LA SALLE UNIVERSITY – SCHOOL OF EDUCATION SCIENCES BA IN SPANISH, ENGLISH, AND FRENCH WHAT AND HOW TO LESSON PLAN A lesson

plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. The detail of the plan will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of students.

PRESENTATION – PRACTICE PRODUCTION The T introduces a situation which contextualizes the language to be taught. The language (vocabulary and/or structure) is then presented. The SS now practice the language using choral or individual repetition, cue-response drills, listening or reading exercises, etc. Later the SS produce sentences, dialogues or texts of their own.

OHE/III SS should Observe (read or listen to language), which will then provoke them to Hypothesize about how the language works before going to Experiment on the basis of that hypothesis // Show SS examples of the language like dialogues (Illustration), then give them discovery activities and questions about the language (Interaction). As a result, SS will get new facts about language (Induction).

ESA Engage SS. Unless SS are motivated with the class, their learning will be less effective. Study the language. Focus on how something is structured and done. Activate the new language. SS are encouraged to use all the language they know through communicative activities.

ARC Authentic use + Restricted use + Clarification and focus. A communicative activity will demonstrate “authentic” use, whereas a drill, jazz chant, elicited dialogue or guided writing will provoke restricted use of language by SS. Finally, clarification and focus is that moment when the T and SS explain grammar, give examples, analyze errors or repeat things.

DEEP-END STRATEGY By encouraging students into immediate production (throwing them in at the deep end), the T can see if and where SS are having problems and return to either presentation or practice as and when necessary. T and SS can decide at which stage to enter. Production – presentation + practice – practice + presentation

(Taken from Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman ELT)

Yamith José Fandiño

Lesson Planning

2013

THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN ANATOMY OF A LESSON PLAN
Title: Introductions Time: 60 minutes Materials: ball, board, markers, flashcards. Objectives: Learn how to introduce oneself in a basic way. Practice “My name is…”, “I like…” and “I don’t like…” Anticipatory Set Write “Hello. My name is…” on the board. T says it and then writes his/her name. Next, T hands ball to all SS so they can introduce themselves. Write on the board “I like…”. Show SS flashcards with activities, food, sports, etc. Have students give ideas to complete the sentence. Copy ideas on the board. Next, write “I don’t like…” Have SS give ideas to complete the sentence. T says: “My name is… I like… I don’t like…”. Then, T hands ball to all SS so they can say what they like and don’t like. Guided practice On one side of the board, T writes: “His name is… He likes… He doesn’t like…”. On the other side, T writes “Her name is… She likes… She doesn’t like…”. T asks two SS and copies info. T has SS talk to classmates and write info. in their notebooks. Paste pictures of 6 famous people. Write info. about them. Adapted from http://www.huntington.edu/education/lesso nplanning/Hunter.html Modeling

Objectives

Instructional input

Independent practice

Homework (Taken from The TKT course, p. 92)

Yamith José Fandiño

Lesson Planning

2013

STANDARD/TRADITIONAL LESSON PLAN FORMAT 1. Warm-up The warm-up can be as simple as telling a short story or asking students questions. The warm-up can also be a more thought-out activity such as playing a song in the background, or drawing an elaborate picture on the board. 2. Presentation The presentation can take a variety of forms: - Reading selection - Soliciting students' knowledge about a specific point - Teacher centered explanation - Listening selection - Short video - Student presentation The presentation should include the main "meat" of the lesson. For example: If you are working on family, make the presentation by providing a short reading extract filled with descriptions of two famous families. 3. Controlled practice Generally, controlled practice involves some type of exercise. Remember that an exercise does not necessarily mean dry, repetitive exercises, although these can be used as well. Controlled practice should help the student focus on the main task and provide them with feedback - either by the teacher or other students. 4. Free practice Free practice integrates the focus structure / vocabulary / functional language into students' overall language use. Free practice exercises often encourage students to use the target language structures in: - Small group discussions - Written work (paragraphs and essays) - Longer listening comprehension practice - Games The most important aspect of free practice is that students should be encouraged to integrate language learned into larger structures. 5. Feedback/Assessment Feedback allows students to check their understanding of the lesson's topic. Feedback can be done quickly at the end of class by asking students questions about the target structures. Another approach is to have students discuss the target structures in small groups, once again giving students the chance to improve their understanding on their own. (Taken from http://esl.about.com/od/esleflteachingtechnique/a/lesson_format.htm)

Yamith José Fandiño

Lesson Planning

2013

OVERVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Consider the following objectives: 1. 2. Students will be able to identify new vocabulary. Students will be able to demonstrate understanding of classroom vocabulary by circling items or matching pictures.

The first objective is very general and it does not say how students might show, in any observable way, their understanding. What does it mean to "identify" new vocabulary? This type of objective does not provide exact information to the teacher about what the student will be able to do after completing the lesson, nor does it guide the teacher's evaluation of whether students have achieved the objective. The second objective, however, more clearly identifies the expected student behavior. This is an appropriate instructional objective. Criteria for Completeness in Instructional Objectives 1. The specific performance required to demonstrate successful accomplishment of the instructional objective (e.g., to make, to write, to role play, etc.) 2. The learning outcome or product by which successful accomplishment of the objective can be determined (e.g. a poster, a journal entry, a dialogue, etc.) 3. The conditions under which the behavior is to be performed (e.g., during a cooperative activity, after reading a short story, about everyday routines) Adapted from http://www.edci.purdue.edu/vanfossen/InstructionalObjectives.html Learning objectives: stems and samples Generally, learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes: What do you want your students to learn as a result of the lesson? Follow the three-step process below for creating learning objectives. 1. Create a stem. Stem Examples: After completing the lesson, the student will be able to... After this unit, the student will have... By completing the activities, the student will . . . At the end of this lesson/class/unit, the student will . . . 2. After you create the stem, add a verb: Identify, define, describe, compare, analyze, respond to, express, write, justify, etc. 3. One you have a stem and a verb, determine the actual product, process, or outcome: At the end of this lesson, the student will be able to retell a narrative story using past tense verbs and adverbs of time (e.g. the next day, later that week). Below you will find some examples of learning objectives used by teachers. Use them as models when you write your own objectives. After this unit, the student will be able to respond appropriately to high-frequency commands (e.g., Come here, Stand up, etc) through physical action. By completing the activities, the student will be able to listen to simple words about family and indicate the meaning by matching pictures. At the end of this class, the student will be able to ask and answer What's your name? by using My name is. After completing this unit, the student will be able to use an acceptable rising intonation pattern with yes/no questions. After this lesson, the student will be able to accurately complete a very simple form with personal information. At the end of this class, the student will interpret and match correct times on analogue and digital clocks. After completing the lesson, the student will write simple statements (affirmative and negative) using singular and plural nouns. By completing today’s activities, the student will identify the sequence of a very simple narrative passage by arranging sentences in correct order. After this unit, the student will recognize and use prepositions of time and place to talk about events (parties, concerts, etc). At the end of the lesson, the student will identify main ideas and supporting details in short texts about world festivals. After completing this class, the student will ask and answer questions reasonably regarding free time activities. By completing today’s unit, the student will state very simple opinions about preferences using I like/I don't like. Adapted from http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/LP/LP_resources/lesson_objectives.htm

Yamith José Fandiño

Lesson Planning

2013

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