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# Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane

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8.1 Dynamics in 2 Dimensions

p. 210-212

8.2 Velocity and Acceleration in uniform circular motion (a review of sec. 4.6) p. 212-214 8.3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion p. 214-219 8.4 Circular Orbits p. 219-221

8.6 Why does the water stay in the bucket? p. 223-226 8.7 Non-uniform Circular Motion
We do not cover 8.5 Fictitious Forces
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p. 226-228

Phy221/R. Ouyed

→ ⇒ ⇔ ×

Chapter 8: dynamics in a plane

8.1 Dynamics in 2 Dimensions

p. 210-212

Phy221/R. Ouyed

2

→ ⇒ ⇔ ×

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane
Newton's FIRST and SECOND laws carried over to 2D motion.

This makes it possible to study many different situations. Paticularly important: projectile motion
Phy221/R. Ouyed

A projectile is an object that moves in two dimensions under the influence of only the gravitational force → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^

3

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane
Cliction 8.1

The components of this particle’s acceleration are 1. ax > 0, ay > 0. 2. ax = 0, ay > 0.
Phy221/R. Ouyed

3. ax < 0, ay > 0. 4. ax > 0, ay < 0. 5. ax < 0, ay < 0.
4

→ ⇒

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane  8.2 Velocity and Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion p. 212-214 Phy221/R. Ouyed 5 → ⇒ ⇔ × .

This is because the speed is constant Magnitude of acceleration: → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ =a 6 Phy221/R.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Velocity of the particle: →is always tangent to the circle v Speed: The speed is constant and has the right unit. m/s → a always points in towards the center of the circle and thus is perpendicular to the velocity. Ouyed .

3 g Phy221/R. This gives you the funny feeling → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ 7 . Ouyed In addition.9 m/s2 ≈ 0.7 rad/s acceleration: a = ω2 r = 2. the weight force always pulls you down so that your apparent weight changes.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Example: ferris wheel at the Heritage Park Estimates from a visit: radius r = 6m period T = 9 s so ω = 2π/T≈ 0.

Ouyed 8 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane The r-t and r-t-z coordinate systems For circular motion it is more convenient to decompose a vector → into: A Radial component Ar (positive if pointing inwards) Tangential component At (positive for counterclockwise) We will sometimes also need a third coordinate axis z perpendicular to the circle: rtz coordinate system → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ Phy221/R.

Ouyed 9 → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ . each of these vectors has only one non-zero component: Phy221/R.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Components of V and →in the rtz system a → The three components of the relevant vectors velocity and acceleration are With respect to radial and tangential direction.

the centripetal accelerations (ar)ato (ar)e of particles a to e.2 10 . (ar)b > (ar)a = (ar)c = (ar)e > (ar)d 4. (ar)b > (ar)a = (ar)a > (ar)e > (ar)d 5. Phy221/R. (ar)b = (ar)e > (ar)a = (ar)c > (ar)d 3. from largest to smallest. Ouyed 1. (ar)b > (ar)e > (ar)a > (ar)d > (ar)c 2. (ar)b > (ar)e > (ar)a = (ar)c > (ar)d Cliction 8.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Rank in order.

3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion p.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane  8. Ouyed 11 → ⇒ ⇔ × . 214-219 Phy221/R.

Ouyed Hence. KNOW IT BY HEART !! Newton's 2nd law allows to infer the net force from this: Phy221/R. there must always be some force that keeps the object on the circular trajectory → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ 12 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane The relation between speed and magnitude of acceleration is quite often very useful.

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Example: turning the corner Forces acting on car: → Weight w downwards (wz= -w) Normal force upwards (nz = n) Static friction force fs radially inwards. The friction force keeps the car in the corner. Phy221/R. Ouyed 13 → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ . 0 < (fs)r < µs n.

. i. Ouyed 14 → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane The car continues to corner if it is not too fast.e. as long as For an r = 50 m corner radius and µs = 1 we find Phy221/R.

Ouyed A block on a string spins in a horizontal circle on a frictionless table.3 Phy221/R. the tensions Ta to Te acting on blocks a to e. 4. 5.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Cliction 8. 1. 3. Rank order. Tb > Ta > Td > Tc > Te Td > Tb = Te > Tc > Ta Te > Tc = Td > Ta = Tb Te > Td > Tc > Tb > Ta Td > Tb > Te > Tc > Ta 15 . 2. from largest to smallest.

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane End of Week 8 Phy221/R. Ouyed 16 .

4 Circular Orbits p. 219-221 Phy221/R.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane  8. Ouyed 17 → ⇒ ⇔ × .

there comes a point where The curve of the trajectory and the curve of the Earth are parallel.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane If the launch speed of the a projectile is sufficiently large.g = 18 r g → ⇒ ⇔ × . In this case the projectile “falls” but it never gets any closer to the ground! The projectile is said to be in a CIRCULAR ORBIT (c) Phy221/R. Ouyed An object (say a satellite) moving in a circle of radius r around a planet with an acceleration of gravity g will be orbiting at a speed The period T is then T orbit = 2πr = 2π Vorbit Vorbit r.

223-236 Phy221/R.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane  8.6 Why does the water stay in the bucket?) p. Ouyed 19 → ⇒ ⇔ × .

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Example: looping in a roller coaster The only forces acting on the car are its weight and the normal force exerted by the track Your apparent weight gives you an intuition about the normal force's magnitude Phy221/R. Ouyed 20 → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ .

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane The two forces always add up to the acceleration: → At the top w points radially inward At the botton its the opposite Phy221/R. Ouyed 21 → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ .

Ouyed This is unphysical: our assumption that the car stays on a circular orbit is not true anymore → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ 22 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane That means: at the bottom your apparent weight (= magnitude of n) is increased. at the top it is decreased. At the top our result for nr becomes negative for small enough velocities. Phy221/R.

but this is impossible.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane What really goes on: weight and normal force are added to create the net force that is needed to produce the acceleration a = v2 / r If v is too small the track had to pull the car rather than to push it. the car derails At a minimum critical speed vc. Ouyed 23 . Instead. the acceleration is entirely produced by the weight of the car → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ Phy221/R.

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane The critical speed The critical speed is reached when the normal force at the top is zero (you are not pushed in the chair anymore): Phy221/R. Ouyed vc = ωc r ⇒ critical angular velocity 24 → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ .

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane A car is rolling over the top of a hill at speed v. 4. n = w.4 Phy221/R. At this instant. We can’t tell about n without knowing v. Cliction 8. 2. 25 . 3. Ouyed 1. n > w. n < w.

Clicker Question 7.8 A roller coaster car does a loop-the-loop. Which of the free-body diagrams below shows the forces on the car at the top of the loop? Rolling friction can be neglected. A B C D E 26 Slide 7-26 .

Clicker Question 7.8 Answer A roller coaster car does a loop-the-loop. w n A B C D E 27 Slide 7-27 . so the normal force of the track pushes down. The track is above the car. Which of the free-body diagrams below shows the forces on the car at the top of the loop? Rolling friction can be neglected.

7 Non-uniform Circular Motion: p.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane  8. Ouyed 28 → ⇒ ⇔ × . 226-228 Phy221/R.

→ ⇒ ⇔ × .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane NO Tangential acceleration Tangential acceleration is NOT zero Phy221/R. Ouyed The tangential acceleration is what causes the particle to change the speed with which 29 It goes around the circle.

in the equations.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Equations for non-uniform circular motion in the rtz system Initial angle Initial angular velocity Tangential acceleration Phy221/R. 30 → ⇒ ⇔ × . Ouyed For uniform circular motion. or at = 0. simply replace the tangential acceleration by zero.

What force or forces does the puck feel? A. B. One or more of our familiar forces pulling inward. One or more of our familiar forces pushing outward. 31 Slide 7-31 . A new force: the centripetal force. A new force: the centrifugal force.3 An ice hockey puck is tied by a string to a stake in the ice.Clicker Question 7. E. I have no clue. D. The puck is then swung in a circle. C.

One or more of our familiar forces pushing outward. The rules about what is or is not a force haven’t changed. One or more of our familiar forces pulling inward. A new force: the centrifugal force. 3.3 Answer An ice hockey puck is tied by a string to a stake in the ice. B. A new force: the centripetal force.Clicker Question 7. What force or forces does the puck feel? A. The puck is then swung in a circle. Force must be exerted at a point of contact (except for gravity) 2. The net force must point in the direction of acceleration (Newton’s second law) 32 Slide 7-32 . 1. Force must have an identifiable agent doing the pushing or pulling. C. D. E. I have no clue.

Normal force E. 33 Slide 7-33 . The puck is then swung in a circle. with the z-axis perpendicular to the ice. What force is producing the centripetal acceleration of the puck? A. Gravity B. Tension in the string Draw a free-body diagram in which you see the puck from ahead or behind. Friction D.Clicker Question 7. Air resistance C.4 An ice hockey puck is tied by a string to a stake in the ice.

What force is producing the centripetal acceleration of the puck? A. Friction D. Air resistance C. Tension in the string 34 Slide 7-34 .Clicker Question 7. The puck is then swung in a circle. Gravity B. Normal force E.4 Answer An ice hockey puck is tied by a string to a stake in the ice.

The free-body diagrams below show the coin from behind.Clicker Question 7. Which is the correct diagram? z z z z z r r r r r B A C D E 35 Slide 7-35 . moving away from you.5 A coin sits on a turntable as the table rotates ccw.

Which is the correct diagram? Center of circle is to the left.5 Answer A coin sits on a turntable as the table rotates ccw. z z z z z What force is this? r r r r Static friction! r B A Net force must point to the center of the circle. moving away from you. The free-body diagrams below show the coin from behind. D C E 36 Slide 7-36 .Clicker Question 7.

Ouyed 37 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Chapter 8 Reading Quiz Phy221/R.

y-. x-.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Circular motion is best analyzed in a coordinate system with 1. Ouyed 38 . 3.and z-axes. and z-axes. 2. 4. x.and y-axes. x. Phy221/R. t-. r-. and z-axes.

2. 4.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane The quantity with the symbol ω is called 1. the circular velocity. 3. Phy221/R. the centripetal acceleration. Ouyed 39 . the circular weight. the angular velocity.

the net force 1. 4. 3. points toward the center of the circle. points toward the outside of the circle.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane For uniform circular motion. is tangent to the circle. 2. Ouyed 40 . Phy221/R. is zero.

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Selected Problems Phy221/R. Ouyed 41 .

Ouyed 42 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Phy221/R.

Ouyed 43 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Phy221/R.

Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Phy221/R. Ouyed 44 .

Ouyed 45 .Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane Phy221/R.

and Strategies . 229) and add it here to your lecture notes.Chapter 8: Dynamics in a plane End of Chapter 8 IMPORTANT: Print a copy of the SUMMARY page (p. Symbols. Ouyed It will save you crucial time when trying to recall: 46 Concepts. Phy221/R.

193-196 Phy221/R.Chapter 7: motion in a circle  7. Ouyed Phy221/R. Ouyed 47 → ⇒ ⇔ × .5 Fictitious Forces and Apparent Weight p.

Ouyed → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ . uniform straight motion seems to correspond to an accelerated motion.Chapter 7: motion in a circle Why are you pushed to the outside of the corner? The reason. the centrifugal force. is a fictitious force. Such forces are no real forces Fictitious forces appear in noninertial reference frames: If the reference frame is accelerated. Ouyed Phy221/R. 48 Phy221/R.

Main difference: we now have circular instead of straight motion 49 Phy221/R. Ouyed → ⇒ ⇔ × ≈ ^ .Chapter 7: motion in a circle The centrifugal forces simply describes the tendency to continue on a straight line Important: since fictitious forces are related to non-inertial reference frames. they do not appear in a free-body diagram They are related to the apparent weight that we discussed before.