You are on page 1of 10

Ship Illustrations Traditional Freighter

The term freighter is broadly used to describe any vessel that carries freight. However, a traditional freighter carries break bulk cargo as opposed to containerized cargo.

Distinguishing Features: Traditional freighters have many deckmounted cranes used to transfer cargo from a wharf to the vessel. Size or Length: Traditional freighters range in length from 250ft (76.2m) to 600ft (182.88m). The "Liberty Ships" of WWII were 441ft (134.4m) in length and 56ft (17m) wide. Types of Cargo: All types of break bulk (as opposed to wet or dry bulk or containerized) cargo. How Cargo is Loaded: Freighters utilize numerous deck-mounted cranes to transfer uncontainerized cargo such as cartons, bales, drums, palletized cargo, machinery and vehicles from a wharf or lighter onto the vessel, where longshoremen or stevedores, in a very time-consuming process, stow the cargo into the holds. Note: Traditional freighters are for the most part obsolete, but are still used in remote parts of the world. Some have been converted to carry containers and dry bulk cargo such as grain, coal, phosphates, fertilizers, and animal feeds. For the most part, they have been sold as scrap metal.

ventilated. While most vessel specifications are given in length and width. and 8. trucks. The containers are then connected at the corners with locking devices. bulk. food. earth moving equipment and pleasure boats can be placed in or on open-top. open top. open-side or flat rack containers or secured to the tops of several containers in a row. Currently.5m) when fully laden and has a capacity of 8. container vessel specifications are in TEUs or twenty-foot equivalent units (how many standard 20 foot containers the vessel can carry). the largest container vessel in the world is 1.5ft (14. cars. .063 TEUs. 138ft (42m) wide.000 TEUs or more. Size or Length: Container ships vary dramatically in size and capacity.Container Vessel A Container Vessel is designed to carry uniform-sized ocean freight containers of 20ft (6m) or 40ft (12m) length. Oversize cargo such as heavy machinery. hardtop. electronics.5ft to 9. high cube. has a draught of 47. refrigerated (reefer) and tank-type containers. livestock. How Cargo is Loaded: Individual containers are loaded by port-based cranes. flat. furniture. chemicals and machinery. Cargo can include merchandise in cartons. drums.060ft (323m) long. bales. platform. Distinguishing Features: Containers are loaded into tall slots that extend from three to six containers below deck to three to six containers above deck. 8ft width. insulated. Very small container vessels might carry as few as 20 TEUs.5ft height. Types of Cargo: Container vessels carry any cargo that can be stowed into any of the following container types: general purpose. but modern vessels typically carry 1.

Size or Length: Container ships vary dramatically in size and capacity. Very small container vessels might carry as few as 20 TEUs.Container Vessel with Deck Cranes A Container Vessel is designed to carry uniform-sized ocean freight containers of 20ft (6m) or 40ft (12m) length. furniture. insulated. This specific type of vessel also has a number of deck-mounted cranes for on and off loading of containers. . While most vessel specifications are given in length and width. and products packed in cartons. Types of Cargo: Container vessels carry any cargo that can be stowed into any of the following container types: general purpose. bulk.5ft to 9. refrigerated (reefer) and tank. Distinguishing Features: Containers are loaded into tall slots that extend from three to five containers below deck to three to five containers above deck. earth moving equipment and pleasure boats can be placed in or on open-top.063 TEUs. high cube. the largest container vessel in the world has a capacity of 8. ventilated. but modern vessels typically carry 1. flat. bales and drums. 8ft width. trucks. electronics. chemicals.5ft height. container vessel specifications are in TEUs or twenty-foot equivalent units (how many standard 20-foot containers the vessel can carry). but does not have deck cranes.or port-based cranes . cars. and 8. open top. How Cargo is Loaded: Individual containers are loaded by ship. livestock.000 TEUs or more. Cargo can include merchandise of all kinds. open-side or flat rack containers or secured above deck on top of other containers. Currently. platform. hardtop. food. machinery. Oversize cargo such as heavy machinery.

trucks. etc. Types of Cargo: Motor vehicles. a Ro-Ro would be used by an automobile manufacturer such as Honda or Volkswagen to transport hundreds of vehicles at a time across oceans to sell in another country.Ro-Ro (Roll-on Roll-off) Vessel A Ro-Ro (Roll-on Roll-off) vessel is designed to transport motor vehicles or any other rolling stock Distinguishing Features: Ro-Ro vessels have a hinged ramp. For example.376 dwt.) to drive on and off the vessel. typically offset at the stern.140 gross tons and 34. and general cargo. A Ro-Ro differs from a ferry in that a ferry is designed to carry vehicles and their individual drivers short to medium distances. The largest Ro-Ro vessel is 789. tractors. with a tonnage of 67. Ro-Ro vessels may also have deck cranes and/or the ability to carry standard ocean containers on deck. buses. yachts. bulldozers. How Cargo is Loaded: Motor vehicles and rolling stock is driven on or rolled onto the vessel via a hinged ramp at the stern.6m) in length. rail cars. heavy plant equipment. Oversize cargo can be loaded on flatbed or lowboy trailers or placed on deck. trailers. all of which are accessible by interior rampways. trucks. that allows motor vehicles (automobiles. farm tractors. Ro-Ro vessels may have as many as eight interior decks. Size or Length: Ro-Ro vessels are typically very large. whereas a Ro-Ro is designed to carry vehicles for wholesale transport without drivers for long distances.34ft (240. Heavy Lift Vessel .

20m) in length and 137. jack-ups.8ft (42m) in width. A large heavy lift vessel can measure 584. Ro-Ro/heavy lift vessels also exist. etc. oil platforms. Some heavy lift vessels also have Ro-Ro capabilities. bridge spans. including damaged ships. Semisubmersible types are designed to transport. LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Carrier . How Items are Loaded: Cargo is loaded by onboard cranes or shorebased cranes. TLPs (tension leg platforms) and SPAR buoys. semi-submersible rigs. Conventional loading is the over-the-top Lo-Lo (Loadon/Load-off). crushers. unusual deck and pilothouse configurations to accommodate unusual types of cargo and very high-capacity on-deck cranes. complex cargoes such as: transformers. lift and unload very large floating objects. Size or Length: Varies by vessel and type of cargo. locomotives. rockets.6ft (178. Distinguishing Features: Heavy lift vessels have extremely large cargo decks. Types of Cargo: High-value.A Heavy Lift Vessel is designed to carry extremely large and/or heavy items that cannot be transported in or on other vessels.

LNG Vessel Note: Due to the dangerous nature of the cargo. environmental police. city police boats and Coast Guard vessels.000 cubic meters (5. primarily because they are staffed with the best officers and crews available.000 cubic meters (4. Size or Length: A conventional LNG carrier has a carrying capacity of 135. U.767. An established zone of security extends 500 yards on each side. Bridges are closed as tankers pass underneath.S. .S. Safety Note: Although LNG is a dangerous cargo. The liquid is then turned back into gas and fed into pipelines for distribution. Coast Guard coordinates protection for each trip to a U.120. including helicopter patrol.S.An LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Carrier is designed to transport natural gas that has been cooled at high pressure and extremely low temperature (-260ºF/-162ºC) until it contracts into a liquid. LNG compresses to 1/600th of its original volume. LNG tankers have an exceptional safety record. LNG port. police divers. Distinguishing Features: LNG spherical storage tanks are positioned half below and half above the deck. The largest LNG tanker has a capacity of 145. marine patrol.627 cuft). firefighting tugs. Types of Cargo: Liquified Natural Gas How LNG is Loaded: The LNG is loaded and unloaded through pumps at specialized terminals.480 cuft). two miles ahead and a mile behind the tanker. U.

000-199. and discharge using onboard pumps.000-319. Suezmax Crude Carrier: 120. All modern oil tankers are doublehulled to protect against oil spills in case of a collision.Crude Oil Tanker A Crude Oil Tanker is a liquid bulk vessel designed specifically to carry crude oil.999 dwt.000+ dwt. Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC): 320. Aframax Crude Carrier: 80.999 dwt.999 dwt. Dry Bulk Carrier . but the larger "supertankers" are truly giant vessels.000-34. The deck of a tanker is covered with pipes and pumps used to transport the crude oil from ship to shore or from hold to hold. Types of Cargo: Crude Oil How Cargo is Loaded: Oil tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps. Distinguishing Features: Oil tankers come in all sizes.000-79. Handymax Crude Carrier: 35. Size or Length: Crude oil tankers fall into different categories of size (dwt = deadweight tons): Handysize Crude Carrier: 10.000 dwt. Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC): 200.000-119.999 dwt. Panamax Crude Carrier: 55.939 dwt. The largest ULCC is 564.000-49.999 dwt.

The longest bulk carrier is 1125ft (343m) in length. Size or Length: Bulk carrier vessels vary greatly in size depending upon the intended cargo and regions served. Note: Special types of bulk carriers are designed for use on the Great Lakes area of the U. grains.or ship-based overhead vacuum pumps.A Bulk Carrier is designed to carry dry bulk cargo. which suck the cargo in and out of the holds of the ship. Types of Cargo: Coal. and Canada. animal feeds. Canal Barge with Propulsion . These vessels transport potash.000 DWT (deadweight tons) to 364.000 dwt in capacity. iron and other ores. How Cargo is Loaded: Cargo can be loaded by terminal-based gravity chutes or by shore. They range from 10. Distinguishing Features: A bulk carrier typically has a flush deck with numerous waterproof hatches covering holds into which bulk cargo is stored. phosphates. fertilizers. Some bulk carriers have deck cranes. loose cargo. scrap metal or other dry. salt. cement. grain. coal. stone and iron ore.S. cocoa.

27m) for barges. etc. Barges are manufactured with propulsion (see illustration above) or without propulsion (see illustration below). or its deadweight tonnage (DWT) Distinguishing Features: U. clean oils. These barges have special low-draught propulsion systems. without propulsion and pushed or pulled by powerful tugboat-type vessels. most canals in Europe allow a maximum beam size of about 14ft (4./Canada Great Lakes barges are often full-sized ships that are long and narrow and have their own propulsion. river barges are usually flat-bottomed. At issue are the width and length of the waterway's locks (if any) and the depth of the waterway. bays. As a result. rivers). Barges are categorized by their physical size. tallow. oceans. barges designed for one waterway may not work on another. gasoline. corn oil.S. the type of cargo they carry. Rhine River. coast. rectangular in shape. asphalt.). Except for the busiest canals. They are also designed to ride low in the water. and the waterways they can travel (i. soy bean oil. lakes. Size or Length: Varies to suit the canal or waterway. European barges are long and narrow to fit through canals and inland waterways. Mississippi River. molasses. its cubic area for cargo.. U. Types of Cargo: Almost anything: crude oil. An oil barge is categorized by its barrel or tonnage cargo capacity. Freight barges can carry cargo inside the hull or on the deck.e. chemicals. sounds. Almost all barges are designed for superior cargo carrying capacity. dry and .e.A Canal Barge is designed to carry cargo on the specific canals or waterways it navigates (i.S.

gravel. sugar. construction equipment. steel. railcars.dry bulk cargo (containers. Barge without Propulsion . by spouting systems fed by conveyors (for grains). sand. Typically by a land-based or floating crane for heavy-lift items. by pumps (for liquids). lumber. and loading ramps (for vehicles or rolling stock).). etc. How Items are Loaded: Varies by cargo. coal. grain. rice.