Ship Illustrations Traditional Freighter

The term freighter is broadly used to describe any vessel that carries freight. However, a traditional freighter carries break bulk cargo as opposed to containerized cargo.

Distinguishing Features: Traditional freighters have many deckmounted cranes used to transfer cargo from a wharf to the vessel. Size or Length: Traditional freighters range in length from 250ft (76.2m) to 600ft (182.88m). The "Liberty Ships" of WWII were 441ft (134.4m) in length and 56ft (17m) wide. Types of Cargo: All types of break bulk (as opposed to wet or dry bulk or containerized) cargo. How Cargo is Loaded: Freighters utilize numerous deck-mounted cranes to transfer uncontainerized cargo such as cartons, bales, drums, palletized cargo, machinery and vehicles from a wharf or lighter onto the vessel, where longshoremen or stevedores, in a very time-consuming process, stow the cargo into the holds. Note: Traditional freighters are for the most part obsolete, but are still used in remote parts of the world. Some have been converted to carry containers and dry bulk cargo such as grain, coal, phosphates, fertilizers, and animal feeds. For the most part, they have been sold as scrap metal.

Currently. insulated. Distinguishing Features: Containers are loaded into tall slots that extend from three to six containers below deck to three to six containers above deck. Size or Length: Container ships vary dramatically in size and capacity. platform.5m) when fully laden and has a capacity of 8. chemicals and machinery. has a draught of 47. container vessel specifications are in TEUs or twenty-foot equivalent units (how many standard 20 foot containers the vessel can carry). Oversize cargo such as heavy machinery. trucks. high cube. food.000 TEUs or more. bulk. How Cargo is Loaded: Individual containers are loaded by port-based cranes.5ft to 9. flat. ventilated.5ft (14.Container Vessel A Container Vessel is designed to carry uniform-sized ocean freight containers of 20ft (6m) or 40ft (12m) length.060ft (323m) long. The containers are then connected at the corners with locking devices. and 8. .5ft height. earth moving equipment and pleasure boats can be placed in or on open-top. refrigerated (reefer) and tank-type containers. furniture. the largest container vessel in the world is 1. open top. Cargo can include merchandise in cartons. bales. hardtop.063 TEUs. 138ft (42m) wide. While most vessel specifications are given in length and width. livestock. Very small container vessels might carry as few as 20 TEUs. but modern vessels typically carry 1. electronics. 8ft width. drums. cars. Types of Cargo: Container vessels carry any cargo that can be stowed into any of the following container types: general purpose. open-side or flat rack containers or secured to the tops of several containers in a row.

ventilated. . While most vessel specifications are given in length and width.5ft height. earth moving equipment and pleasure boats can be placed in or on open-top. open-side or flat rack containers or secured above deck on top of other containers.or port-based cranes . Distinguishing Features: Containers are loaded into tall slots that extend from three to five containers below deck to three to five containers above deck. and 8. hardtop. This specific type of vessel also has a number of deck-mounted cranes for on and off loading of containers. flat. cars.063 TEUs. the largest container vessel in the world has a capacity of 8.Container Vessel with Deck Cranes A Container Vessel is designed to carry uniform-sized ocean freight containers of 20ft (6m) or 40ft (12m) length. open top. Oversize cargo such as heavy machinery. but does not have deck cranes. machinery. How Cargo is Loaded: Individual containers are loaded by ship. refrigerated (reefer) and tank. Very small container vessels might carry as few as 20 TEUs. bales and drums. electronics. Currently. 8ft width.000 TEUs or more. and products packed in cartons. Size or Length: Container ships vary dramatically in size and capacity.5ft to 9. bulk. high cube. trucks. food. Cargo can include merchandise of all kinds. container vessel specifications are in TEUs or twenty-foot equivalent units (how many standard 20-foot containers the vessel can carry). livestock. insulated. Types of Cargo: Container vessels carry any cargo that can be stowed into any of the following container types: general purpose. furniture. chemicals. platform. but modern vessels typically carry 1.

Heavy Lift Vessel . typically offset at the stern. Size or Length: Ro-Ro vessels are typically very large. Ro-Ro vessels may have as many as eight interior decks. heavy plant equipment. trucks. farm tractors. bulldozers. rail cars. all of which are accessible by interior rampways.Ro-Ro (Roll-on Roll-off) Vessel A Ro-Ro (Roll-on Roll-off) vessel is designed to transport motor vehicles or any other rolling stock Distinguishing Features: Ro-Ro vessels have a hinged ramp. that allows motor vehicles (automobiles.) to drive on and off the vessel. The largest Ro-Ro vessel is 789. buses. trailers. For example. tractors. yachts. trucks. with a tonnage of 67.6m) in length.376 dwt.140 gross tons and 34. Ro-Ro vessels may also have deck cranes and/or the ability to carry standard ocean containers on deck. whereas a Ro-Ro is designed to carry vehicles for wholesale transport without drivers for long distances.34ft (240. and general cargo. How Cargo is Loaded: Motor vehicles and rolling stock is driven on or rolled onto the vessel via a hinged ramp at the stern. etc. Oversize cargo can be loaded on flatbed or lowboy trailers or placed on deck. a Ro-Ro would be used by an automobile manufacturer such as Honda or Volkswagen to transport hundreds of vehicles at a time across oceans to sell in another country. A Ro-Ro differs from a ferry in that a ferry is designed to carry vehicles and their individual drivers short to medium distances. Types of Cargo: Motor vehicles.

locomotives. jack-ups. bridge spans. Distinguishing Features: Heavy lift vessels have extremely large cargo decks. oil platforms. crushers. lift and unload very large floating objects. Some heavy lift vessels also have Ro-Ro capabilities. Semisubmersible types are designed to transport. etc. including damaged ships.8ft (42m) in width.6ft (178. TLPs (tension leg platforms) and SPAR buoys. complex cargoes such as: transformers. LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Carrier . Size or Length: Varies by vessel and type of cargo. How Items are Loaded: Cargo is loaded by onboard cranes or shorebased cranes. Types of Cargo: High-value. unusual deck and pilothouse configurations to accommodate unusual types of cargo and very high-capacity on-deck cranes.20m) in length and 137. A large heavy lift vessel can measure 584. Ro-Ro/heavy lift vessels also exist.A Heavy Lift Vessel is designed to carry extremely large and/or heavy items that cannot be transported in or on other vessels. Conventional loading is the over-the-top Lo-Lo (Loadon/Load-off). rockets. semi-submersible rigs.

U. Bridges are closed as tankers pass underneath. U. primarily because they are staffed with the best officers and crews available.S. Types of Cargo: Liquified Natural Gas How LNG is Loaded: The LNG is loaded and unloaded through pumps at specialized terminals. firefighting tugs. marine patrol.S. LNG Vessel Note: Due to the dangerous nature of the cargo.627 cuft). including helicopter patrol.000 cubic meters (5. LNG tankers have an exceptional safety record. two miles ahead and a mile behind the tanker. police divers.767. The largest LNG tanker has a capacity of 145.120. environmental police. . The liquid is then turned back into gas and fed into pipelines for distribution.480 cuft). Coast Guard coordinates protection for each trip to a U. LNG port.000 cubic meters (4. Distinguishing Features: LNG spherical storage tanks are positioned half below and half above the deck.An LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Carrier is designed to transport natural gas that has been cooled at high pressure and extremely low temperature (-260ºF/-162ºC) until it contracts into a liquid. Safety Note: Although LNG is a dangerous cargo. Size or Length: A conventional LNG carrier has a carrying capacity of 135. LNG compresses to 1/600th of its original volume. An established zone of security extends 500 yards on each side. city police boats and Coast Guard vessels.S.

999 dwt.999 dwt. The largest ULCC is 564.000+ dwt.000-119. but the larger "supertankers" are truly giant vessels. and discharge using onboard pumps.000-34. Size or Length: Crude oil tankers fall into different categories of size (dwt = deadweight tons): Handysize Crude Carrier: 10. Distinguishing Features: Oil tankers come in all sizes.999 dwt. Panamax Crude Carrier: 55.000-319. All modern oil tankers are doublehulled to protect against oil spills in case of a collision.000-199.000-49.999 dwt.999 dwt. Dry Bulk Carrier . The deck of a tanker is covered with pipes and pumps used to transport the crude oil from ship to shore or from hold to hold. Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC): 320. Types of Cargo: Crude Oil How Cargo is Loaded: Oil tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps.000-79. Handymax Crude Carrier: 35. Suezmax Crude Carrier: 120.939 dwt. Aframax Crude Carrier: 80. Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC): 200.Crude Oil Tanker A Crude Oil Tanker is a liquid bulk vessel designed specifically to carry crude oil.000 dwt.

or ship-based overhead vacuum pumps. phosphates. fertilizers. grains. which suck the cargo in and out of the holds of the ship. coal. scrap metal or other dry. and Canada. How Cargo is Loaded: Cargo can be loaded by terminal-based gravity chutes or by shore. cement. loose cargo. Size or Length: Bulk carrier vessels vary greatly in size depending upon the intended cargo and regions served. The longest bulk carrier is 1125ft (343m) in length.000 dwt in capacity. grain. These vessels transport potash. Types of Cargo: Coal. iron and other ores. cocoa. animal feeds. Some bulk carriers have deck cranes.000 DWT (deadweight tons) to 364.S. stone and iron ore.A Bulk Carrier is designed to carry dry bulk cargo. They range from 10. Canal Barge with Propulsion . Note: Special types of bulk carriers are designed for use on the Great Lakes area of the U. Distinguishing Features: A bulk carrier typically has a flush deck with numerous waterproof hatches covering holds into which bulk cargo is stored. salt.

U. molasses. Freight barges can carry cargo inside the hull or on the deck. At issue are the width and length of the waterway's locks (if any) and the depth of the waterway. They are also designed to ride low in the water. coast. rivers). etc. oceans.).. chemicals. or its deadweight tonnage (DWT) Distinguishing Features: U. As a result. the type of cargo they carry. An oil barge is categorized by its barrel or tonnage cargo capacity. without propulsion and pushed or pulled by powerful tugboat-type vessels. rectangular in shape./Canada Great Lakes barges are often full-sized ships that are long and narrow and have their own propulsion.e. clean oils. bays. sounds. lakes. Rhine River. Types of Cargo: Almost anything: crude oil.e. Barges are manufactured with propulsion (see illustration above) or without propulsion (see illustration below). Almost all barges are designed for superior cargo carrying capacity. dry and . corn oil. European barges are long and narrow to fit through canals and inland waterways.S. Size or Length: Varies to suit the canal or waterway. gasoline. its cubic area for cargo. Mississippi River. Barges are categorized by their physical size. These barges have special low-draught propulsion systems.S.27m) for barges.A Canal Barge is designed to carry cargo on the specific canals or waterways it navigates (i. barges designed for one waterway may not work on another. river barges are usually flat-bottomed. asphalt. soy bean oil. tallow. Except for the busiest canals. most canals in Europe allow a maximum beam size of about 14ft (4. and the waterways they can travel (i.

sugar. etc. coal. railcars. grain. lumber. How Items are Loaded: Varies by cargo. rice.dry bulk cargo (containers. by spouting systems fed by conveyors (for grains). sand. steel. construction equipment.). gravel. by pumps (for liquids). Typically by a land-based or floating crane for heavy-lift items. and loading ramps (for vehicles or rolling stock). Barge without Propulsion .

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