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R. M. Murray, Caltech

**CDS 101: Lecture 2.1 System Modeling
**

Richard M. Murray 4 October 2004 Goals: Define what a model is and its use in answering questions about a system Introduce the concepts of state, dynamics, inputs and outputs Provide examples of common modeling techniques: differential equations, difference equations, finite state automata Reading: Åström and Murray, Analysis and Design of Feedback Systems, Ch 2 Advanced: Lewis, A Mathematical Approach to Classical Control, Ch 1

**Week 1: Introduction to Feedback and Control Review from last week
**

Control = Sensing + Computation + Actuation Feedback Principles Robustness to Uncertainty Design of Dynamics

Actuate

Sense

Compute

**Many examples of feedback and control in natural & engineered systems: BIO ESE BIO ESE CS
**

4 Oct 04 R. M. Murray, Caltech CDS 2

4 Oct 04

1

M. M. Murray. M.CDS 101. Lecture 2.1 R. models help sort out what is going on For control design. Murray. Caltech Model-Based Analysis of Feedback Systems Analysis and design based on models A model provides a prediction of how the system will behave Feedback can give counter-intuitive behavior. “Bob”) Molecular and quantum dynamics k3 b Questions we want to answer How much do masses move as a function of the forcing frequency? What happens if I change the values of the masses? Will Bob fly into the air if I take that hill at 25 mph? Modeling assumptions Mass. Murray. and damper constants are fixed and known Springs satisfy Hooke’s law Damper is (linear) viscous force. proportional to velocity 4 Oct 04 R. models don’t have to be exact: feedback provides robustness Control-oriented models: inputs and outputs The model you use depends on the questions you want to answer A single system may have many models Time and spatial scale must be chosen to suit the questions you want to answer Formulate questions before building a model Weather Forecasting • Question 1: how much will it rain tomorrow? • Question 2: will it rain in the next 5-10 days? • Question 3: will we have a drought next summer? Different questions ⇒ different models 4 Oct 04 R. Caltech CDS 4 4 Oct 04 2 . spring. Caltech CDS 3 Example #1: Spring Mass System u(t) q2 q1 m1 k1 k2 m2 Applications Flexible structures (many apps) Suspension systems (eg.

Murray.u ∈ q p y∈ R. Caltech CDS 4 Oct 04 3 . M.tspan. dydt = [ y(3). Murray.) u = 0. Caltech Modeling a Spring Mass System u(t) q2 q1 m1 k1 k2 m2 k3 Model: rigid body physics (Ph 1) Sum of forces = mass ∗ acceleration Hooke’s law: F = k(x – xrest) Viscous friction: F = b v && m1q1 = k2 ( q2 − q1 ) − k1q1 && & m2 q2 = k3 (u − q2 ) − k2 ( q2 − q1 ) − bq2 & q1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎢ & q2 ⎥ ⎢q ⎥ ⎢ d ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ k2 k ⎥ = ( q2 − q1 ) − 1 q1 ⎥ & dt ⎢ q1 ⎥ ⎢ m m ⎥ ⎢& ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ q2 ⎦ ⎢ k3 (u − q ) − k2 ( q − q ) − b q ⎥ &2 2 2 1 ⎢m m m ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ q1 ⎤ ⎡ y=⎢ ⎥ “State space form” ⎣ q2 ⎦ 5 b Converting models to state space form Construct a vector of the variables that are required to specify the evolution of the system Write dynamics as a system of first order differential equations: dx = f ( x. t.[]. m1. Lecture 2.y] = ode45(dydt.1 R. omega). u ) dt y = h( x ) 4 Oct 04 x∈ n .b/m2*y(4) + k3/m2*u ]. Murray.y0. y(4). Caltech CDS Frequency Response for a Mass Spring System u(t) q2 q1 m1 k1 k2 m2 k3 Steady state frequency response Force the system with a sinusoid Plot the “steady state” response.(k2+k3)/m2*y(2) . after transients have died out Plot relative magnitude and phase of output versus input (more later) b Matlab simulation (see handout) function dydt = f(t. b. k2/m2*y(1) . k2. .CDS 101. 6 Frequency Response 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0 -90 -180 -270 -360 0. M. y. M.00315*cos(omega*t). -(k1+k2)/m1*y(1) + k2/m1*y(2).. m2.1 1 10 Phase (deg) Magnitude (dB) Frequency (rad/sec) 4 Oct 04 R.. k3. k1.

CDS 101. q2 . M. M. Murray. Caltech CDS 8 4 Oct 04 4 .4) Choice of inputs and outputs depends on point of view Inputs: what factors are external to the model that you are building Inputs in one model might be outputs of another model (eg. Caltech Modeling Terminology State captures effects of the past independent physical quantities that determines future evolution (absent external excitation) Inputs describe external excitation Inputs are extrinsic to the system dynamics (externally specified) Dynamics describes state evolution update rule for system state function of current state and any external inputs Outputs describe measured quantities Outputs are function of state and inputs ⇒ not independent variables Outputs are often subset of state 4 Oct 04 u(t) q2 q1 m1 k1 k2 m2 k3 b Example: spring mass system State: position and velocities of & & each mass: q1 . solid mechanics. Murray. the output of a cruise controller provides the input to the vehicle model) Outputs: what physical variables (often states) can you measure Choice of outputs depends on what you can sense and what parts of the component model interact with other component models Can also have different types of models Ordinary differential equations for rigid body mechanics Finite state machines for manufacturing. Lecture 2.1 R. information flow Partial differential equations for fluid flow. q2 Input: position of spring at right end of chain: u(t) Dynamics: basic mechanics Output: measured positions of the masses: q1 . q2 R. Murray. q1 . Internet. etc 4 Oct 04 R. Caltech CDS 7 Modeling Properties Choice of state is not unique There may be many choices of variables that can act as the state Trivial example: different choices of units (scaling factor) Less trivial example: sums and differences of the mass positions (HW 2. M.

u ) Both state and time are continuous variables dt Example: electrical power grid Swing equations y = h( x ) && δ1 + D1δ&1 = ω0 ( P1 − B sin(δ1 − δ 2 ) + G cos(δ1 − δ 2 ) ) && δ 2 + D1δ&2 = ω0 ( P2 − B sin(δ1 − δ 2 ) + G cos(δ1 − δ 2 ) ) Describe how generator rotor angles (δi) interact through the transmission line (G. velocities ( δ i . Murray. Caltech CDS 9 Finite State Machines Finite state machines model discrete transitions between finite # of states Represent each configuration of system as a state Model transition between states using a graph Inputs force transition between states Example: Traffic light logic Car arrives on E-W St Timer expires Timer expires Car arrives on N-S St State: Inputs: Outputs: 4 Oct 04 current pattern of lights that are on + internal timers presence of car at intersections current pattern of lights that are on R.CDS 101. Caltech Differential Equations Differential equations model continuous evolution of state variables Describe the rate of change of the state variables dx = f ( x. Lecture 2.1 R. Murray. Murray. δ i ) power loading on the grid (Pi ) voltage levels and frequency (based on rotor speed) R. M. M. M. Caltech CDS 10 4 Oct 04 5 . B) Stability of these equations determines how loads on the grid are accommodated State: Inputs: Outputs: 4 Oct 04 & rotor angles.

Caltech Difference Equations Difference eqs model discrete transitions between continuous variables “Discrete time” description (clocked transitions) xk +1 = f ( xk . shaking and bumps.html 4 Oct 04 Modeling assumptions The predator species is totally dependent on the prey species as its only food supply. uk ) New state is function of current state + inputs yk +1 = h ( xk +1 ) State is represented as a continuous variable Example: CD read/write head controller (implemented on DSP) howstuffworks. 12 R. M. what will the effect on the rabbit and fox population be? How do long term changes in the amount of rabbit food available affect the populations? “FOX” http://www. Murray.edu/education/ccp/ materials/diffeq/predprey/contents. M. Caltech CDS Example #2: Predator Prey Questions we want to answer Given the current population of rabbits and foxes. what will it be next year? If we hunt down lots of foxes in a given year. Lecture 2. Caltech CDS 4 Oct 04 6 . M. Murray.1 R. etc 11 State: Inputs: Outputs: 4 Oct 04 estimated center. Murray. wobble read head signal commanded motion R.math.100 sec) Get analog signal from read head Determine the data (1/0) plus estimate the location of the track center Update estimate of “wobble” Compute where to position disk head for next read (limited by motor torque) Performance specification Keep disk head on track center Reject disturbances due to disk shape.com Controller operation (every 1/44.duke.CDS 101. The prey species has an external food supply and no threat to its growth other than the specific predator.

uk ) yk +1 = h( xk +1 ) Principle: Choice of model depends on the questions you want to answer u(t) q2 q1 m1 k1 k2 m2 k3 b function dydt = f(t. Lecture 2. Murray. M.b/m2*y(4) + k3/m2*u ]. m1. k3.y. Murray. “simulated” through repeated addition 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 Rk Fk uk # of rabbits in period k Rk +1 = Rk + br (u ) Rk − aFk Rk Fk +1 = Fk − d f Fk + aFk Rk Parameters/functions Comparison with data br(u) df a 4 Oct 04 rabbit birth rate (per year) (depends on food supply) fox death rate (per year) interaction term R. Caltech CDS 4 Oct 04 7 . k2. inputs. k1.(k2+k3)/m2*y(2) . Caltech CDS 13 Summary: System Modeling Model = state. omega) u = 0.1 R. dynamics dx = f ( x. m2. -(k1+k2)/m1*y(1) + k2/m1*y(2). outputs.CDS 101. y(4). 14 4 Oct 04 R. u ) dt y = h( x ) xk +1 = f ( xk . Caltech Example #2: Predator Prey (2/2) Discrete Lotka-Volterra model State # of foxes in period k Inputs (optional) amount of rabbit food Outputs: # of rabbits and foxes Dynamics: Lotka-Volterra eqs Matlab simulation (see handout) Discrete time model. b. k2/m2*y(1) . M. dydt = [ y(3).00315*cos(omega*t). Murray. M.

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