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Folklore (2004): 115 167-186 RESEARCH ARTICLE

Perchta the Belly-Slitter and Her Kin: A View of Some Traditional Threatening Figures, Threats and Punishments
John B. Smith
Schweig, oder die wilde Bertakommt! (Grimm1974, 268). Del lavor delle feste, il diavolo si veste (Biichli 1990, 791). Every land save feyther's was called hag-begagged, to keep us childer in proper bounds belike (Madox-Brown1876, vol. 2, 252). [1] Abstract In the contemporaryfolklore of Austria,Frau Perchta(active during the twelve days of Christmas)is depicted as the rewarderof the generous and the punisher of the bad. But the punishmentsshe inflicts,such as ripping out a person's guts and replacing them with refuse, do not seem to fit the crime. This paper links Perchta's behaviour, and that of other bogeyman figures, to their historical context. Initially Perchtawas the enforcerof communal taboos, hunting down those who spun on holidays or who failed to partake sufficiently in collective feasting (a propitious act designed to ensure future plenty). However, with the for growing involvement of peasantwomen in the marketeconomy (particularly textiles), Perchta's role changed to the punisher of the lazy. Yet Perchta's previous roles survive, in attenuatedform, in each new incarnation.

Tracing Lost Links between LegendaryPunishment and Offence As any schoolgirl knows, the Danaides, fifty daughters of a fabled king of Argos, murdered their bridegrooms on their wedding night, and were condemned to pour water into sieves for all eternity. Less well known is the precise background to this punishment. In fact, the perfidious brides are vainly attempting to carry water to a nuptial bath that was never prepared for them (Hoffmann1927-41, vol. 2, 69-70 and vol. 7, 1665;Ranke and Krayer and Bdichtold-Stdiubli Brednich 1977ff.,vol. 3, 267-70). Carryingwater in a sieve or the like is a motif that does occur in at least one of the stories about Frau Perchta,but it is only marginal there. More important is that, if we seek, there turn out to be cogent reasons for the incongruous-seemingpunishments meted out by Perchtaand her kin, just as there are for that inflicted on the Danaides. Who is Perchta? Who is, or was, the Frau Perchtaof southern German and Austrian folklore?A short answer might be that, like our own FatherChristmasor the Italian Befana,
ISSN 0015-587X online/04/020167-20;RoutledgeJournals; print;1469-8315 Taylor& FrancisLtd @ 2004 The FolkloreSociety DOI:10.1080/0015587042000231264

88). dim memories of whom the common people had retained right up to the present (Grimm 1968. in a recently published dictionaryof folklore. On the whole. 3. 1. In the winter months she also occupied herself with spinning. who in Germanic times taught humanity the secrets of agricultureand household economy. he rather less convincingly postulates some sort of contamination with the name of a Germanic goddess Tanfanaor Tamfanamentioned by Tacitus. and to her relationshipwith classical deities such as Selene. Grimm believed he could descry a group of benign mother goddesses. perhaps the earth-goddessErda. only to be touched on more or less at random here. notably in his Deutsche and 1878. saw Perchta and Holda as heathen . John Smith she is a mysterious figure said to be at large at one time or another during the Twelve Days of Christmas. Huldra.receiving offerings. and replace them with refuse. vol. Another manifestation of Perchta was known as Stempe. Huldre (Grimm 1968. the idle. a name for which Grimm persuasively suggests an etymological link with the "stamping"and other oppressive activities associated with such nightmarish figures. One such goddess was Perchta. In winter she withdrew to the inside of mountains. a tendency to mythologise has frequently characterised attempts to interpret a figure as mysterious as that of Perchta. weaving. Perchta is a sinister figure. developing Grimm's ideas soon after the mid-nineteenth century. The shepherds claimed often to see her walking above the steepest slopes at twilight. 225-31)? Grimm's speculations were to have far-reaching consequences. she blessed their flocks. like her northerncounterpartHulda. 414). the inquisitive. a golden spindle in her hand (Schmidt 1889. Among the Slovenes she was a tall." testified to her former status. but her mythical aspect declined with the advent of Christianity. 1. Mannhardt. vol. and when the shepherds brought flax to her in summer. like Frau Holle. 1. which meant "shining one. are in danger of having their stomachs ripped open by her. and tending the hearth. powerfully built woman living in the groves and mountain chasms. there were also links with the northern pantheon. 64). ultimately. as well as Diana or Artemis (Grimm 1968. Romantic and Post-Romantic Mythologisation of Perchta Not surprisingly. the influence of Jacob Grimm. the no less refulgent moon goddess. she made the snow. and looking askance on those who do not. 88). and especially the peaceful arts of spinning. where. four editions of which appearedbetween 1835 Mythologie. even the intestines. Not less importantly.vol. For were not Holle's names cognate with those of Scandinavian sorceresses and spirits of the woods known as Hulla. who punishes the slovenly.168 B. At the same time. Just occasionally we glimpse a different side of Perchta's nature.and she was transformed into a witch or hobgoblin" (Jones 1995. At the back of such accounts lies. the greedy. 207 and vol. the sole evidence for which were the reflexes produced by the distorting mirror of Christianity. rewardingthose who conform to certain norms.we read: "Sheis thought to have originallybeen a goddess. Refractorychildren.thus providing Perchtaalias Stempe with the same sort of Teutonic pedigree as that attributedto her north German counterpartFrau Holda or Holle.Thus. She will then remove the contents. but also in the depths of lakes in summer. Seeking to retrieve lost mythologems. and even adults. Her very name.

1980. which in fact contain a word meaning simply "demon" (Kellner 1994. 339-40).5 and 6 January. can point out a way through the thickets. 10. which the second which means element. The gist of Davidson's account seems to be that Perchta and Holle may be seen as belonging to a group of minor goddesses. with their tenacity and intimate knowledge of the daunting terrain.Among the most recent to be recorded are those of Hilda Ellis Davidson (1993) in her Lost Beliefsof NorthernEurope. Even with such help. In eleventh-century German. are also seen as similar. Epiphanyis a term denoting the earthly manifestation of a deity (Blackburn and Holford-Strevens 1999. her name is easy to interpret. "for which we admittedly have no evidence" (Beitl 1974.Josef Hanika contended that the Perchtaof custom and legend had direct links with a pre-Christiansupernaturalfigure. 1976. if not related.Ranke and Brednich 1977ff. 1991) and Kellner (1994. however. vol. . 721-7) who. but perceives "characteristics other than pagan in the figures of Percht and Holle" (Wolfram1980. she is associatedwith Twelfth Night and Epiphany.but also by the spindle or distaff common to all three. Wolframalso refers to that cannot be the lack of pre-medieval evidence. For ElardHugo Meyer. presumably. As late as the 1970s. the Scandinaviangoddess Frigg was behind Perchta. At the end of the 1930s. hinting at possible parallels between Perchta'swagon or plough and English Plough Monday ceremonies. and that her alleged belly-ripping activities were a relic of prehistoricinitiation rites (Kellner1994.Above all. 75). processions and visitations for instance..""benign"(Davidson 1993. naht. writing about the turn of the century. with Perchta. or between Perchta'sassociation with spinning and St Brigid's affinity with the same activity. It is only scholars such as Rumpf (1973. means "night.On the face of it.Holda.Davidson makes interesting comparisons. fantasticallyarrayedyouths who might visit Irish houses and terrify children on the eve of St Brigid's Day. Beitl divines behind the name Perchta a Germanic figure. to the activities of the saint's representatives. the well-meaning but ill-equipped traveller can still no doubt lose his way and come to grief. 113-7).Perchta Belly-Slitter the 169 personificationsof natural forces. I have so far neglected Anglo-Saxonattitudes. a status to which their names bear witness.329-31).Evidence of the link was provided not only. Anglo-Saxon Attitudes Save for a brief quotation from a dictionary of folklore. Kranzmayerwas still arguing that Perchta harked back to Germanic pre-literarytradition. 111). by the apparentlyrelated name Frick. Some of the customs associated with Perchta."and the first is a form of giperaht-. the biddies. and their sibling Fru Frick. 1 February."and Hollefrom one meaning "merciful. 21). In his work published in the 1950s. the concept "feast of Epiphany" or "theophany"in the sense of "manifestationof in Christ"is rendered by the loan translationgiperehtennaht. InterpretingPerchta's Name Our main concern is. Recent researchsuggests that such an interpretationof Holle stems from misreadings of medieval Latin texts. since Perchta appears to come from an adjective meaning "bright" or "glorious.

"the in sense being "fast during which feudal dues became payable.. popular etymology and about a personification. The linguistic and other evidence will."although the question is perhaps permissible as to whether that word came to influence ideas about Percht (Kellner1994. later. Thus. 234).and possibly the majoritymay be seen as personificationsof feast-days or fast-days.with its prefix gi-. vol. And so one might continue. The names of many of Perchta'sother kin are no less transparent. The word at the back of Perchta incidentally. Blackburnand Holford-Strevens 1999. Goebel and Reichman 1999. A German name for Ember-tide was Fronfasten. 61ff. in the thirteenth century we first encounter a figure referred to as "Domina Perchta" is.vol. literally "Manifest(ation) Day". In Alemannic areas. 1232-4. 5. 2. surviving. 331-2.. Karg-Gasterstidtand Frings 1973.paceKellner. John Smith "manifest"(Reps 1950. 2879.The true meaning of these being no longer understood. As has recently been said. 190-1." and berhtac. we have Frau Faste.peraht. so has her Italian counterpart. which Fron. reinterpretingFron. whence for instance the name Quatemberca. Bagliani 1996)." with what was historically an adjective now being taken for a proper name (Lexer 1979. 333). 1356-7). etymologically unconnected with its near-homonym and possible usurper Pracht. (Rumpf 1991.cognate with and meaning much the same as the English word bright.as Frau. onwards. has also attractedand absorbedsome traditionsthat are older than she herself is (Ranke and Brednich 1977ff. as a linguistic fossil in such compounds as berhtabent/birhtnaht. [2] Perhaps. In fact." The first general element became obsolete much as did that of berhtnaht.while extending her influence into new spheres. 10. Kluge 1989. Then there is the Lower Austrian Pfinzdaweibl. vol.Whereas the word bright lives on in English. 572-3 and jurisdiction (Hoffmann-Krayer vol. literally "Manifest(ation)Eve/Night. Meyer-Lfibke1972. however. "pomp. who watches over the EmberDay fasts in December. Another Krayer and Baichtold-Staubli word for Ember-tide was Quatember.29). Such Names Result from Personification of Feasts and Fasts If Perchta has been the subject of much speculation.170 B. not bear the weight of a prehistoric divinity. it will be .belonging to a Slovenian counterpartof FrauFaste (Rumpf 1991. the extrapolationof Germanictraditionsfrom considerablylater texts is a procedure fraught with difficulties (Ranke and Brednich 1977ff. 142-3. 120.meaning "noise"and. The root of giperaht-. 881). 1072).vol. The spontaneous generation of Perchta is entirely in harmony with a general medieval tendency to personify feast and fast days. St Lucia's Day. however. from the 13th December.545-6). the latter's name derives rather comparably from the Italian for "Epiphany"(Battaglia1962. Befana (Manciocco 1995. is an adjective beraht. 725). 259. for 5 and 6 January. There is no conflict between such a statement and the one that Perchta. no. 22). splendour. however. 2. 256. the "Thursdaywoman. they were intuitively reinterpretedalong the lines of "Eve/Night of Perht" and "Day of Perht.means "overlord's. its German counterpartin time became obsolete. Prati 1970.). The Frau again brought Faste born of this process had much in common with Frau Perchta (Hoffmann1927-41." thus named because Thursday was once a Sabbath-likeday of rest under her vindictive and Bichtold-Stiiubli1927-41.. Lloyd and Springer1988ff. 1.

a poor cottager went out at night in search of a godfather for his newly born child. 1974. about seventy kilometres to the south-east of Salzburg. It The first is "Perchtand the Prying Farmhand. a farmhandwas asked for help. nos.The material was collected by RichardWolframaround the mid-twentieth century. Next. Percht commanded him to keep the shavings as a reward. Smith 1996). Percht then commanded the same child that had stopped the hole to unstop it. 1. the lad crept out of the stove following Percht's departure."Percht was on a journey with her company of children who had died unbaptised. Our third story is "Perchtand the Farmhand. Returningas was her wont. This is discernible in figures such as Lazy Lawrence or BarnabyBright (Wilson 1970. 226-29. 267-8. he took up the same position in the stove exactly one year later. vol. 1994. and published in a commentary dated 1980. Stories about Perchta As a sequel to these observations. you poor Zodawascherl!" "Since you have given the child a name. Here are three tary and maps form part of the AustrianFolklore stories collected by Wolfram from Gr6bming. Inquisitive. Arriving on the scene. much good fortune will be yours.Full of Percht responded: compassion. The way was uneven. nos. and her carriagelost a wheel. He encountered Percht and her company of children. and they turned to gold (Wolfram1980. a farmhandcrept into the great stove and spied out through a hole into the room. 160). On arriving. Afraid to refuse. 267-8. 302-3. Such Stories and Motifs Not Exclusive to Perchta ones presented by Grimm in his Deutsche Mythologie and elsewhere. that he. having espied nothing. 31 and 448-9. One of them was wearing nothing but a wretched." Percht and her company vanished. to the lasting benefit of the whole family." tells how a farmer'swife and her helpers preparedthe best room of their house for the visit of Percht and her train of unbaptised children at Twelfth Night. He put the wheel back and secured it with a new linchpin. 20). CommenAtlas (AFA). the man said: "Oh. On the advice of a hermit. 98-9. I shall now consider some material from a fairly recent survey of Austrian traditions relating to Perchta. he was blind. could well have been the source (Grimm 1968. but the man found a rich sponsor. whereupon the lad regained his sight. For them. which he carved from a piece of wood. Petzoldt 1978. Percht told one of the children attending her to block the hole.the Perchta Belly-Slitter 171 sufficient to point to a parallel English tendency to personify red-letter days. or for that matter one of his nineteenth-century folklorist contemporaries or successors. Grimm himself saw the punish- So close are substanceand tone of these twentieth-centuryAustrian traditionsto ."Following an addition to his already numerous family. The commentary accompanies maps showing the distribution of beliefs about Perchta (Wolframand Kretschmer1979). such lore was fraught with primitive significance. he put a few in his pocket. no. When. 268-9. ragged little undergarment. He saw that a linchpin had broken. "Perchtand the Cottager.

can be the leader (Kellner 1994. What is archaicin all this is the idea that illness and injury can be inflicted by supernatural agencies.). John Smith ments meted out by Perchtaas "strangeand archaic"(Grimm1968. 135. stories such as Richard Wolfram's thus rather demonstrate the tendency of migratory motifs and legends of diverse origin. that in Mecklenburgwhat is in effect the same story is told of Wauld the Wild Huntsman and his carriage (Petzoldt 1978. as was her dominion over elves and dwarves. other physical afflictions. 76.There is no doubt. warlocks and witches." hoggersbeing footless stockings of the sort the child is apparently wearing (Briggs 1970-1. Perchta'scarriage that the farmhand repairs can hardly be demonstrated to be the carriage or plough of Mother Earth." and paralsimilarly Christianin tenor. 1. B 1. especially 314). 33). 234). entering popular tradition. 126). 2. vol. and the worthless-seeming reward that turns to gold is of course widely known (Rumpf 1991. Zodawascherl lels from well beyond the confines of Austria spring to mind (Rumpf 1991. are means "ragged little mite. the removal and restoration of sight are not a prerogative of Perchta's. but a power vested in many supernaturalentities. of which Perchta. In fact. vol. Not only can Perchta make you blind. usually again after a year has elapsed.31-3)."or the still current German word for lumbago.46. it will then have become associated with Frau Perchta. As far as we know. 234). harked back to those of Mother Earth. the present-day student of folk narrative will recognise many of the themes that find expression in the AFA material. no. vol.or the plough that sometimes took its place. such as head and back pains or lameness (Wolfram1980. like diverse other figures. and. The carriageof Frau Perchta.46). Linguistic evidence can sometimes be adduced. to cluster around characters and events with which they have a thematic affinity (Rumpf 1991.Her words implying that.172 B. and is warned by it that her tears are depriving it of rest (Petzoldt 1978. Take the Scottish elfshotfor various diseases of cattle and humans. through being given the name of Zodawascherl the child of the second story has been redeemed. Compare the Scottish story in which a drunkard without forethought redeems the ghost of an unchristenedchild by jocularlyaddressing it as "Short-Hoggers. no 151. including the Wild Hunt (Meier1983. some admittedly archaicin tone and perhaps ultimately in substance. all three accounts of Perchta and her company of unbaptised infants echo in one way or another the story of the mother who in a dream or vision sees her dead child along with others. It was translated into German by Geiler von Kaisersbergabout the beginning of the sixteenth century. Wright 1970. 31ff. she can also cause. and even the souls of unbaptised infants. and will perhaps allow that." he remarks (Grimm 1968. its Norwegian counterpart dlvskoten meaning "lame. When in Wolfram's story about the prying farmhand that person is blinded for a year. presumably to discourage excessive mourning. 1. "All these things smack of heathendom. Whatever numen is cast in the appropriate role depends on the personnel to hand.Perchta's characteristically sudden appearances were a sure sign of her divinity. Far from being miraculously intact repositories of prehistoric numinosity. 226). no. 143-4.2). although there are doubtless archaicelements here. 566). and cure. 247-8). there is little that "smacksof heathendom" in the way that Grimm meant. however. Hexenschuss. For instance.vol. literally "witches'bolt" (Honko 1959. 281-318. this was first told by the Dominican Thomas Cantimpratensisin 1260. .

some less familiar ones might seem to be so. Take the following. What is still puzzling is the nature of the punishment the women so narrowly escape.whom the women addressed as with the long nose. no. More importantfor present purposes is the implication that by spinning at night the women were defying a strict taboo.and they sat down on the chairs the women had meanwhile longer vacated. they thereforebrought would be unable to carrywater from the river. the Wild Hunt. collected in 1867 and 1927. we can sometimes cast light by adducing relevant material for comparison. . The first concerns a manifestation of Perchta known as Frau Berta alias Frauberta: In Ronchi in the southern Tirol.The women baskets. and related motifs. As might be expected of a figure whose name is associatedwith Quatember."as when she is exorcised by means of eggshells set up on the hearth as if they were saucepans. 133). than her predecessor's. she likewise shares with a number of otherworldly beings the ability to inflict and remove blindness or lameness. meaning "Embertide. To view such attributes in their wider context can help explain them. respectively. namely spinning?Perchtaensured not only that those who performedthat task were diligent at the proper times. for instance. into which the Danaides were condemned to pour water. the women knew they were in danger of being boiled alive.who offered to help. we have touched on Perchta'saffinitywith unbaptised infants. not unconnected. in which the Fraubertas then quickly went home and got into bed with their husbands. Frauberta each with a nose is one with a still longer nose. Where the connection is obscure. As has been hinted. where no harm could overtake them (Rumpf 1991. where the Quatembercaholds sway. Here are two relevant stories." Frauberta answered:"Behindme follows: "Greetingsto you.Perchta Belly-Slitter the 173 So far. and therefore not to be encroached upon (Moser-Rath1963. The baskets intended for use instead of buckets are perhaps reflexes of the sieves mentioned earlier.a woman who was preparingto boil and scald her skeins was visited by another woman." she ensures that women refrain from spinning and related tasks during the Ember Days in December: In Feistritz. Some Punishments and Their Possible Link with Spinning Although the motifs and attributesso far examined are by no means exclusive to Perchta. but also that they respected certain restrictions. not working at night. There stood Frauberta. there once came a knock on the door of a house where twelve women were spinning. a stranger." In the end. there were twelve Fraubertas. 28). None of these is exclusive to her. a subterfuge generally used to get rid of changelings (Petzoldt 1978. 236). Rohrich 1976. Certainly. or on certain high days and holidays. When the Fraubertasdemanded buckets to fetch water in. Instead of bringing buckets. My assumption throughoutthese notes is that the punishments meted out by supernaturalfigures can generally be expected to suit the offences committed. On going to a neighbour'sto borrow a seething-tub.her efforts to enforce obedience here quite naturally lead to a punishment that must claim our attention first. Sometimes she will attractmotifs that are even more obviously not "hers.Where can its origins lie? Can it have something to do with an area of her influence so far hardly touched upon. 267-8. Night is the preserve of demons. Take her mysterious preoccupationwith belly-slitting alias gastrotomy. 236-7. story from Carinthia.

of the neighbour'shouse. Abhorrent this may be by our standards. the punishment matches the offence (Wolfram 1980. [3] Boil skeins. unexplained by the immediate context. and to fill them with domestic refuse.that provided by Wolfram in the AFA. where it is. about seventy kilometres to the south-west of Vienna. That also makes sense. fittingly or otherwise. and then eastwards through Styria. Spin. such a potent instrument of social control as Perchta had proved to be was too valuable to be discarded. and if we take it literally. in a ratherhorribleway. 29)! and not the firstwomanwas warned to return home. within a fairly narrow band extending southwards from north of the city of Salzburg. you can expect a penalty to match. usually of lazy or untidy people. the strangerthen appearedat the window visitor might be the Quatemberca. Occasional Lack of Fit between Punishment and Offence In fact.sinceit was Ember Friday herstrange I believe that the well-founded motif of boiling alive in the second story throws light on the similar threat of boiling alive in the first. but the connection between them is secondary. but it is hardly out of place or unexpected in a world where only the most powerful deterrents will ensure conformity to unwritten rules. If we look at the AFA map showing punishments attributedto Perchta. by a process akin to the linguistic one of popular etymology. This threat is also quite well documented. then.174 JohnB. Putting it differently. chaff. Perchta'sgastrotomicproclivities. . and disobedience. but why should the refuse be put into their stomachs? Compare another incongruous fact. or splinters of glass (Wolfram and Kretschmer1979. evidence of her concern with spinning is marginal. sloth. she is said to cut open the stomachs. Had you forgotten that today is EmberFriday?After boiling the skeins. and. Here they too are in danger of receiving supernatural "help" that will in fact switch to the punishment of boiling alive. and you will be boiled alive. no longer fully understood. 47). 50). Percht scrapes the tongues of lying children with glass.we see that. even if it was resumed for a time after 1945 (Wolfram1980. have been unconsciously adapted in various ways. I would have boiled you" (Rumpf 1991. Less clear is why the best safeguard against this punishment is to eat a hearty meal (Wolfram 1980. Smith Sure enough. Punishment and offence are admittedly congruous. map 113d). saying: "Luckyfor you that you didn't come back home with the tub.for the simple reason that such an activity was already largely obsolete when the relevant surveys were made. Is it here. At Schottwien. 46). that we have to seek the origin of Perchta's gastrotomy? No. That the punishment of lazy or untidy people should involve unswept dust or refuse makes sense. What the fictions under consideration convey is that if you spin or perform related tasks on a holiday. She herself lived on. however. however. her main function now being to discourage such vices as slovenliness. Like their Feistritz counterparts. and your guts will be spun out of your belly. In the most up-to-date material. For an audience familiar with all the tasks associated with spinning the message would have been clear enough.the spinning women of Ronchi in our first story will in due course have to boil their skeins. again.

3. A further saying. Late medieval texts already contain the advice to eat heartilyat Epiphany. Feasting and Fasting are Perchta's Primary Concern Furtherclues are provided by Wolfram when he tells us that Twelfth Nightand we must not forget here that this and the following day belong to Perchta by virtue of her very name-is traditionallya time for feasting. vol. We thus see that. should come and trample the bellies of those who had not done justice to the copious fare provided (von der Hagen 1961. was that on 6 JanuaryPerchta'sknife could be deflected by a well-filled belly. 230. with the ousting of distaffs by spinning-wheels. 8. Such texts have been wrongly taken to mean that Perchtathreatensthose who feast rather than those who fast on this occasion (Rumpf 1980. we do in fact find Perchta and Werre or Holle ensuring that people fast-that is. Interestingly. the sanctions mentioned also extend to spinning (Grimm 1968. for instance. vol. and indeed well before that. Of course.lest Perchtalias Stempe. vol. x. 365. 78). vol. 71. Compare also the widespread superstition that Tuesday each mince pie consumed between Christmas Day and 6 January ensures a happy month (Opie and Tatem 1989. she would slit it and fill the aperture with rags (Wolfram 1980. 57-8 and 71. it makes sense to eat heartily while this is permitted and food is plentiful. although in the twentieth and nineteenth centuries. 1. and. Hoffmann-Krayerand Bachtold-Staiubli 220-1). 1991. . 46). In later accounts. 321). or belief. such as those from Orlagau and Voigtland cited by Grimm. 1048-9). whose name we have already seen linked with the "stamping" associated with nightmares. hinted at in a Tegernsee document of 1483 paraphrased by Rumpf (1991. Kellner 1994. Not to do justice to that abundance is to undermine the guarantee. an earlier function of hers was to encourage feasting as well as fasting at the proper times. and a ratherdrasticStyriansaying was that it was no proper unless the chief farmhand gorged himself to Twelfth Night ("foaste Roahnacht") the point of throwing up three times. 297-8 and 248-9). 178-9.the Perchta Belly-Slitter 175 What we must proceed from is that the common denominators in all this seem to be eating and stomachs. Perchtawas invoked in support of the work ethic. The archaicimplication is. as reportsfrom many parts of Germany show (Hoffmann-Krayerand Bdichtold-Staubli 1927-41. vol. Eating pancakes on Shrove is similarly beneficial. courses to the feast. xiii and 33-5. 1927-41. btit also for the very Christianpurpose of ensuring that days of rest and fasting were observed as the Church ordained. 2. This activity seems to have been prominent among Perchta's interests from the mid-sixteenth century onwards. eat only the ordained foods-on certain days. however. In Styria there would be nine. If at that time she came across an insufficiently rounded belly. a preoccupation that is. Grimm 1968. the growing economic importance of young girls' communal work at the latter (Rumpf 1980. presumably. 1. Rumpf 1976. 38 and 49). that is three times the ritually significant number of three. 226-7). that abundanceof food on feast-days is somehow a guaranteeof plenty later on. English has a saying essentially to the same effect: He who eats goose on Michaelmas Day/ Willneverlackmoneyhis debtsto pay.

and sometimes eat. in south-easternparts of Austria. and with the chaff often used for the same purpose by Frau Perchta. vol. Belly-Crammersand their Kin in North-WesternEurope Just as many of the legends associated with Perchta are by no means exclusive to her. and Hobthrust was a northern Puck or hobgoblin. but we may safely assume a failure on the part of the victim to eat as the occasion required.and she may have been similarly long-nebbed. or cuts knees or. more often. Big. where sanctions seem to have been attached not only to inappropriate eating on fast-days. 3. I would also tentatively suggest that where. the threat of gastrotomy lived on with changed emphasis. vol. 204. Belly-Slitters. but still as a means of wielding social control. dated 1793. and remarkablefor her long nose. concerning a greedy person looking forward to the said feast we are told: Hobthrust will neverhave thee to chokewith chaff("Foraw's weel seer ['I'm quite Hob Thross'll ne'er/Ha' thee to chowk wa kaff. that the threat of gastrotomy.I am in no doubt.we gather that he for his part is well able to do justice to his fare: "Sometimeshe would work. Significantlyperhaps. Whether or not this hypothesis is correct. Wright 1970. mun") (Dialogues1839. was a kind of barley. Crossing the Solway Firth to Gatehouse of Fleet. Cumbriandialect poem For instance. and. [4] What might incur such supernaturaldispleasure on the part of the we gyre-carlings are not told. we have a group of secondary motifs. to cram them with butter and barley awns. epithet that means . especially as butter is mentioned. 2. is the primary motif. this latter substance being much of a muchness with the bigg-chaff mentioned above. in the late eighteenth century.176 B.Thus. when the link between Perchtaand her concernwith both fast and feast had been largely forgotten (Rumpf 1980. heels. for reasons now to be set forth. so it in fact turns out to be with the theme of gastrotomy and related themes. 72). whose use or abuse of barley chaff may well have been proverbial. till he bursted" (Heron 1793. John Smith In the twentieth century. the gyre-carlingis a powerful ogress reminiscent of Frau Perchta. Shrove Tuesday alias Fastern's E'en in particular. Fairies and gyar-carlingswere said to be abroad on that date. There is evidence of this from regions as remote from Austria as north-western Europe. vol. a related account referring not to Fastern's E'en. to stap [them] full of butterand beareawns. we find. 72. in MarkLonsdale'slate-eighteenth-century "Th' Upshot" ("merrymakinggot up by subscription on Shrove Tuesday"). and fills the cuts with salt. but to Hallowe'en. from the section of the same account in which there is talk of the Brownie. on meeting anyone they were displeased with.Just as Perchtawas notoriously ugly. developed locally or regionally from the no longer understood one of gastrotomy. 188). In Scottish lore. Gilpin 1875. a food for feasts rather than fasts. or bigg.that is. italics as in original). 188). originally meant to discourage undue abstinence or its opposite. but also to undue abstinence on feast-days. in northern English farmhouses a cock and bacon were always boiled on that date. 227-8. 3. sure']. was a witch of hideous sometimes said to be made of iron. the gyre-carling an appearance. "and if any person neglect to eat heartily of this food Hobthrust amuses himself at night with cramming him or her up to the mouth with big-chaff" (Wright 1970. Perchta'scounterpartLutzel or Luzia opens the heads of lazy people and fills them with refuse.

Ranke and Brednich 1977ff.. 3. now that we see such punishments in what seems to be their proper context of feasting or fasting. 247-8. Like Perchta. The point is that. although this is "not now with any reference to the Gyre-Carling" (Briggs 1977. Briggs tells us."but also has preternaturalconnotations in Scottish lore (Wright could wound her 1970. Interpretingthe Roles of ThreateningFigures From this it follows that all aspects of threatening figures should. In Fife.we find a counterpartto the known as the gryla. relates to it perfectly naturally in the here and now. 53). There can be little doubt that since medieval times. the gyre-carlingwould carry it off before morning. Just as Perchta herself may have inherited this or that facet of her characterfrom something in prehistory or history. however. disturbing and frightening the whole family with her own spinning if the spinning-wheel had not been put out of action and sained at night. seen in its proper. be considered in their proper context. vol. vol. At John o' Groats.to the Faroes. without.Moreover. Proceeding still farthernorthwards. abandoning the diachronicperspective where this was relevant. vol.that demon was active ratherbetween Candlemas and Fastern'sE'en. With forty tails. To her account Briggs adds that in parts of Scotlandit is still considered unlucky to leave a piece of knitting unfinished at the end of the year. having so to speak grown out of the corresponding offence. The Striges were reputed to prey on their victims' intestines. so the theme of gastrotomy may well have its remote or less remote prototypes. St Erasmushad his ripped out on a windlass. The fact that punishment and offence are homorganic and congruous does not of course make the search for precedents irrelevant. Grimm 1955. women were anxious to spin off all their flax on the last night of the year. she would also reward spinsters with whom she was pleased (Banks 1939. synchronically. The punishment. Wolfram 1980. as far as possible. 213). 5. and there are accounts of people who violated trees being disembowelled as a penalty (HoffmannKrayer and Bachtold-Staubli1927-41.The grfla is associated with Lent. however. 12-13). vol. vol. 2. contemporaneous context. 161-2). 1. 938. it makes sense. when children gyre-carling who hankered after meat were deterredwith a rhyme that translatesas follows: Down comes a gryla from the mountains. the search for prototypes in history and prehistory ceases to be a be-all and end-all. 269-70. 131). like Luzia the gyre-carling victims in the heel. The aforementionedexamples would seem to show that gastrotomy and related punishments are not a prerogative of Perchta. That would mean focusing on the actual role of such figures at a particularpoint in time or period. Sword in hand. 3.Perchta Belly-Slitter the 177 "long-nosed. 647-9). Bag on back. Jacobsenand Matras 1961. when a . Intriguingly. that is. 740-4. Comes to cut out the stomachs of the children Who are crying for meat in Lent (Williamson1948. 47). Perchtaimposes similar penalties on any female foolish enough not to have spun off her flax by Twelfth Night (Wolfram 1980. using an iron club (Lindsay 1931-6. If any was left unspun.

Santa Claus. whereas in Bavaria and Austria it awaits those who eat too little at the appropriate time (Wolfram 1980. in lieu of presents. 45.did not necessarily adapt to her changing social role. By the seventeenth century.178 B. When it comes. however. he will take naughty children away in his sack or. Later still. I shall now try to relate some of Widdowson's arguments and examples to the foregoing. 218). among the Czechs. Rumpf 1991.fictitious and invented figures. Even her "strangeand remote"belly-ripping activities have been shown to have parallels in our own. provides examples the British Isles. 53). the . objects. corner of Europe. her preoccupation with which. the people performing this being girls and women. Some ThreateningFigures of the English-SpeakingWorld So far the aim has been not so much to demythologise Perchta-there can after all be little doubt that throughout her recorded history she has been a figure of popular or "lower" mythology-as to make her seem less alien and bizarre. leave them unpleasant objects in their stockings. At the outset. study of verbal social control in Newfoundin plenty. but he immediately qualifies when we realise that. survives according to Wolfram in that. she takes the further step. in Newfoundland at least. to gifts consisting of unpleasant objects. from which dangle the legs of bad children she has come to take away (Wolfram 1980. as the importance of spinning waned. varied. locked into memorable shapes like any other conventionalisedpoetic utterance. however. Perchta was more concerned with ensuring that people worked or did not work at particulartimes. John Smith figure known as Perchtawas first recorded. Among the threatening figures in Class A is.Class B is made up of human beings with unusual characteristics. In the interest of further familiarisationof what may still seem outlandish. many of which must ultimately derive from land. Comparealso with the BurgenlandLuzia's aforementioned habit of opening heads and filling them with rubbish. as we have seen. Class C consists of animals. incidentally. and to be a natural corollary of a preoccupationwith feast and fast. Such punitive behaviour is not all that remote from that of Perchta and some of her counterparts or helpers such as Krampus or Knecht Ruprecht. a threateningfigure must by its very nature be endowed with extra-normalqualities. locations and naturalphenomena (Widdowson 1977. In his study. John a Widdowson's If YouDon't Be Good. of inserting them in her victims' bellies. within living memory. Hence the essential incongruity of some such utterances.95). gastrotomy is a punishment for those who do not fast. and the work ethic and acceptablebehaviour in general. for instance. she has been an instrument of social control. Of course. Widdowson distinguishes three types of threateningfigure. Perchta'stask seems to have been the supervision of feasting and fasting. The legends and sayings about her. Perchta herself is often portrayed with a basket on her back. and the difficulties we can experience in interpreting them. The work that interested her most was spinning. The type of control has. her influence extended to embracework of all kinds. To see him as such may seem strange. but it needs to be emphasised that the English-speaking world also has such figures. Class A comprises supernatural. north-western.

2.). 106-7). Congruousand Incongruous We now need to look at some of the actual threats directed by Newfoundland parents at their offspring and recorded by Widdowson. [5] In fact. but he can also be translated into everyday reality. frighteningchildren in particular. 233-7).. In this. 207-8 and 225-6). 176). 341-2).Nor can we make the direct link between Brigid and Perchta that Davidson seems to imply (Davidson 1993.vol.Jacobsenand Matras1961. The most we can say in the present context is that in parts of Europe. for instance. The monsters that seem originally to have inspired the guisers have. they get their name from the saint whose festival they mark. They are fantasticallyarrayedyouths who terrify children. Such Figures and the Social Control of Children The Irish biddies cited by Davidson are in some ways analogous. xxxv-vii and 62-3). than to the is ogress whose name. similarly derived (Marwick1975. 107. as any young father donning red suit and white beard at Christmaswill know full well. thus owing less to the mythical horned animal from which they apparentlytook their name. Grant and Murison 1929ff. biddybeing a form of Brigid(Simpson and Weiner 1989. 32). gyre-carling. having more recently dressed up as Redskins "or anything else that takes their fancy" (Williamson1948. Threats. 116-7). they very much resemble the Perchten. and the Faroese Shrovetide grylas(Jacobsen these last. It is possible that the biddies and their Continental counterparts known as Perchtenpredate both Brigid and Perchta. 4. and one function or by-product of such antics may be the social control of children. Santa Claus is. vol. the winter months see disguised lads and men processing." with fifteen tails and grillik fifteen children on each.those lads and men in grotesque disguises who emerge during the Twelve Days of Christmasin parts of Germanyand Austria (Rumpf 1991. while the Orkneygyrohad many horns and several tails (Marwick1975. and they can hardly be seen as mimicking her putative behaviour. early in February.but on becoming associated with these figures were named after them (Rumpf 1973. and. were dressed up as old women. through their abnormalbehaviour. much in common. 52. If the grylawas a two-legged sheep with forty tails. a supernatural or fictitious figure. 131-2).the Orkney gyros 1897. Marwick 1975. 247. or There is also a parallel with the Shetland skekkels grilliks. 94ff. and in the fact that they act in socially abnormal ways and look abnormal. visiting houses.Perchta Belly-Slitter the 179 Newfoundland threat that Santa Claus will "put the hammer into" a naughty child's head (Widdowson 1977. the Orcadiansrepresentinggyros on Gyro Night. perhaps reflectedin the alias Orkney gryllyan (Marwick 1929. Newfoundland mummers rather similarly model themselves on supernatural figures (Widdowson 1977. A more general point is that it can be hard to distinguish between members of Widdowson's Classes A and Class B. 131). However. My main aim in . once presumably disguised to represent the monster of that name. the Shetland skekkel was "a monstrous coalescence of horse and rider. Their antics may be modelled on behaviour attributed to local threatening figures. incidentally.

there is slight incongruityin the threatthat the little people or fairies will tickle children laughing in church. or at least quickly learn. a comparative approach can sometimes help us glimpse what the original relationship must have been. 52). 126.will find the threats unconvincing. For instance. the fairies. or Cut Arm will do as his name suggests if you wipe your nose on your sleeve (Widdowson 1977. Tickling and laughter are of course very appropriately matched. incongruity is perhaps due to the attritionof traditionalbelief in. however. except to the extent that that is what Perchtais well known for. so that they grow up as giggling morons.180 B. On the same general principle. fairies and their ways. In each example. rationalisingLuzia's usual activity of heel-cutting. and then inserts salt (Wolfram1980. as when. an incongruous threat is not necessarily an ineffective one. Congruity is at least to some extent restored if we take for comparison the presumably cognate . cultural attrition and/or variation can lead to incongruities. and the grotesque idea of lice dragging him/her there would make the threat all the more terrifying. This does not mean that a child. 46). A ComparativeApproach to Threats Much the same applies to the following: "If you go to school and get lousy the lice will carryyou to Goose Pond" (Widdowson 1977. relatively ignorant as it must be of the culturalbackground. Conceivably. that Goose Pond was a real and dangerous place. 87).A dispassionately inquiring adult must. a process akin to that of popular etymology seems to have been at work. derive. although offence and allegedly impending consequenceswill in principle. as one might expect. but with an inanimate object as agent. fairies are said to bite off your toes if you refuse to cover your feet in bed. were well known for tickling. Where the relationship between offence and punishment has become skewed in this way. In fact. as I have already suggested. Even our view of apparently appropriatepunishments can sometimes benefit from such an approach. 304). however. One might. it "makes sense" that in Urbersdorf Luzi cuts open the knees of children who will not wash their legs. which may in turn. and knowledge of. As experiencedby the child.strictly speaking. like their cousins as far afield as Russia (Warner 2000. rather confusingly. much as when Perchta is. some examples of perfect congruity. 128. On the other hand. since to do just that is traditionallya protectionagainstfairies (Widdowson 1977. object that fairies hardly belong in church.302)!A child living locally and thus addressed would know. question the link between lice and a pond. gastrotomy does not. 185 and 201). by a similarprocess of unconscious adaptation. in Newfoundland. The preoccupation with rubbish makes perfect sense in the circumstances. There is much the same sort of incongruity in the threat that fairies will abduct a child who puts on her clothes inside out. First of all. said to slit the stomachs of idlers and insert the rubbish they have not swept up (Wolfram 1980.from that of belly-slitting. 129). be well matched. John Smith considering these threats will be to show that. 133-4 and 137). which in Newfoundland at least was seen as a cause of afflictions such as mindless giggling or a distorted mouth (Widdowson 1977. the Boogey Man will hack off your thumb if you suck it. a knife will fall on your tongue if you are so rude as to stick it out (Widdowson 1977.

who is banished to the Red Sea to make ropes out of sand. more impressionable. 180. one would need to draw a boundary line between threat and superstition. since rather more parallels can be adduced: "A child was often told that if you ever struckyour parents then the devil would make your hand stick up out of the grave.369. the podes ['lice'] will make ropes of their hair. less congruously reserved for a child that strikes a parent. forever"(Widdowson 1977. to note another punishment. whereas what we may call the "plots" of the threats discussed in the previous paragraphare constant. Type 1174. There is a common superstition-or is it just a "saying"?-that eating crusts makes one's hair curly." This in turn derives from. The advantages of a comparative approach are better illustrated by the following Newfoundland example. parallels are to be found much fartherafield. 186).Aarne and Thompson 1973. to Petticoat Luc(e) (Baughman1966. Motif E437. This sort of evidence seems to suggest that threats directed at younger. 565). Here the original perpetratoris PetticoatLuc(e). superstition and cautionarytale all give expression to taboos.ranging as they do from the Divine to the Devil.banishment to the Red Sea and being condemned to make ropes of sand are venerable and widespread motifs that seem to have attached themselves fortuitously. the threateningfigures are subjectto considerableculturalvariation. 4.Makinga Ropeof Sand). having struck a holy father. a Clackmannanshire legend about a wicked laird who.Perchta Belly-Slitter the 181 Northern Irish example: "Childrenare warned that if they do not allow their heads to be combed with a 'fine tooth comb'. Are Threats More Durable than ThreateningFigures? Do most traditionalthreatsused for social control lack threateningfigures?Were such threatening figures once more common.dated 1984 and originating from County Durham. a task at which she can never succeed. Two points are perhaps worth making here. or is at least related to. 154). Children of a certain age are.Second. "a punishment sent upon him by heaven. All we can say in the circumstancesis that threat. however. and a puppy dog will wee on it" (Opie and Tatem 1989. and drag them into the sea and drown them" (Wright1970. 193). It seems reasonableto assume . only to be lost through cultural attrition? To answer these questions properly." A modern parallel. and other forms such as the cautionary legend. but rather than pursue these we return to Newfoundland. 110).One parallel is a Scottish saying addressed to anyone who has dealt a blow: "Your hand'll wag abune the grave for this yet.children are the most likely to feature threateningfigures. First. In fact. was found in death to have his clenched fist projectingfrom his grave. even in the absence of any agent.2(c). returnto carry off other naughty children to join her in exile (Widdowson 1977. He will visit a child rejecting crusts and. more likely to be influenced by a figure known as the Crust Man. vol. if not incongruously. runs as follows: "Thehand that strikes a parent will wag above its owner's grave. make all his/her teeth drop out (Widdowson 1977. a task that cannot be attempted here. For that matter there need be no threatening figure at all. however. for instance. judging by his apparentpopularity among Newfoundland parents. She will. and can do this perfectly well without a threatening figure. A threat that runs "Yourhand'll wag abune the grave for this yet" is still a threat.

of straying into the unknown is almost bound to be associated with alluring yet threatening figures. 213)."because the fairies had weed on them.182 B. "in the forest there takes place leading astray" for what we would express personally. 336-68).Wright 1970.but the corresponding cautionarynarrativesfeature both children and adults. We have already mentioned Briggs's observationthat leaving a piece of knitting unfinished at the end of the year. Vickery 1995. get lost in the forest" (Warner2000. vol." or "a magic. In such a context. A west Wiltshireinformanttells me that as a child he was cautioned against picking maggoty blackberries. German can also somewhat comparablyon occasion refer to an impersonal and Bachtold"it. Conclusion The main aim of these notes has been to draw some Continental traditional punishments and threatening figures. Newfoundland threats have been recorded that discourage such behaviour in children. although still considered unlucky. Strayingbeyond the strictly prescribedlimits of one's own community can be seen as behaviour crying out even more loudly for verbal control. I would say yes. 45-6). no longer calls up any reference to the gyre-carling(Briggs 1977.330-1 and 333.pouk-ledden. While fairies are generally at the back of such experiences in Newfoundland. north Midland. family the witch has got into them after 30 September. if also.Wilson 1970. 81-6). in the passive. and in Russia the leshiior wood-demon can still be cited and 1927-41. when it says. They vary from the Devil to the Phooka and fairies (Opie and Tatem 1989. as "I/we etc. profoundly exciting but potentially 2000. it is "it" that leads astray. some of whom return from their experience "in the fairies" suffering from mental or physical injury (Widdowson 1977. that figure would nowadays seem as incongruous as the Evil One. 776-8). with the cautionary narratives and sayings . 4. John Smith that a child that has not outgrown a belief in Santa Claus or comparablefigures will also respond to the figures associated with threats. 29. 776-8 and 1370.vol. 124-8. In the absence of these. Narvaez 1991. Goodfellow (Briggs 1977. 4. impersonally. people who went astray in England were pixy-led. once invoked in comparablesuperstitions about leaving thread on wheel or distaff at Christmas (Opie and Tatem 1989. essentially remote from biblical and Christian tradition-to wit the taboo against eating blackberriesafter Michaelmas or the more convincingly heathenish Hallowe'en-threatening figures are seen to be general. 401). In Germany spirits such as the Buschmutter. terrifying.Rauhe Else or Riibezahl are or were to blame. significantly. proverbially." that causes disorientation (Hoffmann-Krayer Stiubli 1927-41. Primordial Experiencesand Deep-Seated Taboos Associated with Threatening Figures If we take an obviously archaic taboo.Warner (Hoffmann-Krayer Bachtold-Staiubli The primordial experience.in which the lost person is so to speak out of control. Hazarding a guess in response to the second question. vol." In my own.led by Robin or. 86). Russian is truer to the underlying experience. as to whether threatening figures were once more common. 4. 531 and 635. 681).

TypeandMotif-Index theFolktales England NorthAmerica. 21 December. Literature. 10.Many webs have been woven around such figures over the decades. vol. no.ErnestW.Inger M.vol. marking the beginning of the Christmasperiod. 1929ff.containsthe Slavonicelement post.1966. Scotland. 720 and vol. In connectionwith Perchta'schaff.This date. or meaning "gross flattery"(Grantand Murison ["barley-chaff"]. Richard. Blackburn. 2. vol. 1.TheTypes theFolktale. The root is surely a native one (Hoffmann-Krayer Bichtold-Stiubli 1927-41. it might be worth mentioningthe Iserlohncustom of presentingwith a dish of hay and chaffthe member of the family who got up last after the longest night of the year. west-country [2] It is hard to agree with Rumpf in her contention that the name Posterli. and [3] Apparently related stories are not hard to find. and the ring-shapedcakes baked and eaten then brought luck (Hoffmann-Krayer BachtoldStaubli 1927-41.Antti. 8. 1966. 157-9. 8. For this author at least. Bonnie. 33). der 3rd Beitl. Classification Bibliography. 70. Their essential mystery remains untouched by the necessary task of demystification. 764).Grande and The of of Baughman. and would probablybe worth bringing into the equation (Hoffmann-Krayer Bachtold-Sttiubli and 1927-41. Boberg. into the orbit of anglophone experience. 2. charged with significance.vol. 1793-4 and 1796. it is to be hoped. who in popular and belief had much in common with Perchtaand Luzia (Hoffmann-Krayer Bdichtold-Staubli 1927-41.and LeofrancHolford-Strevens. ed. Volkskunde. and around the punishments they are said to mete out. Motif-Index EarlyIcelandic . [5] Compare the Icelandicmotif G219. rather begaged. 3. 1973. It is a' butterand bear-caff. 33).Salvatore.vol.thus.is a [1] Begagged. vol. Banks.1974. no. vol.1999. vol. 2. Notes or with the second syllable pronounced as that of engaged. 1939. There were traditions that one should eat heartilyso as not in the following months to starve to death and. 1. and StithThompson. 1. Stuttgart. word meaning "bewitched"(Wright1970. 2. 65 Bagliani. 244."Leggeredama (1996):22-3. 1299 and vol.. Such attempts must not of course be allowed to damage the figures themselves. Miiller 1978. of Helsinki. Perchta and her kin remain potent figures. 868). vol. 569 and vol. Mrs M. Familiarisationmust not breed contempt. of Munksgard.1:Witchwithfifteentails (Boberg1966. 1232-3. 2. footnote 278). vol.meaning "fast"in the sense of "abstinencefrom food" (Rumpf 1976. 233. dizionario dellalinguaitaliana. 801-3). 335 and vol. was the feast of Thomas. 226).BritishCalendar Customs. ed. 1962. MacLeod."Viaggiointorno alla Befana.Perchta Belly-Slitter the 183 clustering around them. 763-8. 2. Beitl 1974. Oxford Companion theYear. To pull the webs aside can help us glimpse the figures beneath as they really are. London and Glasgow.8. ReferencesCited A and 2nd Aarne. 1991. a were'tbut o' bear-caff [4] Compare such Scottish sayings as A wamefou's wamefou["bellyful"]. Battaglia.Wbrterbuch deutschen to The Oxford. Turin. 5. making them less remote and a little more comprehensible.Maria Franca. like mince pies. 140).belonging to a German-Swissmanifestationof Perchta. Hague.

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2nd Petzoldt. G6ttingen. Studyof theFaeroe andScene. und vergleichenden Erziihlforschung. Warner. TheDwaleBluth. Deutsche Sagen. heute.Sitten und Gebriduche. Glaubensgestalten Popullire Rumpf. Legacy. 1929. P. 1 bei Schmidt. TheOrkney ed. (1976): Rumpf. Gerhard Heilfurth and Ingeborg WeberKellermann. 1970. J. Oxford.New FairyloreEssays. Hueffer. B. and 1975. 3 ed. Oxford.ed.Heidelberg. Josef. 3rd Wilson. Weiner." Beitriige Geschichte Reps. TheFolklore Orkney Shetland.Temporaland Moral Boundaries through Legendry.262-73."Zu den althochdeutschenLichtbezeichnungen.Kenneth. Marianne. New York. Romanisches etymologisches Meyer-Ltibke. William Oliver." Folklore (1996):101-5. Sagenforschung.Verbal A Williamson." Zeitschrift Volkskunde (1889):413-25. "Perchta in der Sage und in mittelalterlichenQuellen. Peter.. Marianne.Lutz. 1977ff." In Problemeder ed.Viaggiointorno figuradellaBefana. ed. "Towardsthe Demystificationof LawrenceLazy. Russia. John. Marwick. John's. A Dictionary Superstitions. Angelico. Enzyklopdidie Miirchens: Wirterbuch historischen Ranke. 1978. "Perchtenglaube den Slovenen." 19 Volks-und Altertumskunde (1980):57-76. Iona and Moira Tatem. Beitrigezur deutschen zwischenMythosund Katechese. A Dictionary Plant-Lore. ed. St Widdowson. . Peter Narviez. Life 1948. alla Rome."Folklore (2000):67-90.ElizabethA. Marianne. "RussianPeasant Beliefs and PracticesconcerningDeath and the Supernatural Collected in Novosokol'niki Region. Miller.112-37.G6ppingen. Marianne. Ingeborg 72 und deutschen Sprache Literatur (1950):236-64. Simpson. Oxford. DeutscheVolkssagen. Vocabolario etimologico zur des and RolfWilhelmBrednich. Madox-Brown. OtherLiterary M. Reprinted. Wizards and Spirit Beings. Pskov Province. Meier.Richard. Una casasenzaporte. "NewfoundlandBerryPickers'in the Fairies':MaintainingSpatial. 1995. Oxford. TheOxford EnglishDictionary. 1876. 1989. Vienna. Hermann Bausinger. Reprinted. 1989. Ernst.. 336-68. fifr 2nd ed. of Opie. Marwick. 1970. 107 Smith J. 1976. 215-42.Kurt. of Norn. italiano. Part 1: The Restless 111 Dead. Aus dem Volksmunde 1978. 20 vols. ed. Erzihlforschung R6hrich.Hugh. 1980. S. Hanns Bdichtold-Stiubli." Osterreichischer instalment 6 part 2: 1-122 . London.Elfriede. 1977. W. Prati. Leander. If You Don't Be Good. ed. TheOxford Dictionary EnglishProverbs. in SocialControl Newfoundland. of Vickery. 1995. 2 vols. 1991. Ernest W." In The Good People. Berlin and New York. der zur Maria.Perchta Belly-Slitter the 185 and eds.eds. 1995.Freiburg. 15 vols.TheAtlanticIslands. Sagenaus Uri. gesammelt. "Das Thema 'Arbeit' in der Volkserzihlung. London. "Butzenberchtund Kinderfresser.Londonand Glasgow. Beck. eds.Hebditch's Remains. A. und Frau Perchta. 1991. "Spinnstubenfrauen.1973. F. Milan. Roy. vols." In Arbeit und Volksleben: 1965 DeutscherVolkskundekongress in Marburg. 1972.Beziehungen und Beeinflussungen von literarischen und volkstuimlichenVorlagen auf Brauch und Glauben seit dem Mittelalter. Narvaez.Perchten: Wiirzburg. 1983. Oxford. Sageund Miirchen: Rumpf. 3rd Wirterbuch. and E. of Kommentar In Volkskundeatlas: Wolfram. Moser-Rath.Basel.eds. Julius. Freiburgim Breisgau. Rossetti and F. C. Lutz R6hrich.Basel and Vienna."Perchtund Perchtengestalten.Claudia Luigi. 1967. Manciocco."Fabula 17 Kinderschreckgestalten Rumpf.

1979. life andfolklore. vols.Osterreichischer Volkskundeatlas. Vienna. and Ingrid Kretschmer. instalment 6.Oxford. part 2. ed. 1970. Richard. JohnSmithis a retiredGermanist folk . 1898-1905. 6 Wright. TheEnglishDialectDictionary. Smith Wolfram. Joseph. Biographical Note with a continuing interestin philology.186 JohnB.

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