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Acids and Bases

Introduction and Definitions: Acids and bases are encountered frequently both in chemistry and in everyday living. They have opposite properties and have the ability to cancel or neutralize each other. Acids and bases are carefully regulated in the body by the lungs, blood, and kidneys through equilibrium processes. What are acids and bases? Observational definitions: Acids: Taste sour. Give sharp stinging pain in a cut or wound. Turn blue litmus paper red. Turn phenolphthalein colorless. React with metals to produce hydrogen gas. React with carbonates or bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas.
General Definitions:  Acid: a substance which when added to water produces hydrogen ions [H+].  Base: a substance which when added to water produces hydroxide ions [OH-].

Bases: Taste bitter. Feels slippery Turn red litmus paper blue. Turn phenolphthalein pink.

Properties: Acids:
   

react with zinc, magnesium, or aluminum and form hydrogen (H2(g)) react with compounds containing CO32- and form carbon dioxide and water turn litmus red taste sour

Bases:
   

feel soapy or slippery turn litmus blue they react with most cations to precipitate hydroxides taste bitter

but it is not an alkali because it does not dissolve in water. Here are two examples:   Copper oxide is a base because it will react with acids and neutralise them.0 9. It's also an alkali because it dissolves in water. they will change colour if you change the pH (by adding acid or alkali). Sodium hydroxide is a base because it will react with acids and neutralise them. Phenolphthalein: Is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation. Perhaps we should call them pH indicators because there are other kinds of indicators. Indicator Litmus Phenolphthalein Methyl Orange Bromophenol Blue pH 7. Indicators change colour at different pH values. it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. Often used in titrations.7 4. Litmus changes at pH 7 but Phenolphthalein changes from pink to colourless at pH 9. Indicators are very special chemicals.0 Colour in Acid Red Colourless Red Yellow Colour in Alkali Blue Red // Pink Yellow Blue Litmus: A water-soluble blue powder derived from certain lichens that change to red with increasing acidity and to blue with increasing basicity. . we call it an alkali.7 3.If a base does dissolve in water.

but has a sharper end point. Unlike a universal indicator. it is usually used in titrations for acids. methyl orange does not have a full spectrum of colour change.Methyl orange: Is a pH indicator frequently used in titrations. Because it changes colour at the pH of a mid-strength acid. a color marker and a dye. . Bromophenol blue: Is used as an acid-base indicator. It is often used in titrations because of its clear and distinct colour change.