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BSMT – 2 Alpha Nautical (1630 – 1800 Hrs.) TTH
Submitted by: GROUP 4 Members: 3CL D/C Rabasa, Luis Alphonso J. 3CL D/C Rivera, Daniel S. 3CL D/C Rivera, Frenzie Mae V. 3CL D/C Romulo, Ron Gabriel 3CL D/C Ruiz, Wendel
Submitted to: Capt. David Morales Instructor -
Date Submitted: November 23, 2010, Tuesday
9. or even land them in jail. Acquire the habit of referring to the requirement of the regulations before ballast water may be thrown overboard. 10. Any breach of MARPOL 73/78 can have severe consequences for the ship owner and the officers and crew involved. 10. Define the words “oil separator” and “filtering equipment” 9.4. bilges and ballast tanks in a ship. But in the maritime industry separating oil from water is not a simple matter. Failing to separate one from the other could pollute the world’s bodies of water and cost ship owners and responsible officers a lot of money in fines. 10. 10. Describe the different conditions that the regulation requires before a pollutant can be possibly dumped into the sea. State the specific regulation on pollution prevention applicable to machinery spaces. Understand the International Rules on Pollution Prevention applicable to machinery spaces. bilges. Bilge water that is generated in proximity to shipboard equipment (such as in the engine room) often contains oil and its direct discharge would result in undesirable transfer of waste oil to the marine environment.4.9.3. INTRODUCTION Everybody knows that oil and water don’t mix.1. most commercial vessels need to be fitted with an oily water separator to remove oil contaminants before bilge water is pumped overboard. . 9. In tonnage terms. the most important pollutant resulting from shipping operations is oil. Describe the functions of these equipment.3.2.78. and ballast tanks. Illustrate with a rough drawing the location of the machinery space. Bilge water is an almost unavoidable product in ship operations. although it is a very important one. Draw a scale drawing of oil separator and filtering equipment. bilges and ballast tanks under Annex I of the technical Annexes of MARPOL 1973/78.2. By international agreement under the MARPOL convention. Know the classification of oil separators and filtering equipments 9.1. 10. An oily water separator (OWS) is a piece of shipboard equipment that allows a vessel's crew to separate oil from bilge water before the bilge water is discharged overboard. State the minimum standard requirement of these equipment to conform with the regulations according to MARPOL Convention 1973.
filter. OWS is used to treat the oilwater mixture from bilge spaces. or coalescer and also single unit designed to produce an effluent with oil content of less than 100 ppm. water that has to be discharged should contain less than 15 parts per million of oil. For this purpose. It is intended to use equipment attached to oily-eater separating equipment certified for an effluent of less than 100 ppm. For this purpose Oily water separators have become compulsory on all types of ships. Almost all OWS use gravity system for the separation of water from oil. OWS is used to treat an oily water mixture before disposing it off to the sea. which is not enough. OILY WATER SEPARATING AND FILTERING SYSTEM "No ship can sail without an Oily Water Separator". before discharging it to the sea. Oily Water Separator Equipment may include any combination of a separator. all OWS are equipped with a filtration system to bring down the PPM level. filter or coalesce and also a single unit designed to produce and effluent with oil content not exceeding 15 ppm. Oil Filtering Equipment includes any combination of a separator. and alleged improper operation of this equipment by crewmembers (sometimes called the "Magic Pipe") has resulted in criminal prosecutions in the United States and to a lesser extent in Europe.Oily water separator equipment has been a shipboard requirement since the 1970s but recently it has become evident that oily water separators have not been as effective as had been assumed. oil tanks or any compartment in the ship which has accumulated water. This method allows the system to bring down the PPM (parts per million) number to 100. The PPM is measured with an instrument which is similar in working to the Salinometer used to check salt ppm. . an annexure of MARPOL says. According to one of the annexure of MARPOL. OWS is used to attain this. MARPOL regulations regarding discharge of oil in sea water are becoming stringent day by day.
All the oil collecting compartments are provided with heating coils or a steam inlets for heating the oil to . The oil from the mixture will stick to the underside of the catch plates and slowly move outwards to rise at the top of the mixture and gets collected in an oil collecting space. This compartment has stationary catch plates arrangement fixed at the center of the compartment as shown in the figure.) CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING – THE SEPARATOR UNIT The Separator unit itself consists of two parts.An oily water separator has two units. flushes out of the compartment through a pipe attached at the center of the compartment. Some of the oil molecules due to their lower density will separate and rise to the top of the mixture into an oil collecting compartment.A separator unit and a filtrating unit. (See Figure 2. The clean water which has PPM of around 100. The oil mixture flows slowly between the catch plates. The oily water mixture enters the compartment through the inlet pipe. The first part consists of a coarse separating compartment with an inlet for the oil-water mixture. from an outlet provided at the bottom of the chamber to the second part which is a fine separating compartment. The remaining oil leaves the compartment.
solid particles and physical impurities are removed with the help of filter units. The mixture is then passed to the filtration unit.facilitate a free flow. These impurities settle at the bottom of the compartment and are removed later. When the water enters the first stage. it is passed to the filtrating unit. The air produced is released through a vent provided at the top of the compartment. The second stage uses coalescer . The filtrating unit also consists of two stages. The water then passes through the second stage for complete removal of oil. To reduce the PPM level. CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING – THE FILTRATING UNIT The water that comes out of the separating unit generally has a PPM level of 100 or less.
Due to this process the surface tension between the oil molecules in the mixture breaks down which makes them to stick together to form larger molecules. The collecting chamber is emptied as and when require. REGULATIONS RELATIVE TO FITTING OF EQUIPMENT -when the level of effluents discharges more than the required 15 ppm. -the oil filtering equipment should be strongly suited for shipboard operation. -electrical support attachment should be equipped with safety equipment and installed in the safe areas. The system raises an alarm. This large oil molecules then rise to the top of the mixture to get collected in the collecting chamber. the bilge alarm system activates. in case the PPM level goes above 15. . this PPM monitoring device is also compulsory on ship along with the OWS. The filter units are to be changed generally once a week. According to MARPOL. -it is fitted in areas where flammable atmosphere may be present. Coaslescer induces coalescence process between the oil particles. The OSW system is fixed with a PPM monitoring device which keeps a continuous check on the discharged water's PPM level.inserts to achieve this. -the equipment is designed to function automatically but manual control is also provided in case of emergency.
which is often taken on in the coastal waters in one region after ships discharge wastewater or unload cargo. Ballast water discharge typically contains a variety of biological materials.000 tons in 1984 to zero in 1993. These materials often include non-native. It was first introduced in 1982. it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. yet they . animals. “The anchovy catch fell from 204.000 tons in 1984 to 200 tons in 1993. has caused notable damage in the Black Sea. The population of the jellyfish shot up exponentially and. and can cause problems navigating tanker routes. Meinesz believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless jellyfish. a species of comb jellyfish that inhabits estuaries from the United States to the Valdés peninsula in Argentina along the Atlantic coast. by 1988. Similarly. exotic species that can cause extensive ecological and economic damage to aquatic ecosystems. and bulk cargo carriers use a huge amount of ballast water. nuisance. Ships are also responsible for transporting harmful organisms in their ballast water. the discharge of ballast water only accounts for a small percentage of oil pollution in the marine environment. The sea water is meant to help stabilize and balance a ship. when a larger vessel is being loaded it discharges seawater from these compartments. such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo. Cruise ships. horse mackerel from 4. Mnemiopsis leidyi. wherever more cargo is loaded. and discharged at the next port of call. large tankers.600 tons in 1984 to 12. and bacteria.” Now that the jellyfish have exhausted the zooplankton. Ballast discharges from ships are responsible for tar balls in the open oceans and seas.- BALLAST WATER DISCHARGE AND THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Ballast water discharges by ships can have a negative impact on the marine environment. viruses.000 tons in 1993. sprat from 24. seawater is pumped into compartments in the hull. and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship’s ballast water. When a larger vessel. Nevertheless. including plants. including fish larvae. their numbers have fallen dramatically.
animals. Avoid taking on ballast water: o with harmful organisms and pathogens.” Shellfish and drinking water can then be contaminated when the ship discharges its ballast water. Sources of seafood can become contaminated and unhealthy for consumption.S. Maintain a vessel-specific ballast water management plan. The U. Coast Guard has issued voluntary guidelines (summarized below) for all vessels with ballast tanks operating on waters of the United States. marine preserves. marine parks. cholera outbreaks have been attributed to ship operations. Not surprisingly. Discharge minimal amounts of ballast water in coastal and internal waters. . Invasive species can take over once occupied areas. Recently the jellyfish have been discovered in the Caspian Sea. introduce new genetic material. and genetic abnormalities or even death. Vibrio cholerae can spread through attachment to marine organisms in ship ballast water. birth defects. o where tidal flushing is poor or when a tidal stream is known to be more turbid. and disorders resulting in cancer. state. suppression of the immune system. o in darkness when organisms may rise up in the water column. facilitate the spread of new diseases. o near dredging operations. “Current research indicates that the bacterium responsible for causing cholera. piping. alter landscapes and jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food.S. o in shallow water or where propellers may stir up the sediment. For all vessels operating on waters of the United States: • • • • • • • Avoid ballast operations in or near marine sanctuaries. o near sewage outfalls. and tanks on a regular basis and dispose of any removed substances in accordance with local. or coral reefs. ballast and bilge discharge from ships can spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike. tumors. Rinse anchors during retrieval to remove organisms and sediments at their place of origin. and federal regulations. each year”.continue to maintain a stranglehold on the ecosystem. Discharges into coastal waters along with other sources of marine pollution have the potential to be toxic to marine plants. disruption of hormone cycles. In addition to introducing non native species into new environments. “On land and in the sea. and microorganisms causing alterations such as changes in growth. Clean ballast tanks regularly. invasive species are responsible for about 137 billion dollars in lost revenue and management costs in the U. Remove fouling organisms from hull. They may also have the opposite effect upon some marine life stimulating growth and providing a source of food. such as toxic algal blooms.
Use an alternative environmentally sound method of ballast water management that has been approved in advance by the Commandant of the U. nonindigenous species or exotic species .into the port of discharge. there is a potential for the introduction of non-native organisms .000 m in depth. BALLAST WATER TREATMENT OPTIONS BEFORE DISCHARGE AT SEA Ships use ballast water to provide stability and maneuverability during a voyage.S. unreliable. Unfortunately no single ballast water management technique has been able to remove all organisms or all types of organisms from ballast tanks. or time consuming. A number of methods to prevent these unwanted introductions are discussed in this fact sheet. from an area more than 200 nautical miles from any shore and in waters more than 2. It is difficult to implement treatments because ship owners are understandably reluctant to install technology that is expensive. Because organisms ranging in size from viruses to twelve inch fish living in the surrounding water or sediments are taken on board with ballast water. Coast Guard.S. For all vessels entering waters of the United States after operating on waters beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): • • • • Exchange ballast water beyond the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).• Train vessel personnel in ballast water management and treatment procedures.called bioinvaders. Criteria for Selecting a Treatment Method • Safety of the crew and passengers • Effectiveness at removing target organisms • Ease of operating treatment equipment • Amount of interference with normal ship operations and travel times • Structural integrity of the ship • Size and expense of treatment equipment • Amount of potential damage to the environment • Ease for port authorities to monitor for compliance with regulations . alien species. Coast Guard (USCG) Captain of the Port. Retain the ballast water on board the vessel. or exchange ballast water in other waters recommended by the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force and approved by the U. Discharge ballast water to an approved reception facility. Water is taken on at one port when cargo is unloaded and usually discharged at another port when the ship receives cargo. however little research has been conducted into this possibility. A combination of different methods may prove to be more effective than one method alone.
Any treatment method should provide means for port authorities to easily monitor whether or not the treatment has been performed and if it was effective. any crew that is needed to operate the treatment may decrease the number of crew members that are available for other ship operations. the method itself may pose a risk to human health or to the environment if the treatment is not properly contained in the ballast tanks. and the risks the treatment may pose to human health and the environment. This allows for enforcement of any laws regarding ballast water treatment. The monetary cost of a treatment method includes the expense of the equipment. Drawbacks to this method are: (1) it is difficult to completely remove sediments and residual water from the bottom of ballast tanks. and the time needed for the treatment operation. (2) organisms stuck to the sides of the tank or structural supports within the tank will not be readily removed. This method is effective because organisms from coastal waters are unlikely to survive in the open ocean and vice versa. both of which may be quite expensive. Many treatment methods require that ships be retrofitted with the necessary equipment or that new ships have the equipment included in their design.When evaluating ballast water treatment options a number of general factors must be considered including cost. organisms remaining inside the ballast tanks may be discharged at a later time into ports and harbors if the exchange fails to remove all organisms. A . Because crew members have many tasks to perform on a ship. These risks and costs need to be evaluated and compared to the risk of introducing species to a port. enforcement. the effectiveness of the method. Thus. Because many treatment methods work by killing the organisms in ballast water. Ballast Water Exchange Current ballast water regulations usually recommend minimizing the risk of introducing non-native species by exchanging ballast water in the open ocean. the crew needed to operate the treatment equipment. and (3) during stormy or rough seas it is unsafe for a ship to exchange ballast water. Mid Ocean Exchange Figure 1 illustrates how ballast water exchange would work. If a treatment method slows down the journey of a vessel or causes excess fuel consumption the journey will be more expensive. Figure 1.
Oxidizing agent: Chemicals that destroy cell membrane through oxidization. With the addition of another pipe. or by installing small pumps in these areas to remove water during ballast exchange. travels through the Suez Canal. Biocide Treatment Terms Biocide: A chemical such as bleach that kills organisms. Ballast water exchange would occur in the Atlantic prior to the ship entering the Great Lakes to pick up cargo. There are also advantages to ballast tank exchange. The process of rusting is an oxidation reaction. The possibility of trapping organisms in ballast tank structures could be reduced by designing ships that do not have these structures. Ballast tanks could also be redesigned with a sloping bottom or other structure that allows sediment and water to drain into a pump. relatively little time is lost during the voyage. where it shields us from harmful ultraviolet rays. but not at the same time. however. most ballast tanks have one pipe that pumps water in both directions. O3. Enforcement of ballast exchange laws can occur to some degree because open ocean waters have higher salinity levels than coastal waters and this difference can be detected by port authorities. Because it is done while the ship is en route.g. which are relatively inexpensive. Another means of improving current ballast tank flushing would be to remove the residual water and sediments from the bottom of ballast tanks. could be installed in the bottom of ballast tanks to remove these residual materials.ship leaves a port in the Indian Ocean. is very important in our upper atmosphere. No additional equipment or operator training is needed for ballast exchange so the capital costs are low and it is a simple process to implement. is developing a quick and easy test for determining if ballast water exchange has occurred. Battelle. discharges cargo in the Mediterranean and takes up ballast water prior to crossing the Atlantic Ocean. wheat for transport to the receiving port. Currently. a research institution. Ozone: This molecule. A molecule that is electron deficient removes an electron from another molecule in this reaction. The effectiveness of ballast water exchange could be improved by redesigning ballast tanks and pumping systems. In the lower atmosphere. . Pumps. thereby reducing the risk of introducing a nonnative species. Current ship designs often include structural supports and odd corners in the ballast tanks that trap organisms and ballast water. In addition. redesigning these structures so they do not trap ballast water and organisms. ballast exchange could be achieved by continual flushing of the tank with one pipe bringing water into the tank and another pipe allowing water to exit the tank. This would be a safer means of exchanging ballast because the tanks would contain water at all times. Non-oxidizing biocide: Biocides can also be lethal through various other chemical means. e.
A major concern with the use of biocides is the safety of the crew members who handle the chemicals. Ozone is an oxidizing biocide that has been used to disinfect water supplies since the late 1800’s. Reactions between ozone and . It is also often used as a biocide in water. but their size may be a limitation when installing them aboard ships. but it is a very powerful oxidizing agent. it may not be safe to release water treated with oxidizing biocides into the environment. so much data exists on their safety and effectiveness. training the crew to safely use biocides should be relatively simple. but recent studies suggest that it may not be as safe to humans as once thought. Combining ozone with a treatment method that successfully eliminates larger organisms would be more effective than using ozone as a solitary treatment. decomposes and reacts with other chemicals in the ballast water to kill organisms. Because of these reasons.it is the major component of smog and is a harmful pollutant. Chlorine is commonly used to treat municipal drinking water. and other structures. Another concern is whether residual biocides have the potential of corroding ballast tanks. Two general types of biocides exist: oxidizing and non-oxidizing. Ozone is especially effective at killing microscopic organisms. Ballast water is treated as it flows through a device that bubbles ozone gas into the water. These chemicals act by destroying cell membranes which leads to cell death. Ozone is inherently unstable and dangerous to produce. Chemical Chemical biocides may be used to treat ballast water and prevent the introduction of non-native species. Some of the biocides that have been studied for ballast water treatment are discussed below. The specific type of biocide must be chosen very carefully to avoid harming humans or the environment. Because other dangerous chemicals that are used for lubricants and other functions on the ship must also be handled. There is also a possibility that oxidizing biocides may react with sea water to form toxic chemicals. Biocides are usually shipped and stored in the form of a concentrated solid or liquid. Ozone gas is toxic to humans and contributes to smog in the lower atmosphere. The main drawback to ozone treatment is the large size of the ozone generators needed to treat a large volume of ballast water. These are widely used industrial chemicals. so any ozone that does not dissolve must be destroyed before it is released into the atmosphere. bromine. pumps. pipes. The machines for applying biocides are reliable and need little maintenance. although reactions between biocides and sea water that could produce harmful byproducts have not been extensively studied. Oxidizing biocides include chlorine. and iodine. but is not as effective at eliminating larger organisms. Most of this gas dissolves into the water. so they can easily be stored onboard a ship.
an organic compound that kills a wide variety of organisms and is used in industry. Because of the time needed for deactivation. but not as effective at killing microorganisms. This is a very efficient method because coolant water is necessary and would most likely be discharged into the ocean if it were not used to treat ballast water. 3. killing many of the organisms. either by using ballast water to cool the engine or by flushing ballast tanks with the heated water that was used as coolant. such as fish. Ballast water is heated by using the engine cooling system. for example to sterilize medical equipment. The sea water is heated (shown in a darker shade) by freshwater used to cool the ship’s engines. Sea water is pumped in to flush ballast tanks. . One non-oxidizing biocide is gluteraldehyde. Heating ballast water to temperatures between 35oC (95oF) and 45oC (113oF) and maintaining that temperature for a long enough period of time is effective at killing larger organisms. Figure 2. so if they are applied towards the beginning of a voyage they should have little effect on the environment when ballast water is released. The heated sea water is pumped into the ballast tanks. non-oxidizing biocides may not be the best option for shorter voyages. Most pesticides fall into this group of chemicals. 4. Some of these biocides degrade into non-toxic chemicals within a few days. Heat Treatment 1. A similar method is used in heat exchangers used to cool houses instead of using air conditioners with a reverse process being used to minimize heat loss during the winter.components of sea water may also result in toxic chemicals that should not be released into the environment. Another benefit to this method is that there are no resulting chemical byproducts. Gluteraldehyde has the advantage of being metabolized quickly when released in the environment to carbon dioxide. a safe chemical. Non-oxidizing biocides include numerous chemicals that act by interfering with a necessary life function such as metabolism or reproduction. The treated ballast water is pumped overboard. 2.
because heating only occurs for a short period of time as compared to the lifetime of the ship. A filtration unit. The voyage must be long enough to allow water to reach the specified temperatures for the necessary amount of time. Regardless. The Algonorth experiment is a $1. However. Because the temperature of ballast water is affected by the ambient water temperature. if the epoxy wears away the uncovered surface may corrode. making this method of treatment more useful.3 million project in the Great Lakes that is designed to measure the effectiveness of ballast water filtration. and organisms. A number of factors need to be considered before using heat treatment on a specific ship or a particular voyage. In this study 90% of the original ballast water was washed overboard so this method is especially effective because it kills organisms with heat and also flushes the ballast tanks. In some cases. One of the main drawbacks to filtration is that it requires specialized equipment which may be expensive to purchase and install. If ballast water is filtered while being discharged. Filtration Ballast water can be filtered before it enters the tanks or while it is being discharged. proper disposal of organisms is required to eliminate accidental introductions. another treatment method would have to be used to remove microbial invaders. they are less likely to corrode than those of older ships. corrosion may not actually be a major concern with this treatment method. it may be necessary to be filter out dead organisms before releasing the heated ballast water into the environment. Ballast water reached temperatures of close to 40oC (104oF) and most organisms perished. A study in Australia modified a ship to flush ballast tanks with heated water from the engine’s cooling system while letting ballast water overflow onto the deck then into the ocean. so the amount of ballast water to be treated must be compared to the heat released by the engines. New technologies are developing ways to increase the flow rate through filters and prevent organisms from clogging filters. are removed from ballast water. The advantage to filtering as water is pumped into the tanks is that organisms that are filtered out may be retained in their native habitat.The main drawback to either of the methods for heating ballast water is that they require the installation of pipes to bring the ballast water in contact with heat. The cost of filtration increases as smaller particles. Another consideration is the possibility of ballast tank corrosion from the high temperatures. Since the size of filters used to treat ballast water are not likely remove microorganisms. Treatment is limited by the amount of heat provided by the engines. this method may not be as useful in colder waters since more energy would be needed to raise ballast water to the necessary temperature. and peripheral equipment such as a trolley for towing plankton net . Because ballast tanks of newer ships are coated with a protective epoxy that can withstand temperatures up to 80oC (176oF). a testing laboratory.
so would need to be combined with another method to effectively remove all potential bioinvaders from ballast water. Filters of different sizes are also needed in order to cope with the volume of water exchanged. UV treatment may be accompanied by filtration. Larger material must be filtered out. before the water can be filtered by a finer mesh. A number of other physical methods for removing unwanted organisms from ballast water have been examined including acoustics. For instance. and magnetic treatment. no treatment has been found that cost effectively prevents all living organisms from being transported through ballast water. Figure 3 shows the sizes covered by the various methods. In addition to removing larger organisms with the filtration method. One of the main drawbacks is that UV light is ineffective in water containing suspended matter. UV lamps are being studied for use in municipal water treatment plants as a replacement for chlorine. Ultraviolet (UV) light is currently used in hospitals.through a ballast tank were installed in 1996. Other Methods Other methods for treating ballast water are being investigated. in other words. Although many methods are being investigated. Some treatments may need to be accompanied by another treatment that covers another category of organism. homeless shelters. so acoustic treatment may be effective at removing target organisms but not the wide range of organisms found in . These methods need much more research and development before they will be applied to ballast water treatment. A back washing mechanism cleans the filters and collects organisms to prevent their accidental release. another experiment will study which pathogens are carried in ballast water and evaluate whether filtration with fine-meshed filters removes pathogens. electric pulses. Specific acoustic frequencies kill specific organisms. and prisons to kill microorganisms and prevent the spread of disease. so ballast water may need to be filtered before treatment. Figure 3. This method is most effective on microorganisms.
As a result. such as zebra mussels. (b) All ports and terminals in which oil other than crude oil in bulk is loaded at an average quantity of more than 1. in turn. The risk to the crew and the expense and size of the equipment needed to generate these pulses are the major drawbacks to this method of ballast water treatment. Until recently. (c) All ports having ship repair yards or tank cleaning facilities. developing new methods. This method has not been tested on a wide variety of organisms in sea water so its effectiveness for treating ballast water is yet to be determined. and . Magnetic forces have been shown to kill certain invertebrates. and in other ports in which ships have oily residues to discharge. in laboratory tests. ship owners are reluctant to use a new technology unless it is proven effective. has created further delays in adopting regulations and implementing changes in how ships manage ballast water releases. the Government of each Party undertakes to ensure the provision at oil loading terminals. preventing ballast water release of non-native species was a low priority.ballast water. (e) All ports in respect of oily bilge waters and other residues. Removing organisms from ballast water is a promising way to prevent the introduction of bioinvaders that cause ecological and economic harm. (2) (2) Reception facilities in accordance with paragraph (1) of this Regulation shall be provided in: (a) All ports and terminals in which crude oil is loaded into oil tankers where such tankers have immediately prior to arrival completed a ballast voyage of not more than 72 hours or not more than 1. repair ports. Electric pulses may be sent through ballast water killing most organisms.200 nautical miles. Regulation 12 Reception facilities (1)Subject to the provisions of Regulation 10 of this Annex. which cannot be discharged in accordance with Regulation 9 of this Annex. more research must be conducted into improving existing treatment methods.000 metric tons per day. of facilities for the reception of such residues and oily mixtures as remain from oil tankers and other ships adequate to meet the needs of the ships using them without causing undue delay to ships. Because installing new technologies or retrofitting ships is expensive. This. (d) All ports and terminals which handle ships provided with the sludge tank(s) required by Regulation 17 of this Annex. and determining the effectiveness of combining ballast water treatment methods. Conclusions to Ballast Water Treatment Ballast water is one of the major pathways of biological invasion throughout the world. Because no one method has yet been proven to remove all organisms from ballast water. many of the treatment options are still in the experimental stage.
In all cases. (5) Each Party shall notify the Organization for transmission to the Parties concerned of all cases where the facilities provided under this Regulation are alleged to be inadequate. (3) The capacity for the reception facilities shall be as follows: (a) Crude oil loading terminals shall have sufficient reception facilities to receive oil and oily mixtures which cannot be discharged in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 9(1) (a) of this Annex from all oil tankers on voyages as described in paragraph (2) (a) of this Regulation.(f) All loading ports for bulk cargoes in respect of oil residues from combination carriers which cannot be discharged in accordance with Regulation 9 of this Annex.000 tons deadweight and above shall be provided with segregated ballast tanks and shall comply with the requirements of this Regulation. however. (c) All ports having ship repair yards or tank cleaning facilities shall have sufficient reception facilities to receive all residues and oily mixtures which remain on board for disposal from ships prior to entering such yards or facilities. whichever occurs later. (d) All facilities provided in ports and terminals under paragraph (2)(d) of this Regulation shall be sufficient to receive all residues retained according to Regulation 17 of this Annex from all ships that may reasonably be expected to call at such ports and terminals. including the conditions consisting of lightweight plus segregated ballast only. the capacity of segregated ballast tanks shall be at least such that in any ballast condition at any part of the voyage. (2) The capacity of the segregated ballast tanks shall be so determined that the ship may operate safely on ballast voyages without recourse to the use of oil tanks for water ballast except as provided for in paragraph (3) of this Regulation. (4) The reception facilities prescribed in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this Regulation shall be made available no later than one year from the date of entry into force of the present Convention or by 1 January 1977. (b) Loading ports and terminals referred to in paragraph (2)(b) of this Regulation shall have sufficient reception facilities to receive oil and oily mixtures which cannot be discharged in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 9(1)(a) of this Annex from oil tankers which load oil other than crude in bulk. the ship's draughts and trim can meet each of the following requirements: (a) The moulded draught amidships (dm) in metres (without taking into account . Regulation 13 Segregated ballast oil tankers (1) Every new oil tanker of 70. (e) All facilities provided in ports and terminals under this Regulation shall be sufficient to receive oily bilge waters and other residues which cannot be discharged in accordance with Regulation 9 of this Annex. (f) The facilities provided in loading ports for bulk cargoes shall take into account the special problems of combination carriers as appropriate.
any ship's deformation) shall not be less than: dm = 2. and (c) In any case the draught at the after perpendicular shall not be less than that which is necessary to obtain full immersion of the propeller(s).015L. and entry shall be made in the Oil Record Book referred to in Regulation 20 of this Annex. Such additional ballast water shall be processed and discharged in compliance with Regulation 9 and in accordance with the requirements of Regulation 15 of this Annex. (3) In no case shall ballast water be carried in oil tanks except in weather conditions so severe that. in association with the trim by the stern of not greater than 0.02L. as specified in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph. it is necessary to carry additional ballast water in oil tanks for the safety of the ship. .0 + 0. (b) The draughts at the forward and after perpendiculars shall correspond to those determined by the draught amidships (dm). in the opinion of the Master.
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