outside of the sphere. 1/2 1/2 ((x1 − x1 )2 + (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 − x3 )2 ) ((x1 − x1 )2 + (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 + x3 )2 ) is of the correct form and satisﬁes the Dirichlet boundary conditions. ˆ 4π 0 (a2 − r2 )2 d) We are to discuss how the work above is altered.7 Let us consider the space ½R3 satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions on the plane ∂½R3 . Speciﬁcally. we see that F = q2 ar r. x )d3 x − ½R3 1 4π ϕ(x ) ∂½R3 ∂G(x. a) We are to ﬁnd the appropriate Green’s function describing this system. we see that the Green’s function given by 1 1 G(x. if at all. By Gauß’ law. we will see that the n -direction should coincide with −x3 so that the potential at the surface is positive. we see that ∂G(x. this is our required Green’s function. =− Later. where θ is the angle between r and x. x ) da . Using our results above. Because electrostatics is linear. we manifestly have that G(x. In many ways. this is identical to inserting the seemingly spurious minus sign in the above calculation. this problem is similar to that describing a point charge and an inﬁnite conducting plane. we simply have that σ(x) = − ∂ϕ 0 ∂x = |x|=a q 4πar 1 + 1− a2 r2 a2 r2 3/2 − 2 a cos θ r . In general. b) Let us say that the potential on the plane x3 = 0 is speciﬁed to be ϕ = V inside a circle of radius a and vanish outside the circle. the ﬁeld inside the sphere will be the linear sum of that described above and that caused by the sphere—which is vanishing. we know that the electric ﬁeld inside a charged or ﬁxed-potential sphere is identically zero. there is no alteration. we know that the potential function for a problem with a Green’s function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is given by ϕ(x) = 1 4π 0 ρ(x )G(x. 3/2 )2 ) + x3 + x3 ((x1 − x1 )2 + (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 + x3 )2 ) 3/2 x3 =0 .PHYSICS 505: CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS HOMEWORK 2 3 b) Let us compute the charge distribution induced on the sphere.