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Cornell University Library
TS 1032.F54 1880
The harness makers'
3 1924 000 022 636
Cornell University Library
Cornell University Library.
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the United States on the use of the
AND LEATHEE VAENISHES i HINTS ON RENOVATING AND REPAIRING HARNESS NOTES ON HARNESS MOUNTINGS. FITZ-GERALD. SINGLE AND DOUBLE ROAD. A PRACTICAL GUIDE BOOK FOB. EEOIPES POE PEEPAEING BLAOKIUGS. TEAM AND FARM HARNESS. AND PREPARING LEATHER. COUPE. . OILS. N. with DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE MOST POPULAR STYLES AND KINDS. PADS.. ADAPTED TO THE OFFICE AND THE WORKSHOP. OF HARNESS. ETC. MANUFACTURERS ANB MAKERS . HALTERS. STAINS. CUTTING. zS86. ETC CONTAINING DIRECTIONS FOR SELECTING. EXPRESS. GIG SADDLES. HORSE BOOTS. HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. New York. . COACH. BY W. SECOND EDITION. TABLES OF LENGTHS AND WIDTHS FOR CUTTING TRACK.
Office of ttie Librarian of Congress. By Wm.Entered. C. at D. according to Act of Congress. N. in tlie year 1880 . Fitz-Geeald. n llie Wasliington. .
CHAPTER The peculiar I. and Fiiiish Stretching — — — Quality of — — — .. good and poor Stock sity of — Stains— Comparative Value of — Hand Part Leather— Graining in Workshop — Buff Leather — Loop Leather— The NecesLeather . how designated The Effect of Splitting upon the Grain Varnishing. Thickness unimportant a Mellow Grain Buying Leather -Weight Stock Unreliability of the rough Brand Backs Cropping Trimmed Stock — — — — — 33 CHAPTER HL PATENT LEATHER. or Fry" The Effect of Dampness Weights to be 2i selected for all Kinds of Harness Grain Leather for Folds. Hemlock. Color. Glazed Leather — The Uses to which it is put Hides Splits.. — — — — — CHAPTER Selecting Rein the n. RUSSET LEATHER. Characteristics of Leather — — — — Test — '' . HARNESS LEATHER.— COK"TENTS. suitable for making Harness Leather Causes of Spew. uniform. and Finishing Enamel Leather Texture. PAGE by which Effect of strong Acids in the Quality may be determined Coloring Impure Oils Kinds of Harness Leather Oak. and Union Tanned the Nature of each Hides Gum. Drying.
— Drying— How long to soak—Test—Trimming the Flesh Side— Applying Tallow — Straps not to be disturbed until the Water has dried out Cleaning and Slicking The Effect of recurrying Blacking Leather for a Single-Strap Harness Wetting common Slock — — 58 CHAPTER VL MEASURING FOR HARNESS. Lack of System Result of improper Lengths Length of Hame Tugs Lengths adopted by prominent Manufacturers Harness for Horses of different Sizes Lengths governed by Localities — — — — — 58 CHAPTER VII. 4. Single Harness (Breast Collar) No. Single Road Harness No. months CHAPTER How to to CUTTING HARNESS. Heavy Coupe Har- — — — — . 2. Single-Strap Track Harness No.— — ro CONTENTS. No. Single Harness (Hame Collar) No. PREPARING THE LEATHER FOR THE FITTER. I. PACE Leather injurious to the Fibre When the best Leather is made able — Care of Patent Leather —July and August unfavor40 IV. 3. TABLES OF LENGTHS. cut to Responsibilit)' of Weight Stock the best Advantage Objections to the Splitting Machine Cutting a Harness from one Side Illustration of a trimmed Side Weight Details for Cutting the different — Scraps The a Side of Directions for Cutting— Dividing the Siae the avoid Waste Cutter —Value of — Illustration — — of — — — — Straps 45 CHAPTER Wetting the Stock ing Strap V. 5.
MAKING SINGLE-STRAP TRACK HARNESS. 8. — — English Four-in-Hand — No. Long Tug Team Harness No. Heavy Express No. 13. — 11. Short Tug Coach Harness No. 15. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING TEAM HARNESS. 18. and Winker Brace Finishing the Edges Prepared Tallow Gum Tragacarth Cutting and preparing the Patent Leather Finishing up Rounds Mak- — — — — ing Docks —^Importance — — — — of good Patterns — How — to prepare 112 the Patterns CHAPTER Its IX. Lengths Mountings. Bitting Harness No. 7. Cart Harness— No. Mistaken Ideas regarding Team Harness Selecting Stock Weights to be used General Directions for cutting and fitting Pads Filling Folds Bridles. —Weight of Side quired — Sectional Drawings — Safety Strap — Half Kemble Origin the best Results re- Jackson check 122 CHAPTER X. Stage Harness No. Double Road Harness No. Long Tug Coach Harness No. 22. g. ig. ness 6. Docks. 20. i6. Mule Harness No. Tandem — No. 21. II PACE —No. 17. Wagon Harness with adjustable Trees No. the Imof proper Proportions — — — — — — — — . Result of Neglect in learning the Trade Want of System Importance of the Fitter and Stitcher working in Unison Wetting the Stock Skiving and slicking the Straps Fitting up the Shaft Tugs. 14. Single Express No. Adjustable Pad Double Harness No. Pennsylvania Wagon Harness No. the Importance Lines. — Skill required in making up — How to attain — Steer Hides the best.— CONTENTS. 64 CHAPTER VHL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING UP A BREAST COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS. Short Tug Butt Chain Harness Trimmings for Carriage Harness — — — — — — — — — — . 10. Long Tug Farm Harness No. 12.
Cleaning and treeing up the Tree Preparing the Seat Leather Preparing the Frame Making Joclceys Flopping off Making Loops Cutti?. Directions for making Illustrated Plain Pads. stitching on — How they are made — Time needed to press — Variety of Patterns — How — Fullness handmade Loops— Selecting necessarj' —Patent Loops. how made— Ad- cheap Harness are improved by their use 161 . etc Directions for making Soft Pad illustrated Cutting Tops and Sides Hard Pad. MAKING GIG SADDLES.— — 12 CONTENTS. Stock —Wetting — Creasing— Back Clamp Iron —Working up Sides before creasing — Coloring and finishing — Pressed Loops.g and fitting Points Back Bands Quality of Leather Making the Pads Stuffing Materials used Changing Shape of Patterns 141 — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIL PADS FOR COACH AND TEAM HARNESS. Coach Style Wheel Harness without Pads Traces and Safes. how to cut Fitting up CutHair-stuffed Pads ting Felt for the Pad Stitching. Improvements Patent Pads Directions for making Coach Pads Socket Piece. how cut Lead Harness Loin Straps Mountings Collars 128 portance of Strength to — — Stitching — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XI. PAGE be done with white Thread Coarse stitching the strongest Fitting and stitching Traces Final Finish Heavj' ornamental Truclc Harness Bridles. MAKING HARNESS LOOPS. Directions for making 149 — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER Kinds of Loops vantages of the Leather in use XIH.
— How they are named—Cuttings for —Illustration — Leather used — English Russet — Buif Leather— Stitching not used for ornamenting various Kinds 196 CHAPTER XVIIL HALTERS. Size and Number of White Thread the strongest Making up the before twisting — —The — Kind of Wax for —To cause both Sides to appear alike 168 Points to be Observed CHAPTER MAKING ROUND XV. 13 CHAPTER The End Strands to XIV. REINS. .— CONTENTS. how made Bi:lct Filling up and rounding Rounding and trimming Stain. RIDING BRIDLES. . how made Advantage of using Shellac Rein Ends. The most ornate Part of the Harness Winkers. The ish Varieties — United States Government Halter-^-Span- Halter Bitting Halter—Training Halter:—French Halter— Stable Halter Yankee Halter— Double Cheek — — . Style and Finish " Hinging" English Coach Bridle Cuttings — — — Illustrations of various Styles of Bridles — Crown Pieces. PAGE STITCHING HARNESS. illustrated 175 — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVI. 183 CHAPTER Uniformity of Style XVII. Good Stock a Necessity Directions for Cutting Dampening the Leather Making the Stop Marking off for the Board Iron. Thread specific — Importance of Care in Stitching— How the Stitches are laid — Irregularity produced by not drawing Purposes the Threads evenly — —Waxing be attained Thread.. COACH AND WAGON BRIDLES.
close and electro Grades of How to determine the Quality Elec- — —Tarnishing not an Color and Evidence of Impurit}'— Gold Plate — Nickel — Advantages — Brass not popular— Oroide. Bar 271 CHAPTER BITS AND BITTING HARNESS. verian — Popular Styles — Snaffle — Dexter— HanoSnaffle — Metals used — Steel not desirable — Unreliability of Malleable Iron — System of numbering— How designated — Illustrations — Bitting HarBrutal Devices — Half Cheek Trotting . Shin. and Combination Boots Directions for making Illustrations for Weights — — How made — Illustrations 224 CHAPTER XX. PAGE Halter tions —Slip Halter—Team Halter —Cuttings XIX. Ankle. Hooks. Classes and Styles^Plated. etc 249 CHAPTER Patent Trace Harness Trace Popular Styles Illustrations XXI. and Illustra- 205 CHAPTER HORSE BOOTS. HARNESS MOUNTINGS. but cheaper Its its for Silver.— 14 CONTENTS. Success in making Knee. its rip Il- lustrations of Terrets. Color — Not deGilding — Aluminum the most sirable except as a Base superiority as a white expensive Metal — German Metal — Covered Mountings — Leather and Composition Leather used — Liability to — Improvements made— Rubber-covered — When patented — Description of Process of Manufacture— Celluloid-covered — Description of Manufacture — Tinned — XC Plate —^Japanned — Patented Styles — Silver for Close Plate — — tro Plate less durable. — — — —Collar— Center XXII. BUCKLES.
..— — CONTENTS. Stains. CHAPTER XXV. IS PAGE ness —Wooden Jockey.. 317 .. LEATHER BLACKING. REPAIRING HARNESS.. 296 — — — — . how made How to keep Russet Strapping The Manufacturer's duty to his Customers Directions for the Care of Harness in the Stable Mountings not to be scoured How to clean. illus- trated 281 CHAPTER As important as XXIII. CARE OF HARNESS IN THE FACTORY AND STABLE. Consumers not acquainted with the Peculiarities of Stock The great Destroyer Care of Harness in Stock White Mold Importance of removing it immediately Cleaning Mountings Durability dependent upon Treatment — — — — — — Pegs for hanging Harness Daub. — .. illustrated — Patent Jockey. how to — — remove only will restore the Lustre — Patent Leather—-Varnish — How clean it to 290 CHAPTER XXIV. . Varnishes. its qualities Tallow the only reliable Grease How to apply — — Grease — Gum. Miscellaneous Recipes for the Workshop and Harness- Room . making new Stock — False — — — Directions Cleaning the Leather an important Consideration When to repair Cleaning the Surface before oiling How to soften old Leather Pure Neat's-foot Oil the best Castor Oil.. and Polishes 302 CHAPTER XXVI. RECIPES.
161 . Track Harness Frontispiece. Hame Heavy Collar. PACK Double Road Harness 20 33 53 61 Coupe Harness Phaeton Harness Coach Harness Breast Collar. Goldsmith Maid. Single Harness Team Harness Draft Harness 129 137 Georgia Wagon Harness .INDEX OF PLATES. Single Harness 113 122 -.
It is the only book of the . In the hints on repairing and caring for harness. farm. The illustrations represent standard styles and kinds of articles used by the trade. . This book originated from a desire to furnish harness makers with a condensed practical guide suited to the workshop. varnishes. a large amount of information is furnished the manufacturer and consumer. and It treats of leather as furnished to the harness maker by the currier. or road . strength. classes in use.. for the carriage.PREFACE. The etc. salesroom. its texture. bridles. whether halters. stains. . . office. polishes. in a condensed form. recipes for blacks. bits. have been tested and found reliable the whole making a methodical manual indispensable to the progressive harness maker. etc. horse-boots. adaptability for specific uses how to cut. and guides for making up. . and useful to every horse owner or other person interested in harness or saddlery. and measurmg for harness complete tables finish for lengths and widths for cutting the various stable. mountings. fit.
and to avoid errors. and the standard of harness making be elevated. Every care has been taken to present the subjects treated on in the plainest manner. and supplies a much-needed want. kind published in the English language. The author confidently believes that benefit will result from following the instructions given. the time spent in its preparation will be compensated for. .8 1 PREFACE. Should this anticipation be realized.
By the total figures it will be seen that the average wages of the workmen is about $299 a year.935. first in "very other particular. New- .207 for materials. .046. workmen 709.557 . Pennsylvania. Illinois. ing in wages $7. Ohio. being $78 below the average for the whole country in 1870. The manufacture of saddlery and harness. Missouri stands fifth in first in the list in value of products.INTRODUCTION. $16. and second m York stands second in value of products. stands thirty- fourth in magnitude out of the fifty-eight two hundred and specified industries tabulated in the in the census report of 1870. and $10 above the average of i860. all but 841 were males above 16 years employing a capital of $13. At that time there were United States 7.607 saddler}.. ex- clusive of all collateral branches. and producing goods to the value of $32.961 payof age. giving employment to 23. There are but eleven branches of industry in which the number of establishments exceeds those number of workmen the wages paid.068. but the employed.310. and New-Jersey are next in order.^ and harness establishments.981.
and there is no excuse for his placing his prices below fair business rates. the investment of a few hundred dollars enables a man to engage in a small business which returns him a moderate living.415 mules and asses. but one that might be lucrative if conducted The harness maker supplies in a proper manner.. the average rate of wages is remarkably good. .785 animals yet .270. the case would be different but as it is. for 7. a total of 8.370 horses. The harness-maker is called upon to supply har- ness. there would be less complaints as to the unprofitableness of the harness trade. it will be one important step toward making the business a profitable and pleasant . In preparing this manual the author has aimed to give information of a practical character to the trade. and one which explains.ZO mTRODUCTION. prosperous than it a business which required less one. an article of absolute necessity. If this end is accomplished. and add thereto a fair percentage of profit. saddlery. 1. Were it the investment of a large capital. etc. If each man in the business would properly estimate the cost of every article. and in view of this fact.125. which will enable those engaged in it to conduct the workshop in a systematic manner. of saddlery and harness.145. least. is in part at why the trade should be. the total value of products of a year show but $4 a head for each animal a figure disproportion- — ately small.
close.THE HARNESS-MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.maker. the flesh side . I shall give some general directions regarding the various kinds of leather used. leather is senses than one. and it is true in more In the first place. which an inexperienced person may judge to a certainty of The grain may be fine. HARNESS LEATHER. The familiar adage. and to its quality. the eye all that can be desired. an article of such peculiar structure that those who have spent a lifetime in working it can not give any reliable rules by. " There is nothing like leather. BEFORE entering upon details respecting the practical work of the harness. together with such other details as may serve to assist the manufacturer in selecting his stock." is an old one. its adaptation to specific grades and patterns of harness. CHAPTER I.
for actual wear. insufficiently tanned. the grain will be coarse. a well-known fact that cattle raised in certain sections of the country produce much finer grained hides. and the . the flanks thick and flabby. in It is most cases. smooth. and yet the quality be such as to condemn it as soon as On the it gets into the hands of the workman. other hand. badly curried with cheap oil and tallow. and yet. than those raised If the hide has been taken in other sections. and irregular. and finely finished. blacked with strong acids. character of the hide before it was tanned are. by close ex- amination. from an old and poor animal. by which the eye and touch are so . The hides from which it was made may have been taken from old or poorly fed cattle. may be ascertained. a few leading tests Avhich acquiring of the needful experience.a fat. the neck hard and rough. of good color. it may be of good quality. of uneven thickness. There assist in the The however. elastic nature necessary for the production of harness leather. is the only safe and reliable guide as to the actual merits of the leather. harness-makers' illustrated manual. and yet a long experience. educated as to detect almost by intuition defects other than the most prominent. uneven. stuffed to weigh heavy. which have passed through the grain and rendered it hard and brittle. possessing in a greater degree the firm. the grain may be coarse and the flesh side badly cleaned. the shoulders thin and unfit for general use all of which faults are of a serious nature.
but it is just as liable to injury from the use of strong acid blacks. it is insufficiently tanned. but it is one that can be detected by cutting a strip from the hide and wetting the freshly-cut edge with the tongue if the color is uniform throughout. sure indication of poor hides. test for detecting this fault is to bend a narrow strip. the cut edge presents a fuzzy appearance. the grain will in most cases be fine. hand. and it is much more difficult to detect faults arising from this source than those due to short tannages. and shows a white or light-colored strip through the centre when wet. instead of being covered with fine If. which. and the wider this light strip the poorer is the tannage. the flesh side smooth and of a good color. well-kept animal. it down be- tween the teeth if the grain is hard and brittle. and the whole side Grub-holes are a of nearly uniform thickness. but. feels harsh and rough when dry. while : giving it a deep black color. and the cut edge presents a smooth and glassy appearance. The grain may have been injured while being tanned. . Short tannage is a very common fault. and even. on the other fibres. and close . ^J shoulders and hips thin and baggy if from a young. as they can be so easily detected. it is unnecessary to caution buyers to avoid all having these defects. flesh sides together. . the tannage is good.HA&NESS LEATHfiK. It frequently happens that leather which has been well tanned is injured in the currying. cause it to become The best and most reliable hard and brittle. close.
24 it THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. in fact almost impossible. and future gumming will be prevented.cut edge will show to what depth they have penetrated. by the depreciation in the value sometimes happens that these appear upon the grain before the It These points seem to assist in the detection of the above-mentioned faults. If the hard grain has been produced by strong acids. a freshly. however. which have burned it. whether the quality be good or bad but if good. will surely break off short. it will have the appearance of having been torn asunder instead of broken off short. the leather is extra heavy. this test will be likely to rupture the grain. When this is the case the leather may be treated as we have directed in Chapter V. but they can not be upon under all circumstances frequent handlmg and close observation will alone give the eye and touch the training necessary for the relied . If. to detect the fault until after the harness has been made up and exposed for a time in the show-case. it being very difficult. so as to show the natural color of the leather underneath. fered much loss of his harness. The use of impure oils or grease is also a source of much annoyance. gum-spots will side has been cut. Good leather. in the language of one of the best . and there will be black streaks well down into the fibres below the grain. though not until the manufacturer has suf. when the tell-tale gumspots will appear on the surface.. intelligent selection of the different 'qualities. exposing the fraud.
and. takes a much better finish. should be " solid. a difference that makes up for the margin in heavier. It is firmer. . is not so easily affectfed by water it also works up finer. as a natural result. its taking a good black. but not so hard as hemlock. and also causes the latter to assume a dingy brown appearance on exposure to the elements the grain is more open and appears coarser it wets up quickly. and union (oak and hemlock) tanned. side of A eight to ten per cent . All other conditions being equal. but not soft " qualities that can not be explained.HARNESS leathe:k. It is also much ferior in strength. particularly hemlock will weigh from more than a side of oak leather of equal spread and thickness. hemlock. however. In this country there are three kinds of leather employed by harness-makers namely. and possesses more of the qualities indispensable to the production of good harness strength and pliability than any other tannage. known and most experienced men leather trade. is more easily worked. when the strap is placed in a position where the strain comes on a short bend or on the edge. oak. which — — . — — . and does not dry out as soft as does oak leather it is harder to stitch. oak-tanned leather is by far the best. all of which are used to a considerable extent. the fibre is finer and more dense. Hemlock leather is harder of a dark red color. . and is in- greatly interferes with . ?5 in the harness. but which can be detected instantly by one who has the requisite experience. but not hard mellow.
price between the is either tanned with liquors. and after- two kinds. it is may have been ex- inferior to oak-tanned leather with is which the same pains have been taken. the hides being closely selected. care. and there but one condition under which it should receive the preference. The following general advice may be leather. finer than either oak or hemlock. to the buyer who desires good In some is sections of the country. as the latter. or first Union" leather mixed oak and hemlock tanned with hemlock. no matter how much care ercised. but. the latter operation giving it a much lighter color than it originally possessed in some cases the color on the flesh side being so light as to deceive the buyer who The is unacquainted with this kind of leather. grain is close and. it oil Prepared in this maninto gives satisfaction when not brought direct competition with oak-tanned stock. as a rule. hemlock leather made with much and grease. and but a little better than hemlock. but for harness this leather is inferior to oak in every respect. well tanned. It weighs nearly as heavy . and that is when the choice lies between inferior oak and superior hemlock. " wards retanned with oak. it and possesses no qualities that recommend stock.: 26 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRAtED MANUAL. and curried with the best ner. of value to harness-makers and manufacturers of harness Select hides of young steei's or heifers killed which were in the best condition when they only possess the requisites of fineness of grain. .
if fibre. should be understood by him so far as to enable him to distinguish between the various products. thin and soft at the butt. it should never be used for harness leather. examine it further and see that it has not been damaged by scratches. These. entirely unfitted for the butt of the former is liaand the shoulder thin.HARN'ESS tEAT'HEK. though not a portion of the harnessmaker's business. Oak-tanned is superior to any other now in use because of its being tougher and more pliable but even oak-tanned may not be good. while the latter will be thick at the head and belly. . If it has been cut. Tanning. : . tiniform'ity of thickness. There are two general methods of tanning one the sole leather. though apparently simple. These are not likely to be found in hides taken from cattle that are killed in the summer or fall. thus shortening the hide by severing the cheeks from the body. and many hides are seriously damaged in this respect by the butcher having cut the animal's throat from ear to ear. are very injurious. as they can not be entirely removed. and strength of is A cow or bullock hide . See that there are no warble or grub holes along the back. Having found such a hide. Length is an important consideration. and will show upon the grain as soon as the leather is dampened by the workmen. Next ascertain whether the hide has been damaged by the butcher or not. by which the leather is made firm and hard the other the upper leather. by which the leather is made pliable and this kind of leather ble to be thick .
but the quality greater weight. but they can not produce a good qruality. this leather coiling like a piece of tin. sole-leather-like character. raised. addition is to is these features as what known the short-tanned. this calities the flesh side. wrinkled grain. will be smooth and The er furnishing buyer. likely to when being break when subjected of tanning. which will. . or and is more to a sudden strain. Some tanners follow the former method in part. By the first method greater weight is is unsuited to the use of the harness. This leather can be detected while working it by its hard. upon being worked. and thereby secure a secured. There is also the black-oak tannage. pest of the harness-maker will not appear. it and when shows a pale streak through the cen- Then there is the limy leather. HARNESS-MAftERs' ILLUStRAi'ED MAis'X/Af.2§ THS. stretch and a fall away to its natural substance." as it is known in different loif properly curried with good oils. greenish-yellow This leather shows appearance in spots upon is soft.maker. Leather that has been well curried will possess a surface free from roughness or wrinkles. therefore. It does not work well in rounds.. and It possesses less strength than white-oak leather. In there cut tre. Well-tanned leather is too often injured in being curried the use of poor oils and grease causes the "gum. with a loose." or " fr}-." " spew. tough. and silky to the touch. should insist upon the sellhim with hides such as haye been . . or puffed up beyond its proper thickness.
of fine. and curried in the best manner with pure oil and grease. The dampness may be detected by placing the palm of the hand upon the thickest part of the side. and by so doing commit the error of not procuring As a rule. weight best adapted to the greater portion of their work. warble or grub holes. that they never cut a harness from a single side. Such leather shrinks in weight. and the particular parts for which it is intended. reasonably free from scratches. but select the leather carefully and use a specific grade or weight for each particular strap while the leading custom manufacturers purchase or cut only backs of the best quality. secure leather possessing the minimum of defects. or cuts by the butcher. however. buy their leather in small quantities. mellow tannage. Next in importance to the procuring of a good quality of leather is the selection of that which possesses the requisite weight and strength for the kinds of harness designed to be made. and wasting no inconsiderable amount of leather. they select the a proper assortment. besides materially weakening Hard leather is . Zg recommended. entailing on themselves extra labor. .HARNESS LEATHER. sometimes made to feel mellow and to appear tough by being moistened by the currier. Perfection is not to be expected the harness-maker should aim to . So well is this understood by leading harnessmanufacturers who make up full lines. The great majority. and when lighter stock is needed they resort to the splitting-machine. and proves a poor purchase to the buyer.
as the portion of the flesh side which is removed is the strongest part of the stock. whether single or double. they would at all times possess leather adapted to every requirement except the heaviest truck-harness. and he can procure assorted stock just as easily as he can any single weight. sides weighing fourteen pounds and under can be cut to good advantage Traces. they would assort the sides so as to provide themselves with a full line of weights. If extra heavy straps are needed. instead of following this course. which calls for the heavier grades.30 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. as a rule. from six to twenty pounds a side. Light road-harness of the best quality. The leather used should be of the finest quality of light weights. no matter what kind of harness is to be made. these weights being better calls for prevent . and. which in most cases the use of the splitting-machine to overweight. the straps thus manipulated. back-bands. and eight to twelve pounds for the bridles. is made up of two thicknesses and stitched throughout. and hides suitable for these particular straps should always be kept on hand. If. A few years' experience will ena ble any man to determine the proper weights and proportions for his line of business. and breechfor this purpose. three thick- nesses of leather are used. ing-straps require heavier leather. ranging from fourteen to sixteen pounds to the side for the harness proper. Light weights are needed for bridles. whereby further loss is incurred.
. jijent of only two thjcknegses. young hides.HARNESS LEATHER. excepting the backbands. . 3! adapted to this class of harness than the heavier grades that need to be split in order to reduce them to the required thickness. which is now one of the most popular styles in use for trotting-horses. The grain is generally fine and the fibre strong it fits up well. the best weight being from sixteen to eighteen pounds to the side. in order to obtain the requisite firmness and strength. though it is better to use heavier weights for traces. and finishes smooth and soft. The leather best adapted to this style is that made from fine-grained. hold-backs. the weight being about sixteen pounds to the side for all but the bodies these. and back-bands. it is better to select leather sufficiently heavy to allow of the employ. For light coach-harness. retains its shape. The track-harness. thus obviating . is made up of single straps throughout. For this style a heavier leather is required. For bridles. The medium grade of light single harness is generally made up with single straps and lined points. being also single. the best weight is but if extra about eighteen pounds to a side heavy traces are used. These weights also answer well for all grades of single or double harness up to those requiring one and one quarter inch traces. or they will have to be skived off on the under side to prevent the edges curling up. except for the bridle. should be of a lighter weight. the same weight should be used as for light road-harness.
. is made from is sides or under. but the latter should be made from sides weighing about fourteen pounds. and. requires the use of sides weighing from eighteen to twenty pounds each the bridles. particularly for traces. may be gauged by . or at least the lower portions this trimmed hides. being made up of single straps. The above weights are those of the average spread of oak-tanned sides extra large or small hides.32 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. for all other straps. Grain leather of is much used for folds. should be made from stock of about the same weights as that used for coach-harness. as a rule. or those tanned with hemlock. If the latter is used. and breeching-straps . it should be of quite light leather. these. back-bands. except- ing bridles. the bellies.weights. while for weighing sixteen pounds team and truck harness a heavier grade required. eighteen to twenty pounds to a side are good weights. . Light express-harness. These weights also answer well for farm and the lighter grades of team harness. the necessity of a fiUing-in piece. for coach and . pur- light har- ness. answer well for pose though the finest. hold-backs. Coach and coupe harness require heav}. while heavy truck and cart harness requires the use of the heaviest grades of leather in the market. however.
instead of being colored black. fine shades are part of the leaing a . RUSSET LEATHER. ceptible brown in fact. selecting rein leather.CHAPTER II. . the IN quality should be employed same tests as to as with harness leather. When this color is employed. so as to with a is yellowish-brown produce what known as cuir-color. the beauty of a russet rein depending quite as much upon its uniformity of color as upon its make. very little stain is needed on the edges of straps to bring them up to the same shade as the grain and where it can be done. almost imper. it is bleached. as it is in every respect the same with the exception that. The brown and yellow stains can be made very easily. and afterwards stained brown or some other to bleach it color. The latest freak of fashiop it is quite light and then color stain. and the stain used is more for the pur- pose of producing a uniform shade than establishnew color. a very light. but those used to produce the soft. the shade is nearer to the natural color of fine oak-tanned leather than any thing else. the harness-maker will find it to his advantage to procure of the leathermanufacturer the same kind of stain as is used to color the grain.
This process removes some of the strongest portion ot the leather. does not keep its shape as well. is bad policy to choose any thing but the best quality. besides occupying the time of the . or upon being bent while in use. and their preparation is kept a secret. as the untanned centre presents a darker shade than the portion Then. Hand-part leather. unsafe reins. and must be split to reduce it to the proper thickness. It is customary among harness-makers who use but a small amount of rein-leather to cut their folds for hand parts from the same side as they do the rounds.34 THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. while it should also be soft and pliant. entailing additional cost without the gain of a single advantage. at least until fashion has adopted some new color as the In selecting rein leather. grain is hard it is liable to crack while being made up. it favorite. Rein leather in most cases is too heavy for folds. and takes a less uniform shade when stained. ther-manufacturcr's stock-in-trade. and all the tests that are applied to other kinds are equally effectual for this. A pair of russet reins will contain about one pound of leather. particularly when it is short-tanned. should be of the very best quality. if the that is well filled with bark. too. This is a mistake. like that for the reins. and the trifling difference in the cost between the highest and lowest priced stock should not be sufficient inducement to the harnessmaker to jeopardize the lives of his customers by the use of inferior. Poor leather works harder.
con- work it at the same angle until the other end is reached. the creases the disin the grain will cross each other and for tinuing to m . until the end is reached where the work was begun. but. as a piece of the requisite width for one pair would be too narrow to work well lay the strip on a table. It is of lighter weight. up. and board it at the same angle as the first. much stronger in proportion to its thickness. and giving the as pulling it ing. rolling and workflat hand parts. for the workman leather to make . such parts the around a post. as follows cut a piece of leather from the side. and looks well. when cut to the proper width. commencing at the front corner on one end. By this means. leather a half roll diagonally across the strip. the grain side up. 35 A cheaper and much better plan is to procure hand-part leather that has been made expressly for the purpose. For flat hand should be equally as heavy as that used for the rounds it can be cut from the same sides as the rounds if desired. is ready workman. and with a board. When the harness-maker can not readily procure this. such as is used by curriers. the workman is compelled to resort to some method of softening it. crease the grain. he can obtain very nice grained hand parts by boarding or breaking the grain in the same manner as is done by the curriers.RUSSET LEATHER. of the full width needed for two pairs of hand parts. as it is generally too hard. grained leather is quite popular. and. etc. For : . then commence at the front corner of the other end.
In a workman It is made of the same quality of stock as the other kinds. and yet possess a is very small.36 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. least the quantity of grease of . The labor needed to produce the desired surface does even more than this. It is a soft. even grain. graining in this manner is a matter of economy. or decreases its depth in the least. the from which the leather gets its The fineness of the graining depends will acquire all the little time experience necessary for the production of a fine. and only by the exercise of the greatest care can even an ordinary job be before mentioiied. tinctive feature name. pliant leather. mellow grain that will readily take a crease and retain it. the grain being buffed by the currier to remove the gloss and give it a white. If in creasing up the work. and is one of the best kinds in use for hand parts. is quality of which difficult to that known as loop leather. as. To the harness-maker using but little of this kind of hand-part leather. Buff leather is also much used for hand parts. furried appearance. unlike the kinds not curried with oil. but is not stained. making it as pliant as can be desired. it is and one a good procure. one mark when placed in close proximity to another obliterates it. in addition to its softness and good appearance.colored leather. it will not soil the most delicate fabrics. is This. as it breaks down and softens the leather. Another light. a good piece of work can not be made. or at any kind employed It must be solid. upon the amount of labor applied.
the case is different in most marThis leather is marked with its weight kets. as the shoulders and other thin parts can be used for check and other light loops. make good tannage. produced. while in the rough. while the thick butts are of the proper weight for trace and similar heavy loops. sold by the pound. excepting in the case of weight stock. all the intermediate thicknesses being available for the various loops for other parts. If. as indeed. mellow grain. however. and a . With trimmed is however. is The lack of uniformity in thickness a matter of no importance triment. the weight being ascertained at the time of sale. BUYING LEATHER. In purchasing leather. For this reason. the to in other respects buyer is compelled depend much upon the honor of the seller than the determination of the quality. in selecting a side. which stock. instead of being a de- is the case with all other leather used by harness-makers. the grain is mellow. is equally well defined. It is claimed that a side of leather weighing eighteen pounds in the rough will lose about four pounds in the currying and trimming. solid body the tests. and after it is trimmed and curried there are no means of ascertaining the correctness of the brand.BUYING LEATHER. 37 . can be . each impression made by the creaser becomes permanently set. no matter how near it may be. No reliance however. it is a positive advantage. and the adjoining one.
These weigh. The buyer. the price charged being 82 cents per pound. with an additional charge of $1 and $1. however.50 added for leave the bellies — weight being — dressing. which is. a leading New-York manufacturer has adopted the plan of selling backs by their actual weight at the time of sale. and $1. . is at liberty to take or in the latter case the value by deducted from the bill. the leather may be stuffed with cheap oil until the finished is equal to the rough weight. four pounds.70. Therefore. placed upon this estimate for if the flesh side is not well cleaned. for Avhich the buyer pays as though in the rough stock eighteen pounds. and will no doubt come into general use when the advantages are fully understood. and to which an extra charge has been added for finishing. if properly fleshed and curried will lose four pounds by this process and three or four pounds more by cropping. leaving about eleven pounds of prime leather in the back. 48 cents a pound would be charged for eighteen pounds of leather. after da- . Recently. the actual cost of that bought by the pound. in buying a back. Backs as well as trimmed sides are sold by the rough weight. making the total cost $8. The latter is the most simple method.50 each for dressing. Thus a side of leather which weighed eighteen pounds in the rough. as a rule. less the three or four pounds deducted if the bellies are not wanted. and the currier is desirous of misleading. as near as can be ascertained.38 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. however.
but the buyer pays for the bellies as well as the backs. who offer extra inducements in the way of low prices. and the actual weight would be about fourteen pounds. The price charged per pound is. or nearly double the apparent quotation. . as the latter are sure to be made up by increased weight. and of avoiding speculators. reliable men.28.BUYING LEATHER. It will be seen by this that any false branding of the rough weight causes a marked advance in the price. about 2 cents less for the same quality. to be paid for at a cost of about 80 cents a pound. In trimmed stock. leaving eleven pounds of prime leather. however. in which case an eighteen-pound side would cost $8. and should teach the importance of buying trimmed stock of honest. making the leather cost about 59 cents a pound. a difference of about 21 cents a pound between it and the backs. the difference between the actual and the quoted price is much less. 39 ducting for the bellies.
like plain etc. All hides that are to be used for thin leather are then . as it is more frequently called. the "junior. weak liquors being used at first. first split The and is known as . ample time being given to thoroughly tan the leather before it is removed from the vats. etc. PATENT LEATHER. and gradually strengthened each day until the proper degree is reached. or. split. and winkers. it is made both of good and poor material. GLAZED. fronts. and finished to correspond. the grain being largely used for enamel leather.." and is seldom in glazed stock finished following this is one or more full splits according to the thickness of the hide.CHAPTER III. tug-ends. The finest qualit}' is made of well-assorted hides. taken from the flesh side is small. tanned with young oak bark. binding. pads. collar. though it is also finished as grain. . it is deemed almost indispensable leather. they being seldom made of other kinds. The splits are always finished smooth. gig-saddles. while for ornaments such as tabs. patent leather is now extensively used in the manufactur6 9f harness.
and is too heavy it is liable to crack. always worked over round frames. Light leather. collar. selected without regard to their adaptability to the required purpose. coated as thinly as possible with the best grade of varnish. and finishing. thus defacing the surface.PATENT LEATHER. comnjand a much higher price binding. as the hide is split much without be- ing strained in the least. skirting. etc. while on skirting. while determining the qualit)' of the leather. but the introduction of the belt-knife machine for splitting removes of this objection. whereas they should be of extra soft stock. The processes of varnishing. are foreign to the business of the harness-maker but there are points which he should understand in order to be able to judge of the quality of the leather. the coat of color and varnish being of sufficient thickness to give a pure color. The first of these is the condition of the finished surface. which should be smooth. is if the glazed coat . The severe treatment it receives while being shaped to the collar is sure to impair the surface even of the best. This is particularly the case with collar-leathers. which in too many cases are but the thinnest splits. as these are seldom bent while being worked. winker. The grades of leather known as grain winker. owing to the severe strain to which it is subjected. 41 Running the hide through the splitting-ma- chine has long been acknowledged to be detrimental to the leather. drying. and other heavy stock the varnish should be thicker than on light leathers.. such as collar and .
tanned. With the thinner quathere is some advantage in using the grain. After being otherr These exist from the. the hides themselves m . Enamel leather is always made of the grain side. therefore open to the same objections as to split The prejudice against the latter is a senseit and harness-makers pay dearly for yieldand selecting grain stock at higher rates.are split and then retanned in oak liquor for the purpose of producing a light They are also submitted to various manicolor. pared for the tanner. as thin hides are selected. unknown to any but the initiated. The prices of patent leather vary to an extent that creates surprise in the minds of less one. after which they. and its quality must be determined by its softness to the touch. however. and is stock. than that known as splits. In may be of an the first When they are limed and preinferior quality. purity of color. as the surface preserves its original appearance much better after being worked than does split lities stock for winker and skirting. for the purpose of giving a good appearance to the leather without increasing the expense. which in ^o way improves the quality. except what it may gain from not being put through the splitting-machine. they are reduced to a uniform thickness by the knife. and . very commencement. ing to buyers who are unacquaijated with the causes. and fineness of finish. place. pulations. the grain does not possess any special merit.42 THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. they may be placed strong hemlock liquors and partially .. The varnish is applied to the flesh sides.
is much as the best more difficult to work.wise prepared for the varnish. thin paper being placed next to the glazed surface. glazed and finished to look as well as prime stock. the hides are placed upon a frame. while thin stock. and is less durable when put to actual use. the greater part of which is sure to be lost. whereby an increased measurement of from five They are then to seven feet is given to each. as all the stretch is taken out of it while being manufactured. dry room. The worst feature of this excessive stretching leather. is practicable. in a few months. the poorest during the hot months of July and and smooth. The best leather is produced in cool weather. by shrinkage. The care of patent leather in stock in order to prevent loss When a matter of considerable importance. but the buyer who imagines he has saved two cents a foot by purchasing these hides pays for five or seven feet of leather. this having much to do with its durability. There is another matter that is well worthy the attention of buyers namely. and by means of powerful jack-screws stretched to their utmost extent. should be — . all thick stock should be hung up in a cool. can not be worked smooth when used over irregular shapes. and can be sold at a marked reduction in price compared with the former. being is that the utmost capacity while wet. both enamelled rolled. the season in the year when the leather is made. This cheap extended to its stock therefore costs nearly as qualities.
Harnessmanufacturers should therefore look well to this matter. but it almost sure to crack during cold weather. as cracked patent leather destroys the appearance of their work. August. The sticky latter is become is somewhat less liable to when exposed to the sun. sometimes when not in use. . and there are very few leather-manufacturers who are willing to warrant stock not made in cold weather.44 THE harness-makers' iXLirSrRATED MANt/At.
however. no matter what the extent of his business may be. is differently situated. The cutter therefore lays the founhis skill dation and upon depends much the manufacturer's success. and to secure that best suited to the requirements of each individual strap is a subject first importance to every harness-maker. Leather scraps are of no value. CUTTING HARNESS. THE of the cutting of harness leather so as to avoid waste. made for. be ever so of. and the most skilful men employed at high wages to cut up stock. he . while the use of the softest and weakest part of the leather in straps that receive the greatest amount of strain insures the it production of well ari inferior harness. These cutters are of necessity governed by the grade of harness and kind of stock used. though every piece has been paid for.CHAPTER IV. there being are no general rule that can be applied to each individual case. this is well In large factories understood. The small manufacturer. and by following rules that have been adopted by those who have had years of experience in the best shops of the country. and are guided solely by their own judgment. up.
This will give him three straight edges to work from in cutting out straps for repairing and other small jobs.46 THE HARffESS-MAKERs' ILLlTSTRArEiy MAKUAt: will not only save stock. along the belly and up the front to the top. indicates the bottom line of what is known as the back (the width of which is governed by the condition of the hide itself). in three forms. and backs these are illu-strated by Fig. and also avoiding the spoiling of a trace or rein by cutting a . The dotted line commencing at the root of the tail and passing down the back end. A harness-maker who does a srtiall business of a general nature will find it most profitable to buy weight stock of the best quality he can then crop it. The cutter receives known to the trade . cut the side in two parts at or about the line A. but produce much more his leather durable harness. the position of which is shown by the dotted line B. though in some cases the trimming consists of merely cutting off a few of the most prominent points and slightly straightening" the edges. the ends being trimmed the same as in trimmed stock. side in full . the line of separation being drawn just above the thin portion of the flank. ob. shows the general form of the hide after being trimmed. this is sold as weight stock —that is. The extreme outline shows the stock. as weight trimmed stock. running parallel with the length of the hide. The dotted line A. — viating the necessity of splitting his leather to obtain straps for the requisite thickness. I. as it is called that is. by its actual weight at the time of purchase.
Ct/TTING HARNESS. 4r 3 .
. are to be cut at one time. and . heavy straps. etc. The hide it is cutter must first ascertain the actual con- dition of the hide he proposes to cut up. such tion of as hold-backs. facilitates the quite as expeditiously. and from blemishes but if a number of harness . uniform thickness. and is in no way injurious. line is represents the straightened If the back for a few inches below this of suitable thickness for traces. The dotted edge. i. that porline it between C and D may be used for this and all the back end between D and A. to avoid as far as possible the use of the splitting-machine to reduce the straps to ting. For small straps the spokeshave works nearly if not the required thickness.. is admirably adapted to docks. breeching-straps. be cut up for short. but those having thick butts and thin shoulders should be cut up selected. and should not be used when it is possible to dispense with it. as he would be compelled to do under other circumstances. but it is positively injurious to the leather. to be used exclusively for a single harness. purpose. the finest in short straps.dS THi. back-bands. reins. etc. the sides should be and most uniform in thickness being used for traces. martingales. for express or team harness. breast-straps. for carThe shoulder forward of the line riage-harness. being thin. harness-makers' ILLt/STRATED MANX/AL. If one. in the manner shown by Fig. back of E. small strap from the back. free must be of good quality. namely. etc. and shaft girth-billets. there is This machine materially laborofthe workman. In cut- one point that should not be overlooked. E..
of the tail as Having straightened the centre cut shown by line i. the few wrinkles that are formed by bending being easily rubbed out. cut in line 2 of the same depth as line I. the side from the root of the tail is shaped like that shown. This will leave the back perfectly straight. A side for this purpose if of closely trimmed stock should weigh about sixteen pounds. firm pieces into buckle-chapes and short billets. such as bellies. but the advantage of having the fibre of the side parallel with the edges of the straps will more than repay the loss across the grain. be cut into folds and linings. etc. which should be drawn as nearly as possible on a line parallel with the centre of the back-bone. the rough brand being seventeen or eighteen. they occasioned.. as sometimes occurs. then measure off from line i the full length required for the traces and reins. the side with the different sections being shown by Fig. and the short. and cut the straight cross- . and cut the requisite straps for these parts. which will be explained in detail. unless. straighten the new line by cutting off the small piece back of line i.CtlTTING HARNESS. 49 should be cut as shown by lines X. 2. It may be necessary to waste a little stock to do this. In this case. Being cut work up smoothly on the inside. The remaining portion of the side. To cut a single harness out of a side of leather requires an entirely different process. The back should first be straightened as shown by the dotted line A. thus utilizing every part.
and centre check-pieces in the order named. nose-pieces. if not too heavy. can be cut up into layers for girths. the same lengths A answering for shaft tug-billets and back-bands. very common fault of the cutters. and section K into linings and points.. and cutting the cross-lines no deeper than absolutely necessary to release the straps. is the holding of the knife af an acute angle. neck- straps. throat-latches. 3. are two important considerations. and. and one that should be carefully guarded against. which should be straightened before cutting any other straps from the back end. the edge is once more straight. cutting in on line 5. . and the cutter should measure off from the back end section the requisite length for the turn-back or hipstraps. which if not observed will result in no little waste of leather. These being removed. forward of the cross-line 4. then measure from the back end the length required for the breeching-straps. giving a pair of each by cutting in the middle. This will leave the edge with a jag at line 4. breeching-layers. such as checks. Section E should be cut into straps that require rounding.. etc. allowing it to cut into the side of leather in order to release the end of the strap previously slit off.50 line THE HARNESS-MAKe'Rs' IttUStRX-TED MaNI/AL. etc. and cut these from B. crown-pieces. may be cut up into breast colSections H and M lar-layers. It may be well to state at this point that keeping a straight edge the full length of the side. The offset C. into check-pieces. and cutting from the under side. round throat-latches. martingale-layers.
All that part of the side forward of the flank. belly-bands. By this time all the heaviest straps are provided for and the best portion cut up. short billets. breast-collar. the back end being thick. claimed that this system of cutting can be strictly carried out in all cases. and below section K. always measuring from the back end. The thick end back of the flank. Certain defects in the side may necessitate slight changes in the section indicated for certain straps. and retaining the head and neck part that is left in as large a piece as possible. represents the thin. indicated by the dotted line.52 THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. which should not be cut up into straps. the leather gradually growing thinner as the flank is approached. can be cut up into buckle-chapes. i. but can be used Secto good advantage for linings to winkers. tion P. The section X. but by following the general order given. cutting neck-straps. and the breeching. etc. while the thin ends and other irregular-shaped pieces can be used to good advantage for linings for tabs.. . back of this. the cutter will be sure of securing just such leather as is needed for the particular straps named. and below section P. baggy flank. and will at the same time avoid all unnecessary waste. crowns in the order named. etc. It is not. is just what is required for winker-braces. but when the blemishes are removed the regular order given should be followed. providing that the straps requiring great strength are not crowded below the line A in Fig. can be worked up into folds.
it it being well curried.. the best quality of oak leather should as. and hung up until the surface moisture is dried off. PREPARING THE LEATHER FOR THE FITTER. being cut all off. however. leaving a narrow strip called the back. The reason tor this is. when they whole are handed over to the in fitter. the bellies. and ing them up. afterwards taking fitting them out claimed one at a time. allowing them to remain immersed until the grain be used. wiped. ol one of the leading manufacturers of this country is to place all the straps in a vat of water. that only the firm portion of the leather is used. the manner of complicated than when commoner grades are employed. working is less shows signs of the tallow coming to the surface. but there are few harness-makers who wet it to any considerable extent. This leather requires to be moistened with a sponge and water. It is that this treatment prepares the leather for work- up much better than when it is merely damp- . the manufacture of fine harness. who rolls the a coarse cloth.CHAPTER V. flanks. where the IN straps are to be worked up full and to artistic patterns. The practice. etc. They are then removed. from eighteen to twenty-two inches wide.
A small scrap of the leather. no matter how well it ma}' be curried. and when the workman thinks the leather is sufficiently wet. the length of time necessary varying so greatly with different kinds that it is impossible to. and that the the leather. condemn this treatment stock. When sufficiently wet. fine. the leather retaining its softness as long z s that which has onl}' been moistened. Each strap is then . give any other guides than the appearance of the grease on the surface. the straps are removed from the vat and hung up until the surface moisture has dried off.54 THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. he cuts this strap and ascertains whether or not the moisture has penetrated to the centre. if properly treated by the harness-maker. The " testing-strap" is also sometimes employed. it is in the labor necessary in fitting evident that there is something gained by pursuing this method. ened. is placed in the water with the straps. The right course to pursue with this quality is to soak the leather until it is well moistened to the centre. but experience has shown that leather thus manipulated can be worked up into the finest harness. While there is a Curriers. the finish on the grain being soft and clear and the edges smooth. of well-finished marked reduction it up. There is in the market large quantities of welltanned but poorly-curried stock. little oil and grease forced out can easily be replaced without any detriment to however. being soaked. This is far preferable to poorly-tanned leather.
however. and rub down the other side to set the grain and give it a fine appearance. it will . . and secured in the same manner as before mentioned then with a glass slicker rub the flesh side thoroughly. each strap must be placed upon a bench. Allow the straps to remain coated with tallow for twelve hours at least. and brush it well to work in all the grease possible. warm enough to run freely. veiny portions. grain side down. and laid out on a board grain side down then with brush give each strap a coat of melted tallow.PREPARING THE LEATHER FOR THE FITTER. 55 if the leather has been badly spokeshave is used to remove all the superfluous stock. is No bad results will follow if the allowed to remain a much longer time leather coated with the tallow. by which time the moisture will have dried out and the tallow have struck well into the pores . as the leather is weakened by so doing. working in all the grease possible. but not sufficiently hot to injure the leather. securing the end with an awl. grain side down. the surplus being removed by the slicker. a ly necessary. Care should be taken. and fleshed. After the leather has been in this state a sufficient length of time. the leather should be rubbed on the flesh side with a slicker. After being cleaned off". and with a sharp tool cutting off the loose scraps and thin. to avoid cutting away any more of the flesh side than is absolute- taken in hand. Tlien turn the strap over. of the leather. If the straps are to be worked up full. This is done by laying the strap on the bench.
they will find it greatly to their advantage to follow the above directions .56 THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. but the improvement in the wearing qualities and appearance is sufficient to make tion. in order to give a fine. as the leather is made more dense by the rubbing it receives. which. This recurrying is not done solely with a view of improving the appearance of the leather. after being blacked. it profitable to expend labor in this direc- The leather used for single-strap track-harness should always be rubbed on the flesh side as has been directed. smooth. causing it to become soft and flexible. the increased density given to the leather makes it possible to trim the edges smoothly and_ finish them as finely as the grain. With ordinary leather. the treatment being equally beneficial to its wearing qualities. and perfect finish. and as this latter consideration is one of great importance to all who desire the harness to appear smooth and true. The good effect is not so marked upon poorlytanned leather as it is on that which is well tanned but poorly curried. this recurrying will reduce it in thickness nearly one third without a particle of its original substance being removed. will make the flesh nearly equal to the grain side. while the grease is worked thoroughly into every fibre. Besides this. as the rubbing incident to the process of fitting up will give it a fine finish. not be necessary to rub the grain side much. though this alone would fully compensate the manufacturer for his trouble.
no more water should be used than is absolutely necessary to cause it to work up well. 57 when preparing could be made harness neater than is generally the case if the same course were followed in the treatment of the leather as recomtheir leather. but as the prices are usually such as to render the carrying out of this system unprofitable. the leather can be fitted up without extra labor. the straps being moistened into a pail of water. or by using a sponge. With this kind of stock.PREPARING THE LEATHER FOR THE FITTER. by dipping them . Common to appear much mended for fine grades.
but the experience and observation of the most enterprising men in the custom trade why there harness in use is because of the failure of so large a number in the trade to adopt the same common-sense rules which govern other mechanics. whether it be for a short or long tug harness. and if not made of a proper length at first they seriously interfere with the appearance as well as the durability of the harness. AVERY large percentage of all the harness- makers in this country look upon the idea of measuring a horse as unworthy their consideration. There are some straps which can be lengthened or shortened to accommodate them to the size and form of the horse with out detriment but the principal ones can not be so changed. MEASURING FOR HARNESS. If for a long tug.CHAPTER VI. the market tug will follow a line parallel with the center of the pad side if this position is not maintained. or loop in the end of the pad top. Prominent among the latter is the hame tug. and the pad itself will be likely to be drawn out of has convinced them that the reason are so many ill fitting . the length must be such that when the collar is well down upon the shoulder. : . an unnecessary strain is thrown upon the swivel.
MEASURING FOR HARNESS.. It naturally follows. . If the tugs are set too far back. The proper length for the breeching body. and the position of the winkers. all contribute much to the durability as well as the . 59 shape and the appearance of the harness be marred. appearance of the harness yet there are those who ridicule the whole idea of measuring. girths. etc. cheek straps. With breast collar harness the length of the body is equally as important as the length of the hame tug on the hame collar the position of the . while the point of attaching the hip strap to the turnback. With short tugs the result is quite as injurious if the tug is sufficiently long to allow the trace buckle to come in contact with the pad trace bearer on a double harness.importance. 'they depending entirely upon lengthening or shortening such straps as can be adjusted by the use of buckles. . or to the hame tug itself. therefore. or the trace is straightened. neck strap tugs has much to do with the set of the collar and the wear of the harness. and the buckle on the back band of a single harness. the front to the cheek pieces. are of equal . the collar will sag in front so as to interfere with the movement of the it will be necessary to shorten the neck such an extent that an undue strain will strap to be thrown upon it at the neck strap tug when horse. injury will be done to these straps. that the length of the horse from the collar to the girth is an im- portant consideration. winker brace.
'* to girths. high. Manufacturers who carry on an extended busi- ness and ship goods to all parts of the country can not measure every horse they have accord. etc. If a double road harness is ordered. Another rule is based upon the lengths suited to a fifteen-hand horse. but girths. harness for common use are cut with traces and other straps running lengthwise to fit horses fifteen hands high. it is to be for horses sixteen hands. while an order for a light phaeton harness would be filled by cutting from the scale of lengths adapted to horses fourteen or fourteen and a half hands high. The lengths used by these houses have been determined by close observation. it is made from lengths suitable for horses fifteen or fifteen and a half hands high. adding or subtracting four inche. A light track harness is cut to fit a horse fifteen or fifteen and a half hands high. ingly adopted a set of lengths for each class. and three inches to *^ip and . are cut for hea- vier animals.. If a coach harness is to be made. and are as nearly correct as can be expected. based upon the size of horse upon which they are to be used. is supposed and to cut to those lengths that experience has shown be the most correct for such sized animals. or over. while one for a coupe would be cut from the lengths suited to horses sixteen Regular buggy to sixteen and a half hands high. one and one half inches to breast and breeching bodies.6o THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
over the head to the root of the ear on the other side. the lap to secure the buckle to the top of the cheek piece. to the corresponding point on the other side for the neck strap to a breast collar. . measure from a point two inches below the root of the ear. ascertain the length from the corner of the mouth to one inch below the root of the ear. . Such tables are always valuable to harnessmakers who are making up stock. its length for the crown measure from the root of the ear on one side. and add five or six inches to each end for the cheek and throat latch billets for throat latch.MEASURING FOR HARNESS. In measuring for a bridle. and by a little observation may be made to answer perfectly for but custom makers who do different localities not possess these scales of lengths should measure the horses for which the harness is to be made if they hope to succeed in having it fit well. for every hand increase or decrease in the size of the horse. carrying the ends forward three inches a point parallel with the point where the . to withers. determine the position of the tugs by measuring around the breast from the points designated by the ends of the neck strap. around the throat. pass the measure over the neck just forward of the highest point of the loop about one half piece. 6l neck straps. throat enters the breast To determine the length of the breast . and also two thirds the original length : this will give a to allow the loose cheek piece long enough end to enter into the cheek . and add enough to this for .
and deduct three inches . and allow one inch for slack for hip straps. measure from a point four inches above the elbow on one side. the market tug will not occupy its proper position. The girth measure must also be taken.: 62 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. for the breeching tugs. as the proper length of this strap is of the greatest importance if it is too long or too short. draw the line around the buttock from a point just above the stifle to a corresponding position on the opposite side. to a corresponding point on the other side. collar. If the harness is to be made up with a long tug and market tug. owing to the difference in their build. and thereby detract much from the appearance of the harness. designate the exact location of the centre of the girth. and measure from the end of the hame draft eye to the point designated as the centre of the girth. and it would be >veU table of The harness-maker who has A . a well-assorted lengths of the strapping for various kinds of harness need not measure the horse to be fitted except in special cases. and deduct from this the length of the buckle back of the centre of the loop. measure from a point ten inches forward of the crupper down to the pomt occupied by the body of the breeching. around the breast just below where the throat enters the breast. set of lengths which are suited to horses in one locality may be in part unsui-ted to those of another. In measuring for the breeching. See that the collar sets well back in its place when measuring for the tug.
and can be lowed with safety. he believes they are as near perfect as any tables of this kind can be. while not claiming infallibility. and. the author has aimed to secure those which have proved correct. .MEASURING fOK HARNfiSS. They represent a variety of styles suited to the fol- wants of all classes of customers. In preparing the tables of lengths and widths in this work. in all cases to test the 6^ lengths furnished before adopting them in full.
_. inches. I Crown Cheeks Throat latch Front 23 27 30 21 12 7 5 i ^ ^ f Winker strap Split Billet . BRIDLE. Single Strap Track Harness. Tree Flaps Swell Points 3 2i|- 2^ 2f |. Length.CHAPTER No.^ 9 . f ^ i Half Kemble Jackson check Split 25 T2 I- Gag rein Center piece Billets 24 60 10 f f SADDLE. Width. inches. I. VII. Jockeys 4^ 2f .
f ^ ^ f li Dock Reins . Belly band i8 7 if Chapes Shaft girth Billets ^ 2 29 22 20 18 I | Back bands Shaft tugs Safety strap ^ i 45 32 11 Martingale. Length. round Chapes Turnback Body.. 65 Width.." 7 : 44 14 ri. body if Bottom lay Ring piece. Body Layers 38 13 2 i^ Hip strap 43 11 Tugs. BREAST-COLLAR. on breast collar J f f 83 11 i BREECHING. f -^-^ 17 Body Neck 35 2 i piece 38 7 Ends Chapes Traces Lap. inches. inches.SINGLE StRAP TRACK rfARlsTESS.. round. 72 3^ ^ i Hand parts 84 J .
Single Road Harness — One-Inch Trace. Tree Flaps Swell 2^ 21^ if 2 Jockeys 3f if . i.Nd. BRIDLE. Width. Layer and trace in one Neck piece 89 48 i f saddle. Length. inches. flat 27 12 5 1 f ^ I f 4 f ^ f J ^ 7 Winkers Front Throat latch 4^ 21 Gag reins 30 24 Center piece Billets 60 ID BREAST-COLLAR. inches. Crown layer 23 Cheek pieces Winker strap Billet Split.
inches. Breeching layer 45 45 11 Hip strap Breeching tugs. Length. 67 Width. inches. round Buckle chapes Breeching straps 7 48 Turnback 44 15 3 f f f f f f f ij Dock Reins. Crown Breast collar II 2f 3f 2f 3 3 Neck strap 39 26 16 Belly band Shaft girth Martingale 28 32 2f 3^ Breeching 36 . Points 12 Back bands Shaft tugs 20 19 T Belly band Shaft girth Billets 22 28 22 41 19 ^ f | Martingale Bottom lay f f f BREECHING. flat 72 Hand parts 84 FOLDS.SINGLE gOAD HARNESS — ONE-INCH "fRACE.
BRIDLE. Length. ^ |- made up Winkers Winker brace Billet Split. i-|- Crown piece Billets 23 6 29 28 12 Cheeks Throat latch Front. 4i 13 f 4I i I- 5i round Checks Billets 7^ 23 Center piece 9 60 I i | breast-collar. Single Harness (Breast Collar). 3. inches.No. Width. inches. Body layer at ends 44 i f Neck straps at ends 40 7 Tugs Traces f f I i 78 .
f Body layer Hip strap Breeching tugs. Width. Tree Flaps Points 3 2i|- 2f 9 3I 21 21 i I f 2^ Jockeys Back bands Shaft tugs Belly band Shaft girth Billets 22 28 f | I i 20 42 19 Martingale Bottom BREECHING. round Buckle chapes Breeching straps Turnback 46 44 11 f ^ -J 4. inches. inches.SINGLE HARNESS (bREAST COLLAr). 17^ Neck Breast collar piece 36 3 24 37 17 2| 3 Breeching body Belly band Shaft girth 2| 28 Martingale 34 2f 2I . 6g GIG SADDLE. 7 48 i 44 8 |- Body Split li I 3 Crupper dock FOLDS. Length.
3i 20 3^ . Hame Hame Traces tugs straps... 4.No. I f I I rounded 7 Check reins Billets 23 Center piece 8^ 60 HAMES. inches.' 23 6 27 28 21 12 5 Cheeks Throat latch Front f I f f I i^ Winker strap Billet Split. BRIDLE. short long- 13 ^i 17 20 80 f I i^ GIG SADDLE. ETC. inches. Width.. Length. Crown piece Split. Single Harness (Hame Collar). Tree Flaps.
Points 14 S i I 7 Back straps Shaft tugs 20 20 22 Belly band Shaft girth Billets | -J 30 22 35 19 I ^ ^ i^ Martingale Bottom lay Ring piece Split 20 16 BREECHING. 71 Width. Crown Belly band 12 17 2^ 3 3 3 Shaft girth Martingale 28 33 . Body Breeching straps 44 49 12 I i Tugs Hip strap Turnback at hip 44 44 18 f | f ^^ 3 Crupper FOLDS.SINGLE HARNESS (hAME COLLAr). Breeching 37 3^ . inches. Length. inches.
inches Crown Layer. 5. cut to pattern 23 Cheeks Front 9 30 22 13 S if i^ f I Winker straps Billets i^ Split Winkers Nose piece Ends 8J 6 f i 5J ij 30 at cheeks Throat latch Round check Billets 24 28 10 f f ^ Center check SADDLE. inches. Width. 72 f Tree Flap Swell Point 4 22 12 5 3I 4 I Jockey Back band (running) Shaft tugs 3^ ij if i^ Belly band 46 24 26 . Heavy Coupe Harness. Length. BRIDLE.J No.
made up Safes. 73 Width. 4 pounds f 10^ ij Hame tug. Body layer Hip straps Center Swell Split 52 i 48 ij 2 16 II Tugs Breeching strap 50 Turnback Body Split 60 20 9 19 I f ^ ^ if f 3J. Length. 34 3J 2 Breeching Belly band Shaft girth 46 17 3|. Hames. inches. inches. TRACES. i I Shaft girth Billets 30 23 Martingale 34 lay 21 i Bottom f HAMES. i Dock Kidney strap Ornament FOLDS. 3^ 3^ 19 . full length 2^ Loops Traces 4i 72 i J BREECHING.J HEAVY COUPE HARNESS.
6. waved 7 29 8 Gag runners straps Throat latches 26 12 8 f ^ ^ f ij Winker Spht Billets I i 4l f Winkers Fronts si 30 23 Checks Center parts Billets 60 10 f ^ HAMES AND TRACES. Double Road Harness. without Breeching. inches. BRIDLES. 4f si 80 18 i -J Top Sides Points 17 18 8 if li i i Trace bearers 16 . Width.No. Hames ^ 24 i Hame Hame straps f li tugs Safes 13 Loops Ends Traces Spread straps Link PADS. Crown Cheeks pieces 23 i Layer. inches. Length.
Housings Belly bands Turnback 24 23 2f 44 9 14 3 f f if Body . 75 Width. Body Loops layers 40 4I 43 i I Neck straps Split. Split f f 4 i|- Docks Standing martingales Chin parts Short reins. i|-^ long ends short ends 17J i4|- ^ |- Tugs.DOUBLE ROAD HARNESS. inches. WITHOUT BREECHING. Belly bands Breast collars 17 3^ 41 8 Neck straps 4 4 3^ Martingales 32 . short Tugs. rounded 64 12 55 Long reins. inches. long Billets on yokes 2^ 2f 6 11 ^ ^ i^ i Yoke straps Martingale Billets 20 12 f -f Safety straps 36 FOLDS. Length. rounded Hand parts 72 102 i^ i^ BREAST COLLARS FOR PATENT YOKE.
Width.No. incHes. Crown Cheeks Fronts. Short Tug Coach Harness. without Breeching. 7. pieces 22 if 28 f li made up 13 Throat latch 23 13 f li Winker brace Split. BRIDLES. 5I 7i 22 -^ 60 f Tops At 17 bilge 2f if Center Side pieces Trace bearers Lining Point 26 16 13 if ij if 10 1 . inches. flat 8 Billet ends 8 Gag runners f f f 5^ Winkers Cheek loops Check reins Center pieces PADS. Length.
Belly bands Martingales 16 f 16 3^ 3-^ 30 . Hames f 16 13 Hame Hame tugs ij Bottoms Loops straps 2^ 4I 28 81 f li Traces Spread straps FOLDS. inches. Belly bands Martingales 24 28 16 13 Bottoms Billets Standing martingales 60 17 Mouth Turnbacks pieces 44 9 66 18 % f I f f f f if At docks Split Hip straps Dock i f 2^ HAMES AND TRACES. Width. WITHOUT BREECHING. inches.SHORT TUG COACH HARNESS. 77 Length.
BRIDLES. made up '.No. i| 1 Points . Length. inches. Hames Hame tugs. Width. 16^ 8 i f J Safe 2^ 84 i^ Loops Traces PADS. 26 10 7. Long Tug Coach Harness. Crown pieces 23 if Layers 9 29 12 Cheeks Face pieces Ornaments Nose pieces Ends Throat latches Winkers Checks for swivel Plain f f 2 4i 14 ij 26 f f SJ |- 6^ 30 23 8 Crown piece billets Center check* 60 I f f HAMES AND TRACES. Top Center Swell i6|- ij 2f 21^ 3J 5 Housings Center Swell Pad sides * Other straps same as in No. 8. inches.
short 23I- 4^ -J long 35 Martingales 27 18 -J -f- Spread straps Hame Layers straps 28 f ^i BREECHINGS. inches. Length. Market straps Swell Market tugs 20 i li 20 i Loops Belly band. short long 17 3i 3i 20 32 Martingales Breechings 4^ 4 . inches. Belly band. S3 13 Tugs Loops Hip straps Centers i 4 27 i|- Ornaments Split 2^ 19 Turnbacks Bodies Layers 32J 19 12 8 171- i f 2 f -I Crupper Docks billets Si- Short reins 84 55 i^ Rounded Long reins 84 72 108 i^ ij Rounded Hand parts FOLDS. 79 Width.LONG TUG COACH HARNESS.
ETC.J No. square Bearing reins if 6^ 6^ 66 2a| 26 9 PADS. 17 f li i^ Round reins Running bradoons Billets I Tops Bottoms Point straps Girths Girth pieces Girth straps 21^ 8 2^ i-^ 42 15 2} 2^ i^ 1^ 16 Tug belly bands 52 BREECHINGS. ETC. 9. inches. Lengthy inches. Crown Cheeks pieces 23 2 if Chapes Billets 10^ 16 Throat latches Nose bands. Bodies 120 li Hip straps 48 i^ . middle Buckle-ends 27 12^ 13 i f f i f f i^ Winker straps Split 14 8i 13 13 Face pieces Fronts Winkers. Width. English Four-in-Hand Harness. BRIDLES.
8 Width. Breeching tugs Trace bearers Turnbacks Layers Linings 13 i^ i|i 18 45 14 1 8 Cruppers 59 22 16 li 1^ 3 Docks TRACES. Length. made up 54 42 60 18 Hame tugs Safes 20^ All other leader strapping. i Wheeler Couplings Billets 13 feet 1^ li 9 I " foot li i|- Hand parts 6 feet 22 " Leader reins i^ . ETC. inches. Traces. made up Draw leathers 78 8 19I- li i^ i| 3 Hame tugs Safes 22 ID 18 At hame end Short tugs 2 li Tug straps f if 1^ i|i|- Bearing martingales Short martingales Leader traces.1 ENGLISH FOUR-IN-HAND HARNESS. inches. narrower than wheelers REINS.
No. Width.|. Tandem Harness. fold 20 20 17 f f |- 3^ Layer 23 ^ . — Lead-Horse. made up Center check Reins 60 175 f I ^ f ^ pad and long tugs. i. lo. Top Housing Sides Points 17 If 24 17 12 3f i^ Market tug chapes Market tug billets Belly band. BRIDLE. Crown piece 23 7 Layer Cheeks Throat strap 29 26 12 |-^ Winker strap Split i^ 8 5 Winker Check for swivel Billets 5^ 28 9 13 Front. inches. inches. Leneth.
Length. Width. Bridle cut ^ of an inch heavier than that for lead-horse. 5. Turnback 44 8 12 3 | i^ Body Split Dock Hame Traces tugs 161 i^ 90 56 i^ Trace bearers GIG SADDLE AND SHORT TUGS. inches. No. inches. the lengths being the out. -Length.TANDEM HARNESS. 8^ Width. inches. LEAD-HORSE. Tree Flaps 5 23 swell 4i S|- At Points 10 i^ All other parts cut to the as same measurements those of the Coupe harness. . same through- SADDLE. inches. 4 22 10 17 13 i Tree Flaps Points 2i Trace bearers ^ i^ Hame Traces tugs 92 i^ SHAFT-HORSE.
inches. II. Length. Crown piece 24 30 22 22 13 i^ Cheeks Throat latch Front Winker brace Split f f ^ ij 8 7 16 Rounded Gag runners Split f ij Face pieces 26 10 Check reins Billets 22 10 i Center Winkers. Width inches. fold 5 . square GIG SADDLE. Medium Weight Single Express Harness. 60 5 f | Tree Skirts. 5 width to suit tree ' 22 12 18 I Points Belly band.J No. BRIDLE.
Length. Body fold 38 5 Layer Breeching straps 46 48 12 1^ li I Tugs Mip strap Split 44 20 22 2 Carrying straps f i Turnback Layer Crupper body Split 44 9 18 ij 8 15 Crupper dock 2^ . Shaft girth. fold 22 7 5 Chapes Shaft tugs Billets li if li ij i^ 20 14 Carriers for saddle 20 20 Hame tugs Hame straps Traces 20 74 i ij BREECHING. inches. 85 Widlh.MEDIUM WEIGHT SINGLE EXPRESS HARNESS. inches.
Hames ^ 11 Hame Traces tugs i^ Loops 4 72 i|^ i Hame strap. inches. Length. Crown piece 22 it | Cheeks Throat latch Front 29 25 f I 30 12 Made up Winker strap Split Billet 12^ 715 i J Nose piece Checks Center piece 13 23 60 5^ 5 I f f ^ Winkers hames and traces. Width. T2. short 17 I . long 23 . Heavy Single Express Harness.No. BRIDLE. inches.
Layer 48 9 48 i^ I Tugs Hip straps Turnback i i 46 16 J Dock Breeching straps Reins FOLDS. Sj SADDLE. inches. short 41 17 5 long Martingale 22 32 4^ 4^ 4^ 2^ Turnback 22 . Tree Flaps Jockies Points 6 22 sJ 5J 6 10 . inches.HEAVY SINGLE EXPRESS HARNESS.. 3 58 ij I Breeching Belly band. Length.. Width. long belly band short belly band 8 Martingale Billet 29 14 J BREECHING. Back straps Billets 22 li i^ i^ li ij ij i I Shaft tugs 26 14 8 Chapes.
inches. Length. incheei. ETC.No. Soft Pad. 13. T 5 Crown pieces Split 24 7 billets Cheek Cheeks Fronts fitted -J Throat latch billets f 30 24 16^ 15 |- f i|- up rounded Winker straps 9 22 II Face pieces Split i^ Throat latches Winkers Inside checks 24 5| f Si Outside checks Billets 60 26 10 f f f if li PADS. Width. Tops Ends Ring pieces Center rounded 22 26 S 1^ . BRIDLES. Long Tug Team Harness.
Traces. Chapes Layers 9 12 if ij BREECHING. Leivgth.LONG TUG TEAM HARNESS. inches. ETC. Nut pieces i8 if Skirt straps 32 i^ if Back strap Split 60 52 . inches. fitted Billets 16 18 7 4 5^ i^ Belly band folds Chapes Pole straps Breast straps. bottom top 26 28 I . 89 Width. fitted 44 up up 72 18 if if Hame tugs. Folds Layers 44 54 for lead 5 ij Chapes Layers up 6^ 11 f i i Side straps 68 Lazy straps TRACES. SOFT PAD. Collar straps 54 if 66 32 if i i Hame straps.
Length. inches. long 13 II short | f I li 1|- Winker straps Split. Crown Cheeks pieces 24 split li 5 g" 5 "S" Ends Bit straps 7^ 17 1 1|- Throat latches. inches. flat 13 8 8 S round Billet I ij i Fronts 12 Face pieces Split 22 10 7 rounded Checks rounded Center Billets 24 15 I | 8i 60 . BRIDLES. 14. Width.No. Long Tug Farm Harness.
ETC. soft pad 36 50 16 21 i X 4 Layers Billets i^^ li 5 Belly band fold Billets 14 17 ij Hame Traces tugs straps. inches.LONG TUG FARM HARNESS. Length. inches- Pad tops. long J^ i|i Hame 72 22 short 20 52 52 I Holdbacks Breast straps i^ i^ i Turnbacks Crupper bodies Docks Billets 36 17 ij 3 14 Lines Billets 9 I ^ I . PADS. TRACES. Width.
skirt 6.No. also to line billets Billets 20 16 18 18 i^ Bottoms Belly band folds 6 5 Chapes Billets 7 16 i^ ij . No. ETC. inches. 7 Hame Pad tugs 36 i^^ With cockeyes and chains Adjustable trees.long short f f -^ 22 reins Round 22 16 i rounded Center pieces 60 11 i f 4 Winker brace Winker. Widtl inches Crown Cheeks Throat Fronts pieces Split at ends 24 if 6 ^ and |30 20 12 -J latches. 15. Wagon Harness with Adjustable BRIDLES. . Length. Trees. 76 16 3^ ij Layer. wing pattern PADS.
common low top wooden haraes. WAGON HARNESS WITH ADJUSTABLE BREECHING.^ Tugs Side straps 72 I ^ i Hip straps Split 26 20 16 8 J Crupper body Split i|- Back straps. Width. 14 2^ i 42 56 50 22 Breast straps i^ i|-J Holdbacks Hame and carrying straps TRIMMINGS. folded sew in rump rings. 4 i|-inch cockeyes. TREES. " " " 20 f-inch 16 |-inch 4 i^-inch trace buckles. 4 gag swivels. 93 Length. Body folds 39 Layers 48 12 i. 6 i|-inch breeching rings. . inches. inches.' 2 pairs 2 bits. to Dock. 4 i-inch 4 1-inch 2 i|^-inch " " 12 i|-inch buckles..
BRIDLES. 20 14 I Points Pads Back bands TRACES. Adjustable Pad Double Harness. inches. Width. to be USED also as Single Harness. i Hame tugs Belly bands. Lensstli. folded Chapes 6 . inches. Crown piece Split 24 7i 16 i^^ f |- Cheek pieces Bit straps 10 f i Fronts 22 Throat straps Face pieces Split 20 23 loj 13 i |- Winker braces Split. 6 38 i Traces 78 10 19 i^ i^ 3|. i6. "^ Skirts ADJUSTABLE PADS.No. ETC. I rounded 7 Winkers Check reins Center pieces 4f 22 56 4^ ^ |.
inches. Body fold 39 45 12 3| i^ Layers Tugs. 6 f-inch 24 -f-inch " rings.^ BREECHINGS. . 4 4 i|^-inch trace buckles.ADJUSTABLE PAD DOUBLE HARNESS. 95 Width. Martingales.|-inch roller buckles —for breast and neck- straps. 4 breeching 8 f-inch rings. collar 30 16 10 3 Points ^ I i|- Pole straps Yoke straps 48 48 i. folded Billets. 2 adjustable trees. long short 10 Hip straps Back straps Reins TRIMMINGS. 14 i-inch buckles. i. Length. inches. 2 pair 26 36 78 I I ^ ^ f low top wood hames.
BRIDLES. Pennsylvania Wagon Harness. Width. Hip straps z^ i^ . i 1 Crown Cheek pieces pieces. inches. inches. Length. Butt pieces 56 58 Hip pieces 4 4 i^ 1^ 3 Cross pieces Side straps Braces 62 54 24 . long billet side 22 4 short billet side 48 36 39 18 12 i^ i^ Throat latch Nose band f i^ i|- Winker Front straps Split 9 26 5|- 1^ 5 i Winkers Check reins Bit straps 78 12 ' | BREECHING. 17.No.
2 i-|-inch buckles — breast strap. for square on rump. for breeching. 2 triangles for rump. 97 Width. high top. 2 i^inch " 16 |-inch 2 i-inch " " 4 |-inch " . 4 trace chains. 4 large rings. long side Billet 34 24 22 i^ It -J Carrying straps I Tame straps 22 | 5 Chain pipes TRIMMINGS. or D's. 66 8 8 15 3 Split Chapes. 2 2-^ Dock. Length. 30 2 pair hook hames. inches. folded Belly band.1 PENNSYLVANIA WAGON HARNESS. inches. Back band Chapes Short-top stay 46 14 8 4 3 1 Back strap . 2 bits. . 6 i-i-inch buckles.
Width. Tugs and belly 30 i^ i Center piece Belly band folds 9 20 7 5 i-|. in one piece 78 f PADS. BRIDLES. Stage Harness.^ . inches.No. inches. Length. 1 8.|- down band to billets combined . Chapes Traces Stay loops. sewed Breast straps in the trace 64 12 2 i-|- 56 i. Crown pieces Split 24 7 i^ Cheeks Throat latches 30 22 13 f f i^ Winker Front straps Split 8 22 12 i-l Made up Reins. Tops Points cut 36 i| i. ETC.
^-inch buckles. 99 Width. 14 i. or turnbacks Crupper bodies Split 56 16 8 i^ i^ Dock. with 2 bridle bits. Folds Layers ^ ^ 5 39 48 12 i^ Tugs Breeching straps I -J- 72 Back straps. 2 pairs high top Concord hames. 2 i^inch " 16 |-inch 2 i-inch " " " 20 |-inch 6 I 4 |-inch breeching rings. 2 pairs two-foot chains D ends. . " 6 i|-inch " i-inch 4 gag swivels. folds 14 2| i Hip straps Split 30 20 3 TRIMMINGS. inches.j STAGK HARNESS. inches. Holdbacks Billets 42 15 i|i|i i Collar straps 30 6 22 22 Chapes Hame straps Carrying straps BREECHINGS. Length.
Length.No. Width. long side 66 16 f I 1 rounded short side 24 16 ^ 12 rounded Side reins Billets 42 9 54 15 Martingale to buckle back Split ij Surcingle. inches. Crown Cheeks piece Split 24 7 13 2 li li Billets Throat latch Front Made up Throat latch Swivel strap 9 22 f I 24 12 22 18 Gag rein. Bitting Harness. rg. Billets web 63 16 padded on broad web Chapes 24 6 i i . BRIDLE. inches.
BITTING HARNESS. which should be 16 inches long sew on the chape for the billet. . lOI Width. 2 I martingale rings. sewed 21 in i i rump ring 42 16 8 Crupper body Split i|- Dock TRIMMINGS. and buckles buckle back the rump stay strap with a reverse buckle and . 1 16 2^ bit. measure end of the web off 24 inches from the for the center of the pad. 1 1-inch ring. 3 i-|-inch rings. inches. and turn back the ring across the center of the pad measure off from the center 22 inches on each side for the side check. " " ID i-inch 3 S |-inch f-inch In billet making up. Length. 5 ij-inch buckles. . chapes of ring. slip loops. inches. i Pad layer and billets i8 Side chapes Turnback. .
No. Body Layer. TRIMMINGS. 2^ 2^ Bridle same as stage harness. Widtk inches. pair hook hames. Length. ij-inch plain ring .No. breeching. I saddle tree. inches. 6 i-inch buckles. back chain. 20. 4 i|-inch rings. i|-inch " " bit. long Billet 60 24 18. to extend to ring 75 4 2^ i^ ij ij 64 54 14 58 14 Hip strap Tugs Kidney strap Tugs Back strap Safe-piece ij i^ 34 14 14 4 i|- Layer or buckle piece Belly band. 2^-inch ring for rump. Cart Harness. 2 loop I end pins for breeching. 8 1-inch I I I I 2^ inch buckle. I 1 2 trace chains. 2 holdback chains.
Length. in one piece PADS. 78 f Top Belly band folds 34 18 If 5 i Chapes tugs Breeching. 21. inches.fold Hame Hip 7 32 J i|- straps Split 34 24 18 i Side straps 62 52 i -g Turnback . 1 Crown pieces 24 7 Split Cheeks Throat latches 30 22 13 8 ^- f ij i^ Winker Front straps Split 22 Reins. BRIDLES. inches.1 No. Width. Mule Harness.
to include 48 8 Center lay for back strap Bi idle reins All other parts the same as No. Hame Pad tugs. 78 f TRIMMINGS. inches. 16. 2 pairs of 2 common high bits. top hames. 22.No. to sew in side loops 36 52 i^ i|- Short tugs for chains fold 20 billet linings 6 ij i Layer. of butt chains. 2 pairs 4 i-inch 4 finch 12 i|-inch buckles. common 4 breeching loops for tugs. 6 if-inch breeching rings. Length. Short Tug Butt Chain Harness. 2 i|-inch " " " 20 i-inch 16 finch 4 i^inch trace buckles. WidtK inches. .
2 ij-inch martingale-rings. front. 2 ij-inch 2 ij-inch 1 breeching-rings. 2 gag-swivels. 2 if or i^inch terrets. 2 ^-inch shaft-tug buckles. I I 1 66. 2 gag-swivels. half-cheek trotting-snafifle. 4 bolt-hook. 2 rosettes. 64. " 10 |-inch 6 |-inch roller-buckles.Trimmings for Carriage-Harness^ No. -|-inch shaft-tug buckles. Page 2 1 I. 2. 2 i-|-inch breeching-rings. No. 2 fly terret. No. martingale-rings. . bolt-hook to match. No. 9 |-inch buckles. Page 2 ij-inch terrets. 2 "l-inch rings. 4 saddle-nails.
. 4 |-inch roller-buckles.io6 THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. 2 i-inch trace-buckles. 3. 1 No. 68. 2 f-inch rings. bolt-hook to match. pair -L^inch hames. 2 f-inch rings. |-inch roller-buckles. 8 ^inch bridle-buckles. 4 saddle-nails. 2 gag-swivels. 4- Page 1 70. 3 -|-inch 5 ?. Page 2 if or i^ inch terrets. 2 |-inch rein-buckles. 7 |-inch " 5 |-inch 2 -J-inch rein-buckles. 2 I -inch shaft-tug buckles. buckles. 1 bolt-hook to match. 2 i|-inch trace-buckles. 2 I -inch roller-buckles. 2 \\ 1 or i|-inch terrets. snaffle-bit. f-inch buckles. 2 i|-inch 1 breeching-rings. half-cheek snaffle. 9 ^-inch buckles. No. 2 i|^-inch martingale-rings.
1 2 2 chain or link front. 2 I lO/ -inch shafttug buckles. I I 1 l-inch " Hanoverian or scroll bit. pair |-inch hames. Page 1 72. 4 saddle-nails. No. 5. 2 i| I 1 or i| inch terrets. bolt-hook to match. 2 i|-inch breeching-rings. i^-inch breeching rings. " f-inch 12 |-inch 2 1 gag-swivels. 6 f-inch buckles. 4 I 2 i^-inch -l-inch roller-buckles. fly-terret to match. " -^-inch buckle. fly-terret. 4 ^-inch roller-buckles. . 2 I f-inch martingale-rings. gag-runners (hooks and eyes). 3 -l-inch 5 buckles. 2 |-inch rings. 2 rosettes. 2 i|^-inch trace-buckles.TRIMMINGS FOR CARRIAGE-HARNESS. 2 rosettes. I snaffle-bit. 2 ij-inch shaft-tug buckles.
6 -|-inch roller-buckles. Hanoverian or snaffle bits.I08 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. 2 fly-terrets. Page 1 74. or post hooks to match. 760 pair -|-inch hames. i-^ 2 2 fly or if inch terrets. 4 gag-runners. 2 -|-inch 24 -|-inch 4 2 -|-inch rings. 2 hame-rings. 8 pad-screws. 4 -^-inch roller-buckles. 6. 2 fly-terrets. 4 I -inch trace-buckles. Page 1 7. match. pair Jjj-inch hames. No. 4 |-inch 2 f-inch buckles. 4 8 -|-inch I " -inch " " 2 4-inch buckles. i-| 4 2 fly-hooks to or if inch terrets. No. 4 i^-inch trace-buckles. " 4 f-inch 20 |-inch " " .
4 pad-loops. 9 AND 10. 8 |-inch roller-buckles. pair |-inch hames. i|- 4 or if inch terrets. 78. No. 30 f-inch buckles. 2 fly or post hooks. swivels. bits. 4 gag-runners.TRIMMINGS FOR CARRIAGE-HARNESS. links). 4 gag-swivels (hooks ana 2 hame-rings. with . Bradoon 4 Bradoon 2 bits. Nos. Pages 80 and 82. Page 1 8. 4 i^-inch center-bar loop trace-buckles. 2 scroll or Hanoverian 4 rosettes. finch 4 f inch rings. 4 |-inch rings. 12 pad-screws. 2 crupper-loops. 4 i-inch tug-buckles. The trimmings for these harness are the same as for the regular sets of double or single. 2 fly-terrets. 8 2 stiff scroll or Hanoverian bits. IO9 2 hame-rings. 2 crupper-loops. 8 pad-screws.
saddle-nails. the exception of the ring-rosettes for the bridles of the pole or shaft horses. 1 plain ring-bit. 4 No. i-inch buckles. 2 martingale-rings. f-inch roller-buckle.|-inch roller-buckles. 2 i|-inch trace-buckles. 2 if-inch breeching-rings. fly-terret. . Page 1 86.no THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. I 1 post or bolt hook to matcJi. 2 if-inch terrets. 2 i-^-inch shaft-tug buckles. pair -J-inch hames. 6 5 I i. 1 2 i^inch trace-buckles. 2 rosettes. 1 plain front. 14 f inch buckles. pair ^-inch hames. fly-terret. 2 -|-inch rings. Page 1 84. No. 2 gag-runners. I post or bolt hook. II. 12. 2 if -inch terrets.
2 rosettes. 4 . Ill 6 i|-inch roller-buckles. band-front. 2 gag-runners. 4 I I 1 I -inch buckles. ring-bit. saddle-nails. i-inch roller-buckle. 2 i^-inch shaft-tug buckles. 2 if-inch I breech ing-rines.TRIMMINGS FOR CARRIAGE-HARNESS. i|-inch buckles.
The journeyman who works at his bench in a careless. factory there are those who. possesses a capital which can always be invested to good advantage to himself and his employer while the lack of the necessary skill and knowledge to accomplish these results acts as In almost every a serious drawback to success. passing through life without benefit to their profession or profit to themselves. and is the principal reason why success is so seldom attained. and are content to hold secondary positions. who periorms his work well and quickly. while by his example he inculcates in the minds of the apprentices the same disregard for order and system as exhibited .CHAPTER VIII. Want of system is the great underlying fault. because of neglect on their own part. or on that of their instructors. THE man . if they had received proper instruction when learning their trade. hap-hazard manner can not perform his part well. lack confidence in themselves when brought in contact with others. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING UP A BREAST COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS. and is almost certain to interfere with the labor of those near him. . but who. would have made first-class mechanics.
MAKING UP A BREAST COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS. and which if studied by the apprentice. then a loop. or the journeyman who has been deprived of opportunities to learn his business in detail. There is on the part of mechanics a general disinclination to listen to advice based upon theory. The instructions given for making up a single harness will serve as a general guide which may be followed in almost every case. it is believed that there is much that will be found is down can be instructive and useful even to the most experienced journeyman. the workman must so fit up the various parts that the stitcher can perform class of work at a time it will not do to call upon him to stitch a round. and from a knowledge of this fact the author has prepared the following practical in- making in its various parts. While it structions in harness not to be expected that the rules here laid followed in every particular. as they point out the routine to be followed and the manner of handling the stock.'S all by himself. To facilitate the execution of the labor and secure good results. thus working a permanent injury tc with whom he comes in contact. followed by folds and other parts. rounds should be prepared at one time. believing the end sought could better be accomplished in this way than in any other. will serve to advance them far more rapidly towards a mastery of their trade than if they depended solely upon the ideas and practices acquired at the work-bench. As far as possible the one . II. the .
and other plain straps at another.ri4 THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. In the following single in- structions for fitting rotation is up a harness. then with a sharp spokeshave remove the flesh quite closely from the crown first bench. while at the same time the fitter is not compelled to wait for any thing. The fleshing is not necessary on fine stock. shaft tugs. but in such a manner that each particvilar class of work can be done without intei^fering with another. but piece. . the act is to wet all oughly in blood-warm Avater. Slick them out and lay them aside to dry. check rein billets. the such as to cause but little annoyance to the stitcher. The plan here detailed is that followed in a factory where the leather is cut out and given to the fitter. belly band billets. centerand cheeks slick them out. then the folds. piece. apply a thick coat of clean tallow. such as the winker brace. as such exposure will turn the stock dark and cause the tallow to spew. and all other parts \v'here there is any considerable work of a kind. loops. gag runners. . and crupper dock. each by themselves. breeching. turnback. center of breast collar. then skive down all the straps or parts thereof that are to be made up into rounds. and the stitching done by men who do nothing else. The leather being on the workthe stock thorbut care must be taken to expose it to moisture long enough to draw the oil to the surface. hip. and lay them aside to dry where they will not be exposed to the sun or to the heat from a stove. not perhaps in the order named. laps.
Then skive down the tops and bottoms of the breeching paste than straps. the trace fillings or raise to the required thickness. but do not dr)' them in the sun or near the fire. .MAKING Up a breast COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS. as such heat will . reverse the straps so that the butts will run up on the outside and down on the inside. and take down the edges of the bottoms to form the raise for the tops cut them off three feet eight inches long. and then rub the trace well with a rag: this will give the grain a fine. then paste on the bottom. round the ends. and when they are sufficiently dry so that the paste will not move they are ready to sink. moisten the top of the trace with a damp sponge and rub it down with a bone. of the hip straps. crease. raise the latter. rub it down with a bone. take the the bottom to form the raise on the top. and paste down for a holes in the bottom for the buckles edges down on distance of four feet . 115 it is requisite it should be done at this Next skive the breeching. slick them out. and punch . belly band. skive the tops and bottoms them out. and slick them out. and take the edges down thin with a wide edge tool. paste on the tops. and rub them with a bone and rag lay them aside. breast collar. wet it in the same manner as directed for the top. soft finish that can not be secured in any other way. slick them out and lay them aside to dry then skive down where time. block. and neck piece layers. Next proceed to skive down the top and bottom. . slick . after which raise the top and paste in the filling (avoid using more is absolutely necessary).
Next fit the rounds. paste the billet down. and fill them if they require it. crease the edges with a fine crease. and crease it when dry. prick off twelve inches. (which are seven and three quarter inches long). . . and allow the end of the lining to enter the round one inch have the latter stitched. Next fit up the shaft tug eight inches for a seven-eighth inch tug the straps being cut one and one eighth inches wide. The winker brace is the next strap to be preThe billet is four and one half inches pared. harden the stock and cause the paste -to dry unevenly. and channel with a small round knife from the edge. long raise and crease it. Now fit the dock. channel the inside so that the stitches will be buried out of sight.Il6 THE HARNESS-MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. mark off and cut it out. The gag runners for a half-inch bridle require to be channeled four inches. line the billet. take the edges down quite thin and bend the two together. Take off one eighth of an inch on each edge of the portion to be fitted up. hammer up the rounds — — . Take the edge off the full length of the part to be rounded. Next prepare the breeching tugs. raise and fill in the remaining portion so as to take up the quarter inch that was trimmed off the outside. and the throat latch sixteen inches hammer the straps down. and lay them aside to dry. commencing with those for the gag runners and following with those for the throat latch and breast collar. the center-piece for a breast collar four and one half inches. The round .
take a light edge off the flesh side. then heat the heavy sinker and finish the sinking. the ends of the dock billets channel seven inches raise the laps. Slick the tallow off the crown and center pieces. rub them with a bone until they are smooth. Mark off three quarters of an inch from the end to round in. round the points of the billets. bellyband and check rein billets. and. then five inches for laps. Follow these by the martingale. Then fit up the check reins. and have them back. with a sharp tickler. then mark off and for the rounds cut out the wave. II7 for the front one should be channeled three and . after having marked off the wave or other pattern. Next fit up the turntwo inches for the laps on . channel seven inches. and crease the layers. off mark . and extend rounds fit the lining. mark off the wave the full length. so as to form the filling for the have the latter stitched. the back one four inches black the part which passes around the rings. Go over all lined straps and turnback. skive down the edges. but do not disturb the grain dampen the edges with a sponge and water. when dry. allowing to down . round them up.MAKINQ UP A BREAST COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS. raise. black. three quarter inches. First stitched. and tack in the rings. . cheeks. crease. and spokeshave the edges to clean them thoroughly. and rub them with . and sink the crease for the stitching. hammer it up the rounds. and paste up the turnback when dry. and black the laps. . prick in the center. hammer up and fill the rounds. cut. and have them stitched then prick off the laps . mark out.
but is done. and rub in a little tallow where scratched. and taper each way gum . and have them stitched before fitting up the Then mark off" and cut out the patent laps. Proceed in like manner to fit up and finish the centercheck. frogs. . composed of one third part beeswax and two third parts pure beef tallow rub them with a bone and then with a rag. then four and one half inches for laps at rings. crease and apply a little tragacanth (prepared by dissolving the gum in water and adding good black ink to give it color and preserve it). Scratch the lines for stitching. etc. leave the leather winkers. crease the edges with a hot iron. as the water will cause it to lose its fine gloss stitch up the joining seam. so prepared . that the flesh side will be kept clean. cheek billets. and three quarters of an inch to round in cut the laps at the ring down to full one half inch in the center. after which prepare the stock First measure off for the round check reins. leaving about three quarters of an inch on the top edge near the corner for the winker strap apply a little paste to the inside of the winker plate. then rub with a bone. three inches for laps at billet ends. irS THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. full substance where the leather turns round the rings.. belly band billets. be careful to avoid wetting the patent leather. shove it in between the linthe stitching . and go over with a heavy sinker. hammer up and fill the vounds. next fourteen inches for rounds. which will tend to improve the appearance after Paste up the winkers. and crown-piece billets. tallow. . black over.
allowing the leather After being to become dry before blacking. blacked. and tack them on the layers. cut them out and take down the edges with a wide edge-tool. breast collar. Wet the docks. bell}' bands. and crown piece. black them. and when nearly dry double crease them prick off when dry. rub on a little tallow. sew up. wet all the folds. Wet them and trim off the fillings. hammer do-wn the seams over a wire. pull them through the rounder again. and tack down on a board to dry. and rub them down with a wooden rounder and a little gum. rub off with a rag. put in the filling. wet and raise them on the raise block.MAKING UP A BREAST COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS. stuff . neck piece. paste to the inside where . have them stitched and afterwards trim them off. tack the winker in its place between the cheek-straps. trim off with a knife and spokeshave the edges dampen them with a sponge and rub with a bone. black the edges and prick off Cut out and raise the safes for the breast collars and bell)' bands. and rub down on the outside with a gig or " jakee. crease the edges. then spokeshave them to remove the ridges. hammer them down. hammer down and pull them through the rounder. . II9 ing and the patent leather. paste them on the folds. When thoroughly dry. clean off with a spokeshave if necessary. . Finishing up the rounds is the next thing in order. Next mark out by the patterns the laj^ers for the breeching. and then go over them with a sinker when dry. crease with a double creaser." then apply a little it goes between the cheek straps.
slick down the stitching from the back side. hammer the edges down with a "snob" or shoemaker's hammer. and trim with a straight knife ivhere it is necessary . and square them with a spokeshave then with a heavy edge tool take the edge off the top and bottom. and lay it the edge aside to dry. When the dock becomes dry. . spokeshave them. and rub down with a wooden creaser to fit the seam bend the dock to the required shape. Next punch the breeching. . dampen the edges with a . and turnbacks. wet them. Then trim and finish the shaft tugs. and polish the insides with a burnisher. with flaxseed. -Iry. with a round knife. trim and finish them up. hip straps. and rub . . black it. I20 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUA"L. punch and then wet them. and rub the tops with a rag crease the edges over with a hot iron creaser trim the projecting edges of the turnback lining .. polish it with a hot burnisher and tack it on the turnback have the laps stitched. working it down with a wire. trim with an edge tool. black the edges. then take off a heavy edge tvith a spokeshave. smooth with a bone when and rub on a little tallow. slick them on the back. trim the ends and around the dart holes with a straight knife. and finish with a bone and a little gum. put in the Trim the traces. black them after which rub with a bone and a rag. winker brace and stitch it. . Trim and finish the cheeks. rub on the taltrace) noist sponge. dampen the edges and rub them down with an awl handle (one that will fit the when dry.
Uniformity can be obtained only by the use of good patterns. low. turnbacks. then. and offers a perfectly accurate guide for a workman. then slick them down. stiff patent leather. when the paste is dry. belly bands. crease the edges of the layers with a hot creaser. and if cut at the same time to the required width it will obviate the necessity of moving them while marking off on the leather. This completes the harness in detail. wet the tops a little and rub them down with a rag. All patterns for breechings. neck pieces. cut the leather to the shape of the paper patterns. martingales. and recrease the folds. . The pattern for the trace wave should be cut one half the length of the trace. whether working by himself or in a factory. cut them out of paper and paste them on thin. and it is to the interest of every harness maker that they be kept in good condition. breast collars. 12 1 then rub off with a rag and afterwards with the awl handle and a little gum. To do this. and crown pieces should be cut to the full length. Next finish the folds by wetting the backs with a moist sponge. and again rub with the awl handle .MAKING UP A BREAST COLLAR SINGLE HARNESS.
and so popular have they become that there are few sections of the country where they are not used to a greater ority of this ever. soon or less extent. THE um single strap track harness owes its origin medi- to the demand for a light. priced article for use on the trotting course. and now few harness made up in other ways are used on the trotting tracks. while very many of this style can be seen upon trotters on the roads and pleasure drives.CHAPTER IX. This result can be attained only by . Originally the collar and traces only were made of single straps. the exercise of tention is more than ordinary skill and at- required to perfect them. Notwithstanding their being made up of single thickness of leather and in the plainest manner. close-fitting. the breeching and other parts being made in the usual manner. MAKING SINGLE STRAP TRACK HARNESS. The superi- method of making the collar. and yet must of necessity possess great strength. howbecame so apparent that the breechings and all other portions were made to correspond. as in their make-up they represent the minimum amount of weight.
those weighing from ten When the to twelve pounds being the best. well tanned stock. When extra fine curried leather can not be procured. owing to the fact that much of the strongest portion of the leather is necessarily wasted in reducing all the straps to a uniform thickness. Young steer-hides weighing about sixteen pounds to the side are the best they not only : give better satisfaction when made up.MAKING SINGLE STRAP TRACK HARNESS. and should of itself cause the use of light leather. the strapping when made up sets closer to the horse. that lighter sides are much more suitable. as strength is the great end to be sought after. and the edges skived off from the underside. owing to the small amount But even with these sides only the backs should be used. the in pro- leather being more pliant and stronger portion to its weight. using leather of the best quality. ter qualification is of the greatest importance. but they are more economical. single strap harness were first manufactured the breast collar and breeching bodies were cut from regular weight stock. and the edges do not This latroll after being in use for a short time. Having selected a side possessing the requisite qualifications. and bridle. breeching. will answer for all but the . cut from the strongest portion the traces and all other straps except those for the breast collar. 123 Sides of un- even substance can not be employed to good advantage. treated as has been directed on page 55. These can be cut from lighter sides. but experience has shown of waste incurred.
The most important parts of this harness are shown by the sectional drawings on page 125. The . thus doing away with the In the finer grades the traces and buckles. finish. the neck strap being stitched to the ring. and is provided with a three eighth inch loop above the buckle. .124 THE HARNESS-MAKERS finest ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. the tug is often dispensed with. is The lay latest freak mark off in the full same man- ner as though the layers were length. possess the requisite grades. and to up the ornaments in imitation of layers. ties are in some in instances The common qualimade up without the imitation stitch creasing. A. however. The neck strap tug is quite short. The trace. cut as shown or to some other ornamental patThe ring to which the neck strap tug is tern. while adding to the possibility of injury to the horse from chafing. I represents a section of the breast-collar. while others to wheel is used for the purpose of ornamenting. as the slightest roughness would detract from the appearance of the harness. is of single thickness the lap on the body is eleven inches long. . the flesh side should be well cleaned off" and worked down with a slicker. as it will strength. and in many cases can be given a fine Let the leather be what it may. and a seven eighth inch loop below. attached is placed five inches from the end of the bod}^ the trace is stitched on with from ten to fourteen stitches to the inch according to the grade of the harness. bodies are neatly creased. When made up to measure. with trace attached.
MAKING SINGLE STRAP TRACK HARNESS. 1 25 o o o B czm ' rv 31=3 'JM^ VI Z) .
but a crease is run around it near the edge. and however. The tugs or braces.126 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. A section of the breeching is shown by II. A section of the outside belly band. The layer. or shaft is girth. the end is cut straight a distance of about six inches. though in cheap grades this may be omitted. above section five inches long. the most popular. A III. half section of the neck strap is shown by is This is cut of plain leather. D. plain strap the neatest. are most commonly rounded. together with the breeching tug and buckle chape. if of single thickness . but a wider at the centre than at the top of the wave. The billet. to the shown by IV. is twelve inches long when made up. One end of The buckle . is probreeching ring. The end at the breeching ring is skived off so that the ring lap will be smooth and true. is. so that when the former is wrapped around is the shaft. little which there a waved the remaining portion being straight. A. the grain side will be out. There is no stitching to be done on this strap. the ring for securing the back tug is placed about eight inches from the The buckle chape. B. A. C. vided with a loop over as well as below the buckle. the short belly band shown by V. looks is more easih'^ kept clean. the buckle being laid under between the billet and the body. is stitched body with the flesh side out. as they would neither be sufficiently strong nor keep their shape . but plain flat straps are also used these are doubled and stitched.
A. and blacked and finished on the flesh sides. This harness is represented by Plate i. the trace being cut the full length of the side. cut in one piece and placed over the saddle. the former. are cut sufficiently large to allow the rein ferrets to pass through them. as well as the edges abovit The of the dart-holes. with the ends buckled into the shaft tug buckles or into extra shaft-tugs. 1 27 chape is stitched on far enough below end to allow the latter to act as a safe. The safety-strap.MAKING SINGLE STRAP TRACK HARNESS. about two inches apart. The holes. All the straps on the harness require to be neatly rounded on the edges. engraved from a photograph of the celebrated trotting-mare Goldsmith Maid. whiffletree ends of the traces are lined for one foot. In some cases the safety-strap is made up of a single thickness of leather throughout. It is in fact an extra backband. or three or four inches more than the space occupied by the dart-holes. The bridle used is generally a half-inch flat strap with small square winkers and a full or half Kemble Jackson check. The lengths and widths for cutting are given in table No. are stitched. is shown by VI. . and the lined section. Three dart holes are cut in. a most important feature of a harness of this kind. i. being the most convenient form of attachment. however. This is generally done by turning back the extra stock. but in others a lining about twelve inches long is stitched on to strengthen the strap at the terretholes.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING TEAM HARNESS. being that in the one skill in decorating as well as in finishing are the primary points to be considered. however. and cut the side in two . and measuring off a strip from i8 to 20 inches wide. with no more expense. give it a much finer finish. be governed by the directions laid down in Chapter I. Having chosen a side suitable for the weight of harness to be made.CHAPTER X. careful mechanic will not only make the team harness better than the careless one. The idea is by far too prevalent that it requires but little skill to make a farm harness. good. cheap workmen are employed who could not make up carriage harness of any kind. proceed to cut out the various straps by first straightening the back. strength. draw a line with a straight edge. making up team-harness INopportunity for a workmanthere as good an to display genius is in designing and skill in execution as there is in making the most elaborate coach or fine. but he will. and fit are first to be secured. thus A producing a more salable and durable article. and unskilled. In selecting stock. The difference. while in the other adaptability. after which attention may be turned to finishing and trimming. light carriage harness.
slip on a ring for the collarstrap. if the leather is even and of suitable thickness. . The traces should be etc. and of the same width as the trace the laps should not be less than 3 inches long. the folds. Use wrought-iron cockeyes for the traces. from the belly part. The breast and pole straps should be cut next after the traces. to see that there are too much care can not be taken in this respect. as a blemish. . Cut the collar strap 34 inches long and I inch wide. Before cutting out the straps examine the grain as well as the flesh side carefully. the belly and flanks which softer and more uneven.DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING TEAM HARNESS.. no matter how slight. pieces that . Use firm which . If the harness to be cut is a heavy one select a large spread side no cuts or imperfect spots . cut the traces and all other straps which receive the strain. from the back. chapes. After the buckle is sewed on. cut 76 inches long and if inches wide. the former 66 inches long and i| inches wide. will weigh from twenty to twenty-two pounds. I2g the back will contain the heaviest and is firmest part of the leather. filling will not be necessary. even leather of equal strength with that used in the traces they should be 18 inches long after being fitted up. and in addition to the stitching secure each buckle and ring chape with copper rivets these relieve the stitching from much of the strain that would otherwise be put upon it. Cut the hame tugs from heavy. . the latter 54 inches long and if inches wide. will show after the leather is wet up and while being worked.
. as it has to adjust itself to the shape of the top ol the collar pad. Cut the bottom hame and I strap of good.inches. even. better than the plain leather. and place a martingale ring under the round for a tie strap ring then stitch For the nut a ring on each end of the top. firm leather. patent leather housing. and trim the edges a slight bevel. 28 inches long and inch wide. and shaved down to If the harness-maker will treat directed in regard to rein leather.^ inches wide. leather for the loops. 26 inches long . firm stock. and will not so readCut the fold fort}^ily show checks from use. use a back-strap loop. . I inch wide the top strap. he the folds as can produce a broken grain which will look much an even thickness. of strong but more pliable stock. narrow the ends to i|. pieces cut straps 18 inches long and if inches of ways. . The breeching folds should be cut from the smoothest part of the flank. Cut the top of good. of heavy. and moderately heavy stock 22 inches long and if inches wide. channel on the back to al low the stitches to sink below the surface. Pads for these harness are made up in a variety pad being the most desirable. tapering up 3^ inches cut the ring piece 26 inches long by i. . t^O THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. At the ends of the round ring piece punch a hole for the pad-screw 3| inches from that point punch another for the To make a showy pad. the old style soft . wide. and round up 5 inches in the center fit the ring piece to the pad top with the round well raised up.
Cut the back strap five secure a durable job. If the leather is not heavy. the latter to its place. to permit its being stuffed with hair. Cut the side straps from the center of the side. These should be six feet long and one inch wide. If a pad-safe is used under the rump ring. and leave the swell end open. Use one and three quarter rings for the breeching and one inch ring for the center lead up. use a six and one half inch chape of sufficient width for the buckle cut the layer eleven inches long and seven eighths of an inch wide. with a hole under the buckle for the hip strap points to pass through. For lead-ups for the breeching. when read}^ for fitting up.. leaving six inches for the turnback fit up with two loops. Stitch the hip straps to the rump rings before fitting up the bucKlepiece. feet long and one and a quarter inches wide split it fifty two inches. quired width. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING TEAM HARNESS. cases cut folds wider than the actual measure- ments. as the leather will narrow down in places while being worked the)" can be cut to the re. wrap around the ring. . leaving a short part uncut . . as it is necessary that they be of even thickness. stitch it on with the edges even. I3I In all four inches long and five inches wide. and use a snap and a slide loop to hold to . use a wear leather where the back strap is attached to the hame rings. cut it half an inch wider than the rump strap. and This will also apply warm tallow to the fillings. Cut canvas of the requisite width and fill in the folds coat the leather on the flesh side with tallow.
. and All straps on the split it ten and one half inches. rounded nine inches cut the face piece twenty-one inches long. The bridles. six by four and one half inches. contracting the ends to the width of the buckle chapes stitch through the center with one row. Cut the inside checks sixty-one inches and outside checks twenty-six inches long. The cheeks should be seven eighths of an inch and throat latch three quarters of an inch wide. tant consideration . horses' ears. as the horses The fronts they are used upon are heavier. and the workman who slights them makes a great mistake. Cut the former thirty inches long set the buckle above the winker. winker. with . part of a harness of this kind. long to allow the crownshould be sufficiently pieces to lay one inch back of the root of the the crownthe bridle. front will A short draw under no circumstances should it be less than twelve inches between the billet splits. five and one half inches wide and eighteen inches long lap the edges in the center. are a very important . Make the belly bands of heavy folds. .132 THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. . by three quarters of an inch wide make up the outside Use a plain leather with a ring for take-up. though plain. . bridle other than the face and winker should be flat. pieces forward and spoil the set of Fifteen to sixteen inches should be the length The length of the crown is another imporused. They need to be larger than other kinds. the whole length being twenty -four inches. The winker braces should be cut fifteen inches long.
about twenty-four feet long and one . and in neglecting to procure those suited to the strain to be borne. The mountings. prices have been very much reduced. A weak buckle. should be strong and of good shape. them closely. or hame. operates just as injuriously to the harness-maker as though the leather used the was poor. provided with extra rings for split back strap and loose loops at the bottom. therefore. to examine ed. inferior in quality and workmanship The test. It is ne- cessary. must be strong. Cut the lines from the best part of a side weighing about sixteen pounds see that there are no cuts on the grain or flesh side. There are a variety of patent trace buckles in the market. . owing to strong competition. so that manufacturers have been tempted to make vere fect they will not sustain the them much to lighter than the}'' should be.DIRECT'IONS FOR MAKING TEAM HARNESS. twelve inches long finish off the ends with a billet in such a manner that a snap can bs attached if desired. ring. inch wide. inside or cross lines must be six long billets. and. These wear bet- and are less liable to be damaged than the square winkers. which are of wood. selves and injure their reputation. and buy the strongest and those most easily adjustThe hames. Make them up flat. trace buckles are subjected to a se- and unless they are strong and perheavy strain put upon them. 133 •^ound corners ter and an oval end. though of the plainest kind. The small buckles should be strong and . harnessmakers often entail pecuniary loss upon them- The feet six inches .
Traces and tugs should have six or seven stitches all other straps eight or ten to the inch. as it is much stronger than black it can be colored easily when blacking up for finishing. First skive down all the folds. that is. But of all the buckles made. there is none better than the large barrel rollerbuckle for a draft harness this possesses great strength. and accords best with heavy harness. and skive down and shape ends fold them and hammer them down fill them with canvas. which is used more than any other. Before doing any thing toward fitting up. felt. i^^4 THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. see ihat every strap is cut and laid upon the workbench. is the poorest article in the market. and does not cut the strap in the least. skive down the ends. The common wire horseshoe buckle. and sew them up then shape up the chapes. wet them and slick them out. of a good pattern is — strap : . punch . a full description of which is given in the chapter on harness mountings. The following practical working guide will be understood by the woikman. The stitching throughout should be done with white thre. or leather. can be followed in a general way in making up all kinds of draft harness. Coarse stitching is the strongest. . cut them to the required lengths. The " Sensible" is a good buckle. though ostensibly for a team harness. so shaped that the not bent too much in passing through. . and there arc others which answer quite as well.id. The above instructions. . and the edges are not borne too heavily upon. is easily loosened..
allow it to dry a little. using a spokeshave instead of glass to true them black them. then slick it out. Fit up the winker brace. and crease them. If doubled until after the leather is dry. If folded traces are center on the flesh side. wet it thoroughly. billets. and as soon as the is dry they can be stitched. Before stitching the folds. and allow it to dry before being stitched in. all After the straps are dry and stitched. and bend it like the letter B tack it down. and shove them in rub down with a round end slicker. three inches. turn four inches .DIRECTIONS FOR MAKiNG TEAM ITARNESS. point up the straps. and lay them one side to dry. use loops one eighth inch narrower than the tugs. Make all the laps on the bridle two inches long lap . . and black and crease the edges leather . tallow and rub with a rag. tack on the chapes and layers. and crease while damp. trim the edges. mark a line in the and stitched traces are used. will be Clean up the loops. and tack them on a board to dry. and the harness finish. t^S the buckle-holes. This will prevent the leather cracking when being bent over. they will finish better when dry but the blacking must not be applied . and with a gouge take out about one half the thickness of the stock. Crease and stitch the winkers. put some paste on the plates. paste up. Fit up the breeching tugs. take off the edges where it is necessary. and then apply a little . used. tack. . If the edges are rubbed down at the same time. ready to receive the final . wet all the stock.
. made up martingale fashicjn. . teen to the inch. a general description is all that is necessary. and the ornaments are alike on both sides the cheeks. HEAVY ORNAMENTAL TRUCK HARNESS. and reins are cut three quarters of an inch wide the winker braces are generally rounded the face pieces are made with ornamental pendants. which extend length of the safes. The hip straps for each breeching are cut in one . . lined and stitched with four rows. padded the layers. Among the many purpose of advertising a special business . The bridles are made up full coach style. . throat latches. and are lined and stitched throughout. . or a single set to cost $1200. The wheel harness have no pads. The entire bridle is fitted up with as much care as though designed for a coach harness. to illustrate the business of the owner. the winkers square. according to the taste of the party ordering them. the crupper or back straps extending forward to the top hand straps the crupper bodies are made with wide $2000. fourteen to sixscroll safes. devices resorted to for the is the use of display teams. are cut to a suitable the entire ornamental pattern. . The metallic ornaments are of an appropriate design. with slightly-rounded corners swivel gag runners are used.136 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. the harness for which is made in the most expensive manner and it is no uncommon occurrence for a four-horse set to cost As all these harness are made up in special styles.
Bearing straps are attached to the forward ends. which the split . the safe end being four and one half. ten to the inch. safes. . the layers and hip the tugs with loops before and after the buckles on each tug is an ivory ring in place of the ordinary breeching rings: they are put up the same as collar buckles. and are provided with heavy straps at the pole ends. having loops for the tugs and trace bearer frogs. traces. . appropriate pattern. and collars are . two and three quarter inches wide the layer straight and stitched with four rows. straps are stitched fourteen to the inch have full . The breeching straps act as pole straps as well. ends being one inch wide between the ends there are ornamental pendants. IJ7 having a swell two and a half inches wic'e. The breeching bodies are of solid leather.. the center of the frog being provided with a metallic ornament the hip straps are secured to the crupper body by metallic screws. The lead harness. the other portion two inches wide. DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING TEAM HARNESS. as they extend from the breeching to the neck yoke. fitted up quite and stitched with four rows. The traces and safes are cut in one piece. and attached to the breeching martingale fashion. bridles. . the latter being of som? neat. and are secured to the harness by swivel snap hooks. piece. are cut out of the full. same strap. and attached to the harness by a heavy loop and three plated-head rivets they have three straight rows of stitches.
made up the same as those for the pole team. cut in one piece. excepting that they are provided with billets for the docks the latter are extra large. and in addition to being stitched to the pad by four rows they are each fastened by two pad-screws. buffed leather. ness. man«ner as those of the pole harness." The round reins are of russet. The trace bearers are made heavy and strong. but no breeching. . to which are fastened ivory rings rings are also attached to the top in the center of each pad through which the turnback passes to the hame The cruppers are made up in the same straps. and the tops stitched in the same manner as the tops of coach pads. lined with thin harness leather. and the hand parts of heavy The collars are heavy. The mountings are generally silver-plated. the bearing part lined and padded. all the buckles being the " sunk bar. however. .138 THE harness-makers' illustrated manual. The loin straps are made up in the usual coach style. The former are of plain leather. having piped throats. with swell ends and hip ornaments and trace bearers the same as those on the pole har. with swelled sides doubled throughout and made very firm. except that they are lighter they have. . pads.
there may be rough spots on the . There are own on that line of who will not purchase readyand they would not think the manual complete without some instruction upon this vei-y important branch of the harness busithose. . and any general information manufacture was of great value. unscrew the seat and remove it from the frame varnish it with shellac varnish iron. and the wood in the cantle may need to be reduced in thickness.. To such the following plain details may prove of great value. . The tree selected is the well known Tompkins. or in connection with winkers. FORMERLY every harness maker made up his gig saddles. ness. After having thoroughly cleaned the tree.CHAPTER MAKING XI. etc. GIG. it being used more generally than any other. The covering of the seat is the first part to be performed. for no matter how well it may fit up the tree have been made. To do this and make a perfect job. however. made saddles. but of late years a large percentage made are by parties who carry on the business of saddle making exclusively. fronts.SADDLES. and but few harness-makers can afford to make up the lower grades of saddles.
When it is dry. to prevent its rusting. Pull each way and cut off the surplus leather. as follows Cut a piece of patent collar leather. better still. then sew the parts underneath the seat with a cross stitch. .. draw on a piece of sheepskin. and prepare it To do this. dampen the part over the cantle edge.) place it in position. 140 THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and clip the edges to admit of its being drawn down. . clipping it where needed. . . proceed to : prepare and draw on the seat leather. and cut apart from the hole to the bottom secure it in position by a few tacks. draw the tacks from the cantle. and punch holes for the crupper loop. and with a pair of plyers set up the leather drawn over the cantle. but do not wet the varnish and avoid using too much water stretch it to conform somewhat to the desired shape. put a tack on each side of the cantle. use a single thread for the binding. becomes dr)'. Cut a piece of patent collar leather for the back piece of the cantle. . of the same shape as the seat leather fit it nicely. and screw the seat to the frame in order to secure the seat leather firmly in its place use a washer temporarily until the seat is screwed on to remain then file off the projectWhen the seat leather ing portion cf the screw. of the size required for the seat to be covered. after which pull up the cantle part and tack it all around to the wood. or. put on the back pieces. cut off some of the surplus leather. Cut a piece of leather of about the size and substance of the middle leather (this is to be removed when the jockeys are put on. dampen it with warm water.
toward the center for the terrctnuts. skin one side to a thin edge. . and trim off sible the binding on the back part. cut a strip of enameled leather. paste the two upper edges together. with the holes must be skived ends. and with a very sharp edge tool trim thr back part. which should punched in them . Regulate it with a slicker (which should be about one inch wide to work well). and it will be ready for the binding. cut two pieces of hard stock. which can b3 ascertained by stretching it over the cantle edge. and tack one in each of the depressions. leaving just enough to form a bindingedge. tack one end properly and carefully adjust it in its place until the circle is completed and the other end secured in the same way. after which allow it to dry. carefully in such a I4I manner not show through the that the stitches will binding. and stitch as neatly as poswhen stitched. . To bind. trim off the rough edges from the middle leather. rub it down and crease it for stitching then draw it over the cantle. . and hammer to make them firm and smooth.MAKING GIG SADDLES. To prepare the frame f )r the seat and jockeys. black the trimmed edge. and with a slicker turn down the edge one quarter of an inch. regulate. about six inches long and of the same width as the depressions in the frame. about seven eighths or one inch v/ide (cutting parallel with the grain to prevent the varnish from cracking) and of the proper length. slick. skive down one end of each piece. and it will be ready for the jockeys. cut off the surplu? leather. When dry. paste.
and rub smooth. When they are read}'. the jockeys. Cover it with plain or enameled leather. and rub smooth. tack the front and rear. and it is ready for the the flaps. The crupper loop should be covered seat before the and frame are put together. take edge with an edge tool. passed To make quired iron. true and smooth. After stitching the. . in seat. then lay them aside until the water has softened in stitch firm. black. nails be secured with annealed or clout through the leather and clinched. tack them to the middle leather on the frame in their proper place. when dry. scribe around them with a round awl. with a grease the under side with sharp round knife hard tallow. and bend them to fit nicely over . edges. and cut them out. . dampen with water. the off seat. then trim off all surplus leather. in two pieces one piece for a covered seat. skive the parts that meet on the center of the tree. wet the front and back edges of the seat leather. black. but do not allow it to touch the cut edges immerse them in water for a few minutes. screw on the seat. carefully draw it down.142 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and polish with a little ballblack. in the same manner as covering a buckle or ring. and. if for a covered if for a japanned seat. file off the screw if too long. scribe size. To cut the flaps. trim off the . patterns should be provided the same as for the jockeys lay them on the leather. . take a pattern of the remade of heavy leather or sheet and cut the jockeys. .jockeys.
leaving room for the back bands. the forepiece can be pensed with when making cheap saddles. After putting in the foredis- sew down the jockeys. wide pieces. mark . The back bands being in their place on the flaps. and secure the If the flaps are nuts with clout piece. three and a halt inches long and one and a quarter inches wide also two other pieces of good leather. from the heaviest leather (as it is easier to paste before cutting). so that the jockeys will hit the guide marks on the flaps place them so that the tree is in the center. adjust them on the tree.MAKING GIG-SADDLES. so as to allow a portion to settle down in the depressions of the tree on the top of the stiffeners. and allow the . pat them down with a hammer. one inch wide by three and a quarter inches long. cut the ends of the flaps to the requisite shape. of thin harness leather. a little more than one eighth of an inch wide. To flap off. To make the leather loops. the terret shanks. allow them to dry. fit the parts nicely. lengthened in front. and nail through the holes in the frames. nails. After creasing. butting them against the crupper. then cut four strips. then bevel and black the edges. paste them three sixteenths of an inch from the outer edges. cut two pieces . tack punch holes in them for them fast. paste these on the thin. about as heavy as bridle leather. a little . the leather enough for I43 it to receive the creasegrease applied to the glazed side will prevent the creaser scratching. clinching the nails on a flat iron.
. a slick out. and they paste to dry will be . mark it. . paste them. or by rubbing them down in a groove. width to cover the body piece. If the upper pieces are not lay . crease the . bind them over a piece of wood. stitch stitches to the inch. . . To of uniform thickness. and. . leaving the edge the heaviest just at the end of the latter. . rough out the upper pieces eleven and a half inches long and three quarters of an inch wide. three eighths of an inch thick on one edge. as they are liable to break at next to the flaps pattern. and when partially dry it will work easily. up the points for stitching. after adjusting them to suit the eye. cut in two pieces. Next cut a piece of good enameled leather of sufficient ready for the covering leather. tack them to dry when dry. skive the ends. place the heaviest ends lay on the and cut out the ornamental section that is stitched on the flap skive down the uppers on the flesh side where they lay on the flaps. when dr)'. slick them smooth. Round the lower ends and skive them down a little on each edge for a good job. this point if not well protected. of good but not heavy leather cut the linings one and a half inches shorter and of lighter material wet the leather as directed on page 54. them twenty to twenty-two and they will be ready to be put in the flaps. while and put them around the body piece damp. make the two parts a little oval by bending them over the edge of a board. shave down little. if for a threeinch saddle or under. 144 THE HARNESS-MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
and rub smooth with a rag containing a little tallow. if not. Skive the linings on the edges. smooth with a rubbing-rag. . 145 edge. but the lining may be of lighter dampen them in the same manner as directed for the points. rough them out to the required length and width. slick the under side. Skive the edges of the under pieces. according to quality. and afterwards crease for the stitching. To make the back bands. and with a stiff brush clean off the stitches. and let them dry. Crease up . dampen trim them to the desired shape. and paste the top and linings together in good order above and below the loop rounds (some prefer to paste up before sewing the rounds).MAKING GIG-SADDLES. They will then be ready to attach to the flaps. and mark off twelve inches for the points and one inch if the parts above the points are to be ornamental . leaving them a little wider at the loops sew the rounds where the loops are to go very strongly. lay the upper pieces tostock). tion flat. leaving the remaining por- for rounding. round four and a half inches. and cut the tops to the desired width. black them. paste them and the tops together. then stitch from ten to sixteen stitches to the inch. round up smoothly. and crease the edges again stitched. gether. using the best quality of leather (the upper piece should be of good substance. When down . the leather a little. go under the jockeys and be secured The ornament above the loop should be made to correspond with the other ornamental work on the harness. to by the terrets.
and it IS not necessary to take quite so deep a hold. reduce them in the center at the hook. beginning at the center with a strong thread. Be governed by the dimensions of the body piece in the length of the facings and cut after stuffing. a middle piece can be used to advantage. . . 146 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. leather about one inch wide for fillings the latter are preferably made of leather. increasing the width for larger sizes. about four stitches to the inch finish the ends neatly.. to make a good finish baste the facings on the fillings with long stitches. forming a welt. as it does not work up so much in sewing. If the former is iised. To make the pad. and the bodypiece of sheepskin or enamelled duck. — — . for straight or ornamental stitching. and settle the stitches mark there for the is not with a tickler. to keep them in place. but reeds are also used. Where enough substance to make a firm job. Finish in the same manner as with the points.. also at the ends. to serve as guides for closing up the long Cut the facings of patent all saddles under three inches. using the best English serge. having them a Sew them all together the facings little damp. and scribe guide marks crosswise on the sheepskin or duck. it may be necessary to cut this piece a little smaller than when duck is employed. After sewing. cut the lining to the required shape. cut the body piece lengthwise. In preparing the fillings. Sew them together in the center with a few stitches on each side. whichever best suits the harness.
keeping the fulness of the lining drawn toward the lower ends of the pad stuff the bearings. place. draw the loops in their places over the rounds of the back bands and down through flaps. quilt the pad up to the bearings. in the pulling them tightly to their places. then with a proper tool pound the pad where it is quilted and stuffed. the holes made for them . the same as for any rounded piece. I47 turn the pad. sewing down the jockeys.. In making common saddles this may be omitted. . and let it remain until thoroughly dry before stuffing. and tacking temporarily with small tacks sew them to correspond with the stitching on the jockeys. the whole being worked dry but with a good saddle these points must be observed. Before flapping. If there be suftack the pad out on a board in the shape to suit the flaps. MAKING GIG-SADDLES. . . Avorking it evenly into its and keeping it compact and smooth with a round awl after thus regulating it. and before stitching. hair. and prepare each of the latter for After the flapping is done. Stuff from the centre with well-beaten . and work with a round awl until the are sufficiently full. a little at a time. and sew together with a long loopthe guide marks will assist materially in stitch so joining that the original position is maintained . make the holes in the flaps for the loops. regulate the facings while damp. and it is ready for the saddle. being careful to have each side correspond. ficient time. Next sew the lining to the body piece. and smooth the facings with a half round creaser.
terrets and hook. Tacking is not absolutely necessary. Alter the patterns for the body and lining to correspond. Where . . regulate. then take a pair of dividers and lay out the shape or size preferred. but it serves to make a firmer job. using annealed After so doing. them thoroughly. the flap. put in the nails to secure the nuts. clean and the saddle finished.148 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and nail them securely. cut one side. a change is necessary in the shape of or larger or smaller patterns are desired. working from the center-line when the shape is secured. punch holes through the top ends of the back bands for the terrets. and sew down Trim up. pad. In this way a true pattern is obtained. lace is it thoroughly. and put in the off. while no changes are made in the part that fits the tree. strike a line lengthwise through the center of the pattern. clinch the jockeys. fold the pattern together. and cut the other.
. by making specialties of certain parts. yet there are times when these must be made under the supervision of the manufacturer in order that they may correspond with all other portions of the harness. and enabled him to purchase ready-made articles at reduced prices. therefore. . PADS FOR COACH AND TEAM HARNESS. Patent pads. etc. as the variety of style and processes of manufacture are so varied. will be confined to a few of the hand made pads which best represent their respective classes more than this it would be useless to do.. taken some of the harness maker's work out of his hands. gig saddles. in this respect gether. are constructed in various ways. CHAPTER XII. no advantage would accrue to the harness maker by a detailed description of the manner of putting them toInstruction. which constitute the greater portion of those made up for the regular trade. such as pads. THE ments subdivision of labor and the improvemade during the past ten or fifteen years have. and as their manufacture is confined to the patentees.
punch the holes for the hook. .inch from the outer edge. then split the lining lengthwise. punch holes for terret nuts. . which should be of wrought-iron. terrets. blind stitch the ornamental portion. By coach and carriage pads is meant whether light or heavy. that are designed for all. and back |. and the ends filed off thin and smooth. independent of the sides. whether the paa be light or heavy. and inch between the terret and pad screw holes. The process of man- ufacture is the same in all cases. The plates. and pad screws. . and pound . COACH AND CARRIAGE PADS. and whip stitch together with strong threads. and rivet them in in like manner insert the nuts for the pad place screws. car- riage harness in contradistinction to those used on team or draught harness. or extend from i^ to if inches below the end of the plate in cutting allow at least f of an inch for of an fulness between the terret holes. and stitch the pad plate lining to the top trim off the edges to a sharp under bevel. Cut out the top.150 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Skive off the edges on the flesh side quite thin. insert the plate. place the nut piece in position. -J- . Directions for making up will be confined to the pad. as it is sometimes called. and screw them in position by means of a small cap piece stitched on. insert them. should point. Cut the socket piece of harness leather the half inch larger all around than the top one pole. Screw in the pad hook. must be trued up.
screw in the terrets. and paste on the binding. position) . fit the hook and crupper loop in their proper places. and black fully stitch the binding Pads put up in this way are firm. being careful to work it up smooth and even when dry. and set the pad aside to dry. stitch across the centre. trim to the required shape. . and cut away for the pad hook nut then place the nut piece in position. then. and turn up the edges square and smooth. light collar leather. skive the edges quite thin. I^f down enough on exact size. moisten on the to the work up smooth. the pad screw nut to obtain the then remove the nut piece. . The following directions apply to the manuThe routine facture of pads stuffed with hair.COACH AND CARRIAGE PADS. for making is also somewhat different: Prepare the top and lining. and caretrim the edge. when dry. cut the pad filling out of heavy felt. set up the bolt piece to the plate. edges of the nut piece when dry. trim off flush with the top. work in all the fulness. and. then place the pad upon a block. fasten the screw or nut piece . if necessary. Avith a hammer. it Cut the it DOttom from flesh side. and much easier to make than those in which hair is used for stuffing. bend the latter up so that it meets the edge of the top. leaving the gullet piece about i^ inches wide. and insert the plate as before directed. and paste . insert a short piece of harness leather the same width and thickness as the pad side. After the leather is dry. paste it on. and set in the pad screw (be careful to set the mock side in proper .
. fit the other end around the pole. . and fit it up to the top with a hammer. Cut a small piece out of the centre in order to obtain fulness enough for the edges. the process so as to be sure that the edge . make a pattern of sheep-skin. turn the edges in the centre and fasten with a few stitches. mark the holes for the screws and ferrets. paste between the burrs and . secure the necessary fulness in the centre skive off the edges of the nut piece. and punch the burrow holes by the lower edges of the marks this will . and force it up in the centre so as to obtain the requisite fulness. draw the ends down and fasten the points with tacks. This is done by dampening it very lightly. . and mark a line level with the This will give the exact shape without fultop. tack it to the top. then cut the bottom piece to the new line b}"^ the pattern upon the leather for the bottom piece. the greatest fulness being opposite the centre of the terret holes taper gradually to the centre and ends. then turn up the edge all around. Cut the bottom piece out of collar leather to get the proper size.152 The harness makers' illustraTEO manCaL. and also the outlines for the plate long. Remove this piece. dry. repeat is and set it aside to dry . secure the burrs to it. and tack it in like manner. . whip together smoothly. the swell. and cut it out. with a pad screw to the top. turning up the end around the gullet. when partially properly shaped do not remove the top until the nut piece is perfectly dry. and draw a line for ness. make the pole i|- inches remove the nut piece. being careful to turn the edges up true and smooth.
leaving the ends open. centre. Stitch across the centre. paste the bottom to the edges of the nut piece. then fill up the .. first work out the edge. when dry. 1^3 the lining on the edge. it is cut one and — . and as an illustration the one shown on page 154 is selected. and care must be taken to se- cure the requisite fulness to make a good job have the leather properl}^ tempered so that it will retain the shape given it. and.inches. In stuffing. . leaving a space i|. to give any more than a general notice. for the last time. when dry. to SOFT PAD. forty-four inches long and. pop stitch together. The tops and sides arc cut of one piece of heavy harness leather. It is one of the best. trim off to the required shape paste the binding. holding the knife so as to cut under in order to avoid showing a ragged edge. and fit up to the top . A very large majority of the plainer lines of farm and team harness are made up with what is known as soft pads that is. if designed for a one and three quarter trace harness. tapering off gradually to the point close the ends and tuft the point. stitcli carefully trim the binding close to the stitching. SOFT PAf. and. The great number of styles makes it impossible. also. Fitting up the nut piece is the most important part of the work. . those without plates. in a work of this kind. and embraces the general principles by which all soft pads are made.
B O .154 THE Harness makers' illustrated" manual.
but about one quarter of an inch narrower. the lower ends of the trace bearers rest on the points and are stitched to them. width at top three quarters of an inch. Cut extra pieces about five inches long to make .SOFT PAD. one half inch bevelled plugs being placed between pad . or to extend across the top in the form of a fold as shown by X. so that it can be fitted up to a good shape) then secure it to the top by a single line of stitches. The points are cut "twelve inches wide and laid up on the pad side three inches. of the same shape as the pad top. and crease the edges with a double creaser. The pad trace bearer is shown by B its full length is nineteen inches. . and at the bilge one and a quarthe upper end is attached to the pad ter inches top by a plated rivet. two and a quarter inches at the pad bilge. . 155 a quarter inches wide in the centre. and lace the edges of the latter together on the top (the pad bottom should be wet while being worked. cut a heav}' piece of felt. In making the pad. two inches at the side bilge. The pad bottom is cut of good fold leather. the leather the Treat same as in making harness. part A. one and a quarter inches at the narrowest point between the top and side bilges. and stitched from four and a half to five inches from the end. nine inches long. and seven eighths of an inch at the bottom. or by binding with fancy colored leather. the requisite fulness for the bilge of the cover the felt with the pad bottom. . for each side. allowing the binding to terminate at the bottom of the pad.
but for general use it is quite as salable if left plain. pad trace bearer D. pad side section C. the two the whole is further strengthened by copper rivets. PLAIN HARD PAD. extending down far enough to receive the pad trace bearer. A ring for the back strap is attached to the centre of the pad by a chape stitched and riveted on. one line of the pad bottom E. trim the edges to a light oval and crease them with a fine creaser. a terret being used instead of the rivet when this is done. This pad is sometimes made up with a short plate. This. are : . which is shown by section i.: . the openings show the positions of the pad screw and terret may be blind stitched if desired. The parts represented A. r5'6 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTEAtED' MANUAL. . The top. a loop check takes . The 2 this . pad trace bearer in position. A very good idea of its construction and appearance may be gathered from the illustration on page 157. is but little more difficult to make. . If harness leather is used. is cut out of heavy patent or harness leather. . . the place of the ring. which represents the various pieces drawn to one third their actual size. pad top section B. while being much firmer and stronger than the soft pad. The bottom piece or lining is shown by section this is cut of light harness or fold leather. It is designed for heavy wagon harness where terrets and hooks are to be used.
iSl .PLAIN HARD PAD.
In making up this pad. and secure it by the terfor the . a point a little below the centre of the hole pad screw. the same size as the plate. socket piece. the top ends. is cut to the same shape as the top. cut the socket piece from patent leather. . the lower end of which is shown below the pad top i. then draw over the bottom and tack it to the socket piece. . but it . as shown by A the square hole showing the space cut away to admit the back band. .158 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. . . This is of wrought or malleable iron with threads cut in the the holes for the pad screws and terrets crupper loop is cast or forged upon the plate. are secured by the pad screws. The pad plate is shown by section 4. and secure it to the latter by means of copper rivets at the points designated by X. the nails clinching as they come in contact with the plate lap the ends of the bottom so as to obviate the necessity of using a separate gullet piece then stuff the pad and place the housing on the socket piece tuft the ends of the bottom socket and housing as shown by the cross lines on the lower ends of i and 3 then place the pad top in position. The housing is shown by section 3. then it takes the shape designated by the dotted lines. rets and pad screws. section 4. side pieces are always cut straight and creased or stitched if trace bearers are used. . This is made of patent leather with a scolloped border bound around the edge. The The housing is not a necessity with this pad.
tent in New. and stitched to them and three inches up sides. which A is used to a considerable exharness. which is perfectly straight and about one and one quarter inches wide. and covering it with soft collar leather. the fulness thus on the secured to the layer makes it answer for a pad trace bearer. or a loop check hook may be used instead four rivets. the back strap. wide and . If no plate is used. appearance. points. is cut two and a quarter inches fifty-six inches long. The layer may be . small brass head rivets are placed in the centre of the layer the whole length between the points at intervals of about three inches. forming the pad and sides. by Another style of pad which may be made up with or without pad plates or stuffed pad. . . plain pad.PLAIN HARD PAD. are used to strengthen the pad and to give it an ornamental makes it ferred . with round heads. I59 more ornamental.York upon team is made of two strips of harness leather one. . and is therefore premost buyers. the points one and an eighth inches wide and ten inches long the layer is cut seventy-nine inches long and one and an eighth inches wide this is stitched to the pad twelve inches each side of the centre the lower ends are placed even with the bottom ends of the . is made by cutting a housing piece from heavy patent leather to the required shape. is stitched to the pad piece before the latter is covered a chape is attached to the centre for the back strap ring.
made of two thicknesses of felt and fold or collar leather. forming a loop for the back band to pass through. . or a billet and ring may be attached instead.r6o THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. A thin pad. left loose in the center. can be added if desired.
the workshop. grades. patent. as the patent loops are ready for use at the time of purchase. and are used in preference to all others upon fine harness. structed are inferior to the other kinds. and are sold. Being nicely and much cheaper than handmade loops.CHAPTER Xlir.manufacturers using no other kind. and pressed. The first are undoubtedly the best.orkman. and. some leading. and when poorly conleather loops to HARNESS MAKERS select — . owing to the manner of making them. finished Hand made loops possess 'several advantages oyer other kinds-. Patent loops are made by being pressed up in hot dies. are less . they have taken their place on medium. they are more durable. and are also used to a great extent upon common Pressed loops are those made up in harness. and shaped by means of dies and presses after they are stitched upon the straps. The making of these and hand creased alone interest the w. MAKING HARNESS LOOPS. to the trade in every need- ed size and in a variety of styles. Some makers of medium grades also use them to a considerable extent but if well made they are too expensive for common work. have three kinds of from the hand made.
which it will not do if either too wet or dry. but they are of a nature which can not be described. . difference existing in the texture and fibre of each separate side of leather. As has been stated in another chapter. the leather is found to be too dry to work well. however. and it is his duty to pay strict attention to the minor details if he would meet with success in the leading features. to the marked . then remove it from the water. and the workman referred to the description of the various qualities and kinds given on page 36. Owing. after being stitched on. uniform in style of creasing than those made by dies. and afterward temper it by the use of water and a sponge if. the fault can be remedied by the use of a moist sponge. Next in importance is the tempering of the stock in water so as to bring it to a condition where it can be easily worked and yet retain the full impression of the creasing irons. Care site in in the selection of stock is the first requiis making good loops.1 62 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. there are certain signs and indications which furnish an exact guide to the workman. and to the various portions of a single side. there can be no fixed rule given as to the preparation of it. Some workmen prefer to moisten the leather but a little before stitching on. The general rule is to soak the leather until thoroughly moistened. and the workman must be governed solely by experience. and allow it to become surface dry before creasing.
so that when the loop is completed they are full and square. increasing or diminishing the same as the width or thickness is increased or diminished. the employment of is clamp in can be con- nection with the loop stick. otherwise they will be thin and weak at the very point where the greatest strength is required Hand creased loops are commonly attached by Another stitching both sides before creasing. When used. and ^ of an inch wider at either end there is an ear. HARNESS LOOPS. which projects inch above the back iron. the back iron is placed against the back of the strap. To accom- plish this. 163 In order to secure a perfect-shaped loop. and the thumb about . it is absolutely necessar}' to allow sufficient fulness in the leather to permit the corners being work- ed up full and square on the outside. a fulness of about f of an inch over and above the width of the loop stick should be allowed to a ij-inch loop of ordinary thickness. the ends of I which are bent over so as to cross the back iron holes are drilled through the at right angles ends directly over the centre of the back iron these are threaded and provided with a thumb screw. substituted for the iron wooden the full The back clamp made length of the loop stick. method which as it is preferred by many workmen.: . an iron loop stick one. When is this is used. This extra leather must be worked up and outward to the corners. it obviates is much of the difficulty arising from a the leather becoming too dry before creased. .
If the ordinary loop stick is used. and run the edge creases with a hot creaser. after which the screws are applied and the whole held in position until the loop is creased and finished) after which it can be stitched fast. screws tightened against tlie loop stick. then crease up with suitable tools these can be kept hot and clean by laying the ends upon a metallic box heated by gas jets or an alcohol lamp. In securing the loop. one side is stitched in its place and the other properly inserted. care being taken to allow the requisite fulness.164 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and continue to work both sides and top until the leather is pressed firmly against the loop stick. First work up the sides with a slicker. then color the leather with iron and vinegar black. and work over the entire loop with warm creasei-s and slickers until . after which trace off the pattern and outline it with a fine tickler. then rub down the top. always working toward the corners to keep them full. then trim the ends perfectly true. both sides must be stitched fast before the stick is inserted. remove the loop stick and insert an iron one which has been heated as hot as it can be without danger of burning. the working up of the pattern afterwards being comparatively an easy matter. holding the latter and the leather firmly together. The secret of : success in creasing loops is to define all corners and outlines correctly before the leather becomes too hard to receive an impression easily. the handles resting upon a wire support. After the pattern is well worked i p.
A soft loop is an evidence of a lack of skill. the corners full and sharp. The machinery and appliances necessary for pressing up these loops consist of a . upon the part of the workman. Pressed loops are the cheapest. polish lested until thoroughly loop which has been well be improved by the use of varnish of any kind. A worked will not become firm and hard. and when well made appear nearly as well when new as the other styles. or of carelessness. in some cases. They are needled on. to detect the difference between them and the patent care is loops. and. and if the color is perfectly dry. the leather is 165 By this process the surface will receive a fine polish. good no further operation black is is needed.HARNESS LOOPS. for if the leather is in proper condition and worked up as it should be. If a better required. There has been a marked improvement in the manner of making them within a few it will years. and it is difficult. The same necessary in regard to provid- ing fulness in the leather sufficient to produce square corners as is recommended in the case of hand made loops. with a silk rag. and apply a slight coat of hatter's black. and by the exercise of a little ingenuity the awl holes on the side last stitched may be so placed as to be almost undiscernable when the loop is fully pressed up. when dry. allow the loop to remain unmo- seasoned. the ornament well raised and correctly defined. If the loop is properly made it will be solid and entirely free from grain cracks.
one within 2 inches of each end in addition small side plates are needed to be placed between the sides of the box and the loop. designing dies. After the loop is seasoned. a metallic 3 good screw box with open ends. the loop according to sticks. color it with vinegar and iron black. and the width for other than pressing cheek loops 3 inches wide in the clear for cheek loops a box fully wide enough to admit the winker is in one side of the box place two necessary thumb screws about i^. the box. a variety of patterns ma}' be produced and cheap harness relieved of the same- proper position. well up or the heavy pressure on the side plates the top will cause the loop to spread on the top edge. its thickness dies. the sides being about inches high on the inside. also plates to be placed upon the bottom for raising or lowering . With pressed as with other loops.l66 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. much of the success in their produc- depends upon the leather being properly tempered. after which the die is placed in position and the screw presIt is necessary to screw sure applied to the top. iron loop and the top stamps or In press- ing.inches from the bottom. press. and the side screws ness tion now so prevalent. . Two minutes under the press is all that is necessary to secure a firm loop even with cold By the exercise of a little ingenuity in irons. the loop stick is placed in its the strap laid in tightened up until the leather is pressed firmly against the sides of the loop stick. . and when dry rub . .
HARNESS LOOPS. after which ished the it use of a box of this kind. same hand made may be By the fin- . together with dies. and of patterns to match the large ones. 1 67 with a woolen cloth. small loops may be made similar to the patent ones. as loops.
up the is Thread as now . and Nos. 6 white. and drawing the work well is together. the lines of the pattern are well laid true. . but of different colors. These sizes should be used in such a manner as to secure the the market . 12. — to be at- The first secured by the use of thread of the required size to suit the work to be done. 5 being black. lo. 6 and 5. o. sold in designated by numbers the sizes used by harness makers are Nos. The first of the linen thread or of . rule adopted is to grade the thread according to the number is of stitches employed. IN stitching harness two objects are tained strength and ornamentation. which the coai^sest. when the work in is maintained and the stitches of a uniform length and finished. by laying the stitches manner so that. and the proper manner strand. an artistic The second.making point to be considered is the selection silk. o. and 19 yellow. the latter being the finest used 19 are of the same size. to be The No. greatest strength. STITCHING HARNESS. 3. employing an awl that is neither too large nor too small.CHAPTER XIV. making it up properly.
according to the character of the work to be done. on heavy stitching. but. These numbers represent the skein thread. 169 should be made up with four strands. Having selected the next thing is the requisite to break off the strands. where the stitching is not more than ten nor less than eight to the inch. is fine and first-class in every respect. it appears finer. however. owing'to its possessing greater strength than the colored. while being twisted. use the skein thread. owing to its being smoother. No. varies but ball thread little in size with corresponding numbers. . lo is a little lighter than No. but only three strands for all work finer than eighteen stitches No. o. 3 is also used where the stitching ranges from eight to ten to the inch. by harness-makers who have tested its merit. When the stitching is as fine as eighteen to the inch the same number is used. . four strands being required. . . and be used where the stitches number eight or under to the inch No. number of thread.STITCHING HARNESS. and is used in the lightest work. wax . it being finer than either 10 or o four strands are required for all ordinary work for ten to sixteen to the inch No. three strands are used. . . 5 is the only thread used this is made up with three or four strands. White thread is preferred. should be well rubbed with the awl handle in order to remove Where the work to be done the irregularities. the thread. 12 is used. For all heavy work the ball thread answers equally as well as the skein but in making up. .
Ten to eleven feet. however. There is much difference of opinion as to the manner of waxing some claim that no wax . and even this is liable to become weakened by the constant wear before being used up. tapered end can be obtained but if broken off. it . is as great a length as can be used to advantage. regular. Untwisting before breaking the thread is a matter of much more importance than is generally supposed. traces or other long straps. the fibres are separated but not broken. irregular spot being twisted . articles like . and a smooth. In making a thread. For stitching all should be hard.lyo THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. the end will be irregular and cause annoyance in threading the needles or attaching the bristles. should be used until the strands are well twisted together. . break it off and start anew. and untwist and pull apart for the first strand repeat this operation until the required number of strands are obtained. after which it should be rubbed with a cloth to remove all surplus wax. long threads are desirable in order to avoid starting with a new thread in the body of the work. . . If carefully done. then they should be rubbed until the thread is well filled. untwist and pull apart the strand at the end. unless this is well done the failure. and twist them up work will prove a strand. throw the center over a hook. In running off each examined to prevent any up in the little lumps which are thread in most cases the found are loose and can be removed without injuring the thread where this can not be done.
when a larger percentage of . rub them well by giving one turn around the awl handle and rubbing it back and forth. would seem to give support to the latter method of making up. and that the only benefit derived from using wax on the surface is to preserve the thread friction occasioned from injury by the by drawing it through the holes in the leather. Fine threads may be made up according to the iirst plan. A thread may be injured by twisting too firmly as well as by leaving it loose. and is a good wax for general use but this is . which is made of equal parts of pitch and tallow. In the first instance it will not take the wax well and wears away rapidly. A careful examination of the thread after having been used in stitching. upon cutting apart. as it is found.STITCHING HARNESS. but all heavy threads should be well waxed before twisting. the strands are likely to open and therefore depend best The workman must is laid. and twist up moderately firm. while strands which had been well waxed before twisting retained all but the surface wax. too bard for winter. After the strands are all broken off. upon his own judgment as to The the proper amount of twist to be given. in the second. that the amount of wax left on the surface is so small as to preclude the idea of its being any advantage either as to strength or resistance to the action of water. then apply the wax. I7I Others claim that the principal part of the waxing should be done before twisting. show after the stitch is the ordinary shoemaker's black wax.
This. but unless the workman handles his awl correctly irregularities will occur. a portion of the handle is flattened to correspond with the angle on the awl. defined. to appear well. must be regular. Ordinary yellow and white wax are also used for light thread. stitching-horse . will not for A answer good wax good as that made of pitch. There was a time when straight stitching was ignored by all leading manufacturers on account of its resemblance to machine work. how- pound white or light-colored thread. The custom now practiced by leading manufacturers is to lay all heavy stitches ten or less to the inch at a moderate angle.172 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. but they are not as ever. Tastes differ as to the best position for the stitches. being full. If the stitching is six- . and the straight stitch has once more beStitching. and of equal length. but the improvements in the latter soon made it possible to imitate any hand stitch. for this purpose can be made of refined pitch and tallow. to render this result certain. Various degrees of hardness may be obtained by changing the proportions. The use of the prick wheel assists materially toward producing the last result. each stitch come popular. the proportions to be governed by the degree of hardness desired. making the proportions one of tallow to three quarters of a pound of pitch. is tallow required. using a diamond-shaped awl to secure uniformit}'^ the awl is held in a position which brings a face of the angle on a line parallel with the top of the jaw of the .
the thread bearing against the under side should but be drawn the tightest care must be taken not to draw upon this thread enough to draw out the channeling. If the stitches are to be flat. but the same precaution is taken to secure regularity. All stitches where there are more than sixteen to the inch. this is a serious fault.STITCHING HARNESS. 173 teen or less to the inch. No matter what the length ofthe thread. the force applied to both threads should be equal. and when that on the left side is drawn nearly out. or the work will be irregular. as it is if a full stitch is desired on the face side. enter the needles. and tighten up in the usual manner. and it requires . bring the loose thread forward. impossible to lay the stitches even. and it will be an easy matter to determine which is the right side. the tightening up should alwa3's be a distinct motion. some practice to overcome this difficulty. To do this work properly. A common fault with stitchers is to tighten the thread with one motion as soon as it becomes short enough for them to do so . When . it is necessary to change the position of the thread on the side opposite the awl hand. Stitchers are apt to draw the thread in the awl hand the tightest. the angle is reduced. performing a piece of work where the stitches are equally exposed from both sides. are laid straight. and throw it over the needle. The manner of drawing up the stitches has much to do with their uniformity drawing : harder on one thread than on the other will produce irregularity.
so that each stitch uniform depth. If care is taken to throw the thread over. correctly. it will not require much power to set the stitches Around buckles. when the laps have . are to : drive the awl through at right angles with the face of the leather. therefore. not been previously worked together. work will appear nearly as well upon the reverse as upon the right side. holding it so that it will always enter the leather in the same position at a . th. and the fulness retained on the outside. it will require more force to draw the straps together but under no circumstance should the stitches be buried into the leather. as this has a tendency to weaken rather than strengthen the work. to is draw set in the threads carefully.1^4 TriE HAfeNESS makers' itLysTftAtEfi MAJftJAI. .. The points to be observed. When the work is well fitted up..
the grade of round russet reins known as No. REINS. and measure off five inches from one end for the billet and stop. Cut the leather seven eighths of an inch wide. and of the full length of the side soak it in clean water for a few minutes. 4 has been selected as the one embracing the various manipulations more thoroughly than any other. and care should be taken to secure smooth. and five feet six inches from this point for the round." page 33. moisten slightly with a sponge and clean water. and entitle this branch of harness making to a separate notice.CHAPTER MAKING ROUND of XV. . and remove a thin shaving from the flesh side then lay it out straight upon the board. . with an ad. finegrained. grain side down. covering as it does all the essential points. Good stock is indispensable to success. and well tanned rein leather. the different qualities of which are clearly described in the chapter on " Russet Leather. In preparing the following instructions. reins THE very general use round upon appearance effect and their the of the harness render it necessary that the most approved manner of making up be thoroughly understood. . and shave down to the required thickness slick down nicely while the leather is damp.
Both sides being finished as directed. after which rub the edges smooth. which is made of two pieces of clean stock dampened and . or whatever size may be necessary. the leather with a moist sponge. dampen ly . and stamp with a die. and rub them well. so as to leave a raise in the center. then with a wide edge tool . secure it firmly with . channel the five feet six inches which are to be rounded trim each edge with an edge tool.176 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANXTAL. stain — which Cut is five inches —on it with a small edge and rub the edges until a good polish is produced. . awls. that would otherwise have to be done with the spokeshave. or three quarters of an incli. rub down with a clean piece of paper. and with a raising block raise the handpart end lightif raised too much. and with a round knife trim down nearly to a feather edge turn the rein about. the edge of the rein. 14 prick-wheel. and with a channeling tool. or mark off to a suitable pattern four waves running to a point is a good one stain the edges. edge — — trim them slanting. as by so doing considerable work. ditional five and a quarter inches for the handMeasure off on the rein seven eighths part lap. for the billet lay the rein out on the board with the grain side up. the width of the billet tool. can be saved and a better job produced. and prick off with a No. then with a double creaser sink the creases well. held firmly in the hand. The rein is now ready for the stop. then with a seven-eighth inch buckle punch make the hole for the buckle about three inches from the end.
6 round punch. then pasted together and allowed to dry when perfectly dry. . or to a pattern. 177 shaved down to the required thickness. more easily pull round up tight this being done. and then pound down to the mark. . as has been stated. by dampening it well and rubbing it down solid with a slicker cut out the end of the billet with a half round punch.MAKING ROUND REINS. dampen the end that . trim down the to a feather edge. these make the rein firmer. and rub them with a rag until they are smooth. cut out with a die. Trim the ends of the stops down thin. Next prepare the enters the rein so that it will work easily. The billet. with seven or eight stitches. and five inches & more for the stop crease up the billet and punch with a No. jNIark off one and one half inches to 2:0 into the round of the rein. and rub smooth with a cloth. trim off the back edge with an edge tool. appl3' the stain. edges lightly. crease the edges. Heat a narrow iron creaser quite warm over a gas or other light. and a space of one half inch each way from this loop is stitched . tack the billet to the rein and it is ready to be stitched. three inches of which are for the half-inch loops before and behind the buckle this part is channeled the width of the box loop. is marked off five inches. . and with a small edge tool take the edge off each side to one half the length. so that the stitcher can . which is thirteen and one half inches long. an egg-shaped or other design stitch the stop. dampen the . billet. drawn it tight . and give a better finish. and rub until a good smooth surface and polish are produced. then stain.
edge tool. first it see that the iilling can be shaved down evenl}'. and. the channel. can be pounded down to a true and smooth round. when filling off. pound one edge down to the end of the rein then turn the rein over. . and when dried out it becomes hard and brittle also. . . so that . dampen it slight- ly with a sponge. In filling up. where the handpart is sewed in. In placing the latter in position. care should be taken not to dampen the rein too much. for if too wet the leather can not be trimmed off smoothly with a spokeshave. . is stitched. . is closed. put in an end piece. instead of being close and smooth. and. and use the short pieces down at the neck of the rein. take a large awl. with a shoemaker's hammer. At the end. commence at the same point as before. and pound the other side down in this way the rein is evenly prepared to receive the filling. After the billet filling up. but the former is the better plan. After the rein thoroughly wet. fasten the rein to the board. run it through one of the holes in the billet.lyS THE HARNESS MAKKRS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. To do this. always put in the longest pieces at the commencement. and pound down immediately. if a little dry in places. having a half-round groove in which The use of this groove mateto place the rein. The proper course is to dampen it Avith a sponge. will raise and become uneven. when the rein is closed up. or sew the handpart into the round either will do. then trim off with a large-sized and also trim off the filling close to the then pound down on a board iron made for rein this purpose. the rein is ready for is To do this.
with a sponge and a a solution of oxalic acid. therebv making them smooth. the former to a half gill of the latter. smooth polish appears. produces a good lustre on the and .MAKING ROUND rially lessens the REINS. but it is poor policy to do round. pull it through the rounding machine three or four times more. rub down smoothly dampen the round slightly with the stain. as Some workmen so. After block up the loops. in addition to preserving the color. . after which trim off the edges with a sharp spokeshave as round and evenly as possible dampen the rein slightly with . Rein ends can be made up in a variety of styles. and then with a hand rounder rub up and down all over the round. Then. dissolve shellac in alcohol. . which done by pulling it through the rounding it it machine three or four times. In order to preserve the color on the rein. moist sponge. leather. When dry. reins. and rub briskly until a nice. clean off' the rein and or nearly so. and with a clean sponge apply it to every part of the rein this. the object being to touch all the parts that the machine has failed to reach. dampening the stain. where is has a tendency to flatten the leather bears upon the stone. apply a small quantity of a stain made of annotta and saffron in the proportion of one pint of it hang up to dry. I'jg labor and helps to secure a good use a flat stone or board iron without a groove. The rein is now ready to be rounded up. trim nicely from the end of the rein to the box loop.
2. and at the same time provide a neat ornament for the end of the rein. This is made without buckles. and 4 show four patterns. or bit ring. i. all but fig. but the general directions for manufacture are the same. 4 being made up as previously. other styles of rein ends.l8o THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANtfAL. where it will catch fast. 3. Their use is to prevent the Martingale ring coming in contact with the buckle. which is stitched in between the This steel hook is sometimes used with straps. In cutting the harness maker should aim to make them not less than one quarter of an inch wider than the inside diameter of the Martingale Figs. directed. but a small piece of steel is bent at the point where the rein joins to the ornament. . ring.
4.REIN ENDS. Fig. 3. Fig. l8l Fig. . I. Fig. 2.
CHAPTER XVI. and there is less in the harness . liability to overdo in in decoration. while the crowns. they are the most ornate part of the harness." always clean pff the gum where the patent leather enters the . bridles. plain or in fancy patterns The general details for making are given in connection with the instructions for making harness in a previous chapter. the IN manufacturingopportunity toharness maker has an excellent exercise taste designing and embellishing. gag runners. COACH AND WAGON BRIDLES. nose and chin pieces are all susceptible of a variety of changes There is no portion of a coach in form or finish. for in no part of is there so much opportunity given to introduce new ideas without interfering with the proper shape of the article then. Attaching the winkers to the cheeks must be done in the best manner to prevent them from " hinging . The v/inkers may be made finished a variety of styles. too. fronts. face pieces. and for that reason the bridle maker holds a high position in the the business. stitched . cheeks can be up in different ways. harness more difficult to make.
2. I.COACH BRIDLES. 183 Fig. Fig. .
Crown piece 28 split if Ends. Coupe.X84 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. The illustrations of bridles in connection with this chapter show some of the distinctive patterns in detail. This is the popular style for all coach and heavy coup6 harness. the peculiarity being the attaching of the check rein-to a billet stitched to the crown piece. square or square with round corners are preferred. cheek pieces. Width. The cuttings are : Leneth. Avhile for wagon. i represents the English coach bridle with the oval winker. and other cheap harness the square pattern is preferred. or crown piece layers is followed. It is known as the bradoon swivel. inches. Layer 6J 9 12 Gag runners Front | f J i| 2? . The various plates in this book will give the reader a good idea of the popular form for winkers. cart. so that the paste skive off to secure a smooth job. cheek loops. thence up to the gag runner. and heavy express winkers are similar to those used for coaches. passing it through a swivel on the bradoon bit. though no exclusive pattern of winkers. inches. and The most popular patterns for coach winkers are the slightly ovaled end and the full oval. though other styles are also used to a considerable extent. Fig. For light buggy and road harness. may adhere. team.
.d»V . . 3. i8s Fig.^. 4.fi.-Ji Fig..COACH BRIDLES.
while being equally The lengths for cutting: as effective as a check. but the regular buckles and pipe cheek loops are the most popular. Width. i. 2 bridle. With this and all other bridles where the face piece is used. Nose and chin piece 33 Cheeks 29 Made up between buckles. in It is claimed that a bridle of this kind causes the horse less pain.l86 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. with the exception of the round cheeks. a thin piece of steel should be attached to the under side to keep it in position. are the same as those for Fig. represents another style of bradoon which the bradoon bit is attached to a round cheek piece. and the swivel is dispensed Fig. Length. . which must be ten inches long between the buckles. 8 26 Bradoon rein 20 Rounded 60 Center rein Throat latch 27 Ci'own billets for bradoon rein 13 12 Face piece Billet li | i -J |- f I 13 S Winker strap Billet i^ I Split 7 The narrow loops and center bar buckles give this bridle a showy appearance. inches. with. inches.
5. 187 Fig. . 6.CARRIAGE BRIDLES. Fig.
ISS THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. 8. . Fig. Fig. 7.
cheeks. Fig. . Fig. 1 1 represents a plain team harness bridle without winkers. but differs from the preceding ones in the manner of attaching represents bridle. 7 represents a very neat bridle for single or light double harness. . leaving the upper part flat. . The face piece may The most popular style of be flat or round. 10 is designed for a team bridle. 3 189 a third style of bradoon cheek being flat. a heavy bridle for a team harness the tugs on the ends of the cheeks are cut of patent leather. Fig. Fig. but is made up without winkers the cheeks may be made as represented. 8. finishing is to round the ends below the face ornament. . The latter . appear much the lightest. Fig. the extra the gag runner. 6 is designed for light double harness one of the plainest kinds in use. 9. Fig. suited to the lighter grades of coach and road harness.COACH AND WAGON BRIDLES. Fig. Fig. or rounded. Fig. 5 represents a plainer style of bridle. . and held in position by two loops or the patent leather ornaments may . and throat latch billets are cut of one piece the ornaments are stitched to the cheeks at the front piece. the cheeks made up with patent leather ornaments and without buckles the crown. 4 is also a bradoon bridle. a plain bridle with a half Kemble-Jackson check. and may be ornamented with monograms or initial letters.
Fig. . g.ItJO THE FARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
191 7 Fig.WAGON BRIDLES. la .
with a short layer for securing the head terret. In both instances the opening for the check is made by a wedgeshaped piece stitched between the layer and crown piece. The crown and cheeks are cut thirty-eight inches The measurements for the other straps iong. variety of a number and of which are given on page have the straight layer. with a plain waved layer. . the gag runner being attached to . I shows the common fold crown. if preferred. The same style of layer is used for Kemble-Jackson check. the full .192 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and an extra H shows a plain strap billet for the gag runner with an oval loop and a ring for a gag layer. 195. leaving the ends open to admit the cheek pieces a cross face piece can be used in place of the nose piece. This is used for carrying the gag rein well up and close to the cheek. runner. Fig. . but difcheeks C has no layer. D has a folded crown piece with the layer. 12 represents a Crown styles. and cheek billets cut in one. bridles. the layer being cut with an extra billet for the gag runner ring E has the plain double waved layer F has a short layer for the half KembleJackson check. throat latch. be lined and stitched. . the check. G shows the crown. the gag riinner being attached to the throat latch ferent billet A B styles of . pieces are German Court made up in a bridle. Are the same as those used for regular team .
II.WAGON BRIDLES. 19. .' Fig.
194 'i'HE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. . Fig. 12.
^95 Ji~ .BRIDLES.
: CHAPTER XVII RIDING BRIDLES. except in isolated cases. Crown piece 24 7 if Split . or snaffle being of the same pattern. inches. and a Pelham. because display is not an important matter except in a limited number of cases. The regular lengths and widths for cutting with and without billets are Length.of cross face or other similar decorations. Width. or . bridles. the headstall of a Pelham. with the exception of the reins. made up with or without billets for the bit rings. inches. Bridles take their name. port. being the same in all. The ornamenting consists. The military and ladies' dress bridles are the only ones ornamented to any extent even in these the principal strapping is a duplicate of the less pretentious article. from the style of bit used. and 3 represent a bradoon. the strapping. Figs. a double rein port. are much less varied in character than most other leading articles. RIDING loose ring. i. 2. though forming a very important portion of the harness maker's stock. bradoon.
3.fCfBlNG BRIDLES. 2. 107 Fig. I. Post. Double Rein Pelham. Fig. Bradoor. Fig. .
Width. the ends being joined by a leather tassel. Cheek. Cheeks Without Billets 13 billets 15 8 | f f •§• Throat Front Reins latch. 6 a double cheek bridle with a plain port and a light bradoon bit. inches. 5 is a single round cheek bridle. The cuttings are Length. the lengths for cutting being the same as those previously noticed Fig. buckle side billet side 20 24 12 f f rounded Billets 9 39 54 18 Throat latch Reins rounded Billets I | | f f- Front 9 24 22 rounded 11^ Curb straps is ^ Fig. The cheeks and crown . but two pieces are used for the cheeks and crown the throat latch is cut in one piece and is rounded the whole length. inches.: . Width. inches. 4 is a plain snaffle bridle. two buckles 12 22 52 8 billets I | I Billets Without 56 | Fig. 1 98 THE HARNESS MAKERs' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. length. in which . inches.
Round Check. 4. .RIDING BRiDtES. igg Fig. Fig. Plain Snaffle. 5.
7 represents another style of double cheek which are the same as for 5. in . 9 represents a style of double cheek and bit bridle out billets.: : 20O THE HA&NeSS makers' ILLUStRATEt) MANOAL. inches. . The cuttings are : Length. is cut three quarters of an inch wide and twenty-eight inches long. Width. the cuttings for Fig. inches. both cheeks being of the same length . Cheeks rounded Billets 33 f f f f 24 8 Crown piece. and rounded fifteen inches. and is provided with two small slide loops the throat latch and crown are cut in one as are also the nose and chin Fig. made up as hame strap 24 39 Throat latch Fig. 8 represents a double cheek bridle. the nose strap. piece for each bit are cut in one piece. which the cheek pieces on each side are cut in one the crown piece for the cheek is also cut as one it is doubled and buckled on the crown. . cutWidth. inches. made up with long cheeks and The cuttings are with- . inches. tings are The Length. pieces. Port cheeks and crown 34 12 | rounded cheeks and crown Bradoon rounded Billets 36 12 8 f f bridle. Fig. which may be used or not.
Round.RIDING KRIOLES. Double Check. 8. 6. and Double Check. Fig. Port. Bradoor. Fig. .
inches. and the cheek straps and reins cut from the firmest part of the side. and the use of separate straps for the crown and cheeks for the bradoon bits. the bit used being the Pelham. Light weights should be used in all cases. to be used with saddles having seat and knee pads made of buckskin. port. It has double cheeks. Length. Buff leather is used to a considerable extent for flat fancy bridles. russet. Width. 4. buckle side billet side 24 22 26 22 13 Throat latch Front. English russet has long been a favorite brand of leather. made up reins Billets f f f f i |- Bradoon Port reins 90 96 8 f f peculiarity of these bridles is the manner which the port cheeks and throat latches are cut and made up. Three kinds of leather are used for bridles black harness. This leather. but the better grades of American are equal to it in every respect. inches. and buff. being soft. in The not as popular in this country as the port and bradoon. Cheeks. one of which is buckled into the bridle is The English Weymouth ring on the top of the bit check. buckle side billet side 20 Bradoon. bit.— 202 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. the other is cut buckled into the rein ring at the end of the mouth piece. is not is longer and .
9. .RrWNG BKlCfLE'S. 205 Fig.
but leather is used on all finer grades. creased. . and is stitched no more than is absolutely necessary to secure the various straps.204 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Cheap bridles are sometimes made up with plated rosettes.
HALTERS constitute a very important part of numerous the harness maker's stock.CHAPTER XVIII. are required to suit the preferences of different sections of the country. I. for cutting Fig. The varieties are though apparently unnecessary. The lengths for cutting are : Inches. HALTERS. represents the United States Government regulation halter. . while the lengths and the directions for making up will be found of great value in the work shop. the principal merit of which is its strength and simplicity it is easy to adjust. and render it obligatory on harness makers to be prepared at all times to meet the demands of their customers. The many illustrations in this chapter will enable the manufacturer to present to his customers correct representations to select from. they . and can not be slipped off by the horse rubbing his head against posts or other objects. Crown Cheeks piece 26 8 Chape 14 .
. Fig. 2. I. Fig.2o6 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
is the Spanish halter it bears a genresemblance to Fig. or stem Billet 6 84 ID The use. but it is put together in a different manner has a front and a cockeye attached to the bolt piece all the straps but the front are cut long. The Fig.HALTERS. D . lengths for cutting are : Inches. for general i inch is wide enough. regulation width is li inches. i. 17 34 36 10 19 Bolt piece Front the latter All the straps but the front are \\ inches wide is i inch wide rings are used for . . if double single 22 30 18 18 Nose piece Bolt piece 18 made up Hitching strap. from which it was modeled. Inches. . 2 . eral . however. Crown piece 42 8 Buckle chape Throat piece Buckle chape 28 21 Cheek pieces Nose piece ^^^ Chin piece i~^ . 207 Throat piece Chin piece. and are doubled and stitched.
3.2o8 THE HARNESS JIAKERS' ILLUSTRATED JIANUAL Fig. 4. Fig. .
the cheeks inches. halter as well. which is of patent leather. or is groom. Crown Cheeks piece Split 22 6 15 . 209 the upper. Fig. ting are Inches. The lengths for cuttop. a flat hal- made with iron having three rings attached. and square loops for the lower.: HALTERS. is 2^ inches wide in i|. and padded. is The nose a heavy piece cleaning. and all other straps i inch the lining. Crown piece 24 5 End split Cheek pieces Nose piece Chin piece 11 16 17 Chape Throat latch Front Lining to nose piece 6 22 18 24 The crown piece is 2^ inches wide. heavy leather. 3 is . 4 ter. these being used to secure the horse's head in any desired The nose piece plate is lined with position. a heavy French stall halter of ornamental design and finish it is used as a bridle Fig. the center. ends of the cheeks. The cutting lengths are: Inches.
s.2IO THE HARNESS makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Fig. . Fig. 6.
All the principal straps are cut of bridle or buff leather. Inches. nose and chin pieces | of an inch wide.HALTERS. those holding the throat strap rings have a small billet by which the rings are secured. 2 I 1 Throat latch Front 22 27 13 II 11 Nose piece Pad roll Chin billet Chape 6 is The crown latch |- piece of an inch. The chapes are all of an ornamental pattern. The lengths for cutting are: Inches. . a training halter Fig. represents of a neat and tasty design. made up 10 8 6^ The cheeks and bolt pieces are i inch wide. the throat other straps i inch wide. those for securing the ends of the strapping to the rings are cut double. leather for bridle light-colored leather halters. 5 all cut i^ inches. Long cheek piece " 23 17 18 12 " Short Throat piece Nose piece. or of heavy twilled white web the chapes of black harness . Chin piece Buckle chape Bolt piece. and or buff leather for web halters.
Fig. . 8.212 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
The lengths for cutting are . 213 Fig-. including crown piece 27 15 Short cheek Front Chin piece 19 18 18 Nose piece Throat latch Billet If 17 9 web and leather la3rers are used. Long cheek. or black leather. using fancy or plain leather for rosettes. front. or .HALTERS. : Inches. the only difference being in the ing the throat piece. one of the most desirable styles use. and a buckle be attached to the short cheek piece. thus dispensing with buckles except on the throat latch chape if these rosettes are not accessible. russet. the chapes should be of russet leather metallic rosettes having a stout center pin and four loops on the under side are used to connect the various parts. like the preceding one. or of linen web. and in the use of cheeks. 7 represents a bitting in halter. russet. 6 is another st3-le of training halter. The cheeks i are cut li inches. When the latter is used. It closely resembles the straight cheek style of years past. and chin and the throat latch | of an inch wide. square loops may be used for the lower ends of the cheeks. . the nose. is made of buff. deduct from these lengths 3 inches for each lap. which. manner of attachtwo short This may be made of buff. Fig. inch.
. Fig.M4 THE HARNESS makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. io. g. Fig.
the manner of attaching the throat and the use of but one buckle on the The cuttings are the same. which are cut cheeks. and are provided with a short screw. Fig. cut so as to obviate the use of the usual buckles or rings in the cheek pieces. Long cheek Short cheek 25 16 The loops used for securing the throat piece are of metal or leather. by which they are held in position. crowns. 215 black leather. piece are cut ij inches wide . 7.: : HALTERS. Fig. represents a strong stable halter. the difference being in strap. The billet to the stem . Crown Cheeks piece 32 10 Chin. and throat latch are ticed. Inches. The buckles used on the checks are extra heavy. with the exception of the cheek pieces. 8 closely resembles Fig. 9 of different construction than any previously noThe cheeks. The lengths for cutting are Inches. the side bar being made to answer as a substitute for loops to which the throat piece is attached. double 24 8 18 Buckle chape Nose Throat piece 22 15 Loop piece All the straps with the exception of the throat this is cut i inch.
2l6 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Fig. II. Fig. 12. .
double Chin. are also in one piece. cheek. 10 represents another peculiar style. double 29 22 23 23 18 Nose. for cutting are : The lengths Long Inches. Head piece Nose piece Braces Hitching strap 50 28 12 84 All the straps are cut of uniform width. II represents a double cheek halter.: . including throat latch 52 Short cheek. Crown Buckle chape Cheeks Billets 20 8 22 9 22 Extra crown piece . Attach the braces 9 inches from the ring on the head piece. The lengths for cuttings are I Inches. It is signed for a slip halter. or loop piece. comde- monly known as the Yankee is : halter. double Billet to stem Fig. HALTERS. The Inches. 217 and the bolt. Fig. designed to be used for training purposes. including billet to throat . latch : Front. either or li inches. and lengths for cutting are easily made.
piece is cut i inch wide . 12 represents another style of four ring being in halter. Nose piece Chin piece. . Crown Cheeks Cheek billets Nose piece Chin. double Front Throat latch 1 24 22 22 The crown straps. the buckles the cheek pieces . all other f of an inch wide. Fig. 13 is inch.8 2l8 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. . 17 14 7 18 . . J The cheeks. double Chin piece. may be covered with a rosette. also designed for a training halter. the rings sired. Long cheek and crown Short cheek 1 hroat latch and crown Nose piece. double in 32 15 one 42 24 23 8 Loop piece . . and bolt piece are cut ij i inches wide. 30 26 5 Bolt piece . crown. : The lengths for cutting are Inches. Inches. if de- The lengths for cutting are Inches. double Throat piece . the other straps. Fig.
15. . 219 Fig.HALTERS.
The lengths Inches. the same ter. 15 represents ring with and buckles on the cheeks. Fig. for cutting are Cheeks Billets 12 51 18 8 Crown piece Buckle chape All other straps. halter inch. : Inches. front. excepting the this is f of an inch. double piece. except on the top of the crown.: 220 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. 16 represents a very convenient slip hal The lengths for cutting are : . The lengths for cutting are . i Fig. Cheeks Throat latch Billet 21 20 6 23 25 8 Nose Chin piece. as well as the widths. The nose and cheeks are secured in position by a layer which secures the rings the throat latch is stitched to the back cheek piece just below the face piece. 14 represents a double cheek halter with: out buckles. double Loop piece The cheeks I are cut ^ inch wide a four . Fig. as in Fig. front All the straps are i inch wide. other straps.
Crown and throat latch in one strap in one Nose and chin Cheeks Bolt piece 30 26 10 7 Cuttings for a halter common bridle or three ring Length. inches. doubled 30 18 i Bolt piece Throat latch Stem Billet Bit strap 39 84 9 9 f I I I web Crown A halter 24 8 5 i^ Cheeks Chapes 4 i J . The lengths for cutting are Inches. Width. Fig. inches. 221 Crown piece 21 Throat and cheek pieces in one Nose and chin piece in one All the straps are cut i 38 24 inch wide. Cheek. 17 represents a convenient style of tean'. halter to be worn with the bridle.: : : HALTERSi Inches. including crown piece Short Front 34 12 i I I i I- 24 18 Nose band Chin.
16. Fig.i22 THE HAfil>rEgg MAKfiRS' ILLUSTRATED MAN'UAL. Fig. . 17.
and bring the crown end up on the off side this will place the buckle on the near side.. 12 i] i Chapes Nose Throat latch. which easily adjusts itself to the head of any horse. inches. leather Chin piece. . leather Bolt piece 13 1} | -| 39 30 18 i Yankee one ring halter: Crown Braces piece. and bend down for ring. . . Set the crown piece at an angle so as to take the upper end of the braces. 22 ^ Width. This makes a convenient halter. and bend down the buckle lap buckle then . cut for the tongue.HAtTERS. Length. and bend for nose band place the brace in the center between the front of the nose band and center of the chin piece at the ring cross the strap through the ring. inches. nose and chin in one 84 12 i i To make measure this halter. . off 12 inches. then then 28 inches.. Front.
etc. a description of which would be of no practical use to the harness maker. : the freest movement of the horse's leg. in that nearly all are drawn in exact proportions and the descriptions are such that a harness maker may readily furnish a customer with any desired pattern. quarter. such as the knee. for there is no part of the limb.CHAPTER XIX. There are many patented boots.. To ac- . though not all the varieties in the market. The illustrations in this chapter have an advantage over those found elsewhere. for which boots are not made. each of which has its distinctive name. was not so far from the truth as many persons would suppose. from the bottom of the hoof up to the body. There are several classes ot boots. some ot them possessing merit. Making horse boots is not a simple operation success depends upon their being so constructed that they will retain their position without being strapped so tight as to interfere with artist THE with who his legs . and combination. shin. pictured a horse on the track encased in boots. The illustrations in this chapter represent the general styles. HORSE BOOTS. ankle. from the knee down.
and is stitched to the shield is put in. taken out at C. and the edges joined to secure the shape. which is worked up full in the center a gore is cut in . as shown by A and B the former is worked up nearly flat. D. where it is shaped to fit to B. boot in use it is made of heavy bridle leather. . two pieces. When fullness is to be given to the shields. The securing strap is also lined with buckskin and stuffed with felt the billet. the two small loops hold the billet in position. Fig. the best plan is to cut out a V and stitch the edges together they may. it .is twenty inches long and one half inch wide. being passed around the boot before it is buckled the drawing is one quarter size. The securing strap. except that portion below D. heavy knee boot. Fig.. The buckle chape is stitched to a strong loop at the other end of the main strap before the lining . . and stitched down all around a very little wool or hair is placed between the two. is of medium weight bridle leather. . 225 Complish this. however. which is of buckskin. the leather used for shields must be worked up firm and the securing straps placed where they will draw in direct lines. is stitched to the securing strap. each class will be described separately. HORSE BOOTS. For convenience. The lining. is turned in all around. I represents one of the best styles of knee . be stamped up with dies. so that the edge is placed between the two pieces. 2 is a plain. which . and the center is secured by stitching at the highest point in the shield B. This is cut .
Fig.- Fig.226 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. I. . 2.
3. 6 and 7 represent two patterns of knee boots of an entirely different model from the above. The billet is cut one half inch wide and fourteen inches long. padded with felt. the lower part has a half inch raise in the center . The body of Fig. but The proportions are the is made up plainer. two . Fig 4 differs but little in shape from Fig. and lined with buckskin. . the lining is of buckskin. to . placed as shown on the main strap. The drawing is one quarter size. . . each one inch long. . This boot when made up is nine inches long. The proportions in the drawing are based upon that measurement. same. Fig. . produce the requisite fullness it is lined with buckskin and padded with a single thickness of felt the lining is cut large and the edge turned in so as to form a roll all around two heavy pads are attached to the under side as bearings one is shown by the line X. There are five small loops. firm leather. 22^ from one piece of leather that portion above the securing strap is flat. It is cut from one piece of harness or bridle leather the cap piece is gored in . the one under the buckle is about three quarters of an inch thick both are made of felt placed under the buckskin. places. wool or hair being used ing strap is for padding. . 3 represents a peculiar shaped but desirable knee boot.aORSE BOOTS. Figs. They are also much lighter. the other is placed directly under the buckle the center-pad is nearly one inch thick. The secur- cut of good.
. 4- Fjg.SzS THE HARNESS MAKERs' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Pig. 5.
HORSE BOOTS. X . 7. 6. stitched to the is felt and lined with buckskin of several thicknesses of full in the center. 5 the body represents a knee pad or breaking boot the leg strap is is made of heavy felt . when on the knee. and slightly padded with felt. the Fig. though designed for the same purpose as Fig. . are raised about three quarters of an inch they are of felt. shown by the dotted lines.. The is less likely to bind is so placed that it does not bear lower billet upon the cords sufficiently to displace it when the knee is bent. and of similar material as Fig. The other proportions. full size. The upper or cut nineteen inches long and five eighths ol an inch wide the lower billet is cut ten inches long and one half inch wide. leg strap is . there being at least great variety pat- fifty different . 6 is 229 made of enameled leather. 6. . lined throughout . Fig. being more open. as shown. covered with buckskin. made worked up Combination boots are made of styles. It is made up in the same manner . in a the knee safe bridle leather. is much lighter. with buckskin the shield is of heavy harness leather struck up full. The long or top billet is cut eight inches long and three quarters of an inch wide the bottom billet is cut six inches long and three quarters of an inch wide a small gore is cut at the edges are together and blind stitched before the drawn The drawing is one third lining is stitched in. are one third the full size. The bearing pads. and. .
Fig. . Fig. 6. 7.230 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
of the body by the use of these is boot is freed from the rigidity so often noticeable. and the horse relieved from any undue pressure. . nine inches wide and six and one half inches deep the billets are four inches. 8 represents a shin and ankle boot. The shield when made up is eight inches long the reduced size of the drawing is based upon that measurement. and the lined . Fig. The styles illustrated comprise the regular lines. The body ter is is leather. are all that are needed. terns in use. and. .. with the slight variations necessary to secure a good fit. designed expressly to protect the shin to this is attached a cap piece for covering the knee or ankle. which may also be used as a shin and knee boot. . bound on the top and bottom edges with thin leather. made of heavy felt. Another style of shin and ankle boot is shown by Fig. the shield of worked up full at the ankle end to the harness the lat- stitched body with a single row around the edge and a few stitches at each end. HORSE BOOTS. strips of elastic of leather web these are attached to the body by the stitching shown on the strips nearest the shield the remaining portion of the webs and the straps to which the buckle chapes and billets are at. . and throughout with buckskin the shield is padded with hair. 9. : . The shaded spaces on each side represent strips the blank space A. is 231 The principal portion of the shield . tached are left loose. The body is of heavy felt. The dimensions of this boot are body. the portion under them acting as a elastic strips the safe .
Fig. S. Fig. . g.232 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
. lined with buckskin. A. a leather. C. The body . stitched together on the edges and through the center. and stuffed with hair. bound with buckskin the shield. A light cord and knee boot is shown by Fig. Fig. double stitched. and bound with light enameled leather the leg strap is made of strips of black enameled leather. worked up full and padded with hair. 12 represents a combined shin. The drawing is one sixth actual size. 233 buckle chapes three inches. . two pieces of elastic . lined with buckskin. Fig. ID. lets on the body are five inches long and one half inch wide the billet on the leg strap is five and one half inches long and one half inch wide. worked up full at the lower end piece of heavy leather. The shield is reduced in the same proportions as the body. stuffed with hair so as to make a cushion about one half inch thick. The billets are cut three eighths of an inch wide and seven inches long.. the buckle chapes the same width and one and one quarter inches long the proportions are one sixth the full size. 1 1 illustrates a knee and cord boot of an. long. B. The shield is of heavy harness leather. ankle. it is attached to the body by two thicknesses of black enameled leather the shield The bilis of heavy leather. The body is made of black enameled leather. is of heavy felt. is cut of medium weight harness leather. other pattern. and cord boot. . The body. . of heavy harness D.HORSE BOOTS. padded with hair. the buckskin lining extending the full length of the shield.
10. . Fig.2-34 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Fig. Fig. t2. II.
. the outside piece being cut a little wider than the other the web is secured in position by the stitching which is used to attach the shield A and piece D to the body and lining the billets are attached at the shield. as shown in E. made of heavy leather. . Two other styles of combination boots are shown by Figs. bound with light enameled leather the shield is the ankle portion is of heavy harness leather worked up full and hard owing to the thickness of the material used in the body. . When the cord piece is used. C. the thin piece is placed between the two pieces of web. an inside layer being attached at the top of the cap and extending up to the top. . . The drawing is one fourth the actual size. lined with buckskin at the lower end. 23s web. through which a round leather lacer passes. . boot. HORSE BOOTS. . an ankle and wrist Fig 13. and the top. and pass through small loops near the outer edge of the body E represents the cord piece. scale. cut five and one half inches long and one half inch wide the kersey body is cut nine and one half inches wide across the top and eight inches long the shield is three and three quarter inches in diameter all other parts are drawn to the same used.. where there are two holes. The wrist strap is of elastic web it passes between the shield and body. 13 and 14. and is held in posiThe billets for the top are tion by the stitching. secured by the lacer. no stuffing is . is of heavy blue kersey. and by which the top ends are joined. . . the body.
14. Fig. 13.236 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. . I'te.
The body to the ankle portion is also of enameled leather. about one half the length being rounded and covered with buckare the . .HORSE BOOTS. skin. ankle. lined throughout with buckskin. 2^7 Fig. The set of this piece depends much upon the position of the billets and buckle chape these are shown in their proper position. A shin. all other proportions being relatively the same. 15 shows a design of shin and ankle boot intended as a protection to the hind legs. The shin shield has but little fullness. 14 represents a combined shin. the padded section being quilted to hold the hair in position. the ankle shield is two and three quarter inches in diameter. otherwise the proportions same the billets are cut five inches long and one half inch wide. . lined in like manner as the shin body the shield is of harness leather. and is padded on the under side with hair placed between the enameled leather and the buckskin. worked up full and hard. and speedy cut boot is shown by . Fig. It is cut two inches longer than the latter. The body of the shin boot is eight and three quarter inches across the top and ten and three quarter inches across the bottom the shield is seven and three quarter inches long. and wrist boot. ankle. The wrist web is seveneighths of an inch wide. The body is made of black enameled leather. 13. The ankle billet is cut eight inches long and five eighth inches wide. made up of the same materials and in the same manner as Fig. .
. Fig.238 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. 15.
which is two and one half inches in diameter. . is made of harness leather. . one half inch wide. is made up separate from the shin boot. lighter than most other kinds. The illustration is drawn to one quarter the full size. of harness leather. covered with buckskin the one imder the chape is two and . and the location of the shield is such as to give greater protection to The the ankle than that of the ordinary boot. . Fig. C. and is held in position by the lower billet of the latter passing through a long loop on the top end. . the edges are closed up smooth under the concave of the shield. . Two bearing cushions are used. C. the pattern being one of the best in use the speedy cut portion. 16. B. . which. lined with buckskin the shield. D. is of heavy kersey the shield. worked up slightly in the leg part and full at the ankle the under side ot the shield is padded with hair the pastern piece. of harness leather. . 17 represents an improved ankle boot. slightly rounded up the billet attached to the pastern piece is covered for about one half its length with buckskin. The body. body is cut of harness leather the shield. is designed for the hind leg. the other as shown by the dotted lines near the billet these are of felt. The two upper boot billets are five inches long and five-eighths of an inch wide the lower billet is cut nine inches long the pastern billet is cut eight inches long. like the preceding boot.HORSE BOOTS. . . . . worked up full and hard a gore is taken out of the body. one imder the buckle chape. . is of black enameled leather. 239 Fig.
'i6. . FiG.240 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
it.. . Fig. is heavy is kerse}'. full measurements are: . as well as the buckle chapes. three and one half inches wide at the as well as the shield. are stitched to the body two and one half inches back of the Fig. HORSE BOOTS. one inch depth at the the top the one half inch wide. 241 one quarter half inches wide . edges. one and one long and seven eighths of an inch the boot is lined throughout with thin . up and hard it is the body . A The full more expensive boot shield is is shown by of of heavy russet leather struck . The line. four inches. eight and one half inches ends. 18 represents a plain. The billets are five and one half inches long and one half inch wide . by a single row of : stitching. of russet nine inches long and one inch wide is the leg strap secured to the body The various proshield. inches the other. they. is cheap ankle boot . single or double of harness leather. four and one half inches portions are long. The center of shield is six and one quarter inches from the corner at the billet end and five inches at buckle end the billet is six inches long and . bound with buckskin leather. the body of heavy kersey. 19. length on the top width of square widest point. patent leather. the shield is worked up full and hard at the ankle the shield is six inches long and three and one half inches wide at widest point and two inches wide at the the top the proportions of the body are based upon this measurement. .
18.242 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. 17. . Fig. Fis.
and the billet eleven inches long. worked up hard and . class . the outlines of the other by the dotted line near the top of the shield. . body is cut of is medium weight harness leather shield the layer cut of heavy stock. the edges of which are afterwards joined and blind stitched on the outside the edges of the gore must be cut with a slight curve. in order to secure a regular circular fullness the layer is cut of heavy . These are of buckskin. The large drawing is one half actual size. . the buckle chape cut three and one half inches long. care being taken to avoid all irregularities. is one and one half inches long and one half inch thick the billet is cut six inches long and one half inch wide. . of which there is a great variety but those shown by the smooth all . The small cut A represents a side view of this boot. and the edges are joined and secured by blind stitches a sniall section is gashed to form . illustrations are all that are required for general use. A. Heel boots constitute a distinct class. Fig. with hair. stuffed . Two bearing cushions are used one is shown by C. 243 broadest point and two inches at the leg strap the bearing pad. stiffened by the layer under the three gores are cut out of the top of the body. a large gore is cut out of the top side. worked up is full and stitched to the body . The inside of the boot is skived off around the lower edge.HORSE BOOTS. . Fig. 21 represents a well fitting boot of this the . 20 represents the hard leather cup ankle The body is cut of heavy harness leather boot. leather. .
244 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. .
. Fig. a fringe. A plain. is lined . indicated line. .. the ends being fastened by means of loops attached to one. and three inches at the ends the shield is six inches long and two . HORSE BOOTS. and holes cut through the other to admit their passing through they are then locked by a heavy billet as shown. The full length of the body is twelve inches depth. lined with felt the top edge is cut as shown to provide a yielding surface and pre. the line being described by a twelve inch radius the lower line is contracted by the goring to twenty inches the depth when made up is four inches. . section. and is secured as shown by the lines of stitching. serviceable quarter boot is shown by Fig. . by the dotted . ^45 The body is cut nine and one half inches long on the top line. five and one half inches the bottom line has a sweep of three inches the buckle and roller loop chape is cut three and one half inches long. 23 represents a toe boot for the hind foot this is made up of heavy harness leather . Buckles are not used. . . the top with buckskin and padded. 22 it is made of a single piece of heavy harness leather. An ordinar)^ boot is fourteen inches long on the top line of stitches. four and one half inches deep in the center. . . to the top and within one half inch of the bottom. and one half inches deep the billets are three inches long and one and one half inches wide. vent injury to the horse six gores are taken out of the bottom the edges are joined to produce the required shape the felt lining extends .
Fig. Fig. 22. Fig. Fia. 21. 23. I 3.246 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSJ-RATED MANUAL. 34- .
. ^47 is Another boot designed for the same purpose shown by Fig. The billet is fourteen inches long and five eighths of an inch wide the buckle chape is nine and one half inches long it is attached to the lower edge of the body. . A. is of lead. . of heavy leather. this is cut of heavy leather. . but they properly belong to this department. the weight. 28. 24.. and passes through a slot on the opposite side the billet is attached in like manner and passed through a similar slot. 27. . the quarter form being produced by gores the quarter is lined with heavy felt and stiffened by layers the toe weight and securing hook are secured by a piece of leather stitched to the body the securing strap is stitched to the toe. . Fig. Toe weight boots are designed for an entirely different purpose than those previously noticed. this is secured by a single strap which passes through the slots in the body and hook. cut twentyone and three quarter inches long on the lower line. A combined weight and quarter boot is shown by Fig. 26 and 27 the body. The body of the boot is of heavy leather. The body is cut of one piece. 25 represents a boot with two weights. and three and one eighth inches deep in the center. . is of leather. Another toe weight is shown by Figs. covered with leather. the top being lined with buckskin to make a cushion one inch deep. haying two slots as shown by X. B. secured by an adjustable hook shown by Fig. and passes through a roller loop back to the buckle. A these are of lead. SORSE BOOTS. .
Fig. 25. Fig. 28. Fig.248 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. 27. .
and by the application of an electric current the fine metal is evenly deposited upon the surface of the iron or composition. Plated mountings are divided into two classes close plate. The sole aim is to give a correct description of the va- rious kinds. is notthe IN tention of the author to draw comparisons init as to the respective merits of any class or style. their peculiarities of manufacture. . those in which the fine metal is dissolved and formed into a liquid solution. they be divided into five classes. or nickel pure metal covered. . describing harness mountings. gold. — . and tinned. and such other information as will enable the reader to judge as to the adaptability of any particular style for a specific use. In order that they will . whether silver. and caused to adhere by means of solder and heat elective plate. whether leather or composition japanned. as follows Plated. may be fully explained. those in which the fine metal is rolled out in thin sheets and applied as a covering to the iron or composition forming the body of the article. into which the articles to be coated are suspended.: CHAPTER XX. HARNESS MOUNTINGS. .
The silver used for close plating . The first weighs 5J. ." The latter is seldom used on harness mountings. Following these are three grades.6 cents. ij light. the second 9-|-. fair. this. The first weighs 8^. fair. the second 6|. a foot of No. too. are three grades. The second is also designated as " Knob . and stout. i silver.^ inches in width the second weighs 3^ penn3'-weights. is rolled out in designated by sheets of various thicknesses. 6^ inches wide. " Heavy Knob. this are three grades. designated as No. designated as No. would be worth 13. and the third io|. and stout. fair. designated as No.pennyweights to the foot. and numbers. as it can not be woi'ked to an advantage except by the hard solder process. 2^ light. while afoot of is " Knob" silver would be 64. the government standard. and the third 7^ pennyweights to the foot. It will be seen that there are eight grades of silver below the " Knob. which is too expensive for harness work. the. based upon .250 THE HARNESS makers'' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. i following. lightest being No." and the third. Then. while the Next to these third weighs 4} pennyweights. the cost of greater for putting on heavy than The former is so thin that but little . " Knob" silver is the heaviest used for the regular trade. but the actual difference in the prices of the rolled plate even greater than is labor much light silver." which explains in part why there is so great a difference in the prices of plated goods of any one pattern for. 2 light.6. and stout. the former weighing three pennyweights to a foot in length by 6.
but by a little care a person who handles these goods can learn to select each distinct grade. it 25! labor is required to solder to the article to be plated.H'ARlSl^. and an irregularity in the casting will show itself after the work is burnished in fact. it showing a bluish streak the heavier the plate the more distinct the seam. while the extra thickness of the latter necessitates extra skill and time. is less perfect than the former. and metal is . It is not so easy to distinguish between two succeeding grades. Electro plate is less durable than close plate but when deposited in sufficient quantity and hand burnished. I will show minute holes in great number. the surface. as the thin coating of silver is deposited evenly over the entire surface. No. as the minute depressions can not be reached by the burnisher. blemishes are more easily detected after being plated and burnished than before. spots. The peculiar white lustre of silver distinguishes . to determine the quality of the plate. Buyers who are not experts are at a loss how This can be done by examining the surface closely the thinner the silver the less dense and perfect' the surface.sS MOUNTINGS'. however. it will wear well. Close plate can be easily distinguished from the electro plate. . and they therefore show dead. white . while the surface of " Knob" will be perfect to the naked eye. if it is close plate the seam where the joined will be seen at a glance. surface. All that is required is to breathe upon the polished .
the liquid appears brown. but the mark shows no shade of red. nor can there be unless a solder can be produced which will melt under a plating. must be perfectly clean) by means rod. A little of this may be applied to the surface (which of a glass cold water. lower heat than gold. the other processes for appl3nng it to coarser metal not being adapted to harness mountings. This is erroneous. It is the most showy but frailest plating in use the thin deposit is naturally soft. and washed off immediately with There is no such an article of manufacture as close plate gold. If the article tested is pure silver. saturated solution of bichromate of potassa in niit tric acid. Gold plating is always done by the electro process. and but little friction is required to remove it. but in none but the silver does the red mark appear. but there are other tests by which the uninitiated may satisfy themselves as The simplest is to prepare a cold to the quality. On other white metals there are various actions. and loses its lustre more readily than some of the composition white metals. the gold is made more dense than otherwise but even this is not as durable as other . and as there is no such sol- . .ig2 THE HARNESS makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. from other metals. if the article is German silver. Persons unacquainted with the nature of silver condemn an article as impure because of its tarnishing. a blood-red colored mark will appear. as pure silver assumes a dingy reddish brown. If hand burnished.
the nickel will become detached from the iron or — composition core but this is due either to some defect in cleaning the surface to be plated or in the manner of depositing the nickel. . the color is that it will sometimes peel that is.. and being largely used as a plate for all kinds of harness mountings. 253 der at this time. it wears thing well. supplanting as it has in a great measure burnishing on bits. stirrups.HARNnr. etc. and there is every reason to believe that the objectionable features will be overcome. polished steel than any does not tarnish easily.r) ^^ll:. and with the reduction in price it Avill take the place of tinned and other low priced white metal goods. The introduction of nickel as a covering for mountings has produced a marked change in some lines of goods. aluminum. all claims of a gold covered article being close plate are fraudulent. such as brass. The nickel is deposited by the electro process. and The only objection to it aside from not rust. The It color finel}' is a bluish white. oroide. more will closely resembling else. and German silver.--:xcs. Brass has long been a favorite mounting. but. The next class are those goods made of some composition metal. though in this country it has been deemed better suited to express and other heavy mountings than for coach or light carriage harness but fashion has once more brought it . . Improvements are being made in the process of depositing the nickel. as it is a hard metal. spurs.
. It. and readily receives a brilliant polish but its proneness to tarnish is an objection which tends to overcome its good qualities. for a assume the position held by gold time The advantages of brass are for some years past. is quite dense. Oroide. like brass. and for that reason is largely used. alumina bronze. retains its malleathat it can be cast to bility. but if not plated or gilded it possesses but few advantages over ordinary brass. or. and it is likely. and when first introduced was recommended as a substiwhen polished it has a golden tute for gold color. furnishes an excellent base for gilding. Aluminum. as it is also called. . on coach harness. to . It can be cast as easily as brass. . though next to gold in lightness. but its high price prevents its being used for any but the most expensive mountings. however. while it is susceptible of as high a polish as the latter it is tough. .254 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and skill in the moulder in turning it off just when it has been raised to the proper heat. . is a )'ellow metal. is the finest yellow metal produced its color closely resembles that of gold. German silver is used to a considerable extent for mountings which are to be plated with silver. any form. The color is i-egulated by the proportions of the metals forming the compound. and' is equally malleable it can also be used for plating iron articles which are to be gilded. but it tarnishes too easily to be used without being plated. For this purpose it is the best white metal into use at least.
and they should never be these used for check rein hooks of any kind should be of iron. Leather covered is one of the oldest styles of mounting in use. The durability.HARNESS. and can therefore be used in localities where iron can not. the work of putting on being reduced at The inferior character ol least one half thereby. the ferrets. those having a metal core covered with a plastic composition. etc. — . but it was many years before it reached the state of perfection so noticeable at the present time. It does not rust. . or very fine grained kip. light stock. and plated to correspond with . owing to the proneness of the latter to rust particularly on the sea coast. Calfskin. The objection to all composition castings is their lack of rigidity. Composition possesses one great advantage over iron which should be understood by harness makers and consumers. have . are the only kinds of leather suited to covering mountings. . secondly. 2^j known they other kinds have been introduced. those in which the metal is covered with leather. as well as the appearance of these mountings. but not proven suitable for mountings. where the sea air acts very injuriously on plated mountings. with working leather can readily understand the advantage arising from the use of thin. and.MOUNTINGS. depends upon the character of the leather used and the manner of putting it on. but many of the cheaper grades are covered with sheepThose conversant skin or thin split leather. Covered mountings consist of two kinds.
the double and single seams are produced by casting them on the iron and working the leather down smooth to the outlines of the metal. and the leather is worked around the metal by means of slicking sticks. or by placing the article in dies and pressing them together and allowing them to remain on until the leather is dry. after which the seam is stitched by hand or machine.i^6 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. these being protected by the lining . . and the edges joined by means of pinchers. firm leather requires more care in putting on and stitching. The liability of the seam ripping has caused manufacturers to resort to different methods of putting on the leather and securing it one method is the use of two seams on the edges in place of the one center seam so long in use the advantage claimed for this method is the protection given to one side of the seam by the metal lining. entirely on the outside this is with the seam done by joining imitations of the edges of the leather on the inside of the ring. The manner of covering is very simple the leather is first cut to the required shape it is then soaked in water until it is soft and pliable. and the leather blacked and finished. The . and at the same time the article produced the : . Thick. the welt trued off. Another plan is to dispense . is more ornamental. but it finishes much finer. and is more durable than the cheaper work. after which paste is applied. . work shows itself in a short time in the seams ripping or the leather cracking.
J. of Connecticut. these two patents being the first taken out though early in the history of hard rubber. to allow for the full thickness of the leather.HARNESS MOUNTINGS. by Ralph Dunham. Every article is made with a metal core of about the . the rim on the edge forming a perfect protection to the leather nial. though not directly connected with the manufacture of harness. N.. are more generally used than any others. in 1867 Andrew Albright." . as a covering for harness buckles and rings. this style is known as the " Centen- found on Small leather covered harness buckles 263. and a description of the process will serve to give the reader a general idea of their peculiarities and merits. of Newark. which has previously been channeled. The composition covered mountings are hard rubber and celluloid. but the idea was abandoned but since the two patents above mentioned were taken out great improvements have been made. experiments were made in covering harness mountings. obtained a patent for covering harness and carriage mountings with rubber. acknowledged success. The first was patented in illustration of an which will be page 1866. where they are produced at much lower prices than in America. the greater portion of these being imported from England. and rubber mountings are an — . is interesting. The manufacture of these mountings. 257 most recent improvement in making leather covered mountings is to draw the leather over the metal ring.
If any portion is to be plated. After the. the plated parts. very heavy pressure of steam. and the article is then taken to the rubber room The rubber used is of the best to be covered. or hung in an open pan. and sufficiently strong to sustain a. canator. by which time the rubber zine.258 THE HARXESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. struck up in a and made perfectly true by being die. the door is closed and packed tight and the goods are in pans and open steam. varying from one to Is first four lines French measure in thickness. mixed in the proportion of two parts of gum to one part of pulverized sulphur. Sheets of the rubber are laid out on a table and cut to such shapes as are needed for each article to be covered. this is. . . Para gum. buried in soapstone. done. and is kept rolled up in enameled cloth. and allowed to remain in this condition overnight. The vulcanator is a large tube made of boiler iron. becomes sticky it is then wrapped around the metal body. The various pieces are then laid out on a piece of enameled cloth and saturated with ben- covered up. are covered with tin foil. or casting. when they are ready to be vulcanized to do this the goods are either placed in moulds. This core. same weight as that used for leather covered cleaned up work. . goods are in the vul. care being taken to exclude air and to firmly weld the edges after covering. if there be any." they are subfor the steam let on . . it is furnished in long sheets. if are to be cured by " jected to a heat of 20 degrees additional degrees are gradually one hour 10 added each hour.
and does not fade through use. this sets the rubber. from which they are taken to the buff wheels the first is used with rotten stone. then cleaned on the ash wheel. the goods are at the start). Up to the present time these goods have never been made anywhere but in this country. the second is dry having passed through these. . etc. tlie heat is raised to 65 degi'ees After having been subjected to this heat for the proper length of time. forms a true .HARNESS MOUNTINGS. Celluloid mountings are of recent origin.. and are made only in this country. after which they are lined and plated. The composition is a chemical compound which closely resembles amber it can be colored any desirable shade. These mountings. . finish. and made ready for the market. removed. into a tumbling barrel and tumbled with charcoal and water until the rough edges are removed they are then placed into a steam box and heated each article is then placed into steel dies and pressed by powerful hydraulic . They have a fine finish and are very durable. and rings. without doubt. eventually become popular wherever harness is used. the articles have a fine polish and a jet black color. . like those of rubber. when they are ready to be finished. 259 until 65 degrees are reached (where the goods are in soapstone. such as buckles. thrown . Large articles have to be trued up by hand. and sets a row of imitation stitches the smaller articles are again tumbled for a short time. are all small articles. presses . . have a metal core coated with The process of manufacture is the composition. and will.
the produc- . . ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. After being stuffed. which is worked by hydraulic pressure. . The die is then removed. has also difficulty in securing been produced. and again made ready for stuffing. and submitted to a fifty-ton pressure. These are made of metal. The castings are first trued up they are then taken to the stuffer to be coated they are then placed into moulds." for . Black is handsome no the predominating color. After the die is secured in its place. delivery. upon which the castings rest. but a very imitation of russet. after which they are lined. the moulds are closed up and placed into a recess at the foot of the casting The latter is nearly filled with celluloid. or " stuffing dies. a plunger. They are then taken to the hydraulic forming the mountings are put into highly presses polished steel dies. descends upon the hot gum and forces it into the dies in sufficient quantities to completely fill the moulds and cover the metal cores. the goods are removed to a drying room heated by steam. which renders the material compact and produces a finely finished surface. and allowed to season. As there is any color. plated. The recess is provided with a number of small iron pins. After the castings are placed into position. The arrangement of the moulds is precisely the same as that for casting metal. and heated up to 190 degrees. and in a few minutes emptied of its contents. as well as a good flesh color.SOO THE HARNESS MAKERS interesting. and finished up ready for the stuffing cylinder.
The various illustrations of mountings in this chapter represent the popular styles now in the market. These closely resemble ivory in appearance. and then dipped into molten tin. after which they are taken to automatic lathes and turned up. The metal castings are thoroughly cleaned. Celluloid martingale rings are a new article of manufacture. These are cut up into rings and thoroughly seasoned. They are then polished. runs out into tubes of the required size." as a design and a new signs the article of manufacture. and. some of which are made by the general while others are patented either as designs or as new articles of manufacture. The " Grant. " XC plate. which. after being colored. are much stronger." are among quality of the deposit depends entirely skill upon the and care of the workman. and packed ready for shipping." and " . heat. or. however. The Tinned mountings. tion of other shades than those 261 mentioned de- pends upon the demand. They are made of solid gum. They are. quite durable. if properly made. This was fully described in connection with other leather covered mount" Bismarck. Ariington " are patented as deDouble Seam." tirade. they are known by the cheapest lines of goods. so well known that no extended description is necessary. Japanned mountings are those covered with a coat of black varnish which is solidified by These are plain. and are sold at lower prices than the latter. " .HARNESS MOUNTINGS. as the trade.
.262 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. into wJiich leather is worked while wet the ends. One pattern of the ball wire mounting is also patented. firmly secured at the post. owing to its hardness. which. while the ball and base are plated. The wire of this is covered with rubber and finished perfectly plain. All the popular patterns of terrets have hooks and fly terrets to match and in ordering. This is made of metal cast with a recess upon the outside of the band. though not representing all the styles. leaving a narrow black edge with a meThis pattern is not lined. the harness maker or dealer can always procure them in sets or by the package." The centre is black. and the lining. are an imitation seam pricked in on both edges. either white or yellow. The illustrations of post. will wear longer than metal linings. . and head are of metal. . and bolt hooks and head terrets give a general idea of these articles. and lined with hard rubber. ings. Tiiis The " Imperial " is patented as a design. is made of composition metal. the tallic band center. The " Centennial" isanother patented mounting. wear coming direct upon the rubber. pad. the latter being turned up and finished off' flush with the outside. The appearance of this is exactly the reverse of the " Imperial. edges.
263 Ball Wire. Plain Wire. .TERRETS.
.264 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Band. Oval.
266 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
Band Fly Hook.
Oval Fly Hook.
THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
Oval Post Hook.
Ball Wire, Fly.
B^nd C Hook,
FLY BOtr HOOKS.
Oval Fly Bolt Hook.
Band Post Hook.
Oval Pad Hook.
makers' ILLUSTRATITD WAfTUAt.
great variety of harness buckles in the enables the harness manufacturer to procure those suited to every pattern of mounting. The illustrations in. this chapter represent patterns suited to general use. In addition to
these, buckles are
An extended description
The " Sensible" is one of the best in the market, owing to the form of the under side. It does not bend the strap as much as other patterns it can be used wfth oval, " Grant," and band mountThe " Victoria" and " Vermont " match ings. The well with the same patterns of mountings. band, " Bonner," and " Square Philadelphia"
are used with
band patterns, the
and other wire buckles with wire and oval terTrace and collar buckles are made in as rets.
great variety as the smaller harness, the patterns being similar, but the center bar is used but little except as a trace buckle.
A buckle peculiar to this country —one in which
as the "
invention of made by various persons, until at the present
wedge tongue." This was the Improvements were Mr. Coles.
which prevents the wedge getting out of place not drawn up tight. when the trace is peculiarity of this . and bearing a close resemblance to. 3 sition." Fig. The cross loose and the bearings it. 2." operates somewhat differently. The " Coles." Fig. represents the latest improvement in the way of a spring. is upon the pier plate press against producing the same result as the wedge. and at the same time produces a pressure which relieves the strap at the hole of much of the strain which would otherwise be put upon it. This is used on single harness. and are made in all sizes from ij to 2 inches . The " Coles. The buckle is in the wedge. These buckles are very strong. Fig. This is provided with a tongue or spur on the under side. time there are several varieties operating much the same as. i. represents the original after having been so modified as to make it practical. Fig. which sets into a hole in the trace and takes the place of the ordinarj'^ tongue when the trace is drawn up. but bar it shows the " Kinne " This.2 7'2 THE SARrfESS makers'' ILLUSfRAtED MANUAt. 4 represents the " Kinne" without loops. the wedge bears against the cross bar and holds the spur in position. when in pobears a close resemblance to the " Cole. the original.
2.fATENT TRACE BUCKLES. 4- . 27^ Fig. Fig.
Philadelphia. .274 1HE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAIv Sensible. Metropolitan. Vermont. Victoria. Union.
HARNESS BtrcKLETS. West End. Band. tU Square Philadelphia. Bonner Crescent. Crown. .
Barrel Roller. . Covered Bridle. Square Roller. Wire Bridle.276 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAi* "Wire. Covered Ring. Hoiseshoc.
. Covered.TRACE BUCKLES. 277 Ribbon. Band. Covered Roller. Light Band. Sensible.
2 MANUAL. Band. Arlington. Wire. 2/8 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED Imperial. Boston. .
Square. Philadelphia. Boston Oval.COLLAR UUCKLES. jjOop End. . 279 Band.
Congress.28o THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Sensible. Perforated Loop. . Manhattan.
and many are the harsh and brutal devices introduced but with the ex•l . as the having cheek pieces chain." the regular pattern both are made up with as well as jointed mouths. hinge. For this reason be paid to any but those suited The illustrations show a good variety. this is incorrect. 2. and 2 illustrate two . but when a maker re- ceives an order for a " snaffle bit. piece alone decides the name. it is like Fig. stiff. the peculiarity . the " Dexter stiff . being designated as leather. i Figs. BITS. styles of snaffle. lever. etc. is The bit origin of the name unknown . . The first is the second. the mouth post. The snaffle is frequently defined as a bit a jointed mouth . of bit makers of all countries has been taxed to the utmost to produce bits suited to all horses." he furnishes one with cheek pieces like that in and bars of which are of one piece snafHe is Fig. AND BITTING HARNESS. jointed. ring. but they all come under the general classification of snaffle. very few of the harsh kinds are now in use.CHAPTER BITS BRIDLE XXII. if i. or no attention will to the general trade. ''r^HE ingenuity ception of the Mexican or Texan bit. bradoon. the ring a " Dexter" ordered.
The various other patterns shown need no explana- The " . it being large at the cheek and small at the joint. The " Ben Lane. is used more than any For coach or coup6 harness the other pattern. Bits are made of wrought iron throughout." " Dexter. Trotting snaffles are made in a variety of patThe " Dan terns. which prevents the ring slipping through the hole in the heads of the mouth piece. Mace" is one of this class the small loop on the cheek piece is used to secure a cross strap. however. or all malleable. and as a rule with half cheeks. tion. The first are sometimes designated as . 3." Fig.282 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL." and other half cheek bits are also provided with the loop. or gag. ring bit is one having rings instead of rings of A and cheek pieces combined. wrought mouth and malleable cheeks. but the wire is of uniform thickness. Hanoverian. Lever. The portion. thus connecting the two cheeks in such a manner that they act together when either rein is pulled. which is surrounded by the head on the mouth piece is turned so as to give a straight bearing and provide two shoulders. bits (as they bit are generally called) are made up in a variety of ornamental patterns. and the ring is loose in the ends of the mouth piece. " Buxton" is the most popular. This has a scroll cheek and a loose mouth. which slides up and down on a straight section of the cheek. with stiff or loose cheeks. which is the shape of the mouth piece. The bra- doon has a ring cheek.
the numbers 1. with 24 as the pattern number. ciently strong. 1336. A very for a loose ring bit the first and last num- bers would be the same. 6. and no horse possessing any spirit should be driven with any in their fine iron seldom used manufacture. 1246.. the first and last numbers being changed to designate quality and size. 5. If a buyer orders a No. but this a mere pretence. 7. he would secure the same kind of bit with three inch rings . convenient manner of numbering has been adopted by some bit manufacturers. 3.BITS AND BITTING HARNESS. other. . and a " Hanoverian" by 1766. but it is the only reliable kind. give the size of the mouth pieces in sixteenths of an inch the addition of the fraction ^ designates a jointed mouth. a snaffle by by 1536. is 283 steel bits .2. a which should never be used. malleable cheek bit is the wrought mouth and and lastly. A first quality loose ring bit would be designated by No. Snaffles are designated by 52. as steel is being preferable. and " Han- overians" by "jQ. etc. . having two i|inch rings. The wrought bit is the most expensive. he would be furnished with a first quality ring bit with a -j^ inch mouth piece. and 9 1526. represent the quality the final numbers. Some are suffi- Next to this . When used first. a half cheek snaffle . but the unreliability of malleable iron should condemn it for bits of any kind. 8. by which a buyer can tell at a glance just what the article is. Should the number be 1356. and half cheek of the regular pattern by 53. the all malleable. 4.
Ben Lane. . 6. Fig.2S4 THE harness-makers' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
Fig. Check Bradoor. . Dan Mace Ring. 285 Half Check Dexter.BRIDLE BITS. 5.
crupper strap. style of halter. which. " outside silver plated. Bits are finished in a variety of styles. as fol- lows " Polished. are all well delineated and require no explanation. plated the . Fig. but are burnished up in the best manner "nickel. i. as . . but a description or illustration would be of no general value.." those in which the cheeks and " half silends of the mouth piece are plated ver plated. which are free to manufacturers in this country. is used. . I represents the plain wooden jockey. the saddle to which is made of iron padded with felt and covered with collar leather the ends of the reins are of elastic web." those having only the cheek pieces : . shown by Fig." those plated with nickel. Plating with other metals is designated in a similar manner. There are several patented devices. outsides of the BITTING HARNESS. though undoubtedly the best for this purpose. produces the desired result in a more humane manner than when the old style. The manner of attaching. etc. . 2 represents an improved jockey of English manufacture the arms of this are of gutta percha and whalebone instead of wood the various straps are all provided with elastic ends." those in which cheek pieces are plated.. Fig. 286 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. The two illustrations of bitting harness in this chapter represent the most complicated. it is claimed." those which are not plated. "all over silver plated.
BITTING HARNESS. .87 .
plain bitting which the cheeks.266 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Another Fig. needs no description. bearing a close resemblance to has steel springs attached to the back of the arms at the lower ends. the wooden arms slots for the reins to pass are provided with through before being secured to the steel springs. to which the reins are attached . . are attached to a broad surcingle. harness. in The etc.. I. style.
289 .BITTING HARNESS.
so that in appearance and pliability it will be as nearly as possible what it was when first made. an absolute necessity. restoring a buckle. from the nature of the articles recommended. as well as from the crudeness of the instructions. or splicing a strap. Repairing is something more than securing a ripped stitch. are calculated to mislead. In repairing. and experience. REPAIRING HARNESS. TO repair harness well is quite as much of an to art as to make up new stock. renovation and softening of the leather. and which. owing the gradual spread of the custom of sending the harness to the shop instead of leaving the matter when repairs are needed. — . To to stablemen . judgment.. and. This is particularly the case at the present time. two results are to be sought one is the complete restoration of strength and form the other. and not unfrequently in those devoted to mechanics. the proper performance of the work is. in a business point of view. these the merest novice in the business can accomplish but to repair properly requires skill. when new methods and directions are found in every agricultural journal. CHAPTER XXIII.
REPAIRING HARNESS. and such other parts as are lined with cloth or are stuffed then clean the straps. make all needed repairs. and a little labor will prove equally efficacious in removing all superfluous substances. unbuckle and separate all patent and fancy colored from the plain leather wherever it also from pads. if the latter can not be its place (strong soap should never be used. a scraper. . After thoroughly cleaning the leather. with the exception of polishing. loops.. as the alkalies penetrate the leather and harden it). had. etc. buckles. should be scraped with a smooth edged scraper. treat the leather the same as though the harness were new then with a stiff brush clean out whatever dirt may be in and will surface grease and accumulated dirt more effectually . black up. water and crown soap . Tepid water.. but nothing destroy harness leather than these articles: they penetrate almost instantly. This brushing is often omitted. . treating both sides of the strap in the same manner. and if used to any extent. and then washed with tepid do . as the fine dirt is thus removed. 29I this. benzine. but it is almost as important as the cleaning of the surface of the leather. around the stitches. Turpentine. These. and it does not interfere in any way with the pep'=-tra. soap. use castile soap in are often recommended for removing the . without leaving injurious effects. and burn and harden the fibre. and. if gummed. the injury can not be corrected. can be done without ripping gig saddles. etc.
The animal oil. which is applitwo waj-s of doing this the first. as soon as the surface of the leather is dry.292 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. the the leather tor oil. owing to its heavy body. applying it with a sponge. and is only It penetrates inferior to neat's-foot or pure cod. rapidly. but the latter is undoubtedly the best. on the other hand. but. which" is. after all. . softens well. the only real therefore better assimilates with the fibre. lost its and needs thorough renovation. softens the fibre. become hard. . The tal- low should be warmed being spread 011 sufficiently to allow of its it with a brush. water having opened the pores. protection against the action of water. it fills up the pores and thus prevents the subsequent absorption of tallow. and fits it to take up a much greater quantity of tallow. give it a coat of pure neat's-foot oil (the purer the oil the better) the oil penetrates the . however. and is free from gum. is : cable to leather which has color. There are ready for oiling or greasing. and Casan excellent article. The harness now being cleaned and it repaired. opens the pores. and. some of is its natural properties. and at the same time retains a firm hold it will also last as long as neat's-foot oil. as it restores to leather. and Some authorities recomit is quickly absorbed. is to apply a little vinegar black wherever the leather appears red then dampen each strap with a small quantity of tepid water. mend castor oil in place of the neat's-foot. but must not be . tion of the oil or grease into the pores of the leather or around the stitches.
as soon as the oil has dried in,
and brush well
assist it to enter the
Lay all the straps out straight, and, after coating them with tallow, allow them to remain in that condition for several hours then rub them
with a woolen cloth until all surplus grease is removed Irom the surface, after which varnish black may be applied if desired but the latter is not absolutely necessary, excepting when the leather is miich worn and the color injured. The second manner of applying grease is to slightly dampen the leather after it has been thoroughly cleaned, and as soon as the surface rhoisture is removed, apply a coat of warm tallow, and allow the straps to remain coated with it until the moisture has died out, afterward cleaning the tallow off as in the first case. This answers very well for harness when the leather has not become hard but looks dry on the surface. In the absence of grease, leather absorbs water very rapidly, and unless the pores be well filled with the former, the latter will soon obtain the mastery and convert the leather from a soft, pliant, tough material to a hard, bony, and brittle
itself will resist the action of water longer than neat's-foot oil, but it does not impart the same softness to the fibre as does the latter, while the oil, though it softens the leather, fails to form much of a barrier against the entrance of water. Both articles are therefore necessary in order to secure pliability and dura-
Other greases may be used, but
are the original qualities of the leather contained to the same extent as in those recommended. the leather presents a rusty appearance, not red, it should be blacked with hatters' black, or a more simple black made of 2 ounces of the extract of logwood and ^ ounce of bichromate of potash pounded fine and dissolved in 4 quarts of boiling rain or river water. This can be bottled and kept on hand. It should be applied with a brush.
Harness when in use becomes soiled either by the action of the atmosphere on the grease the latter being drawn to the surface, where it be-
comes impregnated with dust, and forms a dirty coating or by the impurities in the oilused in currying the leather. In the latter case, in addition to the dirty grease, spots of gum of various sizes form on the surface. These can only be removed by scraping, or by the use of an ammoniated soap, made of oleic acid heated to a temperature of 100°, into which ammonia (of 0.96 specific gravity) is stirred until the smell of the latter ceases to disappear by action of the acid. Patent leather can only be restored to its original polish by the use of varnish, but it may be greatly improved by applying castor oil, and, after it has been upon the leather an hour or more, removing the surplus grease with a woolen cloth, and rubbing with a dry silk or woolen rag until the polish is brought out. In every case remove all the mountings possible without
ripping the straps, and clean them before replacing.
to thus clean, repair,
a harness, but these directions,
followed, will secure a
leather has not
become bony and harsh from
will be to all
good as new. For repairing or new work there is no blacking in the market that answers the purpose better than that of Frank Miller & Co. It possesses the necessary elements for softening and giving a fine finish to the leather, and increasing its
CARE OF HARNESS IN FACTORY AND STABLE.
the treatment received after leaving the hands of the workman yet a large percentage of manufacturers, as well as consumers, are very careless and negligent in protecting their goods from injury by the elements. Consumers, as a rule, are entirely unacquainted with the peculiarities of the stock used, and they can not, therefore, be expected to know how to guard it against various destructive influences, but the harness maker can not plead ignorance. Leather as received from the tanner does not possess the requisite qualifications for harness. These the currier supplies by the addition of oil and grease, together with the labor
THE appearance and upon depends
a great extent
durability of harness to
lack the suppleness and durability so necessary in
kind of stock. The preservation of the maadded by the currier, therefore, becomes an absolute necessity in order to prevent premature decay. Moisture is the great destroyer it absorbs the grease, hardens the fibre, and renders the leather weak and brittle; it also causes the metal
CARE OF HARNESS
FACTORY AND STABLE. 2gj
mountings to rust, weakening them, and adds another enemy to the leather. Grease only will resist the effects of moisture, and every effort should be made to keep the leather well supplied with this needed protector. Manufacturers often overlook the importance of caring for the harness in stock, and also of instructing their customers how to preserve it when
With some the idea is maintained, that ignorance on the part of the consumer, as regards the care of harness, accrues to the benefit of the manufacturer. This is a serious mistake. The most successful man is he who produces the most durable article, and it should be part of a manufacturer's duty to instruct the buyer how to treat the article purchased. But all manufacturers do not understand this secret of their business, and a portion of this chapter therefore will be devoted to the care of stock in the warerooms. A certain amount of made up stock must be displayed, but there is no necessity for exposing more than one harness of a kind. Three months' exposure in a wareroom will injure a harness as much as three months of constant use, providing the user knows how to take care of it. In all instances leather strapping, if exposed at all, should be in glass cases impervious to dust and air but no showcase can be made tight enough to fully exclude these elements. During a great part of the year the air at night with moisture, and, not unfrequently, is laden during the spring and fall months the atmosin use.
298 THE HARNESS MAKERs' ILLUSTRATED irfANUAL.
phere is humid and heavy the moist air permeates every thing, and by its action upon the leather and mountings rapidly absorbs the life of the former and rusts or tarnishes the latter. The white mould which is often observed upon the leather is caused by the grease being drawn
to the surface
After the surface
mould, the absorption of the grease continues in all kinds of weather until the cause is removed. The manufacturer therefore should remove it as quickly as possible by brushing it, and afterwards rubbing with a dry cloth, and finally with a greasy rag or. " shammy ;" then restore the polish with an old silk handkerchief. If the mountings are tarnished, clean them with a " shammy " if this can not be done, remove them Gilt mountings clean with a little rotten stone. should not be exposed. Sample sets are convebut when these can not be had, the gilt nient should be protected by wrapping it in tissue
paper. In hanging up the various parts of the harness, use forms, instead of pegs or hooks, except for
traces or reins,
which should always be hung out
Harness made up for stock should not straight. be " gummed " and hung in cases, but, after being
by the workman,
the plain leather
" should be covered with a thin coat of " daub made of one part of neat's-foot oil and two parts of tallow the latter being thoroughly melted,
oil is poured in and the whole this will feed the thoroughly stirred until cold
Care of harness
factory and STABtE.
The patent and fancy wrapped on soft paper, and every piece, whether of patent or plain leather, laid out straight and smooth in shallow drawers
leather and prevent injury.
leather should be
and covered with thick paper. ping of all kinds should be kept
Russet strapdark cases or
drawers, as the sunlight is sure to affect the color, the most exposed parts showing the greatest change. Harness makers who have made the care of harness a study have no difficulty in filling orders at a short notice. Their course is to make up traces, reins, turnbacks, docks, back bands, and other straight strapping, and lay them away in grease as before directed. When a harness is ordered, all that is required is to make the other parts, finish up the necessary straight straps, attach the mountings, and put them together. In this way they are enabled to keep their workmen employed at all times, and obviate the necessity of hiring extra hands in the busy If the manufacturer delivers the harness season. to his customer in good order, he does all he is legally bound to do but his moral obligation extends much farther he should instruct the buyer how to preserve it. The following hints may
serve to assist him in this direction The Iiarness room should always be as far from the horses as the size of the building will allow, as the gases arising from the stable are very inju:
rious to the leather and mountings it should be provided with forms for the bridles, pads, sad;
applied as directed above. closets should be provided. and hooks for reins. straps as carefully as the outside. commence with the one first washed. dry them thoroughly before putting them in the storeroom. If the leather is soft. but for team and other heavy harness a stronger grease is required. putting them in the storeroom rub the horse." or wash-leather. breechings. dry as quickly as possible after taking them from the horse. up in some place where they can dry. tle hang them and before them well with a " shammy. and traces. When after which apply a good harness oil. is rapidly absorbed and the leather hardened if the pads are wet.300 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. Cleaning and oiling should be done as often as once a month on harness which is in daily use.. quisite for is all that is re- coach or carriage harness. For oiling. during the first year. etc. then apply a litcrown soap and rub with the hands until the is clean off the under side of the by sweat." then wring the latter nearly dry. as by the saline nature of the perspirapolish restored . If the leather is hard and dry. each strap has been treated in this way.. and remove all surplus grease with a rag. at least. If wet tion the grease . dies. If a separate room can not be had taken from for this purpose. it will be necessary to wash the straps well and wet them enough to . wash it with water applied with a " shammy. and rub the leather thoroughly. hames. crown soap. Harness are often quite wet when When this is caused by rain. then rub with an old piece of silk until the polish is restored.
when has dried out of the leather. If they are very much tarnished. as they do not need to be scoured. they should be removed from the harness and washed in water and rubbed with tripoli. surface dry apply a coat of neat's-foot oil. In the chapter of recipes there are several directions for cleaning and polishing brass. 30I open the pores lay the straps out straight. . and clean the stitching with a stiff brush then apply a coat of har. Close plate silver will bear more scouring. apply warm tallow with a brush. ness black. as the plate is soft and the thin coating can be easily removed. then with a rag remove all the surplus tallow. any of which can be used to good advantage. When this has penetrated the leather. Brass is the most difficult metal to keep clean. Gold should never be rubbed with any thing harsher than the nap side of canton flannel electro silver plate should also . but when rubbed each day the labor is materiall}' decreased. and.CARE OF HARNESS IN FACTORY AND STABLE. be cleaned carefully. and allow the straps to remain coated with the tallow until the moisture . Cleaning mountings requires care. but it is seldom necessary to do more than to rub it with a " shammy " darkened with tripoli and lampblack.
CHAPTER XXV. then skim off the yeast and add the vinegar. LOGWOOD BLACK. This will keep for a long time. and allow them to stand for a month or more then strain off the beer and bottle as with pure cider vinegar . allow it to stand for a few days. before. will not stain the hands. leather giving color FOR no blacking thatthe grain ofcompare there with to is will at all known vinegar black. The simplest. Another method is to cover iron scraps with sour beer. while producmg a deep black on leather. the well the best. is to procure shavings from an iron turner . LEATHER BLACKING STAINS POLISHES. without doubt. and draw off and cork up in bottles. ^ pound of ounce of verdigris in i gallon of . Boil I pound and i nut galls. iron in vinegar method is to boil sulphate of mix some brewers' yeast with beer and allow it to stand for twenty-four hours. This may be made in various ways. and. ot ground logwood. and cover them heat up and set aside for a week or two. A third . and. — — VARNISHES AND VINEGAR BLACK. . then heat again and set in a cool place for two weeks pour off the vinegar.
strain off the liquor. ^ ounce of bichromate of potash. stir until thor- . Melt together 8 ounces of beef suet. then straining off and adding J of a pound of potash to 2 gallons of the liquor. 2 ounces of copperas. water for two hours. If to and I will be ready for use. an excellent wax for finishing edges will be produced. ^ pound of brown sugar. differing from the first in the quantities. pint of this mixture be added ^ pound of white wax.LEATHER BLACKING. is to dissolve i pound of extract of logwood. Another logwood black is made by boiling a quantity of logwood bark in double its bulk of rain water for two or three hours. and a sufficient quantity of bone black to give the whole a good color . This black is unequaled for i finishing. ball black. and 2 ounces of pulverized gum arable add i gill of . hatters' black. This makes a good grain as well as edge black. Another formula. 2 ounces of white wax. and -J pound of bone black rubbed smooth in turpen- and the whole heated until thoroughly amalgamated. then remove from the allow it 303 fire and to stand until it it is cold . It is made by dissolving pound of extract of log- wood. and i ounce of copperas in i gallon of water. turpentine. tine. and i^ ounces of bichromate of potash in 1^ gallons of water. 2 ounces of neat's-foot oil.
strained. allowed to cool. 10 ounces of ivory black. and form into balls about two inches in diameter. 4 ounces of ivory black. 2 ounces of Prussian blue. i of an ounce of indigo. . and 2 or 3 ounces of water. and neat's-foot oil. 4 ounces of linseed oil. warm gredients. 2 ounces of spirits of turpentine. and. and is then ready for use. A third description is made of 2 ounces each of ivory black. oughly mixed. stir until sufficiently cool. Another kind is made of 2 ounces of hog's lard. then roll into balls or mould into cakes. stir in the other in. cold. and 8 ounces of water. 2 ounces of . and i ounce of copal varnish melt the wax.304 THE HARNESS MAKERS ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. and polish with a woolen cloth. stir until cold. mixed. 4 ounces of logwood. i ounce of beeswax. 2 ounces of beeswax. 4 ounces of soft water. copperas. 4 ounces of brown sugar. roll into balls. remove from the stir until fire. A fourth is made of ^ pound of beeswax. 8 ounces of sugar. and 1 ounce of gum tragacanth boil until the water has evaporated. 8 ounces of best neat'sfoot oil. . and i pint of vinegar the whole is warmed. continue to To apply. rub it on the leather. 4 ounces of glue. Heat the whole to a boil. 8 ounces of ivory black. . when cool.softsoap. Still another famous harness and saddlery blacking is made of J of an ounce of isinglass. remove from the fire. then roll into balls. English ball blacking for harness is composed of I ounce of lard. the ball.
Mix bone black in half its weight of molasses and one eighth its weight of olive oil. 2 ounces of ounces of turpentine when the wax is. Melt together 4 ounces of black resin and 6 . and add a sufficient quantity of . 305 Mix a quantity of bone black with equal parts of neat's-foot oil and brown sugar. liebig's black. LIQUID BLACK. PATENT HARNESS BLACK. dissolved add i ounce of ivory black and I dram of indigo. WATERPROOF PASTE BLACKING. A second liquid black is made by mixing 3 ounces of ivory black with i tablespoonful of lemon acid. in proportions thin with vinegar and to produce a thick paste . fire. vinegar to make i pint in all.LEATHER BLACKING. afterward adding i ounce each of sulphuric and muriatic acid mix the whole together. 2 ounces of brown sugar. and a small quantity of vinegar. thoroughly pulverized and mixed stir the mixture until cold. over a slow white wax and 3 . . Heat together. with a sufficient quantity of water to produce a thiri paste. sulphuric acid in proportions of three parts of the former to one of the latter. and polish with a shoe brush. Apply with a cloth. to which add half its weight of hydrochloric acid and one fourth its weight of strong sulphuric acid.
306 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
ounces of beeswax over a slow fire when thoroughly dissolved, add i ounce of lampblack and
i pound of finely powdered Prussian blue stir the mixture well, and add sufficient turpentine to make a thin paste. Apply with a cloth, and pol;
ish with a brush.
CROWN SOAP BLACK.
Dissolve, over a slow
pound of beeswax,
soap, 3 ounces of indigo, 4 ounces of ivory black, and ^ pint of oil of turpentine
pound of crown
as soon as dissolved
remove from the
stir until cold.
Mix together | ounce each of gelatin and indigo, 8 ounces of extract of logwood, 2 ounces of
crown soap, 8 ounces of softened glue, and i quart of vinegar heat the whole over a slow fire, and stir until thoroughly mixed. Apply with a soft brush, and polish with a woolen cloth.
pint of beer,
i| pints of red acid (chromic),
of thick glue, 2 ounces of ivory
and i dram of indigo and apply with a sponge.
boil for half
Soften 2 pounds of good glue, and melt it in an ordinary glue kettle then dissolve 2 pounds of castile soap in warm water and pour it into the
glue stir until well mixed, and add i pound of yellow wax cut into small pieces stir well until the wax is melted, then add ^ pint of neat's-foot
and enough lampblack to give the desired When thoroughly mixed, it is ready for
Mix I dram of fine anilin black with 60 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid and i^ ounces of alcohol. This produces a deep blue liquid,
i^ ounces of shellac produce a beautiful
BLACKING FOR RESTORING HARNESS.
ounce of indigo, i pound of extract of I ounce of softened glue, and 8 ounces of crown soap (common softsoap can be used if the other kind can not be had) in 2 quarts of vinegar place the mass over a slow fire, and stir until thoroughly mixed. Apply with a soft brush, and use a harder one for polishing.
BLACKING FOR PATENT OR ENAMELED LEATHER.
Mix together ^ pound each
of ivory black,
ounces of dissolved gum arable, 4 ounces of brown sugar, and ^ ounce of glue dissolved in i pint of water heat the whole to a boil over a slow fire, then remove and stir until cool, and roll into balls.
THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
BLACKING FOR RESTORING LEATHER COVERED MOUNTINGS.
parts of white wax, then
copal, dissolved in linseed
part of ivory
allow the mass to boil for five minutes, refrom the fire and stir until cool, then roll
BLACKING FOR THE FLESH
i pound of prime lampblack and pounds of pure neat's-foot oil; melt 6 pounds of good tallow, and add it while hot to the lampblack and oil. Mix it well, and when cold it will
pounds of lampblack add i gallon of oil and i quart of vinegar black to stand 24 houis, and it will be ready
of russet and
brown leather for reins, employment of stains of va-
rious shades in the workshop, in order that the reins or other straps may be of a uniform color
being worked. In most cases rein leather is stained by the currier, but when worked, the freshly cut edges, etc., need to be stained to corafter
respond with the grain. The stains used are made of Spanish saffron and anotta.
or of saffron alone,
various ways, the
reliable being the following
Boil a giv^en
cut a quantity of anotta
urine and mix the two together, the proportions of each determining the shade the more
anotta used' the darker
Another manner of preparing this stain is to saffron and J ounce of i- ounce of Spanish anotta in water until the dye is extracted, to which must be added some alcohol to set the
a stain of saffron alone, boil a quantity
water until the dye
when cold, add alcohol in order to set the color. The shade may be changed by adding oxalic acid
varying quantities according to the color reThe proportions can not be given with any degree of accuracy, as the color is a matter of taste, and can be regulated by using greater or less proportions of each article.
a small quantity of water until the color
and reducing with urine. In using any of these stains, apply them with a cloth, and, when nearly dry, rub with a woolen rag slightly waxed. A yellow stain is produced by boiling fustic berries in alum water the shade may be darkened by the addition of a small quantity of powdered Brazilwood boiled with the berries. Another yello.wish red stain is made of Braziltracted,
3IO-THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
berries in proportion to suit, water until the coloring matter is extracted. This can be applied to sides that have not been stained, when intended for flat reins,
wood and yellow
halters, etc., in the following
and rub the
over and moisten the grain side with water, and rub with a copper stretching iron until the leather is nearly dry then apply the colormg matter to the grain, and rub with a copper slicker. When the leather is perfectly dry, rub the grain with a glass An edge stain is made by adding a small slicker. quantity of alum to the above mentioned ingreside with a
stretching iron; turn
boiling equal parts
of pine and alder barks in six times their bulk of
water until all the coloring matter is extracted, and when cold adding a small quantity of alcohol. Saffron boiled for twelve or fifteen hours gives a good brown stain, to which alcohol must be added to make it set. Picric acid and water, in proportions of i to lo, heated to a blood heat, makes a good yellow stain. Wold boiled in water also makes a yellow stain. An orange yellow is produced by boiling fustic This stain may be conberries in alum water. verted into a rich brown by washing the leather to which it has been applied, before the stain is fairly dry, with an alkali. A red stain is produced by boiling Brazilwood in lye. If mixed.with wold, it produces a brown-
ish yellow, well
adapted for use on halters and
edge stain for russet leather is made by 4 ounces of anotta in 2 quarts of
it to stand for twenty-four hours, quarts of water and boiling until 3 reduced to one half the original quantity. All stains appear to better advantage and are
rendered more durable by being covered with a little shellac varnish, which should be applied after the reins are all dry, and then finished up as previously directed. The shellac should be applied with a sponge. A bright orange stain is made by mixing yellow anilin with alum water. One ounce of oxalic acid, i ounce of spirits of salts, I scruple of bruised cochineal, and i pint of boiling water makes a good brown stain. Another red stain is made by dissolving i ounce of cochineal in ^ pint of hot water, and adding i gill of spirits of hartshorn. A bright crimson stain is alum or tin salts and a decoction of cochineal.
Dissolve 6 parts ot shellac in alcohol using no more of the latter than is absolutely necessary to dissolve the gum, and mix it with 3 p.irts of Venetian turpentine, heating the whole
^ part of fine bone black and ^ part of oil Mix of lavender (all the parts by weight). the mass in a druggist's mortar, and rub smooth then add turpentine enough to reduce it to the
Dissolve ^ pound of gum caoutchouc in ether, and when thoroughly cut, add |- pound each of boil over a linseed oil and spirits of turpentine slow fire until the mixture becomes clear, strain To harden it, and when cold it is ready for use. it and make it dry quicker, use one half the quantity of gum caoutchouc, and substitute the best
copal for the remainder.
GERMAN LEATHER VARNISH.
Pulverize a quantity of the best copal gum, and add enough turpentine to moisten it place it in a glazed vessel, and allow it to stand over a moder;
ate fire until the
is thoroughly dissolved, about ten hours. Next take
double the quantity of linseed oil that there is of the gum and turpentine combined, and heat when nearly to a boil, pour in the dissolved it gum, and allow it to remain over the fire until it has reached as high a degree of temperature as it will bear with safety, stirring it all the while then remove from the fire, and when it has cooled a little, thin with spirits of turpentine until the proper consistency is reached;
parts of shellac. through a fine cloth. This is an excellent varnish for horse collars. of turpentine and 10 parts of alcohol. pour them over the gums. 2 ounces of Prussian blue ground in linseed oil. 8 ounces of ivory black. Melt together 2 ounces of white wax and 6 ounces of beef tallow add ^ pint of turpentine. and allow the mass to then remove it from boil for about five minutes the fire and add 4 ounces of shellac varnish. bottle and set it sun to ripen. gum camphor thick to Apply with a varnish brush. and put it into a a sufficient quantity of alcohol to cover the it in a gum cork the bottle tightly. shellac. thin with alcohol. BLACK VARNISH. and keep warm place until the gum is dissolved. Pulverize bottle with i pound of . WATERPROOF VARNISH. stir the mass until cool. a little bone black should be added. too . Pulverize and mix together i^ parts of mastic. add i To a quart of the liquid ounce of ivory dissolved in If black and ^ ounce of alcohol. 2^ parts of dragon's blood. . and boil until the latter are thoroughly dissolved. and roll into balls. If used upon those that have lost their color. . strain in the 313 it. and 2 parts of the best bone black heat i^ parts 2|. work well. place the whole over a moderate fire.VARNISHES. LACK VARNISH BALLS.
Equal parts of gum caoutchouc and copal. japanned mountings.. more of the latter than is absolutely necessary add a small quantity of bone black and enough shellac varnish to reduce it so that it it can be applied w^ith a brush. Apply with a brush. ELASTIC VARNISH. BLACK VARNISH FOR JAPANNED WORK. This makes an excellent japan for retouching boiled linseed oil . heated in a vessel until thoroughly dissolved. with enough linseed oil added while hot to reduce it to the proper consistency. using no . POLISHES.314 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL. the former dissolved in ether. and mix with 7 pounds of oil of turpentine. that have been injured by the japan scaling off. add 2 quarts of spirits of turpentine. CHEAP SHELLAC VARNISH. FRENCH POLISH. when cooled off a little. Spread very thinly. and stir until cold. Beat 5 pounds of stearin out into thin sheets with a wooden mallet. makes an elastic varnish well suited for finishing collars. Dissolve asphaltum in turpentine. etc. and. seats. after which subject the mnss to . Dissolve 2 pounds of asphaltum in i pint of heat in an iron pot until thoroughly fused. then remove from the fire.
POLISHES. and add J pound of washed and well dried litharge by screening it through a fine sieve then add 6 ounces of ivory black. and stir until cool. cloth to bring up the polish. a sponge. stirring well to prevent To cool it off. POLISH FOR PATENT LEATHER. and polish with a piece of WAX Melt together of POLISH. stir until cool. . moulds. i pound of white wax. and heat up crystallization. i ounce of indigo. oil to prevent it from souring. slow fire. Apply with silk. 315 hot. 5 ounces of ivory black. Melt 2 pounds of wax. Mix together the whites of two eggs. warm it until it is reduced to a liquid and apply in small quantities with a cloth afterward rub it well with a piece of silk or linen To use. when add |- ounce of ivory or bone black. and ^ pint of nut oil dissolve over a . . i teaspoonful of spirits of wine. after which add a little birch or other essential . a water bath. and turn into small LIQUID POLISH. i pound crown soap. state. . . but not cold add enough turpentine to reduce it to a thin paste. i ounce of sugafj and as much finely pulverized ivory black as may be required to produce the necessary shade of black. it should be emp- tied into another vessel and stirred until cold.
dissolve a small until it is cold. quantity in sour beer or vinegar. then turn it into another kettle and . . and apply with a brush. To use. I part of white glue in water. spreading it as thinly as possible. stirring it all the time. and mix it with i part of wheat starch beat smooth in cold water mix the whole. and allow it to stand over a slow fire for half an hour. GERMAN LEATHER Soften parts of POLISH. and heat the whole over a slow fire until the glue is thoroughly dissolved moisten 3 parts of bone black with vinegar. stir . add 3 crown soap.3l6 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
sassafras or other essential oil to preserve it. and when hot add the paraffin and wax allow the whole to remain over the fire until the latter articles are melted. and with another cloth apply pyroligneous Leather that has been badly moulded can be restored in this way. TO PROTECT HARNESS FROM RATS. Apply a plentiful coat of castor oil. TO CLEAN MOULDY LEATHERS. If the harness is to be used. add tallow in the proportions of about one third of the latter to two thirds oil. Take of lard oil loo parts. . acid. REMOVE the surface mould with a dry cloth. and add a few drops of oil of .CHAPTER XXVI. beeswax 5 parts heat the oil over a slow fire. MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES FOR THE WORKSHOP AND HARNESS ROOM. WATERPROOF OIL. . paraffin 50 parts.
allow it to dry on. and pulverize thoroughly in a mortar. This soap. Wet the mixture and rub it on the silver. This is simply the Scotch softsoap it can be produced at a price . i ounce of red lead. and i ounce of alum. . For ornaments or engraved work. Apply it to the metal while moist. when dry. and rub with chamois skin. i POWDER FOR CLEANING BRASS MOUNTINGS. of fine chalk. 2 ounces of dry white lead. and a small quantity of tallow. rub off with a dry flannel. -J of an Mix together i pound ounce of carbonate of magnesia. The oil gives to the soap a dark brown color. with sufficient vinegar to reduce to the proper consistency. far below that asked for the imoorted article. is made of whale or cod oil. ounce of fine chalk. 3 ounces of pipe clay. i Mix together cream of tartar. POWDER FOR CLEANING SILVER.3lS THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLCSTRATES MANOAt. and. Make a paste of equal parts of sulphur and it chalk. CROWN SOAP. clean with a brush. so much used by stablemen for cleaning harness. BELGIUM BURNISHING POWDER. or clean with a small brush. 2 ounces of ounce of rotten stone. lye of potassa. the tallow forming white granulations. and f of an ounce of rouge.
Another process, and one that gives
brass a very brilliant color,
alum boiled in strong lye, in the proportion ot ounce of alum to pint of the latter. Wash the brass with this mixture, and afterward rub with shammy and tripoli.
makes an wash for cleaning tarnished silver plate. Apply it with a rag, dry with a piece of shammy, and afterward rub with a piece of shammy and a very small quantity of jewelers'
solution of ammonia in water
Pulverize chalk thoroughly, and mix with diswater in the proportion of 2 pounds to the gallon stir well, and then allow it to stand about two minutes, during which time the gritty mattilled
have settled to the bottom
the chalky water into another vessel, being careful not to disturb the sediment, and allow the
chalk to settle to the bottom
water, and place the chalk in a warm oven to dry. This is an excellent powder for restoring silver, and it is also useful as a base for other polishing
powders. Spanish whiting treated in the same manner, with a small quantity of jewelers' rouge added, makes a powder that is a little sharper than the prepared chalk, and which is well adapted to
cleaning polished steel articles. third powder, and one that
320 THE HARNESS MAKERS' ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
than either of the above, is made of rotten stone treated in the same manner as the chalk. The addition of bone black to any of these powders will prevent their discoloring the leather.
TO PREVENT STEEL BITS FROM RUSTING.
showcases, may be preserved from over with quicklime. rust by dusting them Those in use should be placed in a box nearly filled with thoroughly pulverized slaked lime immediately after being removed from the horse. The lime absorbs the moisture, and thus prevents rust. Before using, rub well with a woolen cloth. Polished steel, when covered with red rust, may be cleaned as follows Cover the article with oil, and rub it with a woolen cloth to remove the lighter portion of the rust, after which apply another coat of oil, and allow it to remain undisturbed for two or three hours, then clean off with whiting and a woolen cloth. If the rust has been upon the steel sufficiently long to have eaten into the metal, the surface can be restored only by the use of the emery belt or wheel.
TO CLEAN RUBBER COVERED MOUNTINGS.
the covei"ed as well as the metallic parts
with a shammy and a a clean woolen cloth.
TO CLEAN RUSSET LEATHER COVERED MOUNTINGS.
by rubbing the
leather with a cloth and a little oxalic acid, and restore the color and finish by the use of salts of
leather until a
lemon, applied with a woolen cloth. good polish is produced.
VARNISH FOR COLLARS.
Digest shellac 12 parts, white turpentine 5 gum sandarac 2 parts, lampblack i part, spirits of turpentine and alcohol each 40 parts..
TO CLEAN CELLULOID COVERED MOUNTINGS.
the covered parts with a woolen cloth and and polish with a clean woolen
POLISHING LIQUID FOR OROIDE OR BRASS.
2 ounces of sulphuric acid in an earthen and add i quart of cold soft water after the heat that is generated has passed off, add ounce each of tripoli and jewelers' rouge. When well mixed, put in a bottle for use.
TO CLEAN GILT MOUNTINGS.
Gilt mountings unless carefully cleaned soon
lose their lustre.
They should not be rubbed
wipe them off with a piece what is better, remove them from the harness and wash in a solution of ^ ounce pound of water, and dry them with of borax in a soft linen rag. Their lustre may be improved
of canton flannel, or,
322 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTKATED MANUAL.
by heating them a
and rubbing with a
piece of canton flannel or a soft polishing brush.
TO CLEAN RIDING SADDLES.
wash the leather with a weak
solution of oxalic acid and water, and,
with the watery portion of beef blood. The latter can be preserved by adding a little carbolic acid, and keeping it in a bottle tightly corked.
TO CLEAN STEEL
Steel bits that are tarnished, but not rusty, can
be cleaned with rotten stone,
and a woolen
TO FINISH THE EDGES OF RUSSET REINS.
Use salts of tartar and water. If discolored, remove the stain with a weak solution of ox-
TO CLEAN BROWN RIDING SADDLES.
be cleaned to look as well as new
by the use of tepid water and crown soap if the latter can not be had, use pure castile soap.
TO STAIN REIN LEATHER.
permanent brown can be imparted to by treating the hides, after they are tanned, to a bath in a liquor made from equal The hides are parts of pine and alder bark.
spread in a vat, with liquor enough to cover them, where they are allowed to remain one week they are then removed, and fresh liquor is applied by repeating this treatment three or four times, a very rich brown can be produced, Orange brown is produced by scraping the flesh side after the hides have been removed from the
vats for the last time, and sprinllling them on the scraped side with pulverized alum,, As soon as each one is sprinkled with the alum, it is laid in another vat, one upon the other, and allowed to remain twenty-four hours they are then moistened with the alum liquor in the bottom of the vat, and laid upon the beam and well worked, after which they are rubbed with salt and alum, and rolled up and allowed to remain undisturbed for r.wenty-four hours this salting is repeated three times, after which the hides are stretched lengthwise and dried they are then boarded and
worked soft, and treated to a coat of hog's lard and train oil on the flesh side in about two days they are again boarded, and worked off with a
This leather has a
retains its softness for a long time.
SMEARY GREASE FOR RUSSET LEATHER.
part of palm
soap, and heat
parts of oleic acid and if parts of tanning solution containing at least -^ part of tannic acid (all parts by weight), and stir until cold.
324 THE HARNESS MAKERS* ILLUSTRATED MANUAL.
valuable grease for russet
and as a preventive of gumming.
TO SEPARATE SIDES OF PATENT LEATHER.
Patent and enameled leather
sides are placed together in
the glazed weather, besimplest
together, and, unless carefully sep-
arated, the leather will be spoiled.
and best way to separate sides
a drying or other hot room when hot, they can be taken apart without injury to the glazed
drying room is not on a hot day, and they will soon become heated sufficiently to allow their being separated without injury. Any attempt to separate without heating to a high degree will prove a failure.
or enameled surface.
accessible, lay the sides on a tin roof
TO CURRY RUSSET LEATHER.
is placed upon a table, rubbed over the flesh side it is then turned over, and the grain side is moistened with water and rubbed with a copper slicker until it is nearly dry, after which coloring matter, made of Brazilwood and yellow berries, is applied to the grain, and it is once more rubbed
hide to be curried
and a warm iron
then spi'ead out to dry, given by rubbing the grain with a glass slicker. This produces a very fine grade of leather for riding bridles, russet reins,
with the slicker
final finish is
TO COLOR EDGES OK SADDLE FLAPS.
Use a strong solution of soda, apply
freshly cut edges, and,
nearly dry, rub with
a woolen rag until a goo'd polish
excellent oil for team and farm harness
of beef tallow and neat's-foot
3 pounds of pure tallow, but do not heat it up to a boil then pour in gradually i pound of neat's-foot oil, and stir until the mass is cold if properly stirred, the two articles will become thoroughly amalgamated, and the grease will be smooth and soft if not well stirred, the tallow will granulate and show fine white specks when cold. The addition of a little bone black will im;
this oil for
Bel^mm Burnishing Powder Bitting Harness Bits B PAGB 318 288 281 271 37 Buckles Buying Leather . Single . Harness Loops Harness Mountings Harness Oil Horse Boots . c Care of Harness Celluloid Mountings. 21 161 '. Heavy Ha me Collar Heavy Coupe Long Tug Coach Long Tug Farm Long Tug Team Mule Pennsylvania Road. Harness Leather. .. Single Short Short Stage 325 317 324 45 64-104 94 100 68 102 74 80 84 86 70 72 78 ^ 90 88 103 96 66 76 104 98 8a 6^ 9a Wagon ..... Blacking and Stains Black.. Aniline Ball Crown Soap Finishing Flesh German Hatters' Leather Mountings Liebig's 303 307 303 306 306 308 306 303 308 405 .. Cart Double Road English Four-in-hanu Express Express. ' 296 321 318 181 _..".'.. "...'. Tug Coach Tug Butt Chain Tandem Track Wagon a Mountings. to Clean Grease for Russet Leather Gilt j2i 323 H Halters 205 . to Clean Cleaning Brass Coach and Wagon Bridles Coloring Edges Crown Soap Currying Russet Leather Cutting Harness Cuttings for Harness Adjustable Tree Bitting Breast Collar.... : 249 325 224 L Leather.....INDEX.
'. Breast Collar Harness Gig Saddles Ornamental Truck Harness Pads. 156 159 128 122 58 317 317 P Patent Leather Patent Leather. . to Clean Round Reins Rubber Covered Mountings. . French German Liquid Patent Leather .°7 Vinegar Waterproof Stains. 316 315 315 315 Wax M Making. Coach Soft 112 139 136 149 153 Plain Plain Hard Team Harness Truck Harness Measuring for Harness Misrellaneous Recipes Mouldy Leather. PAGE Liquid Logwood Patent Patent Leather Re'^toring 305 3°2 303 2. to Separate Prepared Chalk Preparing Leather for the Fitter Prevent Steel from Rusting Polishing Liquid Polishing Powders 40 324 319 53 320 321 j Powder for Cleaning Silver 318 318 B Rein Leather Repairing Harness Riding Bridles Riding Saddles. to Clean -. to Clean Russet Leather Russet Leather Mountings. Rrown Crimson Orange Yellow 307 3°^ 3^5 3^° 311 307 Red Yellow Yellow-Red Varnishes. to Clean . Black 310 309 3°9 313 3^3 321 312 312 3^^ 313 31S Black Ball Collar Elastic German Leather Shellac Waterproof Polishes.. INDEX. 322 240 197 322 133 320 33 320 S Stitching Harness 168 T Trimmings 105-111 .
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