Available online at www.sciencedirect.

com

European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174

EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL
www.elsevier.com/locate/europolj

Non-isothermal crystallization, melting behavior and polymorphism of polypropylene in b-nucleated polypropylene/recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends
Youji Tao, Yongxing Pan, Zishou Zhang, Kancheng Mai *
Materials Science Institute, Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composites and Functional Materials of the Ministry of Education, Polymer Physics and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275, China Received 6 August 2007; received in revised form 29 October 2007; accepted 15 January 2008 Available online 20 January 2008

Abstract b-Nucleated polypropylene (PP), non-compatibilized and compatibilized b-nucleated PP/recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (r-PET) blends were prepared on a twin-screw extruder. The compatibilizers were maleic anhydride grafted PP (PP-g-MA), glycidyl methacrylate grafted PP (PP-g-GMA), maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-octene (POE-gMA) and polyethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA-g-MA) elastomers. Effects of r-PET content, compatibilizer type and content, pre-melting temperature and time on the non-isothermal crystallization and melting behavior, and polymorphism of PP in the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). DSC results show that the crystallization temperature of PP crystallized predominantly in b-modification was higher than that of neat PP. In the non-compatibilized blend, PP matrix crystallized mainly in a-modification even if r-PET content was only 10 wt%. However, PP-g-MA compatibilization made PP matrix crystallize mainly in b-modification, but PP-g-GMA, POE-g-MA and EVA-g-MA did not improve the b-modification content distinctly. The a-crystal melting peak temperature of PP decreased with increasing pre-melting temperature, but r-PET content, compatibilizer type and content as well as pre-melting time had no obvious effect on the melting temperature of PP. The increase in PP-g-MA content, pre-melting temperature and time was benefit for the formation of b-modification. It is suggested that the b-nucleating agent is encapsulated or dissolved in polar r-PET in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blend, addition of PP-g-MA to the non-compatibilized blend resulted in transferring b-nucleating agent from r-PET phase into PP phase, the increase in PP-g-MA content, melting temperature and time was benefit for transferring b-nucleating agent from r-PET phase into PP phase. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PP in the blends were evaluated by Mo’s method. Ó 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Polypropylene; Recycled PET; b-Nucleating agent; b-Modification; Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics

*

Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +86 20 84115109. E-mail address: cesmkc@mail.sysu.edu.cn (K. Mai).

0014-3057/$ - see front matter Ó 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.01.023

MFI = 3. 2.16 kg). b-PP is easily obtained if the polymer additive has no or negligible a-nucleating ability. such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) [15. semicrystalline polymer additive having a-nucleating ability don’t suppress the formation of b-PP matrix if they remain in molten state during the crystallization process of the PP component [18. According to our previous study [42].g. However. polyesters [34] and nylon [35] is an attractive recycling method. the yield strength and elastic modulus of b-PP are lower than those of a-PP [11–13]. Several compatibilizers were applied. b-PP has several advantages. Besides. e.19]. owing to the ease of fabrication.. elastomer [15–17]. PP matrix crystallized predominantly in a-modification in the presence of semicrystalline polymer with a-nucleating ability. a-modification is obtained by crystallization from polymer solution or melt. films and beverage. many efforts were made on stabilizing the blend morphology with compatibilization method. PP-g-GMA.18. economy and superior mechanical properties of the blends. Materials Polypropylene (PP. compatibilizer type and content. Generally. it was found that the PP matrix crystallized predominantly in b-modification after addition of little amount of maleic anhydride grafted PP (PP-g-MA) to the b-nucleated PP/PA6 blend as a compatibilizer. even though a b-nucleating agent was added to PP. pre-melting temperature and time on the formation of b-PP. Tao et al. Compared to a-modification PP (aPP).1166 Y. Varga et al.21]. b-PP based polymer blends can be prepared without any difficulty if the polymer additive is amorphous. Recycled PET is waste bottle grade. Besides. Varga et al.4 g/10 min (230 °C. Many PET products. high consumption of PET bottles in packaging industry may inevitably lead to large amounts of plastic wastes. In the case of b-PP blends with semicrystalline polymer. However. such as a-. From the view of environment pro- tecting and resources conservation.and c-modification. produced by Dushanzi Petrochemical Co. The formation of different modifications is dependent of the crystallization conditions [1–4]. Blending the recycled PET bottle materials (rPET) with polyolefins [24–33]. Blending b-PP matrix with r-PET will increase the yield strength and elastic modulus of b-PP.1. [22] have also studied the effect of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber on the crystallization of PP in the PET fiber-reinforced b-PP composites. 2. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 1. which has an intrinsic viscosity . However. the study on b-PP/r-PET blend will have theoretical and application values. recycling of PET wastes is of great importance and emergency. PP-gMA. food and other liquid containers [23]. PP crystallized in the presence of nucleating agent has been widely investigated.39]. EPS30R) is copolymer grade. Non-isothermal Crystallization kinetics was analyzed using theoretical method proposed by Mo and co-workers. Addition of b-nucleating agents is an efficient method for preparation of b-modification PP (b-PP) [5–10]. such as poly(vinylidene-fluoride) and polyamid-6 (PA6) [20. POE-g-MA and EVA-g-MA were used as compatibilizers. In order to increase the content of b-PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blend and examine the factors influencing the formation of b-PP in the blend. PET is an engineering plastic with high tensile strength and elastic modulus. PP and PET are incompatible resulting in poor mechanical properties of PP/PET blends. maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-octene elastomer (POE-gMA) [40] and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-vinyl acetate elastomer (EVA-g-MA) [41] were also used. Thus. as far as we know. b-PP blends with other polymers have been studied. r-PET had a-nucleating effect on the crystallization of PP. Therefore. [10. Effects of r-PET content. especially high impact strength at room temperature and low-temperature. In order to improve the properties of bPP.20]. the generally used were PP-g-MA [36. In the last decades..37] and glycidyl methacrylate grafted polypropylene (PP-g-GMA) [38. there was no report on the b-PP blend with r-PET. Experiment 2. such as packaging bottles and films were used only once. and the effectiveness were quite satisfactory.14] have summarized the factors in the formation of b-modification of PP in the blends of b-PP with other polymers. b. Introduction Polypropylene (PP) has complex polymorphism with several crystalline modifications. non-compatibilized and compatibilized b-PP/r-PET blends were prepared by melt extrusion in this work. however. crystallization and melting behavior of PP in the blends were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PET is a thermoplastic polyester widely used in synthetic fibers.

of Guangdong Province in China. its purity is 98%. 2. This controlled cooling temperature prevents b–a transformation. In some cases. The b-nucleating agent was prepared from a certain aliphatic dicarboxylic acid and nano-CaCO3 (1/50 w/w) in our laboratory. respectively. the grafted contents of MA and GMA are 1. b-Nucleated PP/PP-g-MA blend. the amount of r-PET was 10. the sample was cooled to 100 °C at the cooling rate of 10 °C/min for crystallization behavior investigation. 1 shows the DSC non-isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends pre-melting at 280 °C for 10 min. Because the topic focused on the crystallization. so the end temperature of cooling was set to 100 °C. Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid was supplied by Shanghai Hongsheng Industry Co. compatibilizer was added.0 and 1. PP-g-GMA. b-Nucleating agent (3 wt%) was added to PP to prepare b-nucleated PP on a twinscrew extruder at 180 °C.1. After pre-melting. Ltd. Results and discussion 3. All measurements were performed in nitrogen atmosphere.. Extrudates were cooled in a water bath and cut into pellets by a pelletizer. the temperature calibrated with indium. 1..1 wt%. The effect of r-PET content Fig. All the materials were used as-received. Three-component blends composed of various compositions. 20 and 30 wt%. In the two-component blends. The DSC data are shown in Table 1.. supplied by Guangzhou Lushan Chemical Materials Co. DSC crystallization (a) and melting (b) thermographs of neat PP and PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends with various contents of r-PET (10. According to the former study [10. Ltd. Active nano-CaCO3 was obtained from Gavin Chemical Industrial Enterprise Co. PP-g-MA. and then subsequently reheated to 280 °C at the heating rate of 10 °C/min for melting behavior and polymorphism investigation. The b-nucleating agent was forming during the extruding process.68 g/dl according to the supplier. all the materials were adequately dried in a vacuum oven at appropriate temperatures. 2. Apparatus and characterization procedures Non-isothermal crystallization and melting behavior were carried on a TA DSC Q10 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).2. each sample was used only once to alleviate any effects resulted from thermal degradation after high temperature treatment. 3. About 5 mg of sample was weighted very accurately.15]. Tao et al. 20 and 30 wt% represents r-PET content). The b-nucleated polypropylene/r-PET blends were prepared from the b-nucleated PP pellet and rPET on a twin-screw extruder at 240 °C with the screw rotation of 600 r/min and residue time of 40 s. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 1167 of 0. so the polymorphic composition of the sample can be determined accurately from the melting curves. b-nucleated PP and r-PET were also extruded under the same conditions as the blends preparation. Specimen preparation Before specimen preparation. The non-isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting curves were recorded.. b–a transformation occurred during the partial melting of the bphase if b-PP sample cooled down below 100 °C.. . POE-g-MA and EVA-g-MA are commercial products.3.Y. Ltd. Fig.

4 118. . The b-modification melting peak intensity decreased sharply when b-nucleated PP blended with r-PET.2.6 124. DSC crystallization (a) and melting (b) thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET 70/30 blend compatibilized with different compatibilizers (compatibilizer content was 5 phr). the former crystallized mainly in b-modification due to the b-nucleating effect. which was the melting characteristic of a-modification of PP. The double melting peaks of b-nucleated PP appeared around 164 and 150 °C. so the b-nucleating agent dissolved easier in r-PET than in PP.4 122.0 83.6 80. which can be understood from the polymorphic composition change. enthalpy of crystallization and melting. temperatures at crystallization and melting peaks. the former two were known as melting of original bmodification and recrystallized b-modification [43]. For the ternary melting peaks appeared around 148. There was only one melting peak located at 162.0 155.7 84. 1b). This may be because of the a-nucleating ability of r-PET [42. 3. the last one was ascribed to melting of a-modification.0 155. only the DSC thermographs and related discussions of PP were given in this paper.1 148. 1a). Both the b-nucleated agent and r-PET are polar. and the intensity decreased further with increasing r-PET content.7 °C for PP without nucleating agent.2 DHc (J/g) 85. suggesting that PP crystallized predominately in b-modification by addition of our self-made b-nucleating agent. [14] found similar results in b-nucleated PP/PA6 blends research. The intensity of melting peak for b-modification is higher than that for amodification. attributing to the melting of a. indicating that r-PET was not benefit for the formation of b-modification of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends during the non-isothermal crystallization process.8 119.8 Melting Tmp (°C) b PP PP/r-PET 90/10 PP/r-PET 80/20 PP/r-PET 70/30 – – 148. Men´ yhard et al.1 93.1168 Y.4 82.1 117. POEg-MA or EVA-g-MA are shown in Fig.1 148.9 162.5 DHm (J/g) a Tcon. 150 and 163 °C. double and ternary melting peaks were observed (Fig.1 a 162. The four Fig.3 86.7 163. The effect of compatibilizers The DSC crystallization and melting thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET 70/30 blend compatibilized with PP-g-MA.8 79.5 118. It can be seen from Table 1 that the crystallization peak temperature (Tcp) of bnucleated PP was 5 °C higher than that of PP in bnucleated PP/r-PET blends (Fig.4 Tcp (°C) 115. DHc and DHm. respectively.and b-modification of PP.1 117. but the later mainly in a-modification. As for b-nucleated PP and PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends. Tcp and Tmp.5 86.44] and encapsulation or dissolution of the bnucleating agent in r-PET phase. temperature at the onset of crystallization.5 162.1 b – 150.2 117. PP-g-GMA.7 74. 2. 2.7 155. these about r-PET were not mentioned. Tao et al. DHc and DHm were normalized by PP content. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 Table 1 DSC results of crystallization and melting of neat PP and PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blendsa Sample Crystallization Tcon (°C) PP b-Nucleated b-Nucleated b-Nucleated b-Nucleated 121.6 162. melting and polymorphism of PP.

proved by slight increase in the intensity of low-temperature melting peaks of PP. 3. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 1169 compatibilizers have different effects on the polymorphic composition of PP in the blends. thus the b-modification content of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blend decreased with addition of EVAg-MA. PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends compatibilized by different contents of PP-g-MA showed different melting behavior. The effect of PP-g-GMA compatibilization on the b-modification content was less compared to PP-g-MA. POE-g-MA did not seem to influence the b-modification content. 3 that although PPg-MA content had no effect on the non-isothermal crystallization behavior (Fig. When the b-nucleated PP/r-PET blend was compatibilized with PP-g-MA. Although addition of PP-g-MA increased the bmodification content of PP in b-nucleated PP/rPET blend. it reduced the b-modification content Fig. secondly. Tao et al. Based on our previous study [42]. The result supports the hypothesis that the b-nucleating agent is encapsulated or dissolved in r-PET phase. melting behavior and polymorphism of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET blend was also carried out. but little influence on the melting temperature of PP. DSC crystallization (a) and melting (b) thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET 80/20 blend compatibilized with 2 and 4 phr PP-g-MA. finally. Thus. suggesting that high PP-g-MA content can transfer more b-nucleating agent from r-PET phase into PP phase. Tcp of PP in PP-g-MA compatibilized blend was higher than that of PP in the non-compatibilized and the other three compatibilized blends (Fig.Y. POE-g-MA did not influence the polymorphic composition was due to its poor compatibility with PP [45]. Three factors are benefit for PP-g-MA transferring the b-nucleating agent from r-PET phase to PP phase: firstly. leaving little b-nucleating agent in PP matrix. which was proved by the strong melting peak located at 150 °C. . the adhesion of PP and r-PET phase is enhanced by compatibilization. 3a). Because of the b-nucleating effect. addition of PP-g-MA increased the bmodification content sharply. It can be observed from Fig. The intensity of low-temperature melting peak in the blend compatibilized by PP-g-MA at 4 phr was higher than that at 2 phr (Fig. proved by the decrease in the intensity of low-temperature melting peaks of PP. the polarity of PP-g-GMA was weaker than that of PP-g-MA. the chemical reaction between maleic anhydride (MA) group and terminal groups (–OH and –COOH) of r-PET reduced the polarity of r-PET. The effect of PP-g-MA content on the crystallization. the chemical reaction of PP-g-GMA with r-PET was weaker than that of PP-g-MA with r-PET. 2a). PP matrix crystallized mainly in bmodification. which was proved by the strong melting peak located at 163 °C and weak melting peaks at 148 and 155 °C (Fig. besides. 2b). the b-nucleating agent may transfer from r-PET and PP phase to the strong polar EVA-g-MA phase. The different effects of the four compatibilizers on the polymorphic composition are ascribed to their different abilities to partitioning the b-nucleating agent in PP and r-PET phase. indicating formation of more b-modification at 4 phr PP-gMA. thus the effect of PP-g-GMA on the b-modification content of PP in the compatibilized blend was less compared to that of PP-g-MA. but the b-modification content still increased with addition of PP-gGMA. and EVA-g-MA even reduced it. 3b). However. PP in the non-compatibilized blend crystallized predominately in a-modification. making r-PET release the b-nucleating agent. PP-g-MA has polar functional group and the backbone of PP-g-MA is compatible with PP. EVA-g-MA is not compatible with PP due to its strong polarity [46].

The a-crystal melting peak temperature of PP also decreased with increasing pre-melting temperature. Only one melting peak was observed due to melting of a-crystal when the blend pre-melting at 220 and 240 °C. 5. 4. Firstly. 5a).1170 Y. DSC melting thermograph of b-nucleated PP/PP-g-MA 95/5 blend. 5b). . rPET melted at 260 and 280 °C. It can be observed that the intensity of melting peak for b-modification decreased while the intensity of melting peak for a-modification increased as addition of 5 wt% PPg-MA into b-nucleated PP. The DSC crystallization and melting thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend pre-melting at various temperatures for 10 min are shown in Fig. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 Fig. 4. which may be for two reasons. melting behavior and polymorphism of PP in b-nucleated PP/r- Fig. the other one. macromolecular chains of PP may entangle with r-PET chains at high pre-melting temperature. the b-crystal melting peak predominated when the pre-melting temperature was 280 °C (Fig. the b-crystal melting peak intensity enhanced with the increasing pre-melting temperature. a low-temperature melting peak occurred due to melting of bcrystal if the blend melted at 260 °C. the effects of pre-melting temperature and pre-melting time were examined. In a word. The effect of pre-melting temperature The transfer of b-nucleating agent from r-PET to PP phase by PP-g-MA was related to some factors which influenced the polymorphic composition of PP as a result. The influence of pre-melting temperature on the non-isothermal crystallization. b-Nucleating agent can’t be released from r-PET at 220 °C and 240 °C because r-PET is in solid state. because PP-g-MA with polar functional group captured b-nucleating agent from PP. so the transfer of b-nucleating agent from r-PET to PP was easier at 280 °C. DSC crystallization (a) and melting (b) thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend pre-melting at various temperatures for 10 min. Thus. thus the PP matrix crystallized predominantly in a-form under the a-nucleating ability of crystallized r-PET. when adding to b-nucleated PP. and the melt viscosity of r-PET at 280 °C was lower than that at 260 °C based on Arrhenius equation [47]. Tcp of PP decreased with increasing pre-melting temperature in b-nucleated PP/rPET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend (Fig. 3. 5. Tao et al. resulting in the formation of high content of b-modification. forming branched PP and low-molecular weight polymers. reducing the nucleator content in PP.3. PP may thermally degrade at high pre-melting temperature. so Tcp decreased with increasing pre-melting temperature. The two cases are both not benefit for the crystallization of PP. The DSC melting thermograph of b-nucleated PP/PP-g-MA 95/5 blend is shown in Fig.

The double logarithmic form of Avrami equation is [49]: log½À lnð1 À X ðT Þފ ¼ log Z t þ n log t ð1Þ where X(T) is the relative crystallinity at the crystallization time t. 6. giving rise to the relationship between cooling rate R and crystallization time t at a given relative crystallinity: Fig. Zt and n are crystallization kinetic constant and Avrami exponent. for b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics analysis Fig. DSC melting thermographs of PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 80/20/4 (a) and b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 (b) blends pre-melting for different time at 280 °C.4. which is somewhat similar to the Avrami exponent and depends on the type of nucleation and growth dimensions. 6b). However. and the melting thermographs were almost the same if the blend pre-melted for 10 and 15 min (Fig. . 3. The application of this model to non-isothermal conditions was solved by Ozawa and Mo. indicating the b-nucleating agent transfer equilibrium between r-PET and PP phase achieved within 5 min at 280 °C. There are several other approximations which deal with nonisothermal crystallization kinetics. Ozawa derived an equation which double logarithmic form is [50]: log½À lnð1 À X ðT Þފ ¼ log KðT Þ À m log R ð2Þ where R is the cooling rate. respectively. The result also supports the hypothesis of encapsulation or dissolution of the b-nucleating agent in polar r-PET phase. POE-gMA or EVA-g-MA compatibilized b-nucleated PP/r-PET 70/30 blends were also studied.5. A review paper of Silvestre et al. 6 shows the DSC melting thermographs of PP in PP-g-MA compatibilized b-nucleated PP/rPET blends with different r-PET contents. There was no difference in the two melting thermographs of b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 80/20/4 blend pre-melting for 5 and 10 min (Fig. 10 min premelting led to stronger b-crystal melting peak compared to 5 min pre-melting. 3. K(T) is a function related to the overall crystallization rate. and both are related to the rate and mechanism of crystallization. The blends were pre-melting for different time at 280 °C before non-isothermal crystallization. The effect of pre-melting time revealed that the b-crystal melting peaks were still small even though the pre-melting time was prolonged to 15 min. The pre-melting time effects on the polymorphic composition of PP in 5 phr PP-g-GMA. Tao et al.Y. indicating the transfer equilibrium achieved between 5 and 10 min. m is the Ozawa index. Mo and co-workers [51] proposed a different equation by combining the Avrami and Ozawa equations. results The most commonly used isothermal crystallization kinetic equation is the well-known Avrami equation. we concluded that the time needed for the achievement of the b-nucleating agent transfer equilibrium between r-PET and PP phase was with aspect to r-PET content. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 1171 PET/PP-g-MA 80/20/4 blend was similar to that of b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend. [48] discussed the most important non-isothermal crystallization kinetic models. The pre-melting time had no distinct effect on the melting temperature of PP in the two blends. 6a). From the above results. The melting thermographs were recorded during the reheated process after non-isothermal crystallization.

/ European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 log Z t þ n log t ¼ log KðT Þ À m log R log R ¼ log F ðT Þ À a log t ð3Þ ð4Þ Table 2 Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic parameters of PP in bnucleated PP and b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends compatibilized with PP-g-MA X(T) (%) b-Nucleated PP 10 30 50 70 90 F(T) 7.19 1.35 1.37 a 1. Tao et al. For each specimen.1172 Y. the plots are straight lines.23 where the kinetic parameter.72 70 13.98 9.74 30 11.41 50 12. F(T) has a definite physical and practical meaning. After fitting our experimental results to Ozawa equation and Mo’s method. .10 14. the higher the crystallization rate becomes.12 1. a = n/m. 7. we found only Mo’s method can satisfactorily describe the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of the researched blends. F(T) = [K(T)/Zt]1/m.59 50 12.13 1. respectively. At a given relative crystallinity. b-Nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 80/20/4 10 9.83 12. F(t) increased systematically with increasing the relative degree of crystallinity and the values of a increased slightly.11 1.70 30 11.22 1. the values of F(T) for these specimen ranked as: b-nucleated PP/r-PET/ Fig. 7.63 90 15. The values of F(T) and a can be obtained from the slopes and intercepts of the straight lines. implying agreement of the experimental results with Mo’s theoretical prediction. The Mo exponent a is the ration of the Avrami exponent n to the Ozawa exponent m. at the same X(T).57 b-Nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 10 9.21 1. Plots of log R versus log t for b-nucleated PP (a) and PP in b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-g-MA 80/20/4 blend (b) and b-nucleated PP/ r-PET/PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend (c).35 1.30 1.16 1. the smaller the value of F(T) is.59 10.35 1. Obviously. plots of log R against log t of b-nucleated PP and PP in bnucleated PP/r-PET blends compatibilized by PPg-MA are given in Fig.33 1.00 Besides. tabulated in Table 2.46 70 13.94 90 16.15 1. that is.04 1.

83(3):625–30.and block-copolymers. characterisation by DSC and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) measurements. [3] Thomann R. which supports the hypothesis of encapsulation or dissolution of the b-nucleating agent in polar rPET phase. Scudla J. 3. Effect of b-nucleator content on the crystallization and melting behaviour of b-crystalline phase polypropylene. Acknowledgements The project was supported by Key Program of Guangdong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.43(24): 6505–14. [2] Norton DR. Keller A. [10] Varga J. melting and polymorphic composition of bnucleated isotactic polypropylene and polyamide 6 blends.and b-phase polypropylene homopolymers and random. indicating that r-PET was not benefit for the formation of b-modification for PP. Schulek-Toth F. This means that to reach the same X(T). ˇ˘ ˇı [13] Raab M. Eur Polym J 2005. [9] Mohmeyer N. Varga J. Kolar´k J. ´ [16] Varga J. [5] Garbarczyk J.40(7):1317–23. Mulhaupt R. These results were in agreement with the crystallization behavior and polymorphic composition discussed above. Prog Colloid Polym Sci 1979. the crystallization time needed of b-nucleated PP/r-PET/PP-gMA 70/30/5 is the longest and that of b-nucleated PP is the shortest. Polym Mat Sci Eng 1990.263(12): 985–90. Altstadt V. J Appl Polym Sci 2002. Schmidt HW. Kressler J. compatibilizer type and content. Molnar G. Crystalline forms of isotactic polypropylene. Berlin: Springer Verlag.78: 229–41. Polym Int 2003.180:15–33. . Macromolecules 1996. Progress in Pacific Polymer Science. 1994.39(17):5760–7. 29(26):8425–34. Varga J. b-Modification of polypropylene and its twocomponent systems. Fracture toughness of a. Macromolecules 2006. Karger-Kocsis J. Zhang X. Influence of additives on the structure and properties of polymer. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 1173 PP-g-MA 70/30/5 blend > b-nucleated PP/r-PET/ PP-g-MA 80/20/4 blend > b-nucleated PP. Macromol Symp 1994. editor. Tao et al. [15] Varga J. 259–69. Chen M. Polymer 2002. Raab M. vol. PP-g-GMA. 06104925) and Fundamental Research Foundation of Guangzhou. Polymer 1985. ´ ´ [20] Menyhard A. pre-melting temperature and time was benefit for the formation of b-modification. 3: study of b?a transition in isotactic polypropylene at various temperature and times of heating. Angew Makromol Chem 1990. Wu JS. Li SC. Paukzta D. The effect of specific b-nucleation on morphology and mechanical behavior of isotactic polypropylene. J Therm Anal 1989. The spherulitic and lamellar morphology of melt-crystallized isotactic polypropylene. and application. p.52(1):42–5. [17] Shi G.41(4–6):1121–71. ´ [18] Varga J. Comparison of different b-nucleators for isotactic polypropylene.42(12):3257–68. The properties of polymer blends of bmodification of polypropylene and an elastomer. The non-isothermal crystallization process of b-nucleated PP and PP in PP-g-MA compatibilized b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends can be successfully described by Mo’s method. Thermochim Acta 1992. [7] Feng J. ¨ Influence of chemical structure and solubility of bisamide additives on the nucleation of isotactic polypropylene and the improvement of its charge storage properties. Among the compatibilization of PP-g-MA. Study on the morphology of b-form crystals of PP in the iPP/LDPE blends. Wang C. ´ [14] Menyhard A. Liber A. Blends of the bmodification of polypropylene. [12] Chen HB. The effect of specific nucleation on tensile mechanical behaviour of isotactic polypropylene. Varga J. Studies on the monoclinic and hexagonal modifications of isotactic polypropylene. References [1] Turner-Jones A.35:1891–912.7:48–55. Recent studies on b-crystalline form of isotactic polypropylene. melting behavior and polymorphic composition of PP in non-compatibilized and compatibilized b-nucleated PP/r-PET blends were related to r-PET content. In: Ghiggino KP. J Macromol Sci Phys 2002. J Therm Anal Calorim 2006. Wendorff JH. Belina G. Makromol Chem 1964. Varga J. Mudra I.85(6):1174–84. [11] Kotek J. Conclusions The crystallization. Eur Polym J 2006. [6] Shi G. b-Modification of isotactic polypropylene: preparation.26(5):704–16. r-PET suppressed the formation of b-modification in b-nucleated PP/ r-PET blend.41(4):669–77. Baldrian J. ´ ´ [8] Menyhard A. POEg-MA and EVA-g-MA. Eur Polym J 2004. pre-melting temperature and time. [19] Huang SH. but the PP matrix crystallized predominantly in b-modification with addition of PP-g-MA to the b-nucleated PP/r-PET blend.66:25–33. structure. On the c¨ phase of isotactic polypropylene. processing. Aizlewood JM. [4] Ullmann W. PP-g-MA compatibilization was the most benefit for the formation of b-PP in bnucleated PP/r-PET blend. Colloid Polym Sci 1985. Effects of Lan3+-containing additive on crystalline characteristics of isotactic polypropylene. PP crystallized predominantly in b-modification has higher crystallization temperature compared to that of PP without b-nucleating agent.Y. Polymer blends based on the b-modification of polypropylene.205:235–43. 4. The increase in PP-gMA content. The effect of compatibilizers on the crystallization. Beckett DR. 75:134–58. properties. Kristiansen PM. Grellmann WJ. Garzo G.

Polymer 1971. Memory effect of locally ordered a-phase in the melting and phase transformation behavior of b-isotactic polypropylene. [31] Friedrich K. Non-isothermal crystallization of polymers. J Appl Polym Sci 1998. Fakirov S. Covas JA. editor.1174 Y. Chiu HT. Cook M. [22] Varga J. Microfibrillar reinforced composites from PET/ PP blends: processing. Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends.198:161–71. Kang B-Il. New York: Wiley. Pazzagli F. Michel FC. Friedrich K. Iranian Polym J 1999. Oriented films from recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/ recycled high-density polyethylene compatibilized blends. The difference between transcrystallization and shear-induced cylindritic crystallization in fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites. Nonisothermal melt and cold crystallization kinetics of poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone). ´ ´ ´ ´ Huerta-Martınez BM. thermal and morphology characterization. Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) as polymer–polymer composites. J Chem Phys 1940.41(3): 519–25. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.42(4): 826–35. Kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization. Fakirov S. Commereuc S. Mai K. Pracella M. J Appl Polym Sci 2002. Chionna D. J Appl Polym Sci 2004. Yang H.65(1):107–16. Polymer 2003. Karababa E. Harrass M. II: Transformationtime relations for random distribution of nuclei. Compos Sci Technol 2005. [28] Evstatiev M. Ozawa T. Papadopoulou CP. Lee SS. Polymer 2000.89(4):1039–48.82(6):1423–36. Pracella M. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate and functionalized polypropylene blends [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] . J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 2004. Meldrum IG. [23] Gupta VB. J Polym Mater 1996. 1. Polym Degrad Stabil 2003. Ishii M. 43(13):3785–93. [35] Kegel M. Nally GM.8(3):193– 204. Bashir Z. J Appl Polym Sci 2001. Morphology and nonisothermal crystallization of in situ microfibrillar poly(ethylene terephthalate)/polypropylene blend fabricated through slit-extrusion. Zhang HF. Kalfoglou NK. and bottles.90(2):250–5. Polym Degrad Stab 2005. Compatibility mechanisms between EVA and complex impact heterophasic PP–EPx copolymers as a function of EP content.43(4):775–89. Tao et al. hot-stretch quenching. melting and structure of polypropylene/poly(vinylidene-fluoride) blends. Avrami M. 13(2):153–60.43(8): 3538–49. Di Lorenzo ML. Xie BH. Compatibility study of waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) with poly(vinyl chloride). Krasteva B. Li ZM. Evstatiev M. Hsiao YK. Polym Eng Sci 1997.44(14):4053–9.24:917–50. Li LB. Garcıa RC. Kamo H. processing and properties of post-consumer PET/polyolefin blends. Melt blending of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with polypropylene in the presence of silane coupling agent. Duarte MV.13(14):1069–71.86(6):1473–85. Eur Polym J 2007. Wilfried P. [33] Akovali G. Mo ZS. 2002. J Appl Polym Sci 2002. Pawlak A. Crystallisation. [32] Oyman ZO. Friedrich K. McNally T.39(6):976–84. II. In-situ reactions between recycled polyethylene terephthalate and nylon 6 blends. [36] Oromiehie A. / European Polymer Journal 44 (2008) 1165–1174 by different methods. Silvestre C. 1960. Obadal M. Wang SE. Claudine R. 41(7):2543–55. ´ [21] Varga J. J Polym Res 2006. Ramırez-Vargas E. Masood S. Pracella M. Kinetics of phase change. Karger-Kocsis J. Tao Y. Eur Polym J 2005. mechanical. Recycling of postconsumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) and high-density polyethylene by compatibilized blending. Prog Polym Sci 1999. Phase structure and viscoelastic properties of compatibilized blends of PET and HDPE recyclates. Morawiec J.13(3): 217–21. Medellın-Rodrı´ guez FJ.73(3):735–43. Evstatiev M.37(3):568–75. Krasnikova NP. Polimery/Polymers 2002.68(5):765–74. Microfibrillar reinforced composites from PET/LDPE blends: morphology and mechanical properties. A mechanical analysis on recycled PET/HDPE composites. Galeski A. Sbarski I.80(2): 373–82. Compatibilization.42(3):374–85. J Mater Sci Lett 1994. Compatibilization of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/polypropylene blends with maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-octene elastomer. Kale DD. Handbook of thermoplastic polyesters. Yang W. p. Iovenitti P. Michel AH. J Macromol Sci Phys 2004. [27] Pawlak A. Prog Rub Plast Recycl Tech 2003.19(4): 251–9. [26] Morawiec J. [25] Avila AF.86(6):1486–96. Morawiec J. phase morphology. Cho K.12(3):150–8. Cunha AM. Non-isothermal crystallization and melting behavior of compatibilized polypropylene/recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends. Rheology. Huang R. Galeski A. J Thermal Anal Calorim 2003. Reactive compatibilization of polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate blends. Tincer T. Pracella M. Polymer 2002. Properties and structure of polymers. Verney V. Galeski A. Studies in blends of polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate. 317–88.8:212–24. In: Fakirov S. Kosior E. morphology and mechanical properties. PET fibers. Miller A. Polym Eng Sci 1999. films. Saheb DN. Polym Eng Sci 2002.47(7–8):491–9. McShane P. Kim J. Bartczak Z. vol. [24] Fakirov S. [29] Pawlak A. Morye SS. Galeski A. [34] Fraisse F. Menyhard A. [30] Pluta M. impact and thermal properties of polypropylene/metallocene catalysed ethylene 1-octene copolymer blends. Evstatiev O. Yang MB. Reactive compatibilization of blends of PET and PP modified by GMA grafting. Comparison of compatibilizer effectiveness for PET/PP blends: their mechanical. Liu TX. Macromol Symp 2003. Murphy WR. Tobolsky AV.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful