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Odor and Corrosion Control

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is a gas that forms naturally in sewerage systems and water purification plants. It is also common to find it in certain industrial effluents such as Spent Caustics. Its strong, nauseous smell is easily recognised. Furthermore, this gas is corrosive, toxic and soluble in treated water. H2S derives from the reduction of sulphates in the liquids because of sulphate-reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Desulfovibrio bacteria, which are strictly anaerobic, are responsible for reducing the sulphate to sulphides. Hydrogen Peroxide chemically oxidises H2S into elemental sulphide or sulphate, depending on the waste water’s pH level. Hydrogen Peroxide acts quickly which makes it suitable to be aggregated upstream just beyond where the problem originates. Furthermore, Hydrogen Peroxide leaves a residual amount of oxygen, which prevents greater quantities of hydrogen sulphide gas from forming. Therefore, the Hydrogen Peroxide solution does not only manage to eliminate this gas, but also inhibit its formation downstream.

The Benefits of Using Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen Peroxide offers benefits over other sulphide control methods. It is effective, highly competitive cost-wise and does not form toxic sub-products. It is a safe product to work with and only produces sulphates as a result of the reaction, which are soluble and therefore there is no problem generating any type of deposit or sludge. It prevents hydrogen sulphide formation downstream. Contact us so that we can solve the problem of sulphide generation in your treatment plant.

BOD and COD Control
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are two ways of measuring the oxygen which the effluent will consume once it has been emptied into the receiving water body. In both situations the consumption of oxygen is mainly caused by organic substances that have not been entirely decomposed by the effluent treatment system. Current legislation demands continually lower levels of these parameters in order to preserve the receiving water bodies and their aquatic life. Hydrogen peroxide is an essential product for reducing BOD and COD in industrial and municipal wastewaters. Some situations where peroxide is used for this application are the following: • Pre-digesting wastewaters containing toxic compounds, inhibitors, or substances that are recalcitrant to biological treatment (e.g. pesticides, plasticisers, resins, cooling liquids and colorants). • Prior treatment of wastewaters where bio-treatment may not be practical; for example, before discharging into public treatment or a WWTP [wastewater treatment plant]. • Source of additional dissolved oxygen when biological treatment systems experience overloads or a temporary lack of equipment.

Advanced Oxidation Processes
FMC Foret has its own technologies and developments to solve these problems of BOD and COD. FMC Foret has developed its OHP® [Wet Oxidation with Peroxide] process for these situations, as well as Advanced Oxidation

Processes such as Fenton Treatment. FMC Foret will assess you in relation to our programmes for sulphide control in liquid effluents. These solutions can be implemented in any part of the process. the odour can be detected and considered offensive. The conversion of peroxide from the OHP® reagent into an activated sludge on the input of the liquor according to the following reaction: (Catalase enzyme) H2O2 ----> O2 + 2 H2O The Catalase enzyme is a natural decomposition catalyser for the peroxide. Furthermore. and this can also be solved using hydrogen peroxide. The reaction is accelerated when the temperature increases. Additional Oxygen Source The efficacy of the BOD reduction in the biological aerobic treatment processes depends on a number of factors. Sulphides Control The hydrogen sulphide generated in the municipal wastewater or “black water” treatment plants is a significant problem due to the strong odour it exudes. At room temperatures. The limited oxygen conditions in the aeration lagoons give rise to inefficient BOD elimination. neutral or alkaline conditions and eliminates the problems caused by the sulphides at their root. or even death. the reaction concludes in a few seconds. produced by the majority of aerobic organisms. Preferably. temperature. they will be more effective the earlier the treatment is applied. or by aggregating catalysers such as iron. Cyanide Elimination Cyanides in Industry . Another problem is the treatment of animal waste or sludge in treatment plants. At 50ºC. the oxygen provided by the hydrogen peroxide is immediately available to be used by the aerobic organisms. When hydrogen peroxide is used to replace oxygen. nutrient levels and concentrations of dissolved oxygen. H2S is toxic and can cause fainting. and is found in all activated sludge liquors. The odour caused by the hydrogen sulphide can be extremely powerful in adjacent communities. Even in tiny concentrations such as 4 ppb. This causes serious malfunctioning in plant operations. Due to the fact this enzymatic decomposition of the peroxide is extremely fast. depending on the composition of the liquid effluent. its toxicity and its corrosiveness. it is added directly into the aeration basin of a biological treatment system to provide an immediate source of oxygen. In general. including (but not limited to): The effluent BOD. Hydrogen Peroxide reacts with hydrogen sulphide under acidic. Hydrogen sulphide also causes the growth of certain filamentary organisms that are associated with problems of “bulking” in treating activated sludges. the reaction requires from 15 to 30 minutes to be completed. the BOD and COD reduction processes are implemented prior to the secondary treatments with the aim of achieving greater efficiency at less cost.

• Cleansing and disinfection of water storage facilities. • A highly effective. oxidising biocide that acts against any type of micro-organisms. Among its main applications are: • Control of odour and taste of drinking water. Cyanides have numerous industrial applications. Inorganic cyanide salts typically contain the CN. which consists of a carbon atom linked to a nitrogen atom through a triple bond. especially in gold and silver mining. concerned with improving the quality of their waters. This liquid is used to develop photographs. where they are used to extract and recover these metals from the mineral in which they are found in a process known as lixiviation. fast-acting. Cyanide is also used in organic chemistry to prepare the nitriles used to manufacture methyl methacrylates and acrylonitrile. It is highly toxic and needs to be treated to eliminate this chemical. they are used in galvanisation. metal cleaning and surface hardening. • Elimination of iron and hydrogen sulphide. These processes are highly effective in eliminating organic compounds in drinking water systems. The disagreeable taste in the water is due in particular to microcontaminants such as Geosmin and MIB (2-methyl-isoborneol). It complies with regulation UNE-EN 902. “Chemicals used for treatment of water intended for human consumption Hydrogen peroxide”. In metallurgy.Advanced Oxidation Technologies This technology has been used in recent decades as a chemical oxidation process addressed to meet a variety of objectives including final polishing.Cyanide is a chemical compound that contains a cyanide group (C≡N) . which can be released into the atmosphere in certain areas or regions. The advanced oxidation process is highly effective in eliminating these micro-contaminants. Treating drinking water using Oxypure 902 DW is especially effective in water purification facilities. The coking process generates a liquid that is highly contaminated with cyanide. • Elimination of residual chlorine or ozone. water treated using ozone can contain tiny amounts of residual ozone. Fenton Reaction . Elimination of odour and taste The Advanced Oxidation Process based on Oxypure 902 DW consists of combining this product with ultraviolet (UV) rays or ozone. reduction of high percentages of organic load in terms of chemical oxygen demand or total organic carbon and removal of .anion. Drinking Water Oxypure 902 DW is an approved oxidiser for treating water intended for human consumption and process water. Oxypure 902 DW can be aggregated to ensure the total destruction of residual ozone and minimise ozone release. Furthermore. Contact FMC Foret to learn about effective treatment of Cyanides in wastewater. Peroxides are used extensively in industry to treat cyanides when processing waste waters.

The efficiency and flexibility of this technology has been proven with a wide diversity of effluents from chemical and other related industries or activities. It is used in conjunction with the OHP catalyst. Ion exchange resins. Water treatment equipment and lines. Zeolite A : raw material for water treatment. settlers and sludge lines. Phosphoric Acid : addition of phosphorous for industrial waste water (biological plants). Reactive OHP : reagent based on hydrogen peroxide developed specifically for the treatment of non-biodegradable organic material in industrial sewage water. Peracetic Acid : disinfectant for reverse osmosis membranes. cork processing. which activates oxidation by radical pathway. including ultrapure water treatment. FMC Foret offers a range of solutions for the sewage water treatment: • • • • • • Liquid Sodium Silicate : raw material for water treatment and corrosion inhibitor. Process water conditioning (OxyPure range). including pharmaceutical. textile. Industrial Wastewater FMC Foret is aware of the ever growing needs of organizations linked to sustainable development and environmental protection. Hydrogen Peroxide : Aid in biological purification plants: Odor control in collectors. Oxygen source to correct situations of bulking and foaming. food. and landfilling among others. pulp and paper. .recalcitrant and toxic pollutants thus allowing for further conventional biological treatment.

hydrogen peroxide may also improve the efficiency of other biocides such as bleach.h2o2. Before and After Cleaning Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide . Performing an occasional shock cleaning of a heat exchanger with hydrogen peroxide can remove buildup from surfaces and can result in improved heat transfer efficiency.aspx?pid=85&name=Cooling-ProcessWater-System-Cleaning Cooling Towers and Process Water System Cleaning Applications Using Hydrogen Peroxide The unique properties of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) make it a good technology for keeping cooling loops. By removing surface fouling. It can also be used occasionally at higher concentrations for maintenance cleaning purposes of fouled heat exchangers. Hydrogen peroxide works well in removing organic fouling on surfaces through mechanical means and in specific applications through biocidal mechanisms.http://www. Hydrogen peroxide can be used in a shock treatment mode where it is fed based on a timer setup. cooling water loops and process water loops. bromine and non-oxidizers. process water loops and heat exchangers clean from fouling that can occur due to various contaminants in the

or inhibition/disinfection).g. For a variety of reasons . whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas. and physics (adsorption. However. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters. Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment. and persulfates will oxidize sulfide. and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. depending on the application: • • Prevention . and sewage collection/treatment systems. health (toxicity).Slightly Acid Conditions H2S + H2O2 → S0 + . ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). volatilization. scrubbing media. and incineration). gas and oil) being refined into industrial products.Introduction Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. and Destruction . Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters. precipitation. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid. their use for this application is overkill. absorption. for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility. chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective.10. This article focuses on the oxidation chemistry of odor control with H2O2. and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. Neutral . Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters). swamps and marshes. the concentration of sulfide involved. and combination).aesthetics (odor control). peracetic acid. natural gas deposits. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e. Oxidation of sulfide with H2O2 proceeds differently depending primarily on the pH of the oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) . There are processes based on biology (using compost filters. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways..characterized by its rotten egg providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation. particularly as it is applied to industrial wastewaters containing moderate to high levels of sulfide (50 . coal. chemistry (oxidation.000 mg/L).

provided that the H2O2 is added in a controlled fashion and the reaction medium is thoroughly mixed. and again it is not unusual for reaction efficiencies to approach 100%. and it is not unusual for efficiencies to approach 100%. Problems with heat and effervescence could arise however if the H2O2 was grossly overdosed in the presence of catalyst.g. thiosulfate) are low.2:1 wt. The effect of catalysis on the speed of reaction is illustrated in the following table: Catalyst Dose. particularly when the concentrations of other oxidizable substances (e. The stoichiometry calls for 1.+ 4H2O2 → SO42+ 4H2O The above reaction predominates at pH > 9. Alkaline Conditions S2. and yields soluble sulfate as the reaction product.2. There is very little heat generated in the reaction. and 20 deg-C in demineralized water. pH 7. even when sulfide levels are several thousand mg/L.% on sulfide.0 lb H2O2 per lb H2S.0. This is due to the much faster reaction brought about by .. If clarity of the effluent is needed. The stoichiometry calls for 4. the sulfur may be removed by flocculation with an anionic polymer followed by filtration.2H2O The product of the oxidation is predominately elemental sulfur.25 lbs H2O2 per lb S 2-. which appears as a yellow colloid (if underdosed) or a white colloid (with complete oxidation). mg/L as Sulfide Level at Time Fe 3+ (min) 0 1 3 5 10 25 0 (before H2O2) 252252252252252252 2 5 10 15 30 45 60 21819215410856 24 15212692 52 14 <1 10454 30 5 74 22 3 28 9 11 3 6 2 <1 <1 <1 Note: H2O2 dosed at 1. and when the reaction is accelerated by catalysis.

as the table below illustrates. both of the above reactions may occur with the following results: • • • The reaction products transition from elemental sulfur to sulfate The H2O2 requirement transitions from 1:1 to 4.t. Consequently.0:1 wt. zeolite catalyst support systems) may be used to lessen the environmental impact. there may be a need to dissipate heat when treating solutions containing several thousand mg/L sulfide. Contributing to heat evolution is the unproductive decomposition of H2O2 which can become significant if H2O2 is overdosed (or improperly mixed).the increased reactivity of H2O2 at alkaline pH.u. catalysts may be used to push the reaction one way or the other. per lb-H2O2. evolved per lbS). water and heat is a concern which is made more significant if the sulfide containing waste also contains volatile hydrocarbons. and fixed bed reaction columns (using e. The theoretical heat of reaction is 225 kcal/gm-mol of SO4 2.% on sulfide and 20 deg-C in demineralized water.25:1 The rate of reaction speeds up To some extent.700 B. while those based on nickel and vanadium tend to favor elemental sulfur.. copper and manganese tend to favor sulfate formation. Catalysts such as iron. the speed of reaction is greatly accelerated. especially at pH > 11-12.t. Slightly Alkaline Conditions In moving from pH 7 to pH 9.(or 12. Consequently. Catalase Enzyme: 2 H2O2 → O2 + 2 H2O . H2O2 decomposition into oxygen. there is generally little benefit to catalyzing the reaction since.u.g. Sulfide Level at Time (min) Wastewate r pH 9 10 11 12 25 25 25 25 8 8 8 8 16 10 36 22 2 2 76 26 2 <1 12 <1 <1 <1 0 (before H2O2) 2 5 10 15 Note: H2O2 dosed at 5. These catalysts may be used to economize H2O2 use or to produce a clear effluent. In both cases. as the pH increases above 9-10. The heat of H2O2 decomposition is about 1000 B.

o Production of chlorine-free pulp (ECF/TCF) Tanning: o Water Treatment o Detanning/bleaching of hides.Intermediate product in manufacture of oxides. The main applications for this product are in the paper and the chemical industries. As it decomposes to water and oxygen. o Urea substitute. . it is used for a wide range of purposes.Hydrogen Peroxide is a strong oxidant. APPLICATIONS • • • • • Metal Treatment: o Pickling. Hydrogen Peroxide is a stable. Hydrogen Peroxide is a very attractive product for the environment. Chemical Formula: H2O2. o Waste paper and linters. Concentrations: 30% . Paper: o Bleaching pulp. Due to its beneficial properties. o Polishing and burnishing o Bath purification/recovery. o Solubilization. o Resin solubilizer CHARACTERISTICS • • • Appearance: o Clear. o Colorless liquid. Chemicals: o Epoxidation/polymerization. o Effluent decoloring. which can be used in a variety of applications. o Peroxides and peracids. o Strong oxidizer. o Drinking.70%. Mining: o Extracting/purifying minerals. such as a bleach or disinfectant. high quality product. FMC Foret provides several Hydrogen Peroxide types and concentrations.

prevent or otherwise control any harmful organism using chemical or biological methods. Peracetic Acid is a strong biocide product and is used in a wide range of industries. For more information. . ranging from concentrations of 1% to 35%.FMC is one of the largest producers of Peracetic Acid in the United States. These brands have Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid as their active ingredients. Peracetic Acid formulations are also used in treatment of drinking water and Legionella control. FMC Foret has developed a wide range of high quality products. please contact: webcomercial@fmc. Peracetic Acid formulations are also used in treatment of drinking water and Legionella control. with Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid as active Biocides Biocides are products designed to destroy. in collaboration with the Hydrogen Peroxide Sub Group and the Peracetic Acid Group (CEFIC). ranging from concentrations of 1% to 35%. Products resulting from the decomposition of Peracetic Acid are non-toxic and dissolve easily in water. FMC Foret markets Peracetic Acid under the Bioper and OxyPure® brands. please contact: webcomercial@fmc. neutralize. Environmental Hygiene and Livestock industries. Products resulting from the decomposition of Peracetic Acid are non-toxic and dissolve easily in water. FMC Foret has developed a wide range of high quality products. in its plant in Spain. Peracetic Acid is a strong biocide product and is used in a wide range of industries. facilities or machinery related to the food industry. FMC Foret has requested authorization for Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid (active substances in the manufacture of biocides). For more information. in its plant in Spain. Following in its footsteps. Following in its footsteps. counter. FMC Foret markets Peracetic Acid under the Bioper and OxyPure® brands. We have designed the range of OxyPure FMC is one of the largest producers of Peracetic Acid in the United States. animal products and their packaging as well as for treatment of premises. for this application: Pesticides for use in the Food Industry: these are designed for external treatments for processed vegetables. providing the necessary studies for their evaluation. They are used as bactericides and fungicides in the Food. These brands have Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid as their active ingredients. They are used as bactericides and fungicides in the Food. As a manufacturer of active substances for the formulation of biocides and in accordance with the program of work established in Directive 98/8/CE. Environmental Hygiene and Livestock industries.

. Technical Active Ingredients HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 50% PERACETIC ACID 15% PERACETIC ACID 5% Bactericides and fungicides: OxyPure C50 OxyPure BIO-15 OxyPure BIO-5 Pesticides for Legionella/Refrigeration towers : Technical Active Ingredients PERACETIC ACID 15% PERACETIC ACID 5% Legionella Disinfectants: OxyPure BIO-15 CT-L OxyPure BIO-5 CT-L HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 50% . Technical Active Ingredients Legionella Disinfectants: HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 50---------V PERACETIC ACID 15-V PERACETIC ACID 5-V OxyPure BIO-15-V OxyPure BIO-5-V ..Technical Active Ingredients HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 50% PERACETIC ACID 15% PERACETIC ACID 5% Bactericides and fungicides: OxyPure C50 OxyPure BIO-15 OxyPure BIO-5 Pesticides for environmental use: these are designed for disinfection. fixed or mobile establishments... fumigation and rat extermination of public or private premises.- Pesticides for livestock use: designed to be used around animals or in activities closely linked to their exploitation.. transport systems and their facilities....