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CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

SECOND EDITION

Also of interest from SAE:

Design of Durable, Repairable, and Maintainable Aircraft Composites (Order No. AE-27)

For more information or to order a book, contact SAE at 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001; phone (724) 776-4970; fax (724) 776-0790; e-mail CustomerService@sae.org; website http://store.sae.org.

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

SECOND EDITION

Keith B. Armstrong L. Graham Bevan William F. Cole II

Warrendale, Pa.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE. For permission and licensing requests, contact: SAE Permissions 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA E-mail: permissions@sae.org Tel: 724-772-4028 Fax: 724-772-4891 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Armstrong, Keith B. Care and repair of advanced composites / Keith B. Armstrong, L. Graham Bevan, William F. Cole II.--2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7680-1062-4 1. Composite materials--Repairing. 2. Composite materials-Bonding. 3. Airplanes--Materials. 4. Airframes--Maintenance and repair. I. Bevan, L. Graham. II. Cole, William F. III. Title. TA418.9.C6A76 2005 620.1'18'0288--dc22

2004065362

Cover photos (from top to bottom): Airbus A.340-600, Boeing 777, Airbus A.380, B-2 Stealth Bomber, and Lockheed-Martin Joint Strike Fighter.

SAE 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA E-mail: CustomerService@sae.org Tel: 877-606-7323 (inside USA and Canada) 724-776-4970 (outside USA) Fax: 724-776-1615 Copyright 2005 SAE International ISBN 0-7680-1062-4 SAE Order No. R-336 Printed in the United States of America.
The information contained herein is believed by the authors to be the best available at the time of printing, but it is given without acceptance of liability, whether expressed or implied, for loss or damage attributable to reliance thereon. Users of this book should make their own assessments of its contents for their own conditions of use, and by reference to original manufacturers' repair documentation.

This book is dedicated to the members of the original International Air Transport Association (IATA) Task Force (19881991) set up to standardize composite repairs, for which the first author acted as chairman, and to the members of the various Task Groups of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) and especially the Training Task Group and its chairmen over several years: first Ed Herman of McDonnell-Douglas (now part of Boeing), followed by Rick Barrett of Continental Airlines, and then by Ralph Edwards of Northwest Airlines. Workfrom the Design, NDI, and Repair Techniques Task Groups is included in this book and is gratefully acknowledged. We particularly wish to record the great debt we all owe to Henk Lodewijk of KLM. When the IATA Task Force completed its work and produced IATA Document DOC:GEN:3043, it made several recommendations. Henk had the vision and enthusiasm to persuade three committees (ATA, IATA, and SAE) to combine to form the CACRC and to implement the recommendations of the IATA Task Force. This book is one of the many products of that vision.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The first author especially wishes to thank E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company for support for attendance at the early Training Task Group Meetings of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) through the good offices and personal interest of Dr. Rene Pinzelli of its Geneva office and Ginger Gupton of Wilmington. Ginger is now working with her husband, Jim Gardiner, at his company, the Consolidated Yacht Corporation in Miami. More recently, support from the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), Farnborough (U.K.) (now the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory after July 1, 2001), and British Aerospace Systems and Equipment Ltd. (now Chelton Radomes Ltd.) allowed attendance at later meetings. Without their interest and support, neither this book nor the Composites and Metal Bonding Glossary (SAE AIR 4844) would have been possible. Our thanks also are extended to Mike Hoke of Abaris Training Inc. for many of the diagrams and to Matt Waterson of Aerobond (U.K.) for the forms in Chapter 12. Dave Bunt of British Airways (BA) kindly reviewed the book and made many helpful comments. Ian Fidler of BA supplied some diagrams. The first author also would like to thank BA for the 24 years of experience on which this book is based. Many companies have contributed photographs and diagrams, and we have individually acknowledged them. Our thanks are extended to Chris Mekern for scanning and improving some of the drawings and to Bert Groenewoud for arranging the text around them. The support of KLM by giving them the time to do this is greatly appreciated. Because of a burglary at his home, Chris lost his computer and the disks for most of the work he had done; therefore, the majority of the scanning had to be redone by our local printer, Chris Bond, at very short notice. We should also thank Philip Griggs, Ralph Edwards, and Patricia Morrison for their time in reviewing the book and in making valuable comments before the first edition was prepared for printing. Special thanks are due to Graham Bevan (now a co-author of this second edition) of Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. for reviewing the final product, helping to correct many small errors in the first edition, and providing useful additions to make this second edition better than the original. Our combined thanks to Graham's Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. colleagues in the Customer Support, Test Laboratories, Materials & Processes, and Composite Wing departments at Airbus (U.K.) Ltd., Filton, for assistance and encouragement with our revisions. Graham would also like to thank the management at Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. for its permission to enable him to co-author this book. Finally, thanks are due to Bill Cole (another co-author of this second edition) for writing an additional new chapter (Chapter 17) to extend the scope of the book for repair design engineers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword........ Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Chapter 1 xxiii xxv xxvii

Introduction to Composites and Care of Composite Parts 1 1.1 Definition of Composites ........1 1.2 History of Composite Materials............... ......................2 1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composites. .......................2 1.3.1 Advantages of Composites... .....2 1.3.2 Disadvantages of Composites............................. ...3 1.3.3 Advantages of Thermoset Resin Composites .........3 1.3.4 Disadvantages of Thermoset Resin Composites...........4 1.3.5 Advantages of Thermoplastic Resin Composites.........4 1.3.6 Disadvantages of Thermoplastic Resin Composites.....5 1.4 Applications of Composites to Modern Aircraft, Yachts, Cars, and Trains ...5 1.4.1 Early Aircraft Structures 5 1.4.2 Modern Aircraft Structures and Other Applications ....6 1.5 Care of Composite Parts 7 1.5.1 Sources of Damage to Composite Parts 10 1.5.1.1 Physical or Chemical Damage...................10 1.5.1.2 Deterioration in Normal Service ...........12 1.5.2 Avoidance of Damage and Reduction of Deterioration in Service ..........13 1.6 References........ ........16

Chapter 2 Materials ......17 2.1 Fiber Reinforcement... .....................................17 2.1.1 Comparison of Some High-Performance Fibers and Common Metals 17 2.1.2 Glass Fiber 19 2.1.2.1 Glass Manufacture... ........22 2.1.2.2 Glass Fiber Manufacture.. .....23 2.1.3 Carbon Fibers...... 25 2.1.3.1 Carbon Fiber Manufacture .25 2.1.3.2 Future Development ........................25 2.1.3.3 Further Details of Carbon and Graphite Fibers......... .....26 2.1.4 Aramid Fibers 32

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2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.1.5 Boron Fibers..... 34 2.1.6 Other New Fibers 34 Forms of Reinforcement ......37 2.2.1 Tapes... ..............37 2.2.2 Fabrics 38 2.2.2.1 Woven Fabric Weave Styles........ .38 2.2.2.2 Effect of Weave Style 42 2.2.2.3 Noncrimp Fabrics..... 43 2.2.2.4 Nonwoven Randomly Oriented Mats.... 43 2.2.2.5 Fiber and Fabric Glossary ...45 Fiber Sizing and Finish ...47 2.3.1 Glass Fiber Finishes ...47 2.3.2 Carbon Fiber Finishes ............50 2.3.3 Aramid Fiber Finishes 51 2.3.4 Sizing and Finish for New Types of Fibers and Fabrics ...52 Matrix (Resin) Systems..... 52 2.4.1 Thermoplastic Resins ..52 2.4.2 Thermosetting Resins 53 2.4.3 Properties Required of Matrix Resins and Adhesives 57 2.4.3.1 Physical and Chemical Properties 57 2.4.3.2 Mechanical Properties 59 2.4.3.3 Epoxy-Based Matrix Resins and Adhesives for Aerospace Use. ...............59 2.4.4 Epoxy and Phenolic Pre-Pregs and Film AdhesivesCuring Stages 61 2.4.5 Mixing and Mix Ratios for Epoxy Wet Resins 63 2.4.5.1 Weighing ....63 2.4.5.2 Mixing ........64 2.4.5.3 Definitions Related to Mixing and Application. .....65 2.4.6 Polyester Resins ...66 Adhesives................... .. ....66 2.5.1 Liquid and Paste Adhesives ...66 2.5.2 Foaming Adhesives 68 2.5.3 Film Adhesives 69 2.5.4 Glue-Line Thickness Control .....71 2.5.5 In-Service Effects on Resin Systems ...........76 Core Materials.. ...76 2.6.1 Wood................. 79 2.6.2 Foam Core Materials.. ............80 2.6.2.1 Material Types 80 2.6.2.2 Foam Density 81 2.6.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages ...81 2.6.3 Honeycomb Core Materials ............82

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.7

2.8

2.9 2.10 Chapter 3

2.6.3.1 Honeycomb Material Types ......85 2.6.3.2 Cell Shapes 88 2.6.3.3 Honeycomb Densities and Cell Sizes ....88 2.6.4 Fluted Core ...90 2.6.5 Syntactic Core 90 Syntactic Foams and Potting Compounds... 90 2.7.1 Filler Materials for Potting Compounds, Resin Systems, and Adhesives 92 2.7.2 Other Fillers 93 Protective Coatings ......93 2.8.1 Sealants 93 2.8.1.1 Old-Generation Thiokol Sealants. 96 2.8.1.2 New-Generation Polythioether Sealants. 96 2.8.1.3 Silicone Sealants 97 2.8.1.4 Viton Rubber Sealants 98 2.8.2 Primers...... ...98 2.8.3 Finishes 99 2.8.4 Conductive Coatings 101 2.8.5 Erosion-Resistant Coatings.. 102 2.8.6 Other Protective Coatings 103 References 104 Bibliography 106

Handling and Storage 107 3.1 Shipping and Receiving ...107 3.2 Temperature Requirements 107 3.3 Storage Practices 108 3.3.1 Temperature Requirements ..108 3.3.1.1 Dry Fabrics 108 3.3.1.2 Storage of Pre-Preg, Film, and Paste Adhesives, Potting Compounds, and Primers 108 3.3.1.3 Storage of Sealants for Aircraft Use 109 3.3.1.4 Storage of Consumable Items for Composite and Bonded Metal Repairs.... 110 3.3.2 Cleanliness and Damage Prevention 110 3.3.3 Moisture Damage Prevention.............. 112 3.3.4 Identification ..............113 3.3.5 Release Notes and Approved Certificates 114 3.4 Shelf Life/Out Time 116 3.5 Kitting.. .....117 3.6 Recertification 118 3.7 Care of Materials in the Hangar or Workshop 118

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Chapter 4

Manufacturing Techniques 121 4.1 Filament Winding 121 4.2 Lay-Up Methods for Fabrics and Tapes.. ......123 4.2.1 Hand Lay-Up (Wet and Pre-Preg Laminating).........123 4.2.2 Automated Lay-Up 124 4.3 Pultrusion 125 4.4 Resin Transfer Molding..... .......126 4.5 Injection Molding... ....128 4.6 Tow Placement... ..130 4.7 Press Molding .................130 4.8 Vacuum Bonding 131 4.9 Autoclave Bonding. 131 4.10 Oven Curing .......135 4.11 References ...136 4.12 Other Useful Reading......... 136 Original Design Criteria.. .....137 5.1 Principal, Primary, and Secondary Structures 137 5.1.1 Sources of Damage to Composite Airframe Components 141 5.1.2 Consequences of Failure 142 5.2 Types of Composite Structures 142 5.2.1 Monolithic Laminated Structures (Solid Laminates).............. 142 5.2.2 Sandwich Structures ..........143 5.3 Ply Orientation ...149 5.3.1 Warp Clock. ........149 5.3.2 Balance and Symmetry 152 5.3.3 Nesting and Stacking .............153 5.4 Core Orientation ....154 5.5 Operational Environment.. ....155 5.5.1 Temperature ...155 5.5.2 Humidity. .......156 5.5.3 Contaminants 156 5.5.4 Erosion...... ....... ....156 5.5.5 Thermal Stresses 158 5.5.6 Hygrothermal Effects. ....158 5.5.7 Fire Resistance ......158 5.6 Electrical Requirements ..159 5.6.1 Galvanic Corrosion .............159 5.6.2 Electromagnetic Interference..... 163 5.6.3 Electrostatic Discharge 163 5.6.4 Lightning Strike Energy Dispersion................... ..164 5.6.5 Radar Transmissivity.. ...165 5.7 Mechanical Requirements.. 166 5.7.1 Tensile and Flexural Strength ..166

Chapter 5

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

5.8 5.9

5.10 Chapter 6

5.7.2 Stiffness.............. 5.7.3 Fatigue 5.7.4 Impact Resistance (Damage Tolerance) 5.7.5 Creep..... Attachments/Joints 5.8.1 Bonded Joints 5.8.2 Mechanically Fastened/Riveted Joints Other Design Requirements 5.9.1 Aerodynamic Smoothness 5.9.2 Weight and Balance References

....167 .....167 169 170 171 ..............172 175 176 ..176 177 177

Safety and Environment ......181 6.1 Introduction.. 181 6.2 Workshop Conditions for Good Bonding ..............184 6.3 Respirable Fibers and Dust .....186 6.3.1 Fiberglass 186 6.3.2 Carbon and Graphite Fibers 187 6.3.3 Aramid Fibers 187 6.3.4 Sanding Dust ........187 6.4 Fumes and Vapors 188 6.4.1 Resin Fumes 188 6.4.2 Solvent Vapors ....189 6.4.3 Sealant Vapors. 190 6.4.4 Coatings 190 6.4.5 Fuel... ..........190 6.4.6 Acid Fumes and Splash 190 6.4.7 Exposure Limits ...191 6.5 Skin Contact 192 6.5.1 Fibers in Contact with the Skin 192 6.5.2 Resins in Contact with the Skin ........................192 6.5.3 Solvents in Contact with the Skin.... 193 6.5.4 Selection of Suitable Gloves. 193 6.5.5 Skin Creams for Personal Protection 194 6.6 Material Safety Data Sheets 195 6.7 Exothermic Reactions .....195 6.8 Waste Disposal ......196 6.9 Safety Procedures 197 6.9.1 Emergency Action First-Aid Procedures 197 6.9.2 General Safety Procedures. 197 6.9.3 Personal Safety Precautions .....198 6.9.4 Dermatitis 199 6.10 Action in the Event of a Chemical Spillage 201 6.11 Explosion Risk 202 6.12 Static Discharge and Fire Prevention ........202 6.12.1 Static Discharge Prevention.... ....202

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6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 Chapter 7

6.12.2 Fire Prevention Safety Requirements for Electrical Appliances ISO Environmental Management Standards References Bibliography

203 204 205 206 ...207 209 210 .213 ...215 220 221 .222 223 .224 226 226 ..................232 233 ........233 239

Damage and Repair Assessment..... 7.1 Visual Inspection 7.2 Tap Test 7.3 Ultrasonic Inspection 7.4 X-Ray Methods 7.5 Eddy Current Inspection 7.6 Thermography... 7.7 Bond Testers 7.8 Moisture Meters 7.9 Interferometry/Shearography 7.10 Damage Types 7.11 Sources of Mechanical Damage... 7.12 Damage Mapping 7.13 Assessment of Damage Significance 7.14 References..

Chapter 8

Source Documents ........241 8.1 Revision Systems 241 8.2 Effectivity 242 8.3 Drawing Numbering Systems .......242 8.4 Internal Documents ....245 8.5 Material and Process Specifications ...........................245 8.6 Original Equipment Manufacturer Documents 247 8.7 Regulatory Documents. ..248 8.8 Air Transport Association of America ATA 100 System............249 8.9 Aircraft Maintenance Manual 249 8.10 Component Maintenance Manual 249 8.11 Overhaul Manual 250 8.12 Illustrated Parts Catalog ......250 8.13 Structural Repair Manual..... 251 8.14 Engine Manual 252 Structural Repair Manual (SRM) Repair Method Selection....... 253 9.1 Component Identification ....253 9.2 Damage Classification 254 9.2.1 Damage Terminology .254 9.2.2 Critical Areas 255 9.2.3 Allowable/Negligible Damage 255 9.2.4 Repairable Damage ...256 9.2.5 Overhaul or Replace 256

Chapter 9

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

9.3

9.4 Chapter 10

9.2.6 Other Considerations..... 257 Repair Methods 258 9.3.1 Speedtape 259 9.3.2 Resin Sealing 259 9.3.3 Potted Repairs 259 9.3.4 Bolted Doublers (Metal Plates) and Bonded Doublers (Composite Patches) 259 9.3.5 Pre-Cured Doublers Versus Co-Cured Doublers 260 9.3.6 Room-Temperature Wet Lay-Up ...261 9.3.7 Elevated-Temperature Wet Lay-Up 262 9.3.8 Pre-Preg Repairs 262 9.3.9 Scarfed and Stepped Lap Repairs 263 9.3.10 Composite Repairs to Metals ....265 References.. .266

Repair Techniques.... 267 10.1 Preparation. ...267 10.1.1 Paint Removal..... 270 10.1.2 Disbonding Methods 270 10.1.2.1 Disbonding Adhesively Bonded Metal Parts ...............270 10.1.2.2 Disbonding Composite Parts 274 10.1.3 Damage Removal.... ..274 10.1.3.1 Damage Removal from Metal Parts ...274 10.1.3.2 Removal of Skin and Doubler Material 276 10.1.3.3 Damage Removal from Composite Parts .......277 10.1.3.4 Removal of Core Material 277 10.1.3.5 Removal of Surface Corrosion 278 10.1.4 Moisture and Contamination Removal ...............279 10.1.5 Surface Preparation of CompositesRepair Sanding and Ply Determination 280 10.1.5.1 Abrading 281 10.1.5.2 Taper Sanding/Scarfing 281 10.1.5.3 Step Sanding and Cutting ...282 10.1.6 Water Break Test 284 10.1.7 Metallic Surface Preparation ...285 10.2 Typical Repairs .285 10.2.1 Edge Band Repairs.... 285 10.2.2 Repair of Damage to Core and One Skin 286 10.2.3 Repair of Damage to Core and Both Skins ..286 10.2.4 Hybrid Repairs 286 10.2.5 Blind Repairs 291 10.2.6 Injected Repairs 291 10.2.7 Solid Laminate Repairs.... ....295

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10.3 10.4

10.5

10.6 10.7 10.8 Chapter 11

10.2.8 Potted Repairs ....296 10.2.9 Metal-to-Metal Bonding 296 10.2.10 Plastic Welding (Solvent or Heat)... 296 Adhesive Usage 297 Bagging Materials, Release Films, Release Fabrics, Peel Plies, Breather Cloths, Bleeder Cloths, Bleed-Out Fabrics, and Application Techniques 297 10.4.1 Terminology 298 10.4.2 Selection Criteria 301 10.4.3 Surface Versus Envelope Bagging 302 10.4.4 Pleating 304 10.4.5 Bagging Sequence 304 10.4.6 Vacuum Requirements and Principles... ...304 10.4.6.1 Vacuum Bonding 305 10.4.6.2 Application of Vacuum Pressure to Plates and Assemblies Using Nonperforated Honeycomb 306 10.4.6.3 Practical Techniques to Ensure Adequate Applied Vacuum Pressure to Parts Under Repair ..........310 10.4.7 Caul Plate and Dam Usage.. 314 10.4 8 Vertical Bleed Method 316 10.4.9 Squeeze-Out (Edge Bleed-Out) Method........... ...316 10.4.10 Zero-Bleed Method 317 10.4.11 Ply Compaction and Debulking ...318 10.4.12 Debagging Precautions and Typical Problems.... 318 Curing Stages and TemperaturesHeating Techniques 319 10.5.1 Curing Stage Definitions .............319 10.5.2 Low-Temperature Cure 320 10.5.3 Elevated-Temperature Cure 320 10.5.4 Direct Versus Indirect Heating .......321 10.5.5 Ramp Rates and Soak Cycles 321 10.5.6 Temperature Control and Monitoring ..321 10.5.7 Thermocouple Placement 323 10.5.8 Temperature Control Problems 324 10.5.9 Hot Bonder and Heater Blanket Usage 324 10.5.10 Heat Sinks ..327 10.5.11 Thermocouples... 328 10.5.12 Distortion of Parts During Heating or Cooling ....329 Post-Repair Inspection 330 Surface Restoration 333 References 335 337 337 .338

Mechanical Fastening Systems 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Fastener Types

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

11.3

11.4 11.5

11.6

11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 Chapter 12

Fastener Standards 339 Fastener Compatibility 339 Rivets. ...340 11.2.3.1 Solid Rivets 340 11.2.3.2 Blind Rivets...... .....341 11.2.3.3 Hollow End Rivets ......................343 Screws, Nuts, and Bolts ..............343 11.3.1 Specialty Fasteners (Special Bolts) 343 11.3.2 Lockbolts ........346 11.3.3 Hex Drive Bolts 350 11.3.4 Specialty Blind Bolts .....350 Spacers, Bolt Inserts, and Grommets 353 Hole Preparation ......................357 11.5.1 Drilling ....357 11.5.2 Hole Sizes and Tolerances 360 11.5.3 Edge Distance and Fastener Pitch .....361 11.5.4 Hole Protection ..361 Fastener Installation and Removal .........................362 11.6.1 Fastener Installation ....362 11.6.2 Fastener Removal..... ......371 Fastener Substitution... 372 Bonded Fasteners ...372 Composite Fasteners 374 References.... ..375

11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3

Documentation ...377 12.1 Process Control Documents.... 377 12.1.1 Cure Chart/Data Strip 377 12.1.2 Routine and Nonroutine Work Documents 378 12.1.2.1 Routine Work Documents 378 12.1.2.2 Nonroutine Work Documents.. .391 12.1.3 Nondestructive and Destructive Inspection Data......392 12.1.4 Coupon Test Results....................................... 392 12.1.5 Clean-Room Temperature and Humidity ...........392 12.1.6 Return to Service/Log Book Sign-Offs.... 392 12.2 Calibration Records ........................393 12.3 Material Control Records... 395 12.4 Component Documentation 396 12.5 Training Records..... 397 Shop Equipment and Hand Tools....... 13.1 Hand Tools and Techniques............. 13.1.1 Drills 13.1.2 High-Speed Grinders. 13.1.3 Cutting Utensils 13.1.4 Hand Routers...... ..399 ............399 399 .....401 404 405

Chapter 13

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13.2

13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Chapter 14

13.1.5 Orbital Sanders 13.1.6 Cast Cutter (Oscillating Saw) 13.1.7 Painting Equipment 13.1.8 Resin Applicators..... Shop Equipment........ 13.2.1 Bandsaws 13.2.2 Air Compressors Heating Devices Measuring Devices Health and Safety Equipment.. References

..406 ..............407 408 408 408 .....408 ..........409 411 412 414 416

Tooling and Mold Making ...417 14.1 Introduction 417 14.2 Caul Plate and Dam Fabrication 418 14.3 Splash Mold Making.... 420 14.4 Release Agents/Films....... .......420 14.5 Simple Room-Temperature Tooling 421 14.6 Room-Temperature Curing Pre-Preg Tooling ....422 14.6.1 Lay-Up 423 14.6.2 Debulk Procedure. 424 14.6.3 Final Bagging Procedure 425 14.6.4 Autoclave Cure ...425 14.6.5 Time Limits 426 14.6.6 Step Post-Curing Procedure After RoomTemperature or Low-Temperature Initial Cure 426 14.6.7 Support Structures.... ..427 14.6.8 Initial Release Priming of New Composite Tools ... ..429 14.6.9 Developments in Low-Temperature Curing Materials 430 14.7 References 430 Metal Bonding ..........431 15.1 Introduction.......... 431 15.1.1 History and Requirements 431 15.1.1.1 Metal Bonding......... ..........................433 15.1.1.2 Epoxy Adhesives............ ..435 15.1.1.3 Requirements for Adhesives... .............435 15.1.2 Principles of Adhesion ....436 15.1.2.1 Adhesion Theory ....................436 15.1.2.2 Environmental Durability..... .........439 15.1.2.3 Temperature Effects ...........440 15.1.2.4 Humidity Effects .....................441 15.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Metal Bonding. 441

Chapter 15

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

15.2

15.3

15.4 15.5 15.6 Chapter 16

Surface Preparation Methods 442 15.2.1 Abrasive Cleaning 444 15.2.2 Pasa-Jell 444 15.2.3 Hydrofluoric Acid Etching 446 15.2.4 Grit Blast/Silane. 448 15.2.5 Alodine or Alochrom 1200 ........448 15.2.6 Boeing Boegel EPII Sol-Gel Process ........450 15.2.7 FPL Etch. ......450 15.2.8 Chromic Acid Anodizing 451 15.2.9 Phosphoric Acid Anodizing ........451 15.2.9.1 Phosphoric Acid Containment System (PACS) ....452 15.2.9.2 Phosphoric Acid Non-Tank Anodizing (PANTA) 452 15.2.10 Metadalic/Sifco Selective Plating (U.K.) Ltd 457 15.2.11 Ciba Laser Pretreatment ..457 15.2.12 Other Surface Preparations 457 Primers 458 15.3.1 Reasons for Using Primers 458 15.3.2 Primer Types 459 15.3.3 Application of Primers..... 459 15.3.4 Curing/Drying...... ....461 15.3.5 Thickness Verification 461 Handling Primers 462 References 463 Bibliography 464 .........465 465 465 490 ...494 495 495 495 ......495 495 497 498 ..500 500 ..505 507

Design Guide for Composite Parts 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Analysis of Reports Received 16.3 Other Required Design Features Not Mentioned in the Analyzed Reports 16.4 References Repair Design 17.1 General Repair Design 17.1.1 Introduction to Repair Design 17.1.2 Laminate Loading..... 17.1.2.1 Tension and Compression Loads and Strains 17.1.2.2 Shear Stress and Strain 17.1.2.3 Poisson's Ratio 17.1.3. Repair Philosophy and Design Requirements 17.1.3.1 Certification Load Capacity 17.1.3.2 Repair Categorization 17.2 Laminate Repair Design

Chapter 17

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17.3

17.4

17.5

Introduction to Laminate Repair Design 507 Laminate Repair Design Considerations 507 17.2.2.1 Stiffness ..........507 17.2.2.2 Strength ....510 17.2.2.3 Stability 511 17.2.2.4 Environmental Effects and Protection 511 17.2.2.4.1 Operational and Glass Transition Temperatures (Tg) 511 17.2.2.4.2 Lightning and Electrostatic Protection 512 17.2.2.5 Other Repair Design Considerations 520 17.2.2.6 Laminate Repair Recommendations 521 17.2.3 Laminate Analysis Techniques for Repair Design 522 17.2.3.1 Introduction to Simplified Analysis Techniques 522 17.2.3.2 Elastic Modulus (E) Analysis 524 17.2.3.3 Strength (F) Analysis 529 17.2.3.4 Poisson's Ratio ( 0 ) Analysis 531 17.2.3.5 In-Plane Shear Modulus (G) 534 17.2.4 In-Plane Shear Strength () 535 Core Repair Design 540 17.3.1 Function and Loading of Core in Sandwich Construction 540 17.3.2 Core Material, Density, and Cell Size 544 17.3.3 Core Repair Design Recommendations 544 Bonded Joint Repair Design 545 17.4.1 Introduction to Bonded Joints 545 17.4.2 Types of Bonded Joints ....545 17.4.3 Failure Modes of Bonded Joints ........547 17.4.4 Adhesive Behavior in Bonded Joints. 549 17.4.4.1 Adhesive Shear Stress and Strain ....549 17.4.4.2 Elastic and Plastic Adhesive Behavior 551 17.4.4.3 Temperature and Moisture Effects 560 17.4.4.4 Joint Adherend EffectsStiffness Imbalance and Thermal Mismatch.... .563 17.4.4.5 Recommended Joint Overlaps and Simplistic Analysis 568 17.4.5 Adhesive Peel Stress and Displacement 570 17.4.6 DurabilityFatigue, Creep, and Environmental Effects 581 17.4.7 Bonded Joint Repair Considerations 582 17.4.8 Bonded Joint Repair Design Recommendations 583 Mechanically Fastened Joints 584

17.2.1 17.2.2

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17.6 17.7

Introduction to Mechanically Fastened Joints 584 Fastened Laminate Failure Modes .........585 Fastener Failure Modes 588 Open-Hole Stress ConcentrationsComposites Versus Metals 588 17.5.5 Loading of Mechanically Fastened Joints 588 17.5.6 Loaded Fastener Holes.... 592 17.5.7 Fastener Load Distribution and Joint Geometry 594 17.5.8 Lay-Up Orientation for Fastened Joints ........596 17.5.9 Pad-Ups and Hybrid Material Application 597 17.5.10 Fatigue of Fastened Composite Joints 600 17.5.11 Effects of Gaps and Shims 601 17.5.12 Fastener Selection 601 17.5.13 Mechanically Fastened Repairs in Sandwich Panels 604 17.5.14 Fastened Joint Repair Recommendations .608 References 609 Bibliography... ..612 613 617 637

17.5.1 17.5.2 17.5.3 17.5.4

Additional Information Index About the Authors

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FOREWORD
This book is a detailed work of reference, drawing from many industry sources around the world. It is a comprehensive, in-depth look at the principal materials and processes involved in manufacturing, inspecting, and repairing advanced composite aircraft structures. It should also be useful to those working with composites in non-aerospace industries. This book becomes even more valuable considering the background of the authors. Dr. Keith Armstrong is extremely well respected for his many years of experience and leadership in advanced composite aircraft structures. He was involved in the development of carbon fiber/ Nomex honeycomb floor panels for the VC-10 airliner with Graham Bevan of Rolls-Royce Composite Materials and now with Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. These were the first carbon fiber composites to fly on commercial aircraft. Almost all flooring used in commercial aircraft today meets specifications that have evolved from these early composite structures. Dr. Armstrong developed many new methods in the infancy of the industry during his 24 years with British Airways. He led the effort to standardize composite repair as chairman of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Composite Repair Task Force from 1988 to 1991. He continues to be a key player in the effort to improve composites education via his ongoing participation in the Training Task Group of the SAE/IATA/ATA Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC). As part of this work, he compiled a glossary of terms, published by SAE as AIR 4844 Composites and Metal Bonding Glossary. Dr. Armstrong possesses a unique combination of theoretical and practical knowledge. He earned an M.Sc. (1978) and a Ph.D. (1991) in Adhesion Science and Technology from The City University in London, England. He also has spent many years performing simple but valuable hands-on experiments, such as wedge testing of composite and aluminum alloy samples after years of immersion in water. These have now been published and are listed as references in this book. This second edition is co-authored by L. Graham Bevan and William F. Cole II. Dr. Armstrong and Mr. Bevan have worked together on lightweight floor panels and other projects for more than 30 years. Mr. Bevan has worked in or has been associated with the aircraft industry for most of his working life. His involvement with composites started in 1969 when he joined Rolls-Royce Composite Materials, from the then British Aircraft Corporation. He has maintained this involvement with composites without a break during the past 35 years. Mr. Bevan currently works in Customer Support at Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. and is involved in composite repairs on all Airbus aircraft. He is a past member of the Airbus Composite Repair Task Force and a past member of the Repair Techniques Task Group of the CACRC. Bill Cole, now Director of Engineering at AAR Corporation, has done an exceptional job as chairman of the Analytical Repair Techniques Task Group of the CACRC. Rick Barrett, co-author of the first edition has, unfortunately, left the aerospace industry. His leadership helped to establish the syllabus for this book while he was chairman of the CACRC Training Task Group from 1992 to 1994. He also contributed valuable practical experience of hands-on repair work. xxiii

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This book will become a standard by which future efforts are judged. All of us in this evolving field owe the authors of this book a debt of gratitude, not only for this work but also Dr. Armstrong's many fundamental contributions to composites technology, Graham Bevan's 35 years of dedication to this subject, Bill Cole's extremely valuable mathematical ability, and Rick Barrett's ideas and enthusiasm that made this project possible.

Mike Hoke, President Abaris Training Inc. Reno, Nevada

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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION


This second edition has been prepared to make improvements and additions to keep the book up to date. At the same time, the opportunity has been taken to correct some minor errors in the first edition. Some diagrams have been improved, some have been deleted, and others have been added. At the present time, it is quite a challenge to keep pace with takeovers, amalgamations, and company name changes. These have been included up to the point of submission for printing, but in the future, there may be more. A few new nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods have been added, together with some new fasteners for composite materials and one new method for the surface preparation of metals prior to adhesive bonding. A number of water-based primers have been included, and a few new books and papers have been added to the references. It has been encouraging to receive favorable comments on the first edition from the practical people who carry out repairs and say they have found it a very readable volume. This second edition has been co-authored by Graham Bevan of Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. and William F. Cole II of AAR Corporation, as Rick Barrett (who co-authored the first edition) is no longer working in the aerospace industry. Graham has been involved with composites almost all his working life and is a recognized expert in this field. He has made useful improvements to this second edition. Bill Cole, chairman of the Analytical Repair Techniques Task Group of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC), has produced a new chapter on repair design (Chapter 17) for this second edition, and we hope it will be particularly helpful.

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION


This book is intended to meet the background information needs of composite repair technicians who repair aircraft composite components and structures for return to airline service. It supplements the practical work required to achieve the necessary level of skill in performing these repairs. The syllabus was developed by the Training Task Group and approved by the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC). It has been published by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) as SAE AIR 4938 Composite and Bonded Structure Technician/Specialist Training Document and covers materials, handling and storage, design aspects, damage assessment, repair techniques, manufacturers' documents, fastening systems, tools and equipment, health and safety aspects, and care of composite parts. Chapter 15 covers metal bonding, partly because some composite parts include metal reinforcements and fittings and partly because the term "composite" is sometimes used to mean any combination of two or more materials such as a skin and honeycomb core, for example. Repair design engineers should also find the book useful. This book is designed primarily for aerospace use, but these notes have been compiled for all composite repair technicians, regardless of the type of vehicle or component they have to repair. Although some of the materials used may be either different from, or less strictly regulated than, those used in the aerospace industries, we hope that this book will be useful to the marine, automobile, railway, wind power generation, and sporting goods industries and others using composite components. The general principles involved are very similar for all composite materials, regardless of their end use. A book of this size and topic range cannot cover any subject in great detail; therefore, more extensive references should be studied when necessary. For detailed specific repair procedures, the Original Equipment Manufacturers' (OEMs') Structural Repair Manuals (SRMs), Overhaul Manuals (OHMs), etc., should be used. SAE (CACRC) produced Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARPs) will be included in these manuals as alternative means of compliance as opportunity arises during normal amendment procedures and as these ARPs become available. Metal bonding has been covered in Chapter 15 because there are occasions when metal parts are bonded to composites, and the design guide in Chapter 16 documents experience and shows where small design improvements could extend the service lifetimes of composite parts. The support of SAE for all of the CACRC work is greatly appreciated. This book has been written to meet the CACRC syllabus, and it has been reviewed by some CACRC members. The book has not been approved by the CACRC; therefore, the views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the committee as a whole or of the organizations that sponsor the committee. The purpose of training is to improve performance and to provide leadership for others. We hope that the following thoughts will inspire further effort.

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CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

"Education expands the boundaries of our known ignorance faster than it expands the boundaries of our knowledge." If we wish to be good leaders, we have a vast amount of study and research to do. As an old poem states, 1. He that knows and knows that he knows is wise, follow him, 2. He that knows not and knows he knows not is willing to learn, teach him, 3. He that knows not and knows not that he knows not is a fool, shun him. Let us all try to become at least "Type 2" and strive to reach "Type 1."

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