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– – – – – – – – – – – Height of Bus Centerline above foundation = 5.5 m Schedule 40 aluminum bus = 100 mm (mass = 5.51 kg/m) Maximum Short Circuit force = 550 N/m Short Circuit reduction factor = 0.66 Bus Support Spacing = 6.0 m Insulator Height (hi) = 2.0 m Insulator Diameter (Di) = 0.28 m Insulator Weight (Wi) = 140 kg Basic Wind Speed (Vb) = 33 m/sec (Zone = 1) Reliability level = 2 (Return period of design loads 150 yrs) Terrain Category = 2

LATTICE STRUCTURE DETAILS:Main Leg = ISA65x65x6 @ 5.8kg/m Bracing, Inclined = ISA45x45x5 @ 3.4kg/m Plan = ISA45x45x5 @ 3.4kg/m Part of Structure = 04 Each Part Length = 850 mm Inclined Length = 931 mm Back to Back of Str. = 380 mm

• Short-Circuit Loading:• • • • Fsc = 6.0 m x 0.66 x 550 N/m Fsc = 2178 N Mom @ Base = 5.5 m x 2178 N Mom @ Base = 11979 N.m

Wind Loading :• • • • • • • • • • • IS 802 (Part 1 / Sec 1) :1995, Basic wind speed Vb = 33 m/sec Metrological Reference wind speed VR is, VR = Vb / K0 , where K0 = 1.375 (cl. 8.2 pg 3) VR = 33 / 1.375 = 24 m/sec Design wind speed Vd = VR x K1 x K2, Where K1 = Risk Coeff. (cl. 8.3.1) K1 = 1.08 (Table 2) Where K2 = Terrain roughness coeff. (cl.8.3.2) K2 = 1.00 (Table 3) Design wind speed Vd = 24 x 1.08 x 1.0 = 25.92 m/sec

Wind Loading :Design wind pressure Pd = 0.6 Vd2 (cl. 8.4) Pd = 0.6 x 25.92 x 25.92 = 403.11 N/sq.m ============================================== Wind load on Conductor Fwc (cl 9.2) Fwc = Pd x Cdc x L x d x Gc, Where, Cdc = Drag coeff, taken as 1.0 for conductor L = wind span, being sum of half the span on either side of supporting point in meters d = diameter of cable / tube Gc = gust response factor (Table 7) = 1.83 Fwc = 403.11 x 1.0 x 6 x 0.1 x 1.83 Fwc = 442.615 N (737.7 N/sq.m)

Wind Loading :• • • • • Wind load on Insulator Strings (Fwi) :- (cl 9.3) Fwi = Cdi x Pd x Ai x Gi Where, Cdi = drag coeff to be taken as 1.2 Ai = 50 % of the area of insulator string projected on a plane which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the string • Gi = Gust response factor (Table 6) = 1.92 • Fwi = 1.2 x 403.11 x 0.5 x 2 x 0.28 x 1.92 • Fwi = 260.1 N (928.8 N/sq.m)

Wind Loading :• Wind on structure Fwt = Pd x Cdt x Ae x Gt • Where, • Cdt = Drag coeff for panel under consideration against which the wind is blowing . Values of Cdt for different solidity ratios are given in Table 5. • Solidity ratio (Φ) is equal to the effective area of a frame normal to the wind direction divided by the area enclosed by the boundary of the frame normal to the wind direction. • Solidity ratio (Φ) = Aeff / Agross • Ae = Total net surface area of the legs, bracing, cross arms and secondary members of the panel projected normal to the face in m2 • Gt = Gust response factor, Table 6

Member 1 2,4,6 & 8 3,5,7 & 9

Nos 2 4 4

Length (m) 3.4 0.931 0.38

Width (m) 0.065 0.045 0.045

Area (sq.m) 0.442 0.168 0.068 0.678 1.292

**Total Net Surface Area Ae =
**

Gross Surface Area Ag = 3.4 m x 0.38 m

Solidity Ratio (Φ) = Ae / Ag Φ = 0.678 / 1.292 = 0.525 Drag Coeff Cdt = 2.0 (Table 5) Gt = 1.92 (Table 6) Fwt = 403.11 x 2 x 0.678 x 1.92 Fwt = 1049.50 N (1547.92 N/sq.m)

Wind load summary :Description Wind on Bus (Fwc) Wind on Insulator (Fwi) Wind on Structure (Fwt) Totals Force (N) 442.62 260.1 1049.5 1752.22 Lever Arm (m) 5.5 4.4 1.7 Moment @ Base (N.m) 2434.41 1144.44 1784.15 5363.00

Earthquake Loading:IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 Design Horizontal Acceleration Coeff (Ah), Ah = Z I / 2R * Sa/g Z = Zone factor = Zone II = 0.10 (Table 2) I = Importance factor = 1.5 (Table 6) R = Response reduction factor = 4 (Table 7) Sa/g = Avg. response acceleration coeff for rock or soil sites as given by fig 2 & Table 3 based on appropriate natural periods and damping of the structure. Fundamental Natural Period Ta = 0.085 h0.75 Ta = 0.085 x 3.40.75 = 0.213 sec Sa/g = 2.5 Hence, Ah = 0.10 x 1.5 x 2.5 / 2 x 4 = 0.047

Earthquake Loading:IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 Design Seismic Base Shear VB = Ah W W = Seismic weight of the structure Description

EQ on Bus EQ on Insulator EQ on Structure

Force (N)

L.A (m)

Moment @ Base (N.m) 83.82 284.02 141.08 508.92

Totals

6m x 5.51 kg/m x 9.81 5.5 x 0.047 = 15.24 140kg x 9.81 x 0.047 = 4.4 64.55 180kg x 9.81 x 0.047 = 1.7 82.99 162.78

Results:• SCF + WL :Force = 2178 + 1752.22 = 3930.22 N Moment @ Base = 11979 + 5363 = 17342 N • SCF + EQ :Force = 2178 + 162.78 = 2340.78 N Moment @ Base = 11979 + 508.92 = 12487.92 N The combined loading of wind and short-circuit forces produce the greatest forces and moment at the base design for this condition. Therefore seismic forces are not critical for this structure.

Forces in the Member:Moment at the base causes tension and compression in the chord angles. C = Tensile or Compressive force C = 17342 N.m / [ 2(0.380 – 2 x 0.0181)] C = 25221.1 N per leg P = Applied load P + C = [140 x 9.81 + 6 x 54] / 4 + 25221.1 P + C = 25645.45 N per leg Forces in bracing member shall be 25 % of the leg member.

Thank you..

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