‫الصراع العربي اإلرسرايليي‬ ‫הסכסוך ערבי-הישראלי‬ ‫‪The Arab-Israeli Conflict‬‬

Abram was promised a child who would inherit his legacy. Sarai, Abram's wife then gave him Hagar – her maid – to give Abram a son, Ishmael. A covenant was made with Abraham, where he was promised to be the 'father of many nations'; and Sarah was promised a child who would inherit his legacy, Isaac. Ishmael and his mother, Hagar, were then told to depart from the nascent tribe. When Abraham died, Isaac and Ishmael buried their father together.

  Whose descendants would be a great nation. And he will dwell in the face of his brothers. Is a wild man whose hands will be against all. Is called Israel whilst wrestling and injured in the desert.ISHMAEL   JACOB. Having striven with God and with men. He had twelve sons which grew into great tribes dwelling in the Arabian Peninsula. would become a great nation. THE SON OF ISAAC     In the future. He had twelve sons who eventually became the twelve tribes of Israel. Because God heard his affliction in the desert. prevailed if they should keep the National Law as given by Moses and his court. and all against him. .

The first Hasmonean king to do so was Yoḥanan Hyrcanus (164BCE104BCE). Judean Kingdom   Northern Arabia and Trans-Jordan Kingdoms Hasmonean kings adopted a policy of territorial expansion. Many Arabs visited the Second Temple during the Ḥag (Arabic. Ḥajj). festivals. pilgrimage. who began a policy of forced conversion to a limited form of Judaism.  .

After this meeting. his son was killed by the Banu Qayla (also known as Al-Ansar) – originally from Yemen. Tuban converted to Judaism and encouraged his men to do so.TUB'A ABU KARIBA AS'AD (ABU KARIBA). THE YOUNGEST OF TUBAN'S SONS  A convert to Judaism who adopted the name Yussuf. Persian Empire  Byzantine Empire Arabian Kingdoms On expedition through Yathrib. He waged retaliation against the Abyssinian Christian strong-hold in his realm. and two rabbis named Kaab and Assad met with him to convince him to spare the people. He was given the government of Mecca by his uncle. This strained trading between Europe and India with Arabia. ZORAH.  . Harith Ibn Amru of the Banu Kindah. and win. but failed. he was also called Dhu Nuwas (517– 525). These last two kings of Ḥimyar tried to unite all Arabia under their rule. because Byzantine and Ethiopian Christians persecuted Jews in theirs. which made the neighboring king Aidug fight Yussef. the last King of Yemen (Ḥimyar). He returned to Himyar and many in the kingdom converted to Judaism along with his nephew. This persecution and massacre of the Christians in Najran was condemned in the Qur'an. WAS AN ARABIAN KING RULED YEMEN FROM 390 CE – 420 CE.

The elites of these tribes. and the various Jewish tribes of Medina. Muḥammad and his followers arrived in Yathrib and were given shelter by Al-Ansar. This made the first Islamic state. He formed the Constitution of Medina between Muslims.     In the summer of 622 CE. •Usama ibn Zayd led soldiers as far as Yabneh near Tel Aviv. Muḥammad endorsed the Jewish tribes in Arabia to take Palestine back from the ByzantineEmpire. . the Ansar. fearing the loss of their power with witnessing the popularity of Muḥammad in Yathrib decided to retaliate.

as a gift by Khalifa `Ali ibn Abu Ṭalib (601/607 CE – 661 CE). . The Abbassid Khalifa extended great kindness to all the Jews in his provinces. Once a year there is a ceremony where he and all the Muslims give praises to and herald the Leader of the Jewish exiles. Son of David).    The daughter of the last Sassanid king (624651/2). Exilarch of the Jews.651). Princess Dara-Izdadwar of Persia (c. was given to Ḥisdai.595 – c. "Saidna ben Daud" (Our Lord. Rabbi Yiṣḥaq found himself received "with great friendliness" by Khalifa Ali.

     The product of this unity bore intellectual fruit. Rodrigo D. the leading rabbi of Granada's Jewish community. founded an academy in Cordoba (Andalusia). and eventually became vizier and top general to the Berber King Baddus ibn Habbus Al-Muzaffar after the Berber invasion of 1013. Some of the results were the likes of Samuel The Prince ibn Naghrela. El Cid. His son inherited the same position. Ibn Rushd (Averroes). Moses Maimonides (1135 1204) .az de Vivar (1043–1099). Solomon Gabirol (Avicebron).

They repented from the folly and errors of their ancestors who worshiped idols and erred in the unity of His name and His greatness … Since their service is to truly believe in the Unity of His name. Abraham Maimun (1136 -1237) said of the Ishmaelites: Even the Ishmaelites accepted this faith from the Israelites and built the fundamental principles of their religion on it.  Rambam's son. Moses Maimonides is held as a philosopher of Islam and Sufi Islam recognizes his son Abraham and his progeny as Sufi philosophers. .

derived from the Russian verb meaning ‘to destroy’. Roman Pogroms Medieval Pogroms Pogroms of the 19th Century Pogroms of the 20th Century . They are often condoned by the law and characterized as killings or destruction of properties. are violent mob attacks generally directed toward Jews.     Pogroms.

They worked the land for the owners who were the Ottoman Turks who owned the land. The Romans renamed the land “Palestine“. The working class that inhabited Palestine. Falaḥinpeasants. In 135 CE the Roman Empire defeated the third revolt against its rule and consequently expelled the surviving Jews from Jerusalem and its surroundings. called Effendi. lord.  .

the president of the British Zionist Federation began the Zionist Commission for Palestine. With the arrival of the British in Palestine in 1917. following the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The Ottoman Turkish Empire lost to the British and the lands of Palestine. the Trans-Jordan (which was originally part of Palestine in antiquity). In 1917. Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Adminitration. and Iraq fell into British control – having been distributed to them by the league of Nations in 1922. the first High Commissioner. Ḥayyim Weizmann.  . in 1920. during the first World War. In Britain. this military advisory was replaced by a civilian administration lead by Herbert Samuel.

6. apartheid. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem joined the Nazis. racism.” The Establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.000 Palestinian Jews fought along side the British.   . They were called the Palestinian Regiment.   Palestinian Muslims were divided. Nazis encouraged Arab support. Al-Nakba – The Palestinian Exodus – and a “captivity held hostage to an ongoing Nakba.000 Palestinian Arabs and 30. during the war to offset British authority. as the most intricate and pervasive expression of persistent colonialism. as a way to get back Palestine from the Zionists and the British. and victimization.

where Hebrew is spoken. It is distinguished from West Jerusalem.  . Called “Arab Jerusalem” where Arabic is spoken. then captured and annexed by Israel in the Six-Day War. Annexed by Jordan after the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. referred to as Israeli Jerusalem.

It advocates that dispersed Jews return to the land and that they are to be the sovereign majority. We [Allah] shall assemble you [the Israelites] all together [in the Land of Israel]. There is also Jewish AntiZionism which opposes the existence of the Jewish state until the Messiah arrives and establishes a Kingdom ruled by the Torah. When the promise of the hereafter [Endof Days] comes to be fulfilled.“ .  Sheikh Palazzi notes that he supports that Jews are to be sovereign in the land of Palestine based on Qur'an 17: 100-104: Then We [Allah] said to the Israelites: 'Dwell in this land [the Land of Israel].JEWISH ZIONISM  MUSLIM “ZIONISM”  Jewish nationalism and Jewish culture that support a Jewish state in the territory of Palestine.

• He was quickly tried. After twelve years of debate and petitions. Captain Alfred Dreyfus. condemned for high treason. Esterhazy. when a Jewish officer in the French Army. • . and sent to a penitentiary on a far-flung island. his supporters were able to reverse the decision. while the real spy.The Dreyfus Affair • The Dreyfus Affair broke out in France in 1894. was discovered. clear Dreyfus's record and rehabilitate him in the army in 1906. was suddenly arrested and (wrongfully) accused of spying on behalf of Germany.

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In 1919. During the Fall of 1917. there was great support for the Balfour Declaration from Mecca's daily news paper. March 23. signed the Faisal–Weizmann Agreement for Arab-Jewish cooperation. in which Faisal conditionally accepted the Balfour Declaration speaking for all in his realm. President of the World Zionist Organization. with rights for all non-Jews. that Palestine would be the national home for the Jewish people. king Faisal I of Iraq and Dr. named after the foreign secretary. 1918. the British Cabinet issued a declaration. Chaim Weizmann.   . Al-Qibla.

Palestine and neighboring territories came under British administration.   . The formal objective of the League of Nations Mandate system was to administer parts of what used to be under Ottoman rule until such nations were able to stand on their own. They sought to set up legitimacy for their continued control of the region and this was achieved by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations. The British Mandate consists of 28 Articles which ensure that Jews will have a “National Home”. After WWI. and that rights will be given to foreigners (non-Jews).

  . will in reality be the product of the benevolent efforts of all humanity. though blossoming through the skill of the modern Jew and the best of European heritage. the Jewish State. written in 1895. Altnueland. an incident occured in France in which a French Jewish army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. outlines his reasoning for the need to reestablish the historic Jewish State. He became a journalist where he covered the Dreyfus Affair as the correspondent for a french news paper. believe that the Jews must remove themselves from Europe and create their own state. Der Judenstaat. envisions a Jewish state. a fore-novel devoted to Zionism published in English He desried a state.

Modi`in `Illith. in settlements in East Jerusalem and in settlements in the Golan Heights. Ma`ale Adumim and Betar `Illith. Israelis live in officially recognized settlements in the West Bank. . East Jerusalem. Such settlements currently exist in the West Bank. Israeli settlements are the Jewish civilian communities built on lands occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War.   As of December 2010. Both were originally proposed by the Plan of Partition attached to Resolution 181(II) of the General Assembly of 29 November 1947. The three largest settlements. Settlements also existed in the Sinai and Gaza Strip until Israel evacuated the Sinai settlements following the 1979 Israel-Egypt peace. and in the Golan Heights.

The Sasson Report.    Urban suburbs. Block settlements. such as Gush Eṣiyon and settlements in the Nablus area. Frontier villages. found that several government ministries had cooperated to establish illegal outposts. such as those along the Jordan River. . Outposts are small settlements which are sometimes unauthorized. commissioned by Ariel Sharon's administration. such as Har Gilo.

the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. Israel launched surprise raids against Egyptian air-fields. . and the Golan Heights from Syria. 1967. the Jordaniancontrolled West Bank. and aerial clashes over Syrian territory. Israel attacks Syrian positions in the Golan Heights as a response to Syrian artillery attacks against Israeli settlements in the vicinity of the border   Israel took control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt.Israel Egypt (United Arab Repubic) Jordan Syria   The third Arab-Israeli war took place between June 5 and 10.

youtube. and between Arabs and Israelis. the conflict has shifted to a more local Israeli– Palestinian conflict. https://www. over territorial ambitions after the demise of the Ottoman Empire.com/w atch?v=ls1nsfKU2qE . Over the years. The causes of the modern Arab – Israeli conflict reside in both Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 1800s.Arab-Israeli Conflict    The political and nationalistic tension and military conflicts between the Arab League and Israel.

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