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Key Terms Chapter 1 Michael Henderson

1. Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Provides the full-fledged directory service that was referred to as Active Directory in Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000. 2. Application Partition Application partitions provide fine control. Administrators can direct where information is replicated to a domain or forest. 3. Attribute Characteristics associated with an object class in Active Directory that makes the object class unique within the database. The list of attributes is defined only once in the schema, but the same attribute can be associated with more than one object class. 4. Configuration NC Contains information regarding the physical topology of the network, as well as other configuration data that must be replicated throughout the forest. 5. Container Object One that can have other objects housed within it; these can be additional container objects as well as leaf objects. 6. Cross-Forest Trust Trust type that allows resources to be shared between Active Directory forests. 7. Delegation Administrators of an OU can be delegated to a departmental supervisor or manager and thus can allow that person to manage day-to-day resource access or more mundane task. 8. Directory Service Allows businesses to define, manage, access, and secure network resources, including files, printers, people, and applications. 9. Distinguished Name (DN) References an object in Active Directory directory structure using its entire hierarchical path, starting with the objects itself and including all parent objects up to the root of the domain. 10. Domain A group of objects in Active Directory that can be managed together. A domain can function as a security boundary for access to resources, such as computers, printers, servers, applications, and file systems. 11. Domain Controller (DC) A Windows Server 2008 computer that has been configured with the Active Directory DS role. 12. Domain Name System (DNS) A hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. 13. Domain NC Consists of user, computer, and other resource information for a particular Active Directory domain and is replicated to each DC within the domain. 14. Domain Tree A logical grouping of network resources and devices that can contain one or more domains configured in parent/child relationship. 15. External Trust A one-way, nontransitive trust that is established with a Windows NT domain or a Windows 2000 domain in a separate forest. 16. Fault Tolerant When a system is capable of responding gracefully to a software or hardware failure.

17. Forest defines the fundamental security boundary within Active Directory, which means that a user can access resources across an entire Active Directory forest using a single logon/password combination. 18. Forest Root Domain The first domain created within Active Directory forest. 19. Functional Levels 20. Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) a 128-bit hexadecimal number that is assigned to every object in the Active Directory forest upon its creation. 21. Inbound Replication When a domain controller receives updates to the Active Directory database from other domain controllers on the network. 22. IP Address A unique number to identify themselves and their location on the network. IP addresses are four octets long and are commonly expressed in dotted-decimal notation. 23. Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) An internal Active Directory process that automatically creates and maintains the replication topology. 24. Leaf Object Cannot contain other objects and usually refers to a resource such as a printer, folder, user, or group. 25. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Industry standard that enables data exchange between directory services and applications. It defines the naming of all objects in the Active Directory database and therefore provides a directory that can be integrated with other directory services. 26. Link-Value Replication When a change is made to the member list of a group object, only the portion of the member list that has been added, modified, or deleted will be replicated. 27. Locator Service Provides direction for clients that need to know which server performs what function. 28. Loose Consistency Each domain controller may contain slightly different information until the replication process has been completed. 29. Naming Context (NC) - To improve the efficiency of Active Directory, Active Directory divides information into multiple partitions, also called naming contexts (NCs). 30. Object Every resource in Active Directory. Objects can be container objects or leaf objects. 31. Organizational Unit (OU) A container that represents a logical grouping of resources that have similar security or administrative guidelines. 32. Outbound Replication When a domain controller transmits replication information to other domain controllers on the network. 33. Partition To improve the efficiency of Active Directory, Active Directory divides information into multiple partitions, also called naming contexts (NCs). 34. Publishing Allows users to access network resources by searching the Active Directory database for the desired resource.

35. Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC) A special type of domain controller that maintains a read-only copy of the Active Directory database and does not perform any outbound replication of its own. 36. Replication The process of keeping each domain controller in sync with changes made elsewhere on the network. 37. Rolling Upgrades Allows changes to the functional levels for a single domain within multi-domain environment without requiring other domains to make the same changes. 38. Schema A master database that contains definitions of all objects in the Active Directory. The schema has two components: object classes and attributes. 39. Schema NC Contains the rules and definitions that are used for creating and modifying object classes and attributes within Active Directory. 40. Shortcut Trust Allows administrators to create a tree-walking process and form a direct trust path between two domains. These shortcut trust are transitive and can be one-way or two-way in nature. 41. Site One or more IP subnets that are connected by fast links. 42. SRV Record The locator record within DNS that allows clients to locate an Active Directory domain controller or global catalog. 43. Trust Relationship Allows administrators from a particular domain to grant access to their domains resources to users in other domains.