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**MAGNETO-THERMAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF INDUCTOR OF INDUCTION COOKING DEVICES
**

A.Kanssab , A .Zaoui , M.Feliachi

1 2 2

1.Université Hassiba Benbouali Chlef 02000- Algérie . e-mail : Kanssab@yahoo.fr 2. IREENA-IUT,CRTT, Bd de l’université, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire cedex, France . e-mail: mouloud.feliachi@univ-nantes.fr Abstract:

Induction cooking has several advantages compared to traditional heating system, however to obtain best efficiency, it is essential to have an inductor giving a homogeneous temperature on pan bottom. For this aim, we propose a structure of inductor with four throats containing coils and we optimize their distribution. In this paper, firstly we were modelling magneto thermal phenomena of the system by a finite element method (FEM) for the mean to determine distribution of temperature on pan bottom with taking nonlinearity of system. This study shows that a temperature distribution is not homogeneous. Secondly, in the aim to have homogeneous temperature distribution in pan bottom, the optimal determination of throats distribution and their dimensions is obtained by Genetic Algorithms (GA’s). The optimized structure permits to satisfy our aim. Keywords: Finite element method, Magneto thermal devices, Genetic Algorithms

1. INTRODUCTION Induction cooking has several advantages [4] compared to traditional heating system (resistance, gas, etc...), in particular direct heating of pan without thermal inertia. The inductor generates an alternating magnetic field which causes eddy current in the pan and, in ferromagnetic pans it also produces magnetic hysteresis, both mechanisms heat up the pan [4-5]. The distribution of the temperature on the pan bottom depends to many parameters: - Geometrical structures of pan to heat, and the inductor; - Characteristics of materials (conductivity , permeability ); - Frequency that implies the skin thickness. Classical inductor, constituted of insulated coils placed on a support (Fig.1) [6], induces eddy currents in magnetic pan with high efficiency, however the temperature is non homogeneous on the pan bottom, also we can’t optimize this structure because the pancake structure of the inductor.

Fig.1: the modelled system

In the aim to have a homogeneous temperature on pan bottom, we propose a structure of inductor with coils placed in throats (fig. 2). In this work, we optimize the structure of throats distribution and their dimension of inductor proposed. The method of optimization with genetic algorithms (GA’s) was restricted to the magnetodynamic phenomena [7]. In this paper, we propose to optimize inductor with magneto-thermal calculation method and to determine the optimal temperature distribution on the pan bottom.

le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 .CNI’2-2011. MIRA – Béjaïa. Université A.

is the magnetic reluctivity. Inductor with throats The (GA's) have been widely used mainly in connection with the finite element method for optimization of electromagnetic devices [1. 3]. In section 3. m is the masse density. This section seeks the distribution of the temperature with uniform repartition of the throats in the inductor. it is necessary to know distribution of temperature on pan bottom which is the image of distribution of induced currents. This paper is organized as follows: Magneto thermal Finite-Element analysis is presented in section 2. Physical phenomena in studied system can be simulated by solving the coupled Maxwell's and thermal equations. Cp is the specific heat and t is the time. is the angular velocity.2). 2. is the electric conductivity. Finally the conclusion is presented in section 5 2. the procedure of calculation without optimization is studied. In section 4 the proposed method with Genetics Algorithms (GA’s) is applied to obtain an optimal repartition of the throats in the inductor. For the reason of axisymetric structure of the inductor.2 Boundary Conditions The magneto-thermal analysis is performed by FEM (finite element method) using the governing equations (1) and (2) and the following boundary conditions (4) and (5): Direchlet ( A T 0) (4) . di Throats of coils Support Fig. electromagnetic phenomena are modeled by the well known magnetothermal equation [8. J is the current density. Using the magnetic potential A. Descriptive Equations In order to develop an optimal system of induction-heating cooking.1. A : is the azimuthal component of the vector potential. MAGNETO-THERMAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2. 2. q is the heat source density. an axisymetric 2D solution is possible.2. T is the temperature.Colloque National sur l’Inductique : Application de l’Induction Electromagnétique This method consists in placing coils in throats upon the support of the inductor and to vary their distances di (Fig. is the thermal conductivity. 9]: j A r 2 r r A r T t z A r z J (1) T 1 r 2 q 2 m C p (2) (3) q A A A: Magnetic vector potential defined such as A r A .

CNI’2-2011. le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 . MIRA – Béjaïa. Université A.n h (T Ta ) (5) h: is convection coefficient and T is ambient temperature.

4.9 1000 900 0.1) along the radial direction of the axisymetric structure in studied system. 2. = 0. (T) = 1 / (T) and The curves of (T) and 1. Firstly we assume that the distances di have a uniform distribution. Curve of permeability 3. The other parameters shown in Table1.75 10 . Curve of resistivity Fig. (T) are shown respectively in Fig.m) 1200 1100 Relative permeability 1.85 0 100 2 0 0 3 0 0 400 Temperatu e r (°C) 5 0 0 6 0 0 800 0 100 200 300 400 Temperature (°C) 500 600 Fig. PROCEDURE OF CALCULATION WITHOUT OPTIMIZATION The proposed system inductor has four throats Containing coils (Fig. except the conductivity (T) and permeability (T). Because of axisymetric structure of inductor. The electrical conductivity (T) and the magnetic permeability (T) of the material at temperature T°C are expressed as [9]: (T ) 1 T 0 (6 ) T 750 T 1 e 150 (7 ) 0 -8 =1/ 0 = 13.3 and Fig.3. 1300 1. Symbole Magnitude Qantity .15 1. Electromagnetic Characteristics of Material The pan is made by a stainless-steel. can be assumed constant during the procedure of calculation for temperature.Colloque National sur l’Inductique : Application de l’Induction Electromagnétique The heat transfer coefficient in (5) has a role in determining the temperature distribution of the pan bottom in the device.1 Resistivity ( . Thus we assume that h has a constant value (Table. this makes h nonlinear due to the convection effect of the air nearby [11].004.05 1 0.4.2 x 10 -6 (T) = 1/ (T).3.95 0.5).m.

R ei eg ec d1.25 mm 2mm 2500 20*103 Hz 6 2 1*10 A/m 26 W/m*°K 2 20W/m °C 7700 kg/m 3 460 J/°C Table.1 Parameters of the simulated systeme CNI’2-2011.…di eq f f J h m Cp Radius of container Inductor thickness Gap thickness Container thickness Distances throats thickness ferrite relative permeability Frequency Current density Thermal Conductivity Convection coefficient Masse density Specific heat 140 mm 3. MIRA – Béjaïa. Université A.8mm 4mm 3mm 16.d2. le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 .

BBeeggiinn Initialize 0. The curves representing the distribution of the current density and the final temperature on the pan bottom are shown in Fig.7. ((T) Calculation of T NO T 230°C Yes End Fig.6. The thermal problem is solved step by step in the time using a time step of 5 seconds.8.T0 Calculation of A Calculation of Fig. Curve of the current density on the bottom of the pan t = t+ t q 1 2 r 2 AA (T). One can note that such a distribution is not homogeneous. Geometry of the model used in the program The magneto-thermal calculation of our system running is illustrated in flow chart of Fig.5. 0. After 150 seconds.7 and Fig. Flow chart of magneto thermal program .Colloque National sur l’Inductique : Application de l’Induction Electromagnétique R Container Gap d1 d2 dn ec eg ei Support with ferrite Fig. the desired temperature 200°C is obtained (Fig.13).6.

Université A. le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 . MIRA – Béjaïa.CNI’2-2011.

The whole of creatures constitutes a Initialize and evaluate a population population. yes End Fig. GA’s uses only this function for optimization. it is possible to exploit the distribution of the throats (coils) in the inductor by varying the distances di but not their thickness. The creatures are coded in the form of a finite-length string according to one of the coding methods. Curve of the temperature on the bottom of the pan 4. The code of genetic algorithm Criterion of convergence uses is shown in Fig.Colloque National sur l’Inductique : Application de l’Induction Electromagnétique Fig. MIRA – Béjaïa.9. Cross-over and mutation allow to introduce new genetic parameters and to test No new configuration [10]. 4. GA’s generate new creatures in such Magneto thermal calculations a way that new individuals inherit better information from their previous population.8. new population From a first population of selected individuals in a random manner. which the Apply the genetic operators to generate a binary coding (0. Flow chart of the genetic algorithm CNI’2-2011. PROCEDURE OF CALCULATION WITH OPTIMIZATION In the aim to attain homogeneous temperature distribution on pan bottom.1. On the other side. which we want to improve the performances. which allows a better precision. The main advantages of the GA’s are: they can search effectively in multivariable searching space. Université A. le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 . GA’s uses random characters such as reproduction. Each creature is associated with a value of of the distances qi the objective function. In order to obtain such solution. not Select best distances derivative. Algorithm Optimization The genetic algorithms (GA's) have been widely used mainly in connection with the finite element method for optimization of electromagnetic devices. Reproduction is a process in which creatures Evaluate the objective function associated to high value of objective function have a higher probability to survive. (GA’s) are exploration algorithms based on the artificial creature that represent design configurations. and are able to pass the optimizing information from one population to the following one.1) is used. cross-over and mutation.9. a Genetic Algorithms (GA’s) is used to determine the optimal of throats distribution and their dimensions.

Distribution of the current density on the bottom of the pan Fig. Temperature evolution versus time . Results of calculations are shown in figures 10. Distribution of the temperature on the bottom of the pan 250 200 Temperature (°C) 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 Times (s) 200 250 300 Fig. 11. T f : Desired temperature.13. From each step given of the process calculation. 12 and 13.12. Fig.Colloque National sur l’Inductique : Application de l’Induction Electromagnétique In the aim to have homogeneous temperature distribution in pan bottom. carries out the new mesh and solves the magneto-thermal problem.11.10. The objective function used by GA’s is defined in the following form: f obj d i ∑ i 1 nT TiT f Tf (8 ) T i : Temperature in each point of calculation on the bottom of the pan. Geometry of the inductor after optimization Fig. we optimize the system to determine throats distribution and their dimensions by Genetic Algorithms (GA’s). n T : Number of points of statement of temperature along the pan. the elaborated program reconstitutes the geometry starting from the choice of distances di.

MIRA – Béjaïa. le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 . Université A.CNI’2-2011.

masse and J.Burais.G. n° 6.36. [11] Jin-kyu Byun. Duterrail. Burdio.36.Colloque National sur l’Inductique : Application de l’Induction Electromagnétique In figures 10 and 11 respectively.Cingoski. 1991. 35. Conception et commande de génératrices à réluctance variable basse vitesse ’’. Féliachi and G. the optimal distribution of throats and their dimensions are obtained.35.J.27. NUMELEC’97.A. On Magnetics. Master Thesis. Moreau. and H. IEEE Trans. 2005. REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES [1] [2] J.C sabonnadiere. On Magnetics. V.1052-1056. ‘‘ Couplage de modèles pour la conception d’inducteur de cuisson par induction’’. IEEE Trans.pp. and L.IEEE Trans. The computations are carried out using a P4.4. IEEE Trans.4.Pertoldi. Taiwan. 2 Go RAM. Ecole Centrale de Lyon. May 1999 [4] E.Mag-20.16861689. 4. and H. P. Develey: ‘‘Magneto-Thermal Behavior Finite Element Analysis for Ferromagnetic Materials in Induction Heating Devices’’. J. no. 3.C. London (1995). Kaneda. CONCLUSION In order to develop an optimal system of induction-heating cooking. MIT Oress. Vol. The result is obtained after 500 iterations corresponding to about 14 hours of CPU time.April 2005 [7] N. On Magnetics.Y. J.M. Consequently. Chung Yuan University. H. [8] Y. . Thèse de doctorat de l’université de Nantes. July. Alonso. Hee-succ Roh and Song-yop Hahn “Optimal Design Procedure for a practical Induction Heating cooker”. vol.A good distribution of the density of current and homogeneous temperature distribution along a ray of the pan are obtained. Cingoski. Yokose. July 1984. Gaspard. 5235-5237. . [5] W. Ph.12801288. Davies and P. no. vol. Figure 13 illustrate the optimal distribution of throats and table. June (1998). Décembre. Yamashita: “Genetic Algorithms with Assistant Chromosomes for Inverse Shape Optimization of Electromagnetic Devices”. . [10] L. pp.Yokose. Megraw-Hill Book Company Ltd. Barragan “Simple Resistance Calculation in LitzWire Planar Windings for Induction Cooking Appliances” . K. we can observed that a good distribution of the density of current and homogeneous temperature along a ray of the pan are obtained. -Mag. -Mag.2 exposes their dimensions. July 2000 [3] Y.no.On Magnetics. J. p. Acero. [9] M. Kyung Choi. nov. Hernandez.2 .A method of optimization using Genetic Algorithm searching for an optimal structure of the throats in the inductor is used. “Induction Heating Handbook”. 1992 Y. n° 4. ‘‘Modelisation. Mars 1997. R.A structure of inductor with coils placed in throats is proposed.L. Holland. coulomb ‘‘Non-Linear Complex Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Field in Steady-State AC Devices” IEEE Trans. “Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems”.The optimal distribution of throats and their dimensions are obtained. S. IEEE Trans.vol. V.“The Control Design and Practical Measurement for High Frequency Induction Heating”. 5. [6] J.4GHz. The temperature evolution versus time in a point situated at the middle of the pan is shown in Fig.‘‘ Shape optimization of magnetic devices using genetic algorithms with dynamically adjustable parameters’’. Simpson. Su. Yamashita. no. . 41.J.12. pp.

MIRA – Béjaïa. le 03 et le 04 Mai 2011 .CNI’2-2011. Université A.

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