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Technical Bulletin TBN018.



An unbalanced rotor will cause vibration and stress in the rotor itself and in its supporting structure. Balancing of the rotor is therefore necessary to accomplished one or more of the following : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Increase bearing life Minimize vibration Minimize audible and signal noises Minimize operating stresses Minimize operator annoyance and fatigue (f) Minimize power losses (g) Increase quality of product (h) Satisfy customers Unbalance in just one rotating component of an assembly may cause the entire assembly to vibrate. This induced vibration in turn may cause excessive wear in bearings, bushings, shafts, spindles, gears, etc., substantially reducing their service life. Vibrations set up highly undesirable alternating stresses in structural supports and frames which may eventually lead to their complete failure. Performance is decreased because of the absorption energy by the supporting structure. Vibrations may be transmitted through the floor to adjacent machinery and seriously impair its accuracy or proper functioning.

Purpose of Balancer
A balancer or balancing machine is necessary to detect, locate, and measure unbalance. The data furnished by the balancer permits changing the mass distribution of a rotor, which, when done accurately, will balance the rotor. Balance is a zero quantity, and therefore is detected by observing an absence of unbalance, never balance.

Unbalance is the uneven distribution of weight in the rotors (wheel, shaft or pulley etc.) Eccentricity means not having the same center or axis of rotation. For example, consider a disc with radius, R (mm) and mass P (kg) due to an overweight, p, at a particular point. When the disc is in a rotational motion, a centrifugal force,F, acts upon p and is transmitted to the axis. As a result, the axis is displaced from the rest position, its end describing a circle, only a small one, around its normal position. This displacement is called eccentricity, refer to Fig. I This eccentricity, eT (m) is tied to the unbalance amount p (grams) located at distance R (mm) of the rotational axis of


Technical Bulletin TBN018.1/2001

Fig. 1


the rotor weighing P (kg) by the formula below. eT, also express as the balancing tolerance or the residual eccentricity, refer to fig.2.
eT = px R P

by the formula :

eT =

10 G (n / 1000)

Given the following data, to determine the permissible residual unbalance and minimum value of residual unbalance? Speed, n = 800 rpm Weight of pulley, P = 8.1 kg Radius of pulley, R = 152 mm (O.D. is 314mm) Balancing grade, G = 4 (means vibration speed=4mm/s for pulley)

Permissible Residual Unbalance or Balancing Tolerance, ET Equation

This method is in accordance with the standard ISO 1940/1-1986 edition. Since it is not possible to have a 100% balancing, tolerance for balancing is necessary. (Refer to table 1) According to the industries requirement and depending on the type of fan and its application, professional fan manufacturer normally follow ISO recommendation of G6.3, G4.0 or G2.5 for balancing. (refer to table 2) The balance grade G in mm/s is linked to the maximum residual unbalance, eT in m and to the rotation speed, n in rpm

Calculation Of Permissible Residual Unbalance Or Balance Tolerance

eT = 104 10 G = (n / 1000 ) (800 / 1000 )

e T =50m


Technical Bulletin - TBN018.1/2001

Calculation Of Maximum Value Of Residual Unbalance, P

eT = pxR P e T xP R = 50x8.1 152

p =

= 2.66g

Therefore the Permissible Residual Eccentricity is 50m & the Permissible Residual Unbalance is 2.66g for this pulley.


Technical Bulletin - TBN018.1/2001

Table 1

Maximum Permissible Residual Specific Unbalance Value Corresponding to Various Balance Quality Grades


Technical Bulletin - TBN018.1/2001

Table 2 Balance quality grades for various groups of representative rigid rotors
Balance quality grade
G4 000 G1 600 G630 G250 G100 G40

Product of the relationship (eper x ) mm/s

4 000 1 600 630 250 100 40

Rotor types General examples

Crankshaft/drives of the rigidly mounted slow marine diesel engines with uneven numbers of cylinders Crankshaft/drives of rigidly mounted large two-cycle engines Crankshaft/drives of rigidly mounted large four-cycle engines Crankshaft/drives of elastically mounted marine diesel engines Crankshaft/drives of rigidly mounted fast four cylinder diesel engines Crankshaft/drives of fast diesel engines with six or more cylinders Complete engines (gasoline or diesel) for cars, trucks and locomotives Car wheels, wheel rims, wheel sets, drives shafts Crankshaft/drives of elastically mounted fast four-cycle engines (gasoline or diesel) with six or more cylinders Crankshaft/drives of engines of cars, trucks and locomotives Drive shafts (propeller shafts, cardan shaft ) with special requirements Parts of crushing machines Parts of agricultural machinery Individual components of engines (gasoline or diesel) for cars, trucks & locomotives Crankshaft/drives of engines with six or more cylinders under special requirements





Parts of process plant machines Marine main turbine gears (merchant service) Centrifuge drums Paper machinery rolls; print rolls Fans Assembled aircraft gas turbine rotors Flywheels Pump impeller Machine-tool and general machinery parts Medium and large electric armatures (of electric motors having at least 80mm shaft height) without special requirements Small electric armatures, often mass produced, in vibration insensitive application and/or with vibration isolating mountings Individual components of engines under special requirements



Gas and steam turbines, including marine main turbines (merchant service) Rigid turbo-generator rotors Computer memory drums and discs Turbo-compressors Machine-tool drives Medium and large electric armatures with special requirements Small electric armatures not qualifying for one or both of the conditions specified for small electric armatures of balance quality grade G6.3 Turbine-driven pumps


Tape recorder and phonograph (gramophone) drives Grinding-machine drives Small electric armatures with special requirements



Spindles, discs, and armatures of precision grinders Gyroscopes