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8.1. • • • • • • Introduction Turbulent flow is disordered, with random and unsteady velocity fluctuations; hence, exact predictions cannot be determined. Turbulence affects local velocity distribution, drag force, and heat transfer in both natural and industrial processes. Understanding of turbulent flow leads to the ability to make design improvements to either reduce or enhance turbulent effects Our understanding still relies on empirical data and rudimentary conceptual drawings, and, more recently, computer simulations. Exact solutions are not possible. Chapter Focus: Wall-bounded shear flows

8.1.1. Examples of Turbulent Flows • (a) Mixing Processes • • • • Combustion processes – proper mix of fuel and air is one of the requirements for combustion efficiency Chemical processing, such as the production of polymers Laminar mixing occurs when liquids are viscous and/or slowly mixed, and can be problematic Jet Flows (refer to fig. 8.1a): jet energy is dissipated to the surrounding fluid Turbulent wake (refer to fig. 8.1b): transfers energy between an object and the ambient flow, contributes to an object’s drag Smoke stack exhaust is dispersed by turbulence (refer to figure 8.c) Flow of air over a flat plate or airfoil Flow of fluid in a pipe Irregular or random motions cause the shape of the velocity profile and the boundary layer edge location to change with time Instantaneous velocity profiles are time-averaged for simplicity: u Turbulent velocity can be decomposed into steady (mean, u ) and unsteady (fluctuating, u ′ ) components Note: Refer to fig. 8.2 for details on the velocity profiles and unsteady components

(b) Free Shear Flow • • •

•

**(c) Wall-Bounded Flows • • • • •
**

•

• •

The mixing of velocity fluctuations in turbulent flow creates a steeper profile than that of a laminar flow, with a larger boundary layer and higher wall shear stress. Turbulent fluctuations enhance momentum transfer between the surface and the flowing fluid, resulting in higher skin friction; this suggests that surface fluctuations similarly enhance heat transfer. Note: See figure 8.3 for a comparison of laminar and turbulent velocity profiles. By understanding turbulence, we can alter designs to take advantage of turbulent effects, such as increased heat transfer and reduced drag. Note: See the golf ball example in fig. 8.4 for an example of drag reduction via turbulence.

• • •

**8.1.2. The Reynolds Number and the Onset of Turbulence
**

• •

The Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces, and indicates the onset of turbulence. Reynolds equation:

Re D =

• • • • • •

uD

ν

(8.1)

The onset of turbulence for flow through tubes is approximately Ret = u D /ν ≈ 2300 . For uniform flow over a semi-infinite flat plate, the onset of turbulence is approximately Ret = V∞ xt /ν ≈ 500,000 . Viscous forces dominate at low flow velocity. At high velocity, inertial forces acting on individual particles dominate; the flow amplifies these disturbances, creating a more chaotic flow. Turbulence initiates near the wall in wall-bounded flows. Note: See fig. 8.5 for the development of turbulent flow over a semi-infinite flat plate.

**8.1.3. Eddies and Vorticity
**

• •

Eddies are regions of intermittent, swirling patches of fluid An eddy is a particle of vorticity, ω :

ω = ∇ ×V

•

(8.2)

**Eddies form in regions of velocity gradient.
**

•

Example: for 2D flow over a flat plate:

ωz =

•

∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y

High shear stress results in high vorticity.

• • • • •

The formation and behavior of eddies within the boundary layer is not fully understood. Vortex stretching increases the kinetic energy of the vortex, and is thought to be a major mechanism for the main flow to transfer energy to the turbulence. Note: Refer to fig. 8.6 for details of eddy formation, vortex formation and vortex stretching in a wall-bounded flow. Eddies provide bulk motion (advection) and mixing within the boundary layer. Advection differentiates turbulent flow from laminar flow; laminar flow has no bulk motion and relies solely on viscous diffusion to transfer momentum.

8.1.4. Scales of Turbulence

•

**Viscous effects play a vital role in turbulence.
**

• •

Most turbulence originates from shear flow. Rotation of a fluid element occurs under the action of viscous shear. Turbulence is comprised of a range of different eddy sizes. Treating the eddy as a distinct fluid structure with:

• • • •

•

**Lewis Richardson proposed the concept of energy cascade in 1922:
**

• •

Characteristic size: Characteristic velocity: u Eddy turnover time: t = / u Reynolds number for the eddy: Re = u /ν

•

Inertial forces in a turbulent flow cause large, unstable eddies with high kinetic energy and high Reynolds numbers (on the scale of the main flow) to break up into smaller and smaller eddies. Energy is transferred as each eddy breaks into smaller ones. The breaking up process continues until the Reynolds numbers of the eddies approach unity; at this time, viscous forces dissipate the energy of the small eddies into heat. Note: Fig. 8.7 illustrates the cascade process. Eddies decrease in size much faster than in velocity; therefore, the smaller eddies experience very high velocity gradients and have high vorticity.

• •

• • • •

The largest eddies contain the bulk of the kinetic energy in a turbulent flow; the smallest eddies contain the bulk of vorticity and therefore the mechanism of dissipation. Andrey Kolmogorov proposed a model in 1942 based on the ideas above:

• •

The largest eddies contain the bulk of the kinetic energy The smallest scales reach a Reynolds number of unity prior to dissipating into heat

Turbulence occurs at high Reynolds numbers. making modeling difficult The smallest eddies are not infinitely small. Characteristics of Turbulence • • • Turbulence is comprised of irregular.1.3a) (8. where instabilities give way to chaotic motion. The scale of the smallest eddies is determined by the scale of the largest eddies through the Reynolds number. hence. 8. v and τ are called the Kolmogorov microscales The variables . but also dispersive through the advection mechanism. The smallest eddies contain the bulk of the vorticity and dissipate into heat. chaotic. velocities and time scales in turbulent flow. . u and t are called the integral scales Important points from Kolmogorov’s model: There is a vast range of eddy sizes.5. this is observed in the real world. Faster turbulent flows have finer turbulent structure. which dissipate energy and momentum through a series of scale ranges. • • • The largest eddies contain the bulk of the kinetic energy and break up by inertial forces. since they are dissipated into heat by viscous forces. three-dimensional fluid motion. Turbulent flow responds to an increase in velocity by producing smaller eddies.• Kolmogorov’s relations: η / ~ Re −3 / 4 v / u ~ Re −1/ 4 (8. Turbulent flows are not only dissipative. viscous dissipation is increased.3b) (8. but containing coherent structures. Turbulence is comprised of many scales of eddies.3c) τ / t ~ Re −1 / 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • η / is the ratio of the length scales of the largest and smallest eddies v / u is the ratio of their velocities τ / t is the ratio of their time scales The Reynolds number is that of the largest eddy: Re = u /ν The variables η .

is determined by: (8. The mean free path of air at standard conditions is 10-8 m.2.4) g= 1 τ τ ∫ g (t )dt 0 (8. For an arbitrary property g: g = g + g′ Where g . the time average of the fluctuating property. The computing power required to process a direct numerical simulation (DNS) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is enormous and exceeds practical limitations.1. change from location to location or from time to time Isotropic turbulence: turbulence whose microscale motion does not.1. Microscopic flow structure is ignored.6. Important idealizations are used to simplify statistical analysis: • • • • • • Homogeneous turbulence: turbulence whose microscale motion does not. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flow 8. this is three orders of magnitude smaller. is 0: . The entire equation is time averaged. 8. on average. where the microscale for air flowing over a 10 cm diameter cylinder at 10 m/s was approximately 20 microns. turbulent fluctuations are analyzed statistically. Reynolds Decomposition • • Reynolds proposed that turbulent flow can be considered as the superposition of a timeaveraged and a fluctuating component.5) By definition. Analytical Approaches • The continuum hypothesis still applies to the governing equations of fluid mechanics for turbulent flow. An analytical approach is used to predict macroscale properties. change as the coordinate axes are rotated These idealizations are not necessarily realistic. Reynolds Decomposition Approach: • • Each fluctuating property in the governing equations is decomposed into a time averaged and a fluctuating component. but they can be approximated in the laboratory. • • • This is based on the example in section 8.1. so experimental data can be compared to the simplified statistical analytic flow models. due to the vast range of scales of turbulence between the largest and smallest eddies. the time-averaged component. g ′ .2.4. on average. such as velocity. drag force and heat transfer.8.

7d) (8.7a) (8.7i) ab = ab (8.6) a =a (a ) 2 = (a ) 2 ab = a b + a′b′ a + b = a +b (8.7a). 8.2. u′ = v′ = 0 . Conservation of Mass • Reynolds decomposition is applied to the Cartesian conservation of mass equation: ∂ρ ∂ ( ρu ) ∂ ( ρv) ∂ ( ρw) + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z • Analysis is limited to incompressible. Substituting the Reynolds decomposed velocities. (c) becomes: ∂u ∂u ′ ∂ v ∂ v′ + + + =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y (d) (2.7b) (8.7h).2): . and by (8.7j) a a′ = 0 a 2 = (a ) 2 + (a′) 2 ∂a ∂a = ∂x ∂x ∂a =0 ∂t ∂a =0 ∂t • An example proving identities (8. and v = v + v′ : ∂ (u + u ′) ∂ ( v + v′) + =0 ∂x ∂y This is expanded: ∂u ∂u ′ ∂v ∂v′ + + + =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y The equation is time averaged: ∂u ∂u ′ ∂v ∂v′ + + + =0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Invoking identity (8.6).g′ = • Useful averaging identities: 1 τ τ ∫ g ′(t )dt = 0 0 (8.7h) (8.7a) and (8. u = u + u′ . identical in form to (2.7f) (8. so (d) reduces to the time averaged turbulent flow continuity equation.7c) (8.7g) (8.7g) is given.2. u = u and v = v .7e) (8.2a) (a) (b) (c) Using identity (8. two-dimensional flow.

10y) From the product rule of differentiation.8) from (b) demonstrates that the divergence of the fluctuating term is 0: ∂u′ ∂v′ + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.10y) ρ⎜ ⎜ • Assumptions • • • • • (1) Two-dimensional flow (2) Incompressible flow (3) Constant properties (4) Body forces are neglected (5) Flow is.10y) become: ρ⎜ ⎜ ρ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂p ∂u ∂u ⎞ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ +u +v ⎟=− ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ⎟ ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ∂t ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ∂2v ∂2v ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ∂v ∂v ⎞ ∂p ⎟= − +u +v + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ⎟ ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ∂t ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ • Formulation (8.10x) (8. so u and v are constant Equations (2. steady-state.∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y Subtracting (8.3. on average.10x) (2.8) (8.2.10x) and (2.10x): .9) 8. u (∂u / ∂x) and v(∂u / ∂y ) in the xmomentum equation become: u v ∂u ∂u 2 ∂u = −u ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u ∂ (u v) ∂v = −u ∂y ∂y ∂y (a) (b) Substituting (a) into the x-momentum equation (8. Momentum Equations • Reynolds decomposition is applied to the Cartesian momentum equations: ρ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2 u ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂p ∂u ∂u ∂u ⎞ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ +u + v + w ⎟ = ρg x − ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎟ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎟ ⎝ ∂t ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ∂p ∂v ∂v ∂v ⎞ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ + u + v + w ⎟ = ρg y − ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ⎟ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂t ⎠ ⎝ (2.

resulting in the turbulent x. More importantly.12x) (8. and by conservation of mass: ⎛ ∂u ∂v ⎞ − u⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x + ∂y ⎟ = 0 ⎠ ⎝ The x-momentum equation reduces to: ρ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂u 2 ∂ (u v ) ⎞ ∂p ⎟=− + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ + + ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ⎟ ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ∂t (c) (d) (8.19b) • Assumptions • • • • • (1) Heat generation is neglected (2) Thermal properties are considered constant (3) Steady-on-average flow (4) Two dimensional flow (5) The dissipation function μ Φ is neglected.4.and y-momentum equations for turbulent flow: ρ⎜u ⎜ ρ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂u ∂u +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎞ ∂ (u ′) 2 ∂u ′v′ ∂p ⎟= − −ρ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ − ρ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ (8.10) with two notable exceptions: • • The transient terms ∂u / ∂t and ∂v / ∂t disappear.and y-momentum equations. 8.11) The y-momentum equation reduces in a similar fashion • Reynolds decomposition is now performed on the simplified x.12) are identical to equations (8.2. Energy Equation • Reynolds decomposition is applied to the Energy equation for incompressible flow: ρ cp ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂T ∂T ∂T ∂T +u +v +w ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎝ ∂t ⎛ ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ⎞ ⎟ = k⎜ 2 + 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟+μ ⎟ ⎠ (2. this is appropriate as long as the flow is not highly viscous or compressible • Formulation . new terms indicating fluctuating velocity are introduced.⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ∂u ∂u 2 ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ ∂u ∂ (u v) ∂v ⎟ ∂p + −u + −u ⎟=− ρ⎜ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ∂x ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ∂t ( A) (B) ⎠ ⎝ The terms (A) and (B) in (c) above are combined.12y) ⎛ ∂2v ∂2v ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ∂u ′v ′ ∂ ( v′) 2 ∂p ∂v ⎞ −ρ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ − ρ +v ⎟=− ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ⎟ ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ • Equations (8.

Problem 8. Summary of Governing Equations for Turbulent Flow • Continuity: ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y • x-momentum: ρ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂ (u ′) 2 ∂u ′v′ ∂p ∂u ⎞ ⎟= − −ρ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ − ρ +v ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ⎠ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎝ (8. • • • • Analysis of External Turbulent Flow Goal: Solve the governing equations for turbulent flow for forces of interest. 8. Focus: Flow along a surface Boundary layer concept is invoked Similar development of boundary layer equations to those of laminar flow (Chapter 4). with two important differences: .12x) • y-momentum: ρ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂2v ∂2v ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ∂u ′v ′ ∂ ( v′) 2 ∂p ∂v ⎞ −ρ + μ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ − ρ +v ⎟=− ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ⎟ ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ (8.12y) • Energy: ρcp ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂T ∂T +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎛ ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ⎞ ⎟ = k⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ∂ u ′T ′ ∂ v ′T ′ ⎟ − ρcp − ρcp ⎟ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ( ) ( ) (8.The Energy equation reduces to: ρ cp ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂T ∂T ∂T +u +v ∂x ∂y ⎝ ∂t ⎛ ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ⎞ ⎟ = k⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (8.8) (8.3. and come out of the convective terms on the left side of the equation.13) After Reynolds decomposition and time averaging is applied (left as an exercise.14) 8.2.13) becomes: ρcp ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂T ∂T +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎛ ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ⎞ ⎟ = k⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ∂ u ′T ′ ∂ v ′T ′ ⎟ − ρcp − ρcp ⎟ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ( ) ( ) (8.5.7). such as drag force and heat transfer.10) with two notable exceptions: • • The transient term ρ c p ∂T / ∂t disappears Two terms indicating fluctuating velocities and temperature are introduced.14) is almost identical to the steady-state Energy equation (8.14) • Equation (8. equation (8.

2.1.e.17) The pressure gradient in the y-direction is negligible: ∂p ≈0 ∂y (8.• • Turbulent flow governing equations contain time-averaged quantities (i.16b) (8. which are handled exactly like u and T previously Turbulent equations contain fluctuating terms (i. so: δ L • Formulation << 1 (8. Turbulent Boundary Layer Equations (i) Turbulent Momentum Boundary Layer Equation • • Turbulent flow over a flat plate is considered (refer to Fig.3. ∂x ∂y . 8. the following scalar arguments are made: u ~ V∞ x~L (8. T ). δ << L .19) The fluctuation terms ∂ (u ′) 2 ∂u ′v′ and require additional scaling arguments.15) Following the arguments used for the laminar boundary layer.8) Assumptions • • • • (1) Steady-state (2) Incompressible flow (3) Constant properties (4) The boundary layer is thin. the viscous dissipation terms in (8.e.12x) compare as follows: ∂ 2u ∂x 2 << ∂ 2u ∂y 2 (8.16a) (8. u .16c) y~δ Following an analysis similar to that in Section 4. u ′ and T ′ ) that require additional consideration 8.18) The pressure gradient in the x-direction is expressed as: ∂p dp dp∞ = = ∂x dx dx • (8.

16b) (8.24) (8. we can conclude that ∂ (u ′) 2 ∂u ′v′ << ∂x ∂y (8.22).There is no preferred direction to the fluctuations.23) The derivation for laminar boundary layer equations is again followed.17) and (8.22) Using the simplifications (8.25) The second derivative terms compare as follows << ∂ 2T ∂y 2 (8. so: u ′ ~ v′ (8. ∂ 2T ∂x 2 • The fluctuation terms ρ c p arguments: There is no preferred direction for the fluctuations. therefore u ′ ~ v′ (8.20) .20) (8.26) ∂ ∂ u ′T ′ and ρ c p v′T ′ require additional scaling ∂x ∂y ( ) ( ) (8. as in Chapter 4. Formulation Scaling arguments for the thermal boundary layer: x~L y ~ δt ΔT ~ Ts − T∞ • The scale for the velocity sizes depend on δ t and δ . this is equivalent to assuming the turbulence is isotropic.21) (u′)2 ~ u′v′ Comparing the fluctuating terms using scale analysis: ∂ (u ′) 2 (u ′) 2 ~ L ∂x (a) (b) ∂u′v′ u′v′ (u′) 2 ~ ~ δ δ ∂y Since δ << L . the x-momentum equation for the turbulent boundary layer reduces to: ρ⎜u ⎜ (ii) Turbulent Energy Equation • • ⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞ ∂ 2u ∂u ′v′ dp ⎟=− +v +μ 2−ρ ⎟ ∂y ⎠ dx ∂y ∂y ⎝ ∂x (8.

3.29) 8.3.29). ρ c p v′T ′ .27) The fluctuating terms compare as follows (it is left to the reader to derive this): ( ) (8.28) • Applying simplifications (8. or Reynolds stress. just like for the viscous shear stress.26) and (8.30) (8.30) represent shear stress • • • • The first term represents the molecular shear stress from the time-averaged velocity Boussinesq suggested (1877) that the second term can be viewed as shear imposed by the time-averaging velocity fluctuations.2. are written as follows to provide physical insight and a way to model the time-averaged fluctuation terms. called the turbulence heat flux or Reynolds heat flux. The time average fluctuation term u′v′ is proportional to the velocity gradient. the energy equation for the turbulent boundary layer reduces to: ρcp ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂T ∂T +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ∂ 2T ∂ v′T ′ ⎟= k 2 − ρcp ⎟ ∂y ∂y ⎠ ( ) (8.3.u ′T ′ ~ v′T ′ ∂ (u ′T ′) ∂ v′T ′ << ∂x ∂y (8.23) and (8.28). 8. the x-momentum and energy equations for the turbulent boundary layer. − u ′v′ ∝ ∂u ∂y • The apparent shear stress experienced by the flow is made up of two parts • • Molecular shear imposed by the time-averaged velocity component Turbulent shear stress ρ u ′v′ . imposed by the time-averaged velocity fluctuations • The apparent energy flux in the energy equation contains a turbulence-induced heat flux. Note: Refer to Fig. 8.31) ρcp ⎜u ⎜ • The terms in parenthesis on the right side of equation (8. The Closure Problem of Turbulence . suggesting u′v′ behaves like shear in the flow. u ′v′ and v′T ′ : ρ⎜u ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂ ⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞ dp ⎜μ ⎟=− + +v ⎜ ∂y − ρ u ′v′ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ∂y ⎠ dx ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎛ ∂T ∂T +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ∂y ⎜ k ∂y − ρ c p v′T ′ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ (8. Reynolds Stress and Heat Flux • Equations (8.9 and to the related discussion in the text for a visualization of Boussinesq’s idea.

0) = Ts (8. y ) = V∞ T ( x. u ′v′ .31a) (8. T .31f) (8. v .30) and (8.30) • Energy ρcp ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂T ∂T +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ∂y ⎜ k ∂y − ρ c p v′T ′ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ (8.31d) (8.32) • From inviscid flow theory.31).31c) (8. ∞) = V∞ u (0.0 ) = 0 u ( x.8) (8.0 ) = 0 v ( x . ∞) = T∞ T (0.31e) (8.Summary of turbulence boundary equations: • Continuity ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y • x-momentum ρ⎜u ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂ ⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞ dp ⎜μ ⎟=− + +v ⎜ ∂y − ρ u ′v′ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ∂y ⎠ dx ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ∂x (8. and five unknowns.31b) (8.31) • The boundary conditions for these equations are: u ( x . u . outside the boundary layer: V∞ dV∞ 1 dp∞ =− dx ρ dx (8.33) • • We are left with three equations.8).31g) T ( x. The two terms u ′v′ and v′T ′ are nonlinear terms • • There is no exact solution to the turbulence boundary layer equations Modeling will facilitate numerical and approximate solutions . the pressure can be determined: • The pressure gradient is expressed as dp dp∞ = dx dx (8. and v′T ′ . this is the closure problem of turbulence. (8. (8. y ) = T∞ • If we know the velocity field outside of the boundary layer.

38) represent the apparent shear stress: τ app ρ • = (ν +ε M ) (8. is modeled as − ρ u ′v′ = ρε M • • • ε M is the momentum eddy diffusivity ρε M is referred to as the eddy viscosity ∂u ∂y (8. respectively .37) by ρ c p : u u ∂u ∂u ∂ ⎡ ∂u ⎤ +v = ⎢(ν + ε M ) ∂y ⎥ ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎣ ⎦ ∂T ∂T ∂ ⎡ ∂T ⎤ +v = ⎢(α + ε H ) ∂y ⎥ ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎣ ⎦ ∂u ∂y (8.3.40) The terms in brackets in (8.8. Eddy Diffusivity • Reynolds Stress.38) (8.36) through by ρ and (8.39) represent the apparent heat flux: − ′′ qapp ρcp = (α + ε H ) ∂T ∂y (8. ε M and ε H are properties of the flow and are dependent on the velocity and temperature fields.41) • • The negative sign in (8.34) The Reynolds heat flux is modeled as − ρ c p v′T ′ = ρ c pε H • • • ε H is the thermal eddy diffusivity ρ c p ε H is referred to as the eddy conductivity ∂T ∂y (8.35) The boundary layer momentum and energy equations are written as: ρ⎜u ⎜ ⎛ ∂u dp ∂u ⎞ ∂ ⎡ ∂u ⎤ ⎟=− +v + ⎢(μ + ρε M ) ∂y ⎥ ⎟ dx ∂y ⎣ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎦ ⎛ ∂T ∂T +v ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ∂ ⎡ ∂T ⎤ ⎟= ⎟ ∂y ⎢ k + ρ c pε H ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ (8.36) (8.37) ρcp ⎜u ⎜ • ( ) These are simplified by dividing (8. based on Boussinesq’s hypothesis.39) • The terms in brackets in (8.4.41) assigns the correct direction to heat transfer.

4. which is unrealistic.4. but the situation is simplified. In a two-dimensional flow. • • • • • Note: Refer to Fig.1. since turbulent fluctuations are expected to dampen out near the wall Prandtl’s model reasons that fluid particle behavior is analogous to that of molecules in the kinetic theory of gases. the mixing length. so solving for momentum transfer requires solutions of continuity and momentum equations only • This still leaves two equations and three unknowns. Modeling Eddy Diffusivity: Prandtl’s Mixing Length Theory • Boussinesq postulated that ε M is constant • • This does not allow u ′v′ to approach zero at the wall. we have v′ ~ ∂u ∂y (c) . directions) of variables discussed below.e. 8.• • The number of unknowns has not been reduced. u′ ~ v′ . Prandtl defines: v′ as a velocity fluctuation forcing a particle towards the wall .10 for visual details. • Momentum Transfer in External Turbulent Flow Energy and momentum equations are decoupled • • Energy equation solution requires knowledge of both velocity and temperature fields Momentum equation requires knowledge of velocity field. now only ε M requires modeling Section Focus: Finding ways to evaluate ε M and ε H 8. with u ′ = u final − uinitial . (i. u′ ~ ∂u ∂y (b) • Again assuming that the velocity fluctuations have no preferred direction. the velocity fluctuation terms have been replaced with expressions containing different unknowns Finding ways to evaluate ε M and ε H is one of the main goals of turbulence research 8. as the distance the particle travels as a result of the velocity fluctuation The resulting velocity fluctuation u ′ is approximated using Taylor series expansion: u final ≈ uinitial + ∂u dy ∂y (a) • So.

Note that the mixing length itself must still be modeled.42) The absolute value on the derivative in equation (8. This approach also provides physical insight that can be applied to other solution techniques.2.34) for eddy viscosity gives: εM = • • • . Universal Turbulent Velocity Flow Profile • In Chapter 5. solving equation (8. this approach is used here.4.• By the above scales. This is presented next. an approximate solution for the integral form of the boundary layer equations for laminar flow was found using a universal velocity profile u ( y ) . Thus equation (8. Prandtl’s model for mixing length for flow over a flat plat is: =κy • • • where κ is some constant This implies that the mixing length approaches zero as y approaches zero.44) κ is unknown No single value for κ is effective throughout the boundary layer. 8.42) ensures the eddy diffusion remains positive. boundary layer behavior must be further understood. Before developing a suitable model for κ .u ′v′ ~ ∂u / ∂y 2 ∂u ∂y (8. Section Goal: Find a universal velocity profile function Variables making up the velocity distribution are normalized: • y δ becomes one axis • • • (i) Large-Scale Velocity Distribution: “Velocity Defect Law” .42) becomes Prandtl’s mixing-length model: (8. and is dependent on the type of flow.43) ε M = κ 2 y2 • However: • • • ∂u ∂y (8. one argues that the scale of the turbulent stress term − u ′v′ is: − u ′v ′ ~ (u ′)( v ′) ~ 2 ⎛ ∂u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (d) • Therefore.

8.11 collapse into a single curve • • Note: The defect plot does not show enough detail near the wall.49) (8. and will require an entirely new set of coordinates. we cast the data relative to the velocity outside the boundary layer: (u −V∞ ) (8. The velocity difference is normalized by u * to produce the velocity defect: (u − V∞ ) u* • (8. Data is normalized by the wall friction factor. where τ 0 is the • Further manipulations to the data are performed: • For convenience.45) • A friction velocity is defined: u* ≡ τ o / ρ • Friction velocity can also be written as: u * = V∞ C f / 2 (8.47) • • Note: u * has the same dimension as velocity. Note that the curves from Fig. if the plot were truly universal.11 shows velocity curves at different values of wall friction. v + = v / u * . C f = shear stress at the wall.• • • u / V∞ becomes the other axis. .50) (ii) Wall Coordinates • y ≡ • + yu* ν Similarly. all curves would collapse into one.46) (8. An improved plot will probably be logarithmic. where V∞ is the velocity outside of the boundary layer Figure 8.48) The velocity defect is plotted against y / δ in Figure 8. which also shows the range of experimental data. τo 2 (1 / 2) ρV∞ . The following coordinates will collapse the boundary layer velocity data into a single curve reasonably well: u+ ≡ u u* (8. and x + = xu * /ν .12.

• • The boundary layer extends out to approximately δ ≈ 2000 to 5000 The plot includes data obtained from flow in a pipe as well as flow along a flat plate. (8. so the profile appears to be universal. τ app / ρ (Eqn. (iii) Near-Wall Profile: Couette Flow Assumption • • • • • The turbulent boundary layer momentum equation. The presence of the eddy diffusivity makes (8. The Couette Flow Assumption is used to develop a velocity profile at the wall: • Substituting the definitions of u + and y + into (8. implying that the shear stress is constant.13 to see a plot of data produced by Clauser using these coordinates. τo .52) • After rearranging and integrating: .38). but not necessarily linear. This scaling argument suggests that the convective terms in the momentum equation. we can replace τ app with its value at the wall. Assumption: Flow is over a flat plate. so dp / dx = 0 .40) The above relationship implies that the apparent stress is approximately constant (with respect to y). is invoked to develop a model of the velocity profile near the wall. it can be shown that: + ⎛ ε M ⎞ ∂u ⎜1 + ⎟ + =1 ν ⎠ ∂y ⎝ (8. so v ~ 0 . and are called wall coordinates. 8. resulting in the Couette Flow Assumption: τ app ∂u = (ν +ε M ) ~ constant ∂y ρ • • • • Recall from Chapter 3: this result is similar to Couette Flow. in (8. Note: Refer to Figure 8.51) Since the local shear is constant in (8. therefore the u component of velocity does not change significantly along the wall. therefore. are each approximately zero. Conservation of mass implies that ∂u / ∂x ~ 0 .51).• • All of the above variables are dimensionless. The momentum equation is simplified by recognizing that the flow is nearly parallel to the wall. ∂y ⎣ ⎦ • • The bracketed term is the apparent shear stress. (8.51).38): ∂ ⎡ ∂u ⎤ ⎢(ν + ε M ) ∂y ⎥ ~ 0 near the wall.51) different from Couette flow. u ∂u / ∂x and v ∂u / ∂y .

so viscous forces dominate very close to the wall: ν >> ε M . τ is constant.55) As before. Substituting wall coordinates into Prandtl’s mixing length theory (8.56) .54) is illustrated in Figure 8. • • Integrating. with boundary condition u + = 0 at y + = 0 yields: u+ = y+.54) • • This relation compares well to experimental data from y+ ≈ 0 to 7. Further away from the wall. Equation (8. The Couette Flow Assumption reduces to ∂u + ∂y + =1.44) yields: ∂u + ∂y + εM = κ (y ) ν • Equation (8. The Couette Flow Assumption (8. this is the same value as in the viscous sublayer (which is the value at the wall). Note that the curvature in the plot results from the semi-logarithmic coordinates.56) is substituted into (8..e. Reynolds stresses) dominate.52) therefore becomes: (v) Fully Turbulent Region: “Law of the Wall” • • ε M ∂u + =1 ν ∂y + • • (8. so discontinuity between regions is avoided.55): 2 + 2 (8. turbulent fluctuations (i. so ε M >> ν .53) This is a general expression for the universal velocity profile in wall coordinates This integral can be evaluated more simply by dividing the boundary layer into two near-wall regions: • • (1) a region very close to the wall where viscous forces dominate (2) a region where turbulent fluctuations dominate (iv) Viscous Sublayer • The wall tends to damp out or prevent turbulent fluctuations. which is called the viscous sublayer.y+ u+ = • • ∫( 0 1 + ε M /ν ) dy + (8. 0 ≤ y+ ≤ 7 ( ) (8.13.

0.42) in (8. so van Driest proposed a mixing length model of this form: = κy 1 − e − y / A ( ) (8.60) with (8. Using the above as a boundary condition. Using (8. yields: .60) • • The term in parentheses is damping factor that makes (8.59) (vi) Other Models • • • The velocity profile presented in the previous sections is a two-layer model. Three-layer models. B is a constant of integration. Transforming (8.⎞ κ (y ) ⎜ + ⎟ =1 ⎟ ⎝ ∂y ⎠ 2 + 2 ⎛ ∂u ⎜ + 2 • Solving the above for the velocity gradient: ∂u + 1 = + κ y+ ∂y (8.51) yields: τ app • • 2 ∂u = ⎡ν + κ 2 y 2 1 − e − y / A ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎢ ρ ⎦ ⎣ ( ) (8.0 . and is found as follows: • • The viscous sublayer and the Law of the Wall region appear to intersect at roughly y + = u + ~ 10.8 . van Driest’s continuous law of the wall is a single equation model that illustrates how single equation models work: • The eddy diffusion must diminish as y approaches zero. and solving for ∂u + / ∂y + . leaving pure viscous shear.44 ln y + + 5.61) into wall coordinates.57) • Integrating the above results in the Law of the Wall: 1 u + = ln y + + B κ (8. • An approximation for the Law of the Wall region is: (50 ≤ y + ≤ 1500 ) (8.61) As y approaches zero. and is called the Prandtl-Taylor model. and experiments show that κ ≈ 0. u + = 2. like that of von Kármán. B ≈ 5.60) approach zero at the wall.41 . the eddy diffusivity approaches zero. also exist.58) • • κ is called von Kármán’s constant.

Spalding’s model is commonly used for both flat plates and pipe flow: ⎡ + (κu + ) 2 (κu + ) 3 ⎤ y + = u + + e −κB ⎢eκu − 1 − κu + − − ⎥ (8.14 depicts how the velocity profile is affected by a pressure gradient. The Law of the Wall-type models developed earlier model flat plate flow reasonably well in the presence of zero pressure gradient. van Driest used κ = 0.5 Note that that u+ is implicit in (8. The region where the data continue to adhere to the Wall Law is called the overlap region. Equation (8.∂u + = ∂y + 2 1 + 1 + 4κ y 2 +2 (1 − e − y + / A+ ) 2 (8. so there is no closed-form solution and one must numerically solve for u+ Reichardt developed a profile frequently applied to pipe flow: u+ = • • • ⎡ + y + −0.B.13. A favorable pressure gradient is approximately what we encounter in pipe flow.64) where κ = 0.4 and A+ = 26. until separation.40 and B = 5. • The plot. . shows that in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. Figure 8. • • • • • • • • Wake models are not addressed in this text.62) produces the curve shown in Fig. flat plate. C = 7.62) • • • For flow over a smooth.” The region y + > 350 is commonly referred to as the wake region.33 y + ⎤ ln 1 + κy + + C ⎢1 − e − y / X − e ⎥ X κ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ( ) (8. where the velocity profile deviates even from the overlap region. (vii) Effect of Pressure Gradient The velocity profiles modeled up to this point assume the pressure gradient is zero. When integrated numerically.8.63) 2 6 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ • • • where Spalding used κ = 0. although the difference between the two sets of data is negligible. the velocity profile beyond y + ≈ 350 deviates from the Law of the Wall model.40. A slight wake exists for zero or even a strong favorable pressure gradient. D. for flow over a flat plate. and X = 11.63). The deviation is referred to as a “wake. The wake increases with adverse pressure gradient. this is one reason why the models developed here apply as well to pipe flow. 8.

In an external flow a mean velocity is not defined.07910 Re D1 / 4 ..8. In independent works. nor is ro. Approximate Solution for Momentum Transfer: Momentum Integral Method • • To obtain drag force on the surface of a body. the integral momentum equation reduces to equation (5.5) This equation applies to turbulent flows if the behavior of the flow on average is considered. and u CL is the centerline velocity This is the well-known 1/7th Law velocity profile. Based on the above.4. and um is the mean velocity over the pipe cross-section. the momentum integral equation is invoked. (4000 < Re D < 10 5 ) (a) • • 2 where C f = 2τ o / ρ u m . the velocity profile in the pipe could be modeled as ⎛ y⎞ u =⎜ ⎟ uCL ⎜ ro ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1/ 7 (b) • • • where y is the distance from the wall. Considering a flat.0) d = V∞ ∂y dx δ ( x) ∫ 0 δ ( x) u dy − d dx ∫ 0 u 2 dy (5. based on dimensional analysis and experimental data: − C f ≈ 0. impermeable plate exposed to incompressible. as in Chapter 5.3. Prandtl and von Kármán used Blasius’ model for the shear at the wall of a circular pipe. and the flow properties are interpreted as time-averaged values Recall that the integral method requires an estimate for the velocity profile in the boundary layer.65) . both Prandtl and von Kármán used this approach to estimate the friction factor on a flat plate.5): (i) Prandtl-von Kármán Model • ν • • • ∂u ( x. further discussed in Chapter 9. so the following adjustments are made: • • • ro is approximated by the edge of the boundary layer δ u CL is approximated as representing the free-stream velocity V∞ The velocity profile in the boundary layer is then modeled as: u ⎛ y⎞ =⎜ ⎟ V∞ ⎝ δ ⎠ 1/ 7 (8. zero-pressure-gradient flow.

02333⎜ ∞ ⎟ 2 ρV∞ ⎝ ν ⎠ −1 / 4 (8. Recall. Equation (8. u CL is modeled as V∞ The expression for τ 0 is written as: ∂u ( x.0) τo 2⎛ ν = 0. • The following equations are found within the example: τo 7 dδ = 2 72 dx ρV∞ 4 5/ 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞⎛ V ⎞ δ = 0. the Blasius correlation was adapted to find an expression for the wall shear on a flat plate: Recasting (a) in terms of the wall shear and the tube radius: 1/ 4 • τo = • • • 2⎛ 0.66) • In terms the friction factor.3816 Re1 / 5 x (8. u m = 0.• • • The fundamental problem with using this model in the integral equation is that the velocity profile gradient goes to infinity as y goes to zero.68) x + C (8.67) • • This can now be used in the momentum equation.65) and the expression for friction factor (8.65) cannot be used directly to estimate the wall shear in equation (5. this is: Cf 2 = τo ⎛V δ ⎞ = 0.70) The expression for the friction factor is: .02333⎜ ⎟⎜ ∞ ⎟ 5 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎝ ν ⎠ • The expression for the boundary layer thickness is: −1 / 4 (8.69) δ x • = 0. Prandtl and von Kármán modeled the wall shear differently: • Since the characteristics of the flow near the surface of the plate are similar to that of pipe flow.03326 ρum ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ roum ⎠ ν ⎞ It can be shown that for the 1/7th velocity profile.67). An example (Example 8.5).02333V∞ ⎜ =ν ⎜V δ ∂y ρ ⎝ ∞ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 4 (8.2) is presented in which the expressions for the boundary layer thickness and the friction factor for flow over a flat plate are developed using the 1/7th power law for the velocity profile (8.8167u CL .

resulting in the following solutions to the integral momentum equation: .0 2 ⎟ ⎠ Any y value within the wall law layer would satisfy this expression. into the Law of the Wall expression (8. though it’s cumbersome. an expression for the friction factor can be developed from the Law of the Wall (a technique which is also seen in analysis of pipe flow – see Section 9. in which δ /x − and C f vary as Rex 1 / 2 . (ii) Newer Models • A limitation of the Prandtl-von Kármán model is that the approximation for the wall shear.44 ln⎜ Reδ ⎜ 2 ⎟ Cf /2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 • where Reδ = V∞δ / ν (8. (8.73) • The above is used to estimate wall shear using the integral method. Note that. the turbulent boundary layer δ /x varies as − Rex 1 / 5 .72) over a range of values from Reδ ≈ 10 4 to 10 7 . • Substituting the definitions of u + and y + . along with the 1/7th power law for the velocity profile. yielding the approximate relation: − C f ≈ 0.72) relates the skin friction to the boundary layer thickness.0 = 2.02 Reδ 1 / 6 (8.72) • • Equation (8. By curve-fitting values obtained from (8.71) Note: Refer to Fig. according to this model.Cf 2 • • = 0.59): • Because the wall coordinates u + and y + can be expressed as functions of • Cf /2 . 8.59): u V∞ • ⎛ yV 2 = 2.02968 Re1 / 5 x (8. as does the friction factor C f .15 for additional considerations for the boundary layer over a flat plate. where u ( y = δ ) = V∞ . so: ⎛ Cf ⎞ ⎟ + 5 . and is of limited applicability even for pipe flow White presents a method that makes use of the Law of the Wall velocity profile (8. this is contrast to laminar flow. but a useful value to choose is the edge of the boundary layer.5). and can be used in the integral momentum equation. Eqn. is based on limited experimental data.66). as well as u * .44 ln⎜ ∞ ⎜ ν Cf ⎝ Cf ⎞ ⎟ + 5 .

the above relation is accurate to Kestin and Persen’s model to within 1%. the drag coefficient C D is: 2 L ⎤ ⎡ xcrit ⎥ 1⎢ CD = ⎢ C f .74) Cf 2 • • Re1 / 7 x (8. Kestin and Persen used Spalding’s law of the wall for the velocity profile to develop a more-accurate. The total drag over the entire plate is: xcrit • Formulation • L FD = • 1 2 ∫ (τ ) 0 o lam wdx + xcrit ∫ (τ ) o turb wdx (8.δ x = 0.16 Re1 / 7 x = 0. .455 ln (0.78) • Substituting Equation (4. but more cumbersome correlation. White simplified their model to: Cf = • 0.75) The above equations replace the less accurate Prandtl-von Kármán correlations.0135 (8.75) for turbulent flow.0315 Re1 / 7 L − 1477 ReL (8.79) • The above assumes xcrit = 5 × 10 5 .76) According to White. we obtain with some manipulation: CD = 0.48) for laminar flow and using White’s model (8.lam dx + C f . (iii) Total Drag • • Assumptions • • Laminar flow exists along the initial portion of the plate. White recommends these for general use.turb dx ⎥ L⎢ ⎥ xcrit ⎦ ⎣ 0 ∫ ∫ (8. Total drag is found by integrating the wall shear along the entire plate. The plate has width w.77) Dividing by 2 2 ρV∞ A = 1 ρV∞ wL .06 Re x ) 2 (8.

• • • Roughness is contained within the viscous sublayer.7 log 10 ⎜ ⎟⎥ . viscous effects are virtually eliminated and the flow is fully rough. • • The shape of the velocity profile changes little after this roughness value.4 + 3. based on a wall law velocity profile developed from experimental data ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ C f = ⎢1. ⎝ k ⎠⎦ ⎣ • −2 x Re x > k 1000 (8. Pr ) • where x * is the dimensionless location along the body (2. likely due to enhanced mixing the roughness provides. Effect of Surface Roughness on Friction Factor • • • • • • The previous models have all assumed flow over smooth walls. the roughness extends beyond the viscous sublayer and the viscous sublayer begins to disappear. For k + > 10 .4.52) . • Energy Transfer in External Turbulent Flow From Chapter 2. Crude modeling and experimental study give some physical insight. disturbances are likely dampened out by the viscosity-dominated flow.80) Note that this correlation does not include the Reynolds number 8. there are few models. White [14] suggests the following correlation.16 for an illustration of how the near-wall velocity profile is affected by roughness. k is defined as the average height of roughness elements on the wall k is transformed into wall coordinates: k + = ku * /ν For small values of k + . For fully rough flow over sand-rough plates. The interaction between the turbulent flow and the complex. so it is expected that increasing the roughness will not change the friction factor. the heat transfer for flow over a geometrically similar body like a flat plate can be correlated through dimensionless analysis by Nu x = f ( x * . Re. Refer to Figure 8. and therefore the friction factor increases The slope of the wall law curve is not affected by roughness Correlations for friction factor on rough plates are highly dependent on roughness geometry. • • • • • Roughness tends to shift the Law of the Wall down and to the right The shift in velocity profile means that the velocity gradient at the wall is greater. ( k + ≤ 5 ).5. For k + > 70 . random geometric features of a rough wall is the subject of advanced study and numerical modeling.8. experiments show that the velocity profile and friction factor are unaffected by roughness.4.

Momentum and Heat Transfer Analogies • • Reynolds theorized that heat transfer and the frictional resistance in a pipe are proportional. a new dimensionless parameter: Prt = • εM εH (8.38) and (8. including numerical solutions to the boundary layer flow.• • This neglects buoyancy and viscous dissipation The momentum and thermal eddy diffusivities introduced in equations (8.81) There are several options to develop suitable models for turbulent heat transfer: • • • • Find an analogy between heat and mass transfer Develop a universal temperature profile and then attempt to obtain an approximate solution for heat transfer using the integral method The universal temperature profile may also lend itself to a simple algebraic method for evaluating the heat transfer More advanced methods.82a) (8.39). ε M and ε H . (8. are used to create the turbulent Prandtl number.82b) The boundary conditions are u ( y = 0) = 0 .1. allowing one to solve directly for heat transfer. heat transfer can be determined by using a multiplying factor. are not covered in this text 8. based on his study of turbulent flow in steam boilers This implies that if the friction along a pipe wall is measured or predicted.83a) . T ( y = 0) = Ts . The Reynolds analogy for external flow is developed: (i) Reynolds Analogy • • Assumptions • • Flow is parallel and is over a flat plate The pressure gradient dp / dx is zero • Formulation • The boundary layer momentum and energy equations reduce to: u u • ∂u ∂u ∂ ⎡ ∂u ⎤ +v = ⎢(ν + ε M ) ∂y ⎥ ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎣ ⎦ ∂T ∂T ∂ ⎡ ∂T ⎤ +v = ⎢(α + ε H ) ∂y ⎥ ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎣ ⎦ (8.5.

85a) (8.87) This is justified by arguing that the same turbulent mechanism—the motion and interaction of fluid particles—is responsible for both momentum and heat transfer. which is possible under two conditions: • The kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are equal: ν =α • • • This condition limits the analogy to fluids with Pr = 1 This also suggests that the velocity and thermal boundary layers are approximately the same thickness. The ratio of the apparent heat flux and shear stress (equations. • The variables are normalized as follows: T ( y → ∞) = T∞ (8. δ ≈ δ t (8.17 for an illustration.85b) ⎡ (α + ε H ) ∂θ ⎤ ⎢ ∂Y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ U (Y = 0) = 0 .83b) U= • T − Ts v u x y .θ= .41) is Derivation of a relationship between the shear stress and heat flux at the wall: .83) become: U U 1 ∂ ∂U ∂U +V = V∞ L ∂Y ∂X ∂Y 1 ∂ ∂θ ∂θ +V = ∂x ∂y V∞ L ∂Y (8.87) is sometimes referred to as the Reynolds Analogy. the normalized velocity and temperature profiles. This also means that the turbulent Prandtl number Prt is equal to 1 • • • • • The analogy is now complete. so equation (8. 8. Refer to Figure 8.86) The eddy diffusivities are equal εM = εH • (8. Y ) are equal.82) and boundary conditions (8. Reynolds essentially made this argument. • • θ (Y = 0) = 0 θ (Y → ∞) = 1 Note that normalizing the boundary conditions has made them identical.u ( y → ∞ ) = V∞ .84b) (8. Y ) and θ ( X . X = .84a) (8. U (Y → ∞) = 1.V= . Equations (8. U ( X .40 and 8. and Y = T∞ − Ts V∞ V∞ L L ∂U ⎤ ⎡ ⎢(ν + ε M ) ∂Y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ Equations (8.84) can then be made identical if (ν + ε M ) = (α + ε H ) .

molecular forces are expected to dominate: (ii) Prandtl-Taylor Analogy • • • • ν >> ε M .91) ε M >> ν .90) where St x is called the Stanton number Equation (8. The Reynolds analogy doesn’t account for the varying intensity of molecular and turbulent diffusion in the boundary layer Very close to the wall.92) . it can also be derived for laminar flow over a flat plate for Pr =1. but not for most liquids. and equation (8.88) By imposing conditions (8. and α >> ε H Further away from the wall. turbulent effects dominate: (8.86) and (8.88): ′′ qapp τ app • • = c p (Ts − T∞ )∂θ / ∂Y V∞ ∂U / ∂Y (8. and Prandtl numbers St x ≡ • • • Cf Nu x = 2 Rex Pr (8. Nusselt. The Reynolds Analogy is limited to Pr = 1 fluids.87). and rearranging: Cf h = ρV∞ c p 2 • The terms on the left side can also be written in terms of the Reynolds. and ε H >> α Neither condition above restricts us to Pr = 1 fluids. after substituting the dimensionless variables into (8.89) becomes: τo • ′′ qo = c p (Ts − T∞ ) V∞ ′ This can be recast into a more convenient form by substituting qo′ = h(Ts − T∞ ) and 2 1 τ o = 2 C f ρV∞ into the above.90) is commonly referred to as the Reynolds Analogy. the terms in parenthesis cancel and.89) Since the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are identical. (8. their derivates cancel ′′ The ratio qapp / τ app is constant throughout the boundary layer. it is appropriate for gases.′′ qapp / ρ c p τ app / ρ • =− (α + ε H )∂T / ∂y (ν + ε M )∂u / ∂y (8. so this ratio can be represented by the same ratio at the wall .

u1 u − u1 x y T − T1 . • The following normalizing variables make the analogy valid in this region: U= • v . T ( y1 ) = T1 The following normalized variables make the boundary conditions and equation (8. X = . and their boundary conditions. X = and Y = .91) dominate A turbulent outer layer. V = . Adding (8.94) yields: .82) identical: U= • x v u y T − Ts . where y1 is some threshold value. where (8. T ( y1 ) = T1 . and Y = T∞ − T1 V∞ − u1 V∞ − u1 L L For the outer region.93) and (8. the ratio of the apparent heat flux and apparent shear stress (Eqn. u ( y1 ) = u1 .92) is assumed to hold In order for an analogy to exist.86) leads to: T1 − T∞ = • • ′′ qo (V − u ) τocp ∞ 1 (8. with boundary conditions: u (0) = 0. the ratio of the apparent heat flux and apparent shear stress (equation 8.93) ′′ ′′ where qapp / τ app = qo / τ o = constant The outer layer closely resembles the Reynolds Analogy. 8.94) ′′ The ratio qapp / τ app is constant. so: • The viscous sublayer is defined as the portion of the boundary layer beneath y = y1. with ε M = ε H (or Prt = 1 ). this region has boundary conditions: u ( y1 ) = u1 . so we have chosen the value at y=y1. but this time we assume that the turbulent effects outweigh the molecular effects.θ= . • T (0) = Ts .θ= . must be identical in both regions. the momentum and boundary layer equations. u1 u1 T1 − Ts y1 y1 For the viscous sublayer. V= . which can be ′ represented by qo′ / τ o . T ( y → ∞) = T∞ u ( y → ∞ ) = V∞ .• Prandtl and Taylor independently divided the boundary layer into two regions: • • • A viscous sublayer where molecular effects (8.86) leads to the following: Ts − T1 = • • ′′ qo Pr u1 τo cp (8.

98) .95) Cf u1 =5 2 V∞ • Thus the Prandtl-Taylor analogy is: St x ≡ Cf /2 Nu x = Rex Pr ⎡ C f ⎤ ( Pr − 1) + 1⎥ ⎢5 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (8. a value of u + = y + ≈ 5 is chosen to approximate the edge of the viscous sublayer.96) (iii) von Kármán Analogy • Theodore von Kármán extended the Reynolds analogy even further to include a third layer – a buffer layer – between the viscous sublayer and outer layer: St x ≡ Nu x = Rex Pr Cf /2 Cf ⎧ ⎡ 5 Pr + 1⎤ ⎫ 1+ 5 ⎨( Pr − 1) + ln ⎢ ⎬ 2 ⎩ ⎣ 6 ⎥⎭ ⎦ (8.Ts − T∞ = • ⎤ ⎡u ′′ qo V∞ ⎢ 1 (Pr − 1) + 1⎥ τ o c p ⎣V∞ ⎦ 2 Substituting τ o = 1 C f ρV∞ into the above yields 2 St = Cf /2 ′′ qo = ρV∞ c p (Ts − T∞ ) ⎡ u1 ⎤ ⎢V ( Pr − 1) + 1⎥ ⎣ ∞ ⎦ • The velocity at the edge of the viscous sublayer. or Cf (8. From the definition of u + : • u+ = 5 = u1 V∞ 2 .97) • • Note: Refer to Appendix D for development. is estimated using the universal velocity profile (Fig. u1 . using an empirical fit of available experimental data: (iv) Colburn Analogy St x Pr 2 / 3 = • The exponent (2/3) is entirely empirical Cf 2 (8. 8.13). Colburn proposed a purely empirical modification to the Reynolds analogy that accounts for fluids with varying Prandtl number.

102) The analogies were derived assuming that the turbulent Prandtl number is equal to unity.0158 ReL / 7 Pr1 / 3 (8.5. Validity of Analogies • • • • • Momentum-heat transfer analogies are frequently used to develop heat transfer models for many types of flows and geometries. Although they are derived assuming constant wall temperature. Equations developed within the example: • • The average heat transfer coefficient from Equation (2.99) • After several manipulations. although other analogies have been developed specifically for internal flow (See Chapter 9). Example 8. the equation for the average Nusselt number for heat transfer along a flat plate of length L with constant surface temperature and initial laminar region is: 6 Nu L = 0. • Experimentally-measured values of Prt are as high as 3 very near the wall.100) • If the laminar region had been neglected.• • The Colburn Analogy yields acceptable results for Rex < 107 (including the laminar flow regime) and Prandtl number ranging from about 0.101) 8. Although derived for a flat plate. where pressure gradient does not vary greatly from zero.2. The large temperature variation near the wall means that the assumption of uniform properties.50) is split into laminar and turbulent regions: L ⎤ ⎡ xc ⎥ 1⎢ hL = ⎢ hlam ( x)dx + hturb ( x)dx ⎥ L⎢ ⎥ xc ⎦ ⎣0 ∫ ∫ (8.7. . is presented in which the average Nusselt number for heat transfer along a flat plate of length L with constant surface temperature is determined. the above correlations work reasonably well even for constant heat flux. using White’s model for turbulent friction factor and assuming the flow over the plate has an initial laminar region. particularly for Pr.5 to 60. An example. though outside the viscous sublayer the values range from around 1 to 0. this is overcome by evaluating properties at the film temperature: Tf = • Ts + T∞ 2 (8.0158 ReL / 7 − 739 Pr1/ 3 ( ) (8. They are approximately valid for internal flows in circular pipes. becomes a weakness. these analogies are considered generally valid for slender bodies. the above would be: 6 Nu L = 0.3. substitutions and assumptions.

An approximate temperature profile can be used in an integral approach to solve for the heat transfer. as is the temperature gradient ∂T / ∂x . However.• The turbulent Prandtl number seems to be affected slightly by pressure gradient. assume that.103) and rearrange so both sides are dimensionless: * ∂T ρ c p u ν − + = ′′ (α + ε H ) qo ∂y (8. the velocity component v ~ 0. so the analogies should be approximately valid for real flows. A value of Prt ≈ 0. near the wall. replace qapp with qo′ and substitute wall coordinates into (8. Beginning with the turbulent energy equation. Universal Turbulent Temperature Profile • • Development of a universal temperature profile in turbulent flow provides physical insight. 8.5. though largely unaffected by surface roughness or the presence of boundary layer suction or blowing. • The left-hand side of (8. the Colburn analogy was shown to represent experimental data well over a variety of fluids.85 is considered reasonable for most flows. • • • Though only an empirical correlation.105) .104) • (8. it has been demonstrated that the Colburn analogy under-predicts the Nusselt number by 30-40% for fluids with Prandtl numbers greater than 7.39) approaches 0: ∂ ⎡ ∂T ⎤ ⎢(α + ε H ) ∂y ⎥ ~ 0 .103) Solve the above relation for the temperature profile: ′ ′′ ′′ Since qapp / ρ c p is constant throughout this region.104) suggests a definition for a temperature wall coordinate: T ≡ (Ts − T ) • The above is cast into a simpler form: + ρ c p u* ′′ qo (8.3. near wall ∂y ⎣ ⎦ • This implies that the apparent heat flux is approximately constant with respect to y: ′′ qapp ∂T ~ constant ∂y (i) Near Wall Profile • ρcp • • = −(α + ε H ) (8.

107) This is a general expression for the temperature profile in wall coordinates. ( y + < y1 ) (8.106) Though the above can now be integrated. resulting in C = 0 and a temperature profile in the conduction sublayer of: + T + = Pr y + . as was done with the universal velocity profile. ε H is unknown. but substituting ε M into (8. C.109) ε H must be evaluated to evaluate (8. (8. The above is evaluated by dividing it into two regions. so α >> ε H .81) yields: y+ T+ = • • ∫ 0 ν dy + α + εH (8. turbulent effects dominate.∂T + ∂y • + = (α + ε H ) ν (8.44).106) by using the definition of the turbulent Prandtl number (8.104) becomes: y+ T + = T1+ + • + y1 ∫ ν dy + εH (8.108) • • • y1+ is the dividing point between the conduction and outer layers (iii) Fully Turbulent Region Outside the conduction-dominated region close to the wall.109). the model for the eddy diffusivity from Prandtl’s mixing length theory: . is found by applying the boundary condition that T + ( y + = 0) = 0 . (ii) Conduction Sublayer • • Very close to the wall. By evoking this. this is done by relating it to the momentum eddy diffusivity: εH = • εM Prt Recall (8.107) reduces to: T + = ∫ Pr dy + = Pr y + + C • The constant of integration. so ε H >> α The temperature profile (8. molecular effects are expected to dominate the heat transfer.

5.ε M = κ 2 y2 • ∂u ∂y ∂u + ∂y + (8. for various values of Pr Note that the temperature profile increases with increasing Prandtl number. assumed Prt = 0.110) The partial derivative ∂u + / ∂y + can be found from the Law of the Wall Substituting the above and (8.113) In this model.114) 8.112) The temperature profile defined by Equations (8. but found that the thickness of the conduction sublayer ( y1+ ) varies by fluid White reports a correlation that can be used for any fluid with Pr ≥ 0.0 Figure 8. (iv) A 1/7th Law for Temperature A simpler 1/7th power law relation is sometimes used for the temperature profile: T − Ts ⎛ y ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T∞ − Ts ⎜ δ t ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1/ 7 (8.44) This is written in terms of wall coordinates: εM = κ (y ) ν • • 2 + 2 (8.111) becomes: T+ = • • • Prt ⎛ y+ ⎞ + ln⎜ + ⎟ .109) yields: y+ T+ = + y1 ∫κ Prt y + dy + (8.111) • Assume Prt and κ are constants.41. along with viscous sublayer.9 or 1.4.7: T+ = • • • • Prt κ ln y + + 13 Pr 2 / 3 − 7 (8. as well as the parameters Prt and κ . expressed using Newton’s law of cooling is: .18 is a plot of this model. y + > y1 ⎜y ⎟ κ ⎝ 1 ⎠ ( ) (8.108) and (8. so (8.58) into (8. Algebraic Method for Heat Transfer Coefficient • The existence of a universal temperature and velocity profile makes for a fairly simple method to estimate the heat transfer: • The definition of the Nusselt number.85 and κ = 0. Kays et al. Prt is assumed to be approximately 0.112) depends on the fluid (Pr).

selecting B = 5.Nu x ≡ • ′′ hx qo x = k (Ts − T∞ )k (8. so using the definition of T + .88 C f / 2 ) (8.97).120) Note how similar this result is to the more advanced momentum-heat transfer analogies. multiplying the numerator and denominator by ν yields: Nu x = • Rex Pr C f / 2 + T∞ (8. Equation (8.0 and Prt = 0.117) The universal temperature profile.118) • • + A precise value for y∞ is not easy to determine.115) The universal temperature profile T + is to be invoked. the free stream temperature is defined: + T∞ = (Ts − T∞ ) ρ c p u* ′′ qo = (Ts − T∞ ) ρ c p V∞ C f / 2 ′′ qo (8. St = Nu x /( Rex Pr ) .115) for (Ts − T∞ ) and rearranging yields: Nu x = • ρ c pV∞ C f / 2 x + T∞ k Then. Equation (8.96) and von Kármán (8.9.105).113).118) for ln y ∞ .119) into (8.is used to evaluate T∞+ : + T∞ = Prt κ + ln y∞ + 13Pr 2 / 3 − 7 (8. but a clever substitution is made by using the Law of the Wall velocity profile.116) • • where (8.47) was substituted for the friction velocity u * Substituting (8. and noting that the definition of u + leads to + u∞ = 2 / C f St x = • 0.116) into (8. particularly those by Prandtl and Taylor (8. .9 + 13 Pr ( Cf 2/3 /2 − 0.58) is evaluated in the free stream as: + u∞ = 1 κ + ln y∞ + B (8.119) • + Substituting (8. equation (8. the Nusselt number relation then becomes Nu x = • Rex Pr C f / 2 + Prt (u∞ − B) + 13Pr 2 / 3 − 7 The above is simplified using the definition of Stanton number.

• • • The simplest solution is to assume the 1/7th power law for both the velocity and temperature profiles This is mathematically cumbersome. The model has been used to approximate heat transfer for other fluids: • Equation (8.e. or how turbulent the flow.121) is expressed as: Nu x = • • Nu xo = 0 o [1 − (x / x) ] 9 / 10 1 / 9 (8. Heat transfer relies on molecular conduction at the surface. implying that the turbulent fluid elements exchange momentum with the surface directly (i. Fluid in the spaces between roughness elements is largely stagnant. Figure 8. illustrated in Figure 8.121) reduced to the Reynolds Analogy when xo = 0. Integral Methods for Heat Transfer Coefficient • • The universal temperature profile allows us to model heat transfer using the integral energy equation. • • . like von Kármán’s analogy. could be used to approximate Nu xo = 0 for Pr ≠ 1 fluids.16 shows that the viscous sublayer diminishes and disappears as roughness increases. profile or pressure drag) and the role of molecular diffusion (i. Effect of Surface Roughness on Heat Transfer • • Surface roughness is important in such applications as turbomachinery.121) Note that Equation (8. The result of the analysis is: −1 / 9 C f ⎡ ⎛ xo ⎞9 / 10 ⎤ Nu x St x ≡ = ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ Rex Pr 2 ⎢ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ • • • where xo is the unheated starting length (8.5. other models for heat transfer. where rough surfaces can be used to enhance heat transfer in the cooling of turbine blades.5. 8. no matter how rough the surface.122) where Nu xo = 0 represents the heat transfer in the limit of zero insulated starting length In this form. skin friction) is diminished.e.5.6. and transfers heat entirely by molecular conduction. (the Prandtl number in that derivation was assumed to be 1). and is developed in Appendix E. A case of turbulent flow over a flat plate where a portion of the leading surface is unheated is examined.8.19.

lower-conductivity fluid trapped between the roughness elements will have a higher resistance to heat transfer.44 s ) Pr Cf /2 ] −1 (8.123) where k s+ = k s u * / ν is based on the equivalent sand-grain roughness. • • In developing a model for heat transfer on a rough surface. The major resistance to heat transfer is formed by the stagnant regions between roughness elements This means that we cannot predict the heat transfer by using a friction factor for rough plates along with one of the momentum-heat transfer analogies Roughness size has no influence until it extends beyond the viscous and conduction sublayers. which is consistent with the above expectations. The Prandtl number should be present in any model.2 0.• • • The conduction sublayer can be viewed as the average height of the roughness elements. The conduction sublayer is shorter for these fluids. • This model displays the expected behavior. the following are expected: • • • • A correlation for a rough plate was developed by Kays. k s . et al. and C is a constant that depends on roughness geometry For high-Prandtl-number fluids the second term in the parentheses dominates For sufficiently low-Pr fluids the second term diminishes. showed a 50% increase in heat transfer on rough turbine blades compared to heat transfer in smooth turbine blades. [29]: St = • [Pr + C (k 2 t + 0. in spite of roughness size Bogard. so roughness elements penetrate relatively further into the thermal boundary layer Cf Roughness cannot improve heat transfer as much as it increases friction. et al. The influence of roughness reaches a maximum beyond some roughness size (the fully rough limit). and fluids with higher Prandtl number (lower conductivity) would be affected more by roughness • • In these fluids. • • • . and that increasing roughness beyond some value showed little increase in the heat transfer.

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