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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Internet traffic is due to the manifold effects of increasing number of broadband subscribers and increasing bandwidth per subscriber. For an example from Japan, the number of asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) subscribers has begun to decrease while the number of fibre to the home (FTTH) subscribers has exceeded 16 million .Such a trend of increasing bandwidth per subscriber naturally leads to the increasing use of video-related services, such as YouTube. The average data size per video content is also increasing because the increased bandwidth per subscriber allows easy transmissions of higher definition videos. The quality, or data size, of video is strongly influenced by the television (TV) standard. Fig. 1 plots the necessary bit rate versus the number of pixels. The definition of TV used to be the analog ―National Television System Committee (NTSC)‖ or the digital ―standard definition TV‖ (SDTV), and is the ―high-definition TV‖ (HDTV) now. A higher definition TV, the so-called digital cinema, (4-k D-cinema), has Already been standardized and commercialized in the movie industry. Beyond Dcinema, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) is promoting the research and development (R&D) of the So-called ―ultra high-definition TV‖ (UHDTV, 8-k). Even after UHDTV, a high-definition 3-D TV would be yet to follow. Fig.2 summarizes the UHDTV technology, where it describes well how immersive the images by UHDTV are. Of course, most of data distributed to and/or exchanged among mass consumers shall be more or less ―compressed‖ such that the necessary Band width per user may be much lower than the values plotted in Fig. 1. Generally speaking, however, the rate of the traffic increase will follow the trend plotted in Fig. 1 even with advanced compression technology. Fig. 3 is the envisioned time schedule of the R & D activities for UHDTV conducted at NHK. The standardization for UHDTV is already en route at relevant standardization bodies, such as Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMTPE) and International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R). The commercial service shall be feasible around 2025. The roadmap of the TV definition is also the roadmap of the bandwidth required to transmit the uncompressed video signals .As the technology of TVs develops, the transmission rate has to be correspondingly faster. As a consequence of the evolution

toward high definition, the means of broadcasting needs also change from the traditional terrestrial TV with a limited bandwidth to other means with a much higher bandwidth, such as A novel cable TV technology. Even for satellites, broadcasting many channels of UHDTV would be quite challenging even with advanced compression technologies. Not only for such technical reasons, will the forthcoming telecom-broadcasting convergence also lead TV broadcasting to be through networks. Likewise, it is of critical importance to develop high-capacity network technologies suitable for providing services with massive high-definition video data, including future TV programs, in order to perpetuate the traffic growth. The telecom-broadcasting convergence with a high-capacity network will also bring about the emergence of new applications, such as a high-definition version of YouTube-like services and high-definition teleconferencing or immersive telepresence services. In fact, the forecast traffic increase is mostly due to the increasing video traffic, as plotted in Fig. 4. According to this survey, the most of traffic will contain either video or peer-to-peer (P2P) shared data, both of which are huge file Transfer. Other statistics regarding the average Internet traffic in Japan Show a compound annual growth ratio (CAGR) of approximately 40%, as plotted in Fig. 5. It also plots the two-survey results of the total power consumption of the IP routers in Japan, conducted by Japanese Government in 2001 and 2006, respectively. In fact, the power consumption of the IP routers in Japan had jumped by ten times from 2001 to 2006, while the traffic growth during this period had been almost comparable. Incidentally, the power consumption discussed here does not include the power for cooling. The correlation between the traffic and the power consumption of the IP routers is inevitable because the power consumption of an IP router depends on the power consumption of the forwarding engine and is therefore almost proportional to the throughput. On the other hand, the total annual power generation of Japan is almost constant around 1000 TWh, which means that approximately 1% of the total power supply was consumed by the IP routers in Japan in 2006. Although the portion is still merely a few percents at present, considering the proportionality between the traffic and power consumption, the traffic growth at a CAGR of 40%, sustainable for the next few decades, would require unlimited use of power even exceeding the total power supply of Japan, as extrapolated in Fig. 5. This merely states that the today’s IP technology is incapable of scaling the capacity to the growing traffic. We also note

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but also the footprint of an IP router will become too large to scale.that not only the power. FIG-1 (Trend of TV technology. The bandwidth required to transmit the uncompressed contents versus the number of pixels) FIG. 2(UHDTV in contrast to HDTV) 3 .

over what we call ―ultrafast all-optical LAN–SAN (storage area network).) We first discuss our proposed dynamic optical-path network (DOPN) where the extremely energy-efficient feature of optical switches will be discussed..‖ a miniature version of the DOPN. the scalability of the DOPN will be explored along with the key photonic technologies. followed by the discussions on the intrinsic differences between the packet and circuit switching. i. and then.FIG -3 (Research and development timeline for UHDTV along with pertinent standardization events. Then it will describe one of our specific efforts toward the realization of the DOPN. the development of the technology for transmitting UHDTV video signals using integratable optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) technology. The power consumption targets for the OTDM devices will also be discussed briefly. 4 .e.

FIG-4 (Projected compositions of Internet traffic) FIG-5 (Total power consumption of the IP routers and the traffic growth) 5 .

Extremely Low-Energy Potential of Optical Switches The observations in the previous section call for a highly efficient network technology that handles a few orders of magnitude higher capacity while consuming even less power than present .2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.75 PJ/bit for a line rate of 100 GB/s.275 W/port.Such a dramatic improvement cannot be realized through incremental processes. or an energy efficiency of 2. For example. We propose to call such networks ―DOPNs. an 80 × 80 micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) switch is reported to consume approximately 22 W.CHAPTER. While a huge file is transferred via a secondary optical-path network. but only on the port count. To the best of authors’ knowledge. the Cisco’s CRS-3 router is allegedly reported to have 6 NJ/bit energy efficiency [8]. 6. but a ―clean-slate‖ approach. If this were feasible at all.‖ in which a packet-switched network is used as the primary network.‖ This of course requires an additional control plane network. The challengesin their proposal are mainly how to establish an end-to-end optical paths 6 . The potential of optical switches is that the power consumption does not depend on the line rate. we already find three orders of magnitude difference. only the optical switch has such a potential. Let us suppose a hypothesis those optical switches to be used instead of IP routers. the energy consumption would be much smaller. as illustrated in Fig. then all the switching functions shall be done by the optical switches—a network in which optical switches are mutually connected in a mesh configuration. and the effectiveness will be more conspicuous as the traffic grows.1 DYNAMIC OPTICAL-PATH NETWORK A. dynamically provisioning end-to-end connections. which means a power efficiency of 0. but considering the necessary capacity for the control plane network. the optical switch will become more energy efficient than the electronic switch. Here. its energy consumption should be negligible as compared with that for the data plane network for high-definition video contents Veeraraghavan et al. In contrast. Therefore. Proposed a circuit-switched high speed end-to-end transport architecture called ―CHEETAH. at a certain break point of the line rate.

across metropolitan area network (MAN) and WAN and how to determine which network to be used in order to best utilize the overall network whose parameters are always varying. Fig-6 (Proposed hypothesis to use an optical switch with an amplifier per port instead of an IP router) 7 .

In fact. the cost for inspection may be an issue for the application to DOPN where a large number of low-cost optical switches have to be deployed. etc. 8 . Thus far. i. Even though the power for optical amplification is predominant. a simple design estimation shows that a 256 × 256 optical matrix switch based on thermo-optic silicon photonics could be only 5×5 cm2 large and consume only 20mWper port . the power consumption of an optical switch including optical amplifiers becomes 3. a number of R&D efforts have been made to realize a practical optical switch with high port count. potentially low cost in fabrication and inspection. 7. small chip size. Fig. one of the most challenging technical breakthroughs necessary for the realization of DOPNs is nothing but the technology of high-port-count optical matrix switches. This technology has already been widely used in service for reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADMs) and optical cross connects (OXCs).e. which is even one tenth of the MEMS switch.2 pJ/bit for a line rate of 100Gb/s. and hence..On the other hand. On the other hand. efficient and fast thermo-optic effect. The technology available in market at present is the MEMS switch technology. While the feature of high port count is promising by MEMS switches.02 W per port in total. or an energy efficiency of 0. the power consumption of the optical node can be a few orders of magnitude lower for higher throughputs. as indicated in Fig. 7 plots the power consumption versus throughput for the CRS-3 class IP router and the siliconphotonics-based switch with a port count of 128 × 128. silicon photonics has many intrinsic physical properties that are attractive for the application to high-port-count optical matrix switches. We assume that the optical amplifier consumes 3 W per port.

Var[S] is the variance of the file size. C is the transmission speed. λ is the frequency of requests of file transfer.Fig-7 (Power consumption versus throughput) B. respectively. like video on demand (VOD) and/or 9 . Therefore. The aforementioned analysis suggests that the circuit switching better suit the applications in which the transferred file sizes do not vary much. E[S] is the mean file size. and G is the guard time for the optical circuit provisioning. we argue that such applications would be video-related services. Circuit Switching Versus Packet Switching Apparently. Let us define the pertinent parameters as follows: S is the file size. As the context of this paper. and analytically described with M/G/1-processor sharing (PrS) and M/G/1 first-in first-out (FIFO) models. According to these studies. the PS considered here is ideal. We ignore the guard time for the packet switching (PS) as well as any influences from transmission control protocol (TCP) congestion controls. we have not discussed the impact of optical switches instead of conventional IP routers so far. The Monrovian discussions on the fundamental difference between the IP-router-based and optical-switch-based network can be found. the elementary bottlenecks in packet and circuit switching can be evaluated in terms of the mean file transfer time.

And once the optical path is established. and in fact. where an end host always starts sending and/or receiving data through the PS network while simultaneously requesting an optical path to OCS. video-related services are better served through circuit-switched networks. The power consumption estimation incorporates reasonable CMOS technology advances. an important feature of the circuit switching is the intrinsically perfect Quos once the circuit is established. Also. 10. respectively.2 ROUTER THROUGHPUT BOTTTLENECK Figure 9 depicts expected traffic volume increase and ICT power consumption increase in Japan over the near term twenty years period. In this sense. it is also suitable for teleconference services.future high-definition YouTube-like services. The traffic increase rate assumed was 32 %. In general. 10 . The results are plotted in Fig. Router power consumption is among the key factors driving the power consumption increase. the effectiveness of the hybridization has been clearly demonstrated through a fundamental simulation. the data transfer port is immediately switched from the PS network to OCS. but will reach 20% of Japan’s electric power generation capability in 2025. whose details have been reported. Fig-8 2. which is smaller than that of about 40 % as presently measured in Japan. it is important to note that it is far much easier to realize a highbandwidth circuit-switched network than an equivalently high-bandwidth packetswitched one by making use of optical communications technology. The point of proposal there was compelling. Compared to 2006 levels. Fig. 8 depicts the image of the hybridization. A hybridization of modest-speed PS and high-speed OCS has been proposed. as summarized in Table I. Also technically speaking. traffic volume and ICT power consumption at 2025 are expected to increase by 190 times and 5.2 times.

In order to create transport networks. Routing granularity is arbitrary with IP/MPLS routers and Ethernet switches etc. Fig-9 (Estimated traffic increase and power consumption of ICT) 11 . routing/switching on a lower layer than layer 3 IP routing offers better power efficiencies and so the throughput can be enhanced at the cost of coarse switching granularity Among the lower layer transport mechanisms. while other lower layer systems offer fixed granularity. The fall in CMOS driving voltage has recently saturated and leakage current increases substantially as gate length decreases.Figure 10 depicts recent advances in core router throughput. The chart clearly indicates that the throughput advances appear to be saturating. the optical path/waveband cross-connect provides the highest efficiency. It is therefore reasonable to use the best combination of different layer technologies. which stems from the power consumption limitations of LSIs..

the IP-based Internet mechanism works well and will be indispensable in collecting such relatively small streams that are spatially distributed. as illustrated in Fig. then the total generated bit rate around the globe is just 7 Tera bits per second. say. 11 middle). For example. Please 12 . The inefficiencies of the present IP protocol will become more evident given the advances in video-oriented services.1 Impact of Video Highly granular routing/switching is very effective in collecting relatively small capacity data streams. Bandwidth demanding applications such as ultra-high definition video will directly use optical paths/circuits. The collected/aggregated data should be transported in the network with the lowest layer transport technologies possible. In future networks. in sensor networks. Progress in high-definition and ultra-highdefinition TV (more than 33M pixels) is steadily advancing. 11.Fig-10 (Advances in core router throughput) 2. even if each sensor produces 1 kbps and the number of sensors is 7 billion.Regarding traffic volume.3. when sensors become ubiquitously distributed around the globe. instead of hop-by-hop IP routing.3 TRANSPORT ARCHITECTURE OF THE FUTURE 2. 10 times the world’s population. video-oriented traffic is expected to be dominant. Optical paths have thus been initially utilized in the network to cut-through routers (Fig. and the expected source video bit rate will reach 72 GB/s per channel.

and so will be a major factor in designing future networks. Fig-11(Electrical router cut-thorough and optical fast circuit switching) Fig. The impact of broadband video is thus significant. 12). 12(Different bit-rate services and the bandwidth) 13 .note that this is equivalent to just 1.000 ultra-high definition (72 Gbps) video channels (Fig.

will be introduced. Optical fast circuit switching will be suitable for creating a nation-wide super-high definition source video distribution network that connects video headed nodes. TDM paths such as VCs (Virtual Containers) in SDH and ODUs in OTN (Optical Transport Network) are hierarchically structured as shown in Fig. and OP architectures and path capacities) 14 . much larger bandwidth optical paths. a wavelength path (channel) is defined and utilized as a single order entity. the hierarchical optical path arrangement will be needed. Therefore. As traffic demand and fibre transmission capacity increases. Fig-13(SDH. the flexible bandwidth path capability provided by LSPs can be more efficient than the more rigid bandwidth path capabilities enforced by lower layer switching. lower layer switching is more efficient.4 Hierarchical Optical Path –Introduction of Wavebands In terms of power efficiency and throughput. while the higher order paths generally provide transmission access. At present. lambda leased line services. however.2. optical circuit (circuit and path are used interchangeably in this paper) or optical flow switching services emerge. OTN. the lower order paths provide service access. the waveband. When optical layer services such as OVPN (Optical Virtual Private Network) services. 13.

For example. Figure 15 depicts optical path establishment in a single optical path layer network as well as that in a multilayer optical path network. switch scale reductions of more than 50% for a matrixswitch-based cross-connect system . and more than 20% for a WSS/WBSS (Wavelength/Waveband Selective Switch) based cross-connect system have been confirmed. On the other hand.5. The role of wavebands in realizing efficient optical circuit switching networks has been clarified. in a multilayer optical path network. optical path establishment/tear-down requires node (optical cross-connect) by node optical switch setting.5 Benefits of Wavebands An optical switch can switch multiple optical paths. when the waveband add/drop ratio is less than 0. optical path establishment can be done utilizing one 15 .Fig-14(Wavebands and hierarchical optical cross-connect) 2. the need to create extremely large scale optical cross-connects. Switching groups of optical paths or wavebands can reduce the total switch size (necessary number of cross-connect switch ports) substantially. This mitigates one of the major challenges. In a single layer optical path network.

With Regard to connection establishment and control/signalling.(direct) or multiple wavebands. traffic-driven (optical flow switching) or control driven (optical circuit switching). As a result. the number of nodes involved in the signalling process is greatly reduced and the connection set-up/release delay is minimized. Fig. in the connection establishment/release phase. The relationship between the optical wavelength path cross-connect and the waveband cross-connect corresponds to that of the electrical switching system and the cross-connect system in POTS networks. and centralized or distributed control scheme can be applied as demanded by networking requirements. 15 (a) Single layer optical path network (b) Hierarchical optical path network (Comparison of single layer optical path and hierarchical optical path networks) 16 .

WiFi and/or WiMAX). we present the architecture and functional characteristics of a WOBAN prototype built in the Networks Lab. The wireless front-end also consists of other wireless routers to provide end-user connectivity. The wireless routers directly connected to the ONUs are called as wireless gateways.2. Therefore.g. end-users receive broadband services through a wireless mesh front-end which is connected to the optical backhaul via gateway nodes.. WOBAN shows excellent promise for future access networks. a PON segment starts from the telecom Central Office (CO) with an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at its head end.6 WOBAN Hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN) is emerging as a promising technology to provide economical and scalable broadband Internet access. and each ONU can support several wireless routers of the wireless frontend in WOBAN. at UC Davis.g. Each OLT can drive several Optical Network Units (ONU). a Passive Optical Network (PON)) and wireless access in the front-end (e. We cite some research challenges on hybrid networks based on our experimental observations. creating cross-domain integrated network architecture. In this article. 17 . In WOBAN. This cross-domain network architecture consists of an optical backhaul (e.. In this cross-domain network architecture. the front-end of a WOBAN is effectively a multi-hop Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) which is connected to the high-capacity PON segment in the back-end.

1). These wireless routers support data 18 .2.6.1 WOBAN ARCHITECTURE Fig-16 Figure 16 shows the architecture of WOBAN prototype developed in the Networks Research Laboratory at UC Davis. The wireless routers form the WOBAN front-end and connect to the end users (who can be scattered over the geographic area served by the WOBAN and who are not shown in Fig.

The deployment and management cost of WOBAN prototype is low as it is built from highly-customized off-the-shelf components.6. The prototype architecture is divided into three planes: (a) Control Plane. The front-end can be set up as a plug-and-play wireless mesh. The Control Plane is used to define different control features of the nodes in the WOBAN prototype. as follows. The Data Plane configures routing and different data transfer scenarios.. and collects measurement data for different experiments. and slice-based experimentation. The WOBAN prototype is large enough to demonstrate its useful properties. self organization. ONU failure. The 19 . two OLTs can demonstrate faulttolerance properties of WOBAN so that. e. WOBAN prototype features programmability. The prototype nodes feature programmability. if one OLT breaks. this is the most integrated wireless-optical hybrid network test bed. The OLTs are connected to the Rest of the Internet (ROI) using the campus-wide backbone network at UC Davis. Two OLTs (Optical Line Terminal) emulate the functionality of the telecom Central Office (CO) of the general WOBAN architecture.g. and (c) Management Plane.g. fibre cut.. On the other hand. and indigenous software. e. open sources. The self-organization property of WOBAN also holds for (1) other failure types. and (2) optimal routing. The WOBAN Network Operations Centre (NOC) (see Fig. The OLTs and ONUs are connected through Ethernet PON (EPON) ports. Other Test beds have only a small number of nodes and have been used as proof of concepts. Several designated routers are configured to have Gateway capabilities (by loading appropriate open source firmware) and each such Gateway is connected to an ONU via a 10/100 Base-T Ethernet port. To the best of our knowledge. 2. (b) Data Plane. The wireless routers are placed with an effective distance of 50-60 meter between pairs. the other parts of the WOBAN can ―self organize‖ themselves to still carry the affected traffic through the other operational parts of the WOBAN. Each OLT can drive several ONUs using an optical splitter. The Management Plane is used For remote access and programmability of the prototype nodes. wireless router failure. etc.2 Distinguishing Features The WOBAN prototype has several distinguishing features which are different from other related prototypes reported in the literature. 16) is responsible for the management of all these planes.rates up to 54 Mbps.

Power consumption of the wireless nodes is very low (1-2. The reconfigurability is performed by Layer-2 (L2) connectivity And intelligent routing. The prototype is reconfigurable and provides self organizing and selfhealing properties.open source firmware provides the programmability in the wireless routers. As the wireless mesh constitutes a large part of the prototype. The programmability of OLT can be performed by using the craft port in the OLT box and the ONU programmability can be emulated by gluing a separate ―Linux box‖ with each ONU. 20 . the overall power consumption is also low.5 watts/router).

We demonstrated the performance of several typical applications such as data transfer. and analyze the performance of hybrid network protocols. In this dissertation. design methods. named WOBAN. and video over our WOBAN prototype. hybrid. architectures. Future research challenges accumulated from our prototyping experiences were also illustrated. In this chapter.CHAPTER-3 CONCLUSION Energy efficiency in telecom networks is gaining significant attention among the telecom networks researchers. We observed that too many wireless Hops degrade the application performance. we developed novel methods and techniques to build energy-efficient next generation telecom networks. test. This technology is envisioned to satisfy future bandwidth demand of technology-savvy customers in a cost-effective manner. This programmable and configurable access architecture Will facilitate future experimental. 21 . particularly for video. and it can be an attractive solution for future ―last-mile‖ access networks. we summarize the important contributions and findings in the dissertation. and cross domain networking research. The WOBAN prototype will be instrumental to develop. high-bandwidth future access network technology. and results presented in the dissertation will assist researchers and telecom service providers in developing networks in an energy-efficient manner. The algorithms. We showed how to build a prototype for a novel. voice.

IEEE. Hybrid Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network (WOBAN):Prototype D evelopment and Research Challenges Pulak Chowdhury. no. Chikusa-ku. Suman Sarkar. Fellow. Hiroshi Ishikawa. Glen Kramer. Takayuki Kurosu. Sudhir Dixit. IEEE. ―Optical packet-switched WDM networks: A cost and energy perspective.org/ 22 . Tsuyoshi Nakatogawa. Ken Tanizawa. Member. 464-8603 Furo-cho. Member. Tucker. march/april 2011 by Shu Namiki. Ieee journal of selected topics in quantum electronics. R. Madoka Nakamura. vol. Member. Fellow.and Kimiyuki Yamaha 3. Junya Kurumida. Optical Technologies that Enable Green Networks Ken-ichi Sato.Toshifumi Hasama. Japan 5.wikipedia. 17.IEEE Nagoya University.REFERENCES 1. IEEE. Nagoya. 2. http://www. and Biswanath Mukherjee 4.‖ 2. IEEE.

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