Motion Simulation and Mechanism (Design

with COSMOSMotion 2007

Kuang-Hua Chang, Ph.D.
School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering The University of Oklahoma

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Motion Simulation m£ Mechanism (Design
with COSMOSMotion 2007

Kuang-Hua Chang, Ph.D.
School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering The University of Oklahoma

ISBN: 978-1-58503-482-6

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Copyright © 2008 by Kuang-Hua Chang.
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Y o u m a y d o w n l o a d all m o d e l files and Excel spreadsheets from the w e b site of Schroff Development Corporation at: http://www. Y o u m a y w a n t to start each lesson by reviewing the introduction and m o d e l sections and opening the assembly in COSMOSMotion to see the m o t i o n simulation. and visualizing simulation results. Rigid Body Dynamics. this b o o k m a y not contain every single detail about COSMOSMotion.solidworks. this b o o k assumes that y o u are familiar with the basic concept and operation of SolidWorks part and assembly m o d e s . This b o o k also serves class instructions well. such as assigning m o v i n g parts and creating j o i n t s and constraints. Therefore.com/resources This b o o k is written following a project-based learning approach and is intentionally k e p t simple to help y o u learn COSMOSMotion. Before arriving at that level. Basic concepts discussed in this b o o k include m o d e l generation.schroff. y o u m a y use on-line help in COSMOSMotion. Verifying the simulation results will increase y o u r confidence in using the software and prevent y o u from being fooled (hopefully. A self-learner should be able to complete all lessons in this b o o k in about fifty hours. It requires a certain level of experience and expertise to master the software. The b o o k will m o s t likely be used as a supplemental textbook for courses like Mechanism Design. only occasionally) by any erroneous simulations produced by the software. carrying out simulation and animation. rather than providing an in-depth discussion on the subject of m e c h a n i s m design. These concepts are introduced using simple. using COSMOSMotion for support of design decision m a k i n g contributes to a m o r e cost effective. reliable. in h o p e of gaining m o r e understanding about the e x a m p l e problems. E x a m p l e files h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d for y o u to go t h r o u g h the lessons. y o u are expected to h a v e basic Physics and Mathematics background. an add-on m o d u l e of the SolidWorks software family. such as graphs and spreadsheet data. Computer-Aided Design. as well as completed COSMOSMotion m o d e l s . or visit the w e b site of SolidWorks Corporation at: http://www. Capabilities in COSMOSMotion support y o u to use solid m o d e l s created in SolidWorks to simulate and visualize m e c h a n i s m m o t i o n and performance. it is critical for y o u to verify the simulation results w h e n e v e r possible. and efficient product design process. COSMOSMotion is not foolproof. yet realistic examples. This b o o k covers the basic concepts and frequently used c o m m a n d s required to advance readers from a novice to an intermediate level in using COSMOSMotion. O n e of the u n i q u e features of this b o o k is the incorporation of theoretical discussions for kinematic a n d dynamic analyses in conjunction with the simulation results obtained using COSMOSMotion. Therefore. In addition. An investment of fifty hours should advance y o u from a novice to an intermediate level user. If such describes y o u . preferably a B a c h e l o r ' s degree in science or engineering. Excel spreadsheets that support the theoretical verifications of selected examples are also available. F o r a complete reference of COSMOSMotion. including SolidWorks parts and assemblies. Using COSMOSMotion early in the product development stage could prevent costly (and sometimes painful) redesign due to design defects found in the physical testing phase. T h e p u r p o s e of the theoretical discussions lies in solely supporting the verification of simulation results.com/ This b o o k should serve self-learners well. or .Mechanism Design with COSMOSMotion Preface This b o o k is written to help y o u b e c o m e familiar w i t h COSMOSMotion. Verifying the results obtained from the computer simulation is extremely important. In addition. w h i c h supports m o d e l i n g a n d analysis (or simulation) of m e c h a n i s m s in a virtual (computer) environment.

reproduced.e. Charles and Annie. T h o m a s Cates. for their excellent contribution in creating examples for the application lesson. I w o u l d like to thank our Creator. All rights reserved. The author strongly encourages instructors and/or teaching assistants to go through those exercises before assigning t h e m to students. transmitted. Petr Sramek. Finally. I am grateful to my current and former students. Stephen Schroff at Schroff D e v e l o p m e n t Corporation for his e n c o u r a g e m e n t and help. This b o o k should cover four to six w e e k s of class instruction. my wife Sheng-Mei for her unconditional giving and encouragement. T h a n k s are also due to undergraduate students at the University of O k l a h o m a ( O U ) for their help in testing e x a m p l e s included in this book.2008 Copyright 2 0 0 8 by K u a n g . i.. This d o c u m e n t m a y not be copied. for their understanding. T h e y m a d e n u m e r o u s suggestions that i m p r o v e d clarity of presentation and found n u m e r o u s errors that w o u l d h a v e otherwise crept into the book. especially. depending on h o w the courses are taught and the technical b a c k g r o u n d of the students. Oklahoma May 15. this b o o k w o u l d still be in its primitive stage. photocopied. Their contributions to this b o o k are greatly appreciated. caring. Without his encouragement. Acknowledgements I w o u l d like to thank my family for the patience and support they h a v e given to me in completing this book. and Tyler Bunting. A c k n o w l e d g m e n t is due to Mr. KHC Norman. T h a n k s are due to my children. Lesson 8.ii Mechanism Design with COSMOSMotion Computer-Aided Engineering. w h o has given me the strength and intelligence to complete this book.H u a C h a n g . T h e assistive device project e m p l o y e d as the example in Lesson 8 was successful and well recognized. a n d appreciation. or translated in any form or for any purpose without the express written consent of the publisher Schroff D e v e l o p m e n t Corporation. . I appreciate their patience in reviewing the w h o l e b o o k and correcting a few sentences for m e . Especially. S o m e of the exercise problems given at the end of the lessons m a y require significant effort for students to complete.

pediatric assistive w a l k i n g device. students at OU h a v e been involved in developing m a n y other assistive devices. This is a special m e c h a n i s m that can be m o u n t e d on a wheelchair to m i m i c soccer ball-kicking action while being operated by a child sitting on the wheelchair with limited mobility a n d h a n d strength. and private donations. In 1997. In addition to the soccer ball kicking device. He has b e e n invited to deliver talks a n d offer short courses for US and foreign companies and universities. All supports are sincerely appreciated. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of I o w a in 1987 and 1990. In addition. etc. in 1980. B P A M O C O G o o d Teaching A w a r d (2002). and P h . C h a n g teaches m e c h a n i c a l design and manufacturing. All these projects require customized features to meet special needs. OK. an Undergraduate student t e a m is developing a transporting device that will help a local resident with only functional right h a n d m o v e from her wheelchair to her b e d and vise versa independently. He received his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from the National Taipei Institute of Technology. including the OU A l u m n i Teaching A w a r d (Spring 2007 and Fall 2007). N o r m a n .Mechanism Design with COSMOSMotion iii About the Author Dr. Dr. Students w e r e also involved in developing special b a b y crib. This device w a s intended primarily to be u s e d in the s u m m e r c a m p sponsored by the children hospital. C h a n g w o n awards in b o t h teaching and research in the past few years. He is a recipient of the S A E R a l p h R . in the past. This example w a s extracted from an undergraduate student design project that w a s carried out in conjunction with a local children hospital. and a M . In 1996. B o r e n for meeting the highest standards of excellence in scholarship and teaching. D . Teetor A w a r d (2006). he j o i n e d N o r t h e r n Illinois University as an Assistant Professor. He has also served as a technical consultant to US industry and foreign companies. R e g e n t s ' A w a r d on Superior Research a n d Creative Activities (2004). Currently. S . respectively.2 0 0 8 . His research w o r k has b e e n published in m o r e than 100 articles in international j o u r n a l s and conference proceedings. C h a n g w a s n a m e d Williams Companies Foundation Presidential Professor in 2005 by OU President D a v i d L. Dr. and modification of a child walker. Go Sooners! This device w a s created for the purpose of enhancing experience and encouraging children with physical disabilities to participate in a soccer g a m e . and Junior Faculty A w a r d (1999). in addition to conducting research in computer-aided m o d e l i n g and simulation for design and manufacturing of mechanical systems as well as bioengineering applications. he received several awards from O U . Outstanding Asian A m e r i c a n A w a r d sponsored b y O k l a h o m a Asian A m e r i c a n Association (2003). Schlumberger. a n d Public E m p l o y e e A w a r d o f O K C M a y o r ' s C o m m i t t e e A w a r d o n Disability Concerns (2002).H u a C h a n g is a Williams Companies Foundation Presidential Professor at the University of O k l a h o m a ( O U ) . K u a n g . Dr. he j o i n e d O U . About the Cover Page T h e picture displayed on the cover p a g e is the m o t i o n m o d e l of an assistive device designed and built by engineering students at the University of O k l a h o m a ( O U ) during 2 0 0 7 . . These projects h a v e b e e n supported by H o n o r s College of O U .. This device has been e m p l o y e d as the application example to be discussed in Lesson 8 of this book. Since then. Taiwan. he has j o i n e d the Center for ComputerA i d e d D e s i g n ( C C A D ) at I o w a as a Research Scientist a n d C A E Technical Manager.

3 1.1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson 4.4 1.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion 2.2 1.4 Result Verifications Exercises 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-5 4-9 .2 T h e Ball T h r o w i n g E x a m p l e 2.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion 4.1 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n 2.1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson 3.4 Result Verifications Exercises 3-1 3-1 3-3 3-10 3-15 Lesson 4: A Simple P e n d u l u m 4.2 T h e Spring-Mass System 3.2 T h e Simple P e n d u l u m E x a m p l e 4.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion 3.iv Mechanism Design with COSMOSMotion Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgments A b o u t the A u t h o r A b o u t the Cover P a g e Table o f Contents i 11 iii iii i v Lesson 1: Introduction to COSMOSMotion 1.1 1.4 Result Verifications Exercises 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-12 2-14 Lesson 3: A Spring M a s s System 3.5 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n W h a t is COSMOSMotion? M e c h a n i s m Design and M o t i o n Analysis COSMOSMotion Capabilities Motion Examples 1-1 1-1 1-3 1-5 1-16 Lesson 2: A Ball T h r o w i n g E x a m p l e 2.

2 T h e Gear Train E x a m p l e 6.2 8.1 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n 5.1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson 7.C r a n k M e c h a n i s m 5.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion Exercises 6-1 6-2 6-6 6-9 Lesson 7: C a m a n d Follower 7.Mechanism Design with COSMOSMotion v L e s s o n 5: A S l i d e r .3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion 5.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion Exercises 7-1 7-1 7-6 7-10 Lesson 8: Assistive Device for W h e e l c h a i r Soccer G a m e s 8.5 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n T h e Assistive D e v i c e U s i n g COSMOSMotion Result Discussion C o m m e n t s on COSMOSMotion Capabilities and Limitations 8-1 8-2 8-7 8-20 8-20 A p p e n d i x A : Defining Joints A p p e n d i x B : T h e Unit Systems A p p e n d i x C: I m p o r t i n g Pro/ENGINEER Parts a n d A s s e m b l i e s A-l B-l C-l .4 8.2 The Slider-Crank E x a m p l e 5.3 8.2 The C a m and Follower E x a m p l e 7.4 Result Verifications Exercises 5-1 5-1 5-4 5-13 5-17 Lesson 6: A C o m p o u n d S p u r G e a r Train 6.1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson 6.1 8.

Notes: .

COSMOSMotion is a virtual prototyping tool that supports m e c h a n i s m analysis and design. COSMOSMotion will help y o u analyze and eventually design better engineering products. M o r e specifically. An internal combustion engine s h o w n in Figures 1-1 a n d 1-2 will be u s e d to illustrate s o m e typical questions. 1. we will m e n t i o n examples e m p l o y e d in this b o o k and topics to learn from these examples. Will the c o m p o n e n t s of the m e c h a n i s m collide in operation? For example. understand gear drives. N o t e that materials presented in this lesson will be kept brief. a n d v i e w i n g m o t i o n analysis results. We will then discuss capabilities offered by COSMOSMotion for creating m o t i o n m o d e l s . In the final section. This software supports users to create virtual m e c h a n i s m s that answer general questions in product design as described next.T h e purpose of this lesson is to provide y o u with a brief overview on COSMOSMotion. COSMOSMotion is a m o d u l e of the SolidWorks product family developed by SolidWorks Corporation. we will start with a brief introduction to COSMOSMotion and the various types of physical problems that COSMOSMotion is capable of solving. In this lesson. W i t h such information. develop c a m s .2 W h a t is COSMOSMotion? COSMOSMotion is a computer software tool that supports engineers to analyze and design m e c h a n i s m s . In the long run. using virtual prototyping tools. will help y o u b e c o m e a m o r e experienced and competent design engineer. Y o u will be able to modify the design and often achieve better design alternatives using the m o r e convenient and less expensive virtual prototypes. will the piston stay entirely in the piston sleeve? Will the system lock up w h e n the firing force aligns vertically with the connecting rod? 2. the software enables y o u to size motors and actuators. such as COSMOSMotion. determine p o w e r consumption. M o r e details on various aspects of m e c h a n i s m design and analysis using COSMOSMotion will be given in later lessons. 1. . y o u will gain insight on h o w the m e c h a n i s m w o r k s a n d w h y it behaves in certain w a y s . will the connecting rod collide with the inner surface of the piston or the inner surface of the engine case during operation? Will the c o m p o n e n t s in the m e c h a n i s m y o u design m o v e according to y o u r intent? For example. layout linkages. y o u m a y use COSMOSMotion to evaluate and refine the m e c h a n i s m before finalizing the design a n d entering the functional prototyping stage. and determine h o w contacting parts b e h a v e . size springs and dampers. w h i c h w o u l d usually require tests of physical prototypes. Instead of building and testing physical prototypes of the m e c h a n i s m . conducting m o t i o n analyses.

e. a change in the bore . a change in dimension value can be propagated to all parts affected automatically.g. A smaller reaction force applied to the connecting rod. It is critical that a design p r o b l e m be clearly defined by the designer up front before searching for better design alternatives. In order to vary c o m p o n e n t sizes for exploring better design alternatives. W h e n a solid m o d e l is fully parameterized. i.. For the engine example. At the assembly level. 5. 4.. they m u s t be strong and durable e n o u g h to sustain the load in operation. and at the same time. H o w fast will the c o m p o n e n t s m o v e . H o w m u c h torque or force does it take to drive the m e c h a n i s m ? For example. a better design alternative can be a design that reveals: 1.e. 2. A better design alternative is very m u c h p r o b l e m dependent. the parts and assembly m u s t be adequately parameterized to capture design intents. the longitudinal m o t i o n of the piston? W h a t is the reaction force or torque generated at a connection (also called joint or constraint) b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t s (or bodies) during m o t i o n ? For example. in this engine example. w h a t will be the m i n i m u m firing load to m o v e the piston? N o t e that in this case. proper friction forces m u s t be a d d e d to simulate the resistance of the m e c h a n i s m before a realistic firing force can be calculated. The capabilities available in COSMOSMotion also help y o u search for better design alternatives. they will h a v e to maintain proper position a n d orientation w i t h respect to one another without violating any assembly mates or revealing part penetration or excessive gaps. At the parts level.3. design parameterization implies creating solid features and relating dimensions properly. Parts affected m u s t be rebuilt successfully. F o r example. and No collisions or interference b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t s . design parameterization involves defining assembly mates and relating dimensions across parts. w h a t is the reaction force at the j o i n t between the connecting r o d and the piston pin? This reaction force is critical since the structural integrity of the piston pin and the connecting r o d m u s t be ensured.

Such kinematic chains. but all other parts affected. a m e c h a n i s m can be represented by its corresponding schematic drawing for analysis purpose. such as a revolute joint. such as the piston. all links are a s s u m e d rigid. as illustrated in Figure 1-3. see Figure 1-4). with at least one link fixed. w h i c h are connected by j o i n t s (or connections). w h i c h is a closed loop m e c h a n i s m . b e c o m e m e c h a n i s m s . 1. F o r example. A linkage consists of links (or bodies).3 M e c h a n i s m Design a n d M o t i o n Analysis A m e c h a n i s m is a mechanical device that transfers m o t i o n and/or force from a source to an output. as s h o w n in Figure 1-5. It can be an abstraction (simplified m o d e l ) of a mechanical system. a slider-crank m e c h a n i s m represents the engine motion. M o r e o v e r . . a n d even the crankshaft. In general.diameter of the engine case will alter not only the geometry of the case itself. In this book. piston sleeve. to form open or closed chains (or loops. they all have to be rebuilt properly and the entire assembly must stay intact through assembly mates.

a torque driving the system). m is the total m a s s of the block. and acceleration of each link of the m e c h a n i s m can be analyzed at any given time.. m o m e n t of inertia. D y n a m i c analysis is the study of m o t i o n in response to externally applied loads. In this case. m a s s properties (such as the total m a s s . D y n a m i c analysis of a rigid b o d y system. H o w e v e r . e. velocity. / is the polar m o m e n t of inertia of the p e n d u l u m . The d y n a m i c behavior of a m e c h a n i s m is g o v e r n e d by N e w t o n ' s laws of motion. the inertia of the bodies will be t a k e n into account for analysis.g. N e w t o n ' s law m u s t be o b e y e d by every single b o d y in the system at all time.. T h e simplest d y n a m i c p r o b l e m is the particle d y n a m i c s introduced in S o p h o m o r e D y n a m i c s — f o r example. and then carry out d y n a m i c analyses. a spring-mass-damper system s h o w n in Figure 1-6. a kinematic analysis m u s t be conducted before dynamic b e h a v i o r of the m e c h a n i s m can be simulated properly.1) w h e r e (•) appearing on top of the physical quantities represents t i m e derivative of the quantities.g. such as the single piston engine s h o w n in Figure 1-3. and acceleration results are identical to those of kinematic analysis. is a lot m o r e complicated than the single b o d y problems. there are t w o types of m o t i o n p r o b l e m s that y o u will h a v e to solve in order to answer questions regarding m e c h a n i s m analysis and design: kinematic a n d dynamic. . For example. m is the p e n d u l u m m a s s . N o t e that in COSMOSMotion. etc. a system of differential and algebraic equations governs the m o t i o n a n d the d y n a m i c behavior of the system. Usually. Reaction loads at the j o i n t connections h o l d the bodies together. velocity. position. reaction forces will be calculated b e t w e e n bodies. m o t i o n of a p e n d u l u m s h o w n in Figure 1-7 is g o v e r n e d by the following equation of motion. therefore.In general. using a m o t i o n driver to drive the m e c h a n i s m . Typically. g is the gravitational acceleration. and c is the d a m p i n g coefficient. A kinematic m e c h a n i s m m u s t be driven by a servomotor (or m o t i o n driver) so that the position. and 6 is the angular acceleration of the p e n d u l u m . center of m a s s . (1.2) w h e r e M is the external m o m e n t (or torque). In d y n a m i c analysis.) are taken into account for d y n a m i c analysis. T h e m o t i o n of the system will be determined by the loads acting on the bodies or j o i n t axes (e. K i n e m a t i c s is the study of m o t i o n w i t h o u t regard for the forces that cause the motion. Y M = -mgl s i n 0 = 10 = m£ 0 2 d (1. m o t i o n of the m a s s is g o v e r n e d by the following equation derived from N e w t o n ' s second law. k is the spring constant. F o r a rigid b o d y . y o u m a y create a kinematic analysis m o d e l .

M o r e details about the analysis capabilities in COSMOSMotion will be discussed later in this lesson. all m a s s properties calculated in SolidWorks are ready for use. It is indeed an add-on m o d u l e of SolidWorks. etc. a n d result visualization (or post-processing). are supported. assembly m a t e s . servo m o t o r s (or m o t i o n drivers) that drive the m e c h a n i s m for kinematic analysis. K e y entities that constitute a m o t i o n m o d e l include ground parts that are always fixed. SolidWorks users should find it is straightforward to m a n e u v e r in COSMOSMotion. In addition to A V I . w h i c h solves the equations of m o t i o n for your m e c h a n i s m . T h e analysis or simulation capabilities in COSMOSMotion e m p l o y simulation engine. In addition. joints and constraints that connect and restrict relative m o t i o n b e t w e e n parts. as s h o w n in Figure 1-9. velocity. such as the acceleration of a m o v i n g part in the t i m e domain. or generate graphs for m o r e specific information. and reaction forces acting on each m o v i n g part in the m e c h a n i s m . To d o w n l o a d Cosmo Player for Windows. Operation Mode COSMOSMotion is e m b e d d e d in SolidWorks.4 COSMOSMotion Capabilities Ground Parts The overall process of using COSMOSMotion for analyzing a mechanism consists of three m a i n steps: m o d e l generation. materials. . such as the reaction force of a j o i n t in t i m e domain. defined in SolidWorks are automatically carried over into COSMOSMotion. In addition. as illustrated in Figure 1-8. a plug-in to y o u r W e b browser. ADAMS/Solver. Y o u m a y also convert the m o t i o n animation to an A V I for faster v i e w i n g and file portability. including static (equilibrium configuration) and m o t i o n (kinematic a n d dynamic). the detailed part g e o m e t r y supports interference checking for the m e c h a n i s m during m o t i o n simulation in COSMOSMotion. y o u can export animations to V R M L format for distribution on the Internet. analysis (or simulation). ADAMS/Solver calculates the position. y o u m a y ask for a report on results that y o u specified. acceleration. external loads (force and torque). Y o u m a y also query results at specific locations for a given time. Y o u m a y animate m o t i o n of the m e c h a n i s m . User Interfaces User interface of the COSMOSMotion is identical to that of SolidWorks. to v i e w V R M L files. and transition from SolidWorks to COSMOSMotion is seamless. M o r e details about these entities will be discussed later in this lesson.nist. go to http://ovrt. Typical simulation p r o b l e m s . m o v i n g parts that are m o v a b l e . T h e analysis results can be visualized in various forms. Y o u can then use Cosmo Player. All the solid m o d e l s .1. In COSMOSMotion. part geometry is essential for m a s s property computations in m o t i o n analysis. and the initial conditions of the m e c h a n i s m .gov/cosmo/. COSMOSMotion can be accessed t h r o u g h m e n u s and w i n d o w s inside SolidWorks. Furthermore. T h e same assembly created in SolidWorks can be directly employed for creating m o t i o n m o d e l s in COSMOSMotion.

such as the Fast Reverse button shown in Figure 1-9. create and run analyses. the browser. T h e global coordinate system at the lower left corner of the graphics screen is fixed and serves as the reference for all the physical parameters defined in the m o t i o n model. the graphics screen.d o w n m e n u s a n d the shortcut buttons at the top of the screen provide typical SolidWorks functions. This Motion button will allow y o u to access COSMOSMotion. T h e assembly shortcut buttons allow y o u to assemble your SolidWorks m o d e l . and visualize results. T h e graphics screen displays the m o t i o n m o d e l with w h i c h y o u are working. an extra tab $ (the Motion button) is available on top of the browser. . the user interface w i n d o w of COSMOSMotion consists of pull-down m e n u s . the m e s s a g e w i n d o w . will appear. W h e n COSMOSMotion is active. As y o u m o v e the m o u s e over a button. etc. shortcut buttons. The COSMOSMotion shortcut buttons on top of the graphics screen s h o w n in Figure 1-9 provide all the functions required to create and modify the m o t i o n m o d e l s . a brief description about the functionality of the button. T h e p u l l .As s h o w n in Figure 1-9.

a COSMOSMotion pull-down m e n u also provides similar options. F o r example. the Message w i n d o w . . Switching back and forth b e t w e e n COSMOSMotion and SolidWorks assembly m o d e is straightforward. In addition. hierarchical v i e w of m o t i o n m o d e l and allow y o u to access all COSMOSMotion functionalities t h r o u g h a combination of drag-and-drop and right-click activated m e n u s . as s h o w n in Figure 1-11 to Moving Parts u n d e r the Parts branch to define it as a m o v i n g part. T h e y are the COSMOSMotion shortcut buttons shown in Figure 1-9. as shown in Figure 1-10. T h e shortcut buttons in COSMOSMotion and their functions are also s u m m a r i z e d in Table 1-1 with a few m o r e details.W h e n y o u choose a m e n u option. and choose Add Translational Spring to add a spring. the b r o w s e r will provide y o u with a graphical. located at the top of the graphics screen. simulation and post processing features. Especially. a different set of entities will be listed in the browser. F o r example. Y o u m a y also right click an entity a n d choose to define or edit its property. y o u m a y drag and drop connectingrod_asm-l under the Assembly Components. y o u m a y right click the Springs n o d e u n d e r Forces b r a n c h in Figure 112. shows a brief description about the option. an additional toolbar is a d d e d to SolidWorks. This toolbar provides settings. W h e n y o u click the Motion button <f? to enter COSMOSMotion. W h e n y o u click the Motion button. at the lower left corner s h o w n in Figure 1-9. as depicted in Figure 1-13. All y o u h a v e to do is to click the Motion J? or Assembly buttons ^ (on top of the browser) w h e n needed. In addition to these buttons. Click some of the buttons and try to get familiar with their functions. the Play Simulation button is h a n d y when y o u finish running a simulation and are ready to animate the motion.

. performing m o t i o n simulations.tabbed dialog b o x and a w i z a r d that leads y o u t h r o u g h the process of converting an assembly m o d e l into a m o t i o n m o d e l . and v i e w i n g simulation results.

to define g r o u n d and m o v i n g parts. for e x a m p l e Parts. m o v i n g parts. simulation. . the IntelliMotion Builder is very helpful in terms of leading y o u t h r o u g h the steps of creating simulations m o d e l s . and animation process. E a c h of the basic entities will be briefly discussed next. constraints (including joints). Defining COSMOSMotion Entities T h e basic entities of a valid COSMOSMotion simulation m o d e l consist of g r o u n d parts. and forces and/or drivers. and then select IntelliMotion Builder (see Figure 1-14). and visualizing the simulation results.To u s e the IntelliMotion Builder. click the IntelliMotion Builder button or right-click the Motion Model n o d e (the root entity of the m o t i o n m o d e l ) from the browser. For a new COSMOSMotion user. Table 1-2 gives a brief explanation of each tab available in the IntelliMotion Builder. F o r a m o r e experienced user. the drag-and-drop and right-click activated m e n u s m a y b e m o r e convenient. At the lower-left corner of each p a g e in the IntelliMotion Builder are the Back and Next buttons. w h i c h brings up the Units p a g e . T h e first tab is Units. running simulations. Y o u m a y also click a tab on top to j u m p to that p a g e directly. w h i c h help y o u m o v e sequentially t h r o u g h the m o t i o n m o d e l creation. M o r e details can be found in later lessons. initial conditions.

Each independent m o v e m e n t permitted by a constraint is a free degree of freedom (dof). or coupler that connects t w o parts and constrains the relative m o t i o n b e t w e e n them. Y o u m a y either stay w i t h the j o i n t set converted by COSMOSMotion or delete s o m e of t h e m to create your own. w h i c h is s h o w n at the lower left corner on the graphics screen. M a s s properties. etc.m o v i n g parts as ground parts using either the IntelliMotion Builder or the drag-and-drop in the browser.. m a p p e d joints or mates are e m p l o y e d without any modification. for e x a m p l e the one b e t w e e n the propeller and the case shown in Figure 1-15. For example. H o w e v e r . the local coordinate system is assigned automatically. r d COSMOSMotion automatically converts assembly m a t e s to joints. as depicted in a hinge symbol s h o w n in Figure 116c. a revolute joint. For example. COSMOSMotion will simply carry over the assembly mates to m o t i o n if there is no adequate j o i n t to convert to. are calculated using part g e o m e t r y and material properties referring to the local coordinate system. a rigid b o d y can translate and rotate along the Y-. as illustrated in Figure l . it is strongly r e c o m m e n d e d that y o u stay with the converted j o i n t set before completing all the examples provided in this book. inertia. Typical joints include a revolute. three translational and three rotational.Ground Parts (or Ground Body) A g r o u n d part. usually. The degrees of freedom that a constraint allows can be translational or rotational along the three perpendicular axes. while a g r o u n d part has n o n e . both are along the c o m m o n axis. N o t e that instead of completely fixing all the m o v e m e n t s . M o r e about j o i n t s will be discussed in later lessons and for a list of c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d joints. a m o t i o n driver is defined at the rotation dof of the revolute j o i n t in the engine example. certain d o f s (translational and/or rotational) are left to allow designated m o v e m e n t . W h e n an assembly is assigned as a m o v i n g part. Also. or a g r o u n d body. A m o v i n g part has six degrees of freedom. etc. a concentric m a t e together with a coincident m a t e will be converted to a revolute joint. show t w o concentric cylinders implying t w o free d o f s.1 6 a ) attached. please refer to A p p e n d i x A. F o r a list of c o m m o n m a p p e d m a t e s . such as those defined in the engine e x a m p l e s h o w n in Figure 1-15. following the m a p p e d mates established internally. Also. the symbol of cylindrical joints. The first c o m p o n e n t brought into the assembly is usually stationary. Moving Parts (or Bodies) A m o v i n g part or b o d y is an entity represents a single rigid c o m p o n e n t (or link) that m o v e s relatively to other parts (or bodies). therefore. as shown in Figure 1-15. at the m a s s center of the part. contact. allows only one rotational dof. Rotation of a rigid b o d y is m e a s u r e d by referring the orientation of its local coordinate system to the global coordinate system. please refer to A p p e n d i x A. spherical. S o m e t i m e s . including total m a s s . a n d Z-axes of a coordinate system. usually located at its m a s s center. represents a fixed reference in space. a j o i n t produces equal and opposite reactions (forces and/or torques) on the bodies connected due to N e w t o n ' s 3 L a w . Understanding the j o i n t symbols will enable y o u to read existing m o t i o n m o d e l s . This m o t i o n driver will rotate the . In all the examples presented in this book.1 6 b . cylindrical. A m o v i n g part has a symbol (see Figure l . That is. Constraints A constraint (or connection) in COSMOSMotion can be a joint. n o n e of its c o m p o s i n g parts is allowed to m o v e relative to one another within the assembly. In COSMOSMotion.m o v i n g parts in y o u r assembly. A m o v i n g part m a y consist of a single SolidWorks part or an assembly c o m p o s e d of multiple parts. as s h o w n in Figure 1-15. a translational and a rotational. often b e c o m i n g a g r o u n d part. F o r example. and assign the n o n . Y o u will h a v e to identify m o v i n g and n o n . T h e free dof is revealed by the symbol of the constraint.

intermittent curve-curve. y o u m a y u s e the m o t i o n driver to drive the dof at a prescribed displacement or acceleration. point-curve. T h e contact constraints help to simulate physical p r o b l e m s m o r e realistically. T h e 3D contact is e m p l o y e d m o s t frequently. w h i c h applies a force to separate the parts w h e n they are in contact . and 3D contact. b o t h translation a n d rotational. COSMOSMotion supports four types of contact. COSMOSMotion provides contact and coupling constraints. In addition to joints. curve-curve.propeller at a prescribed angular velocity. Only the first t w o types of contact i m p o s e degree-of-freedom restrictions on the connected parts and are true constraints. In addition to prescribed velocity.

and prevent t h e m from penetrating each other. The 3D contact constraint will b e c o m e active as soon as the parts are touching. Joint couplers allow the m o t i o n of a revolute, cylindrical, or translational j o i n t to be c o u p l e d to the m o t i o n of another revolute, cylindrical or translational joint. T h e t w o coupled j o i n t s m a y be of the same or different types. For example, a revolute j o i n t m a y be coupled to a translational joint. T h e coupled m o t i o n m a y also be of the same or different type. F o r e x a m p l e , the rotary m o t i o n of a revolute j o i n t m a y be coupled to the rotary m o t i o n of a cylindrical joint, or the translational m o t i o n of a translational j o i n t m a y be coupled to the rotary m o t i o n of a cylindrical joint. A coupler r e m o v e s one additional degree of freedom from the m o t i o n m o d e l . Degrees of Freedom

As m e n t i o n e d earlier, an unconstrained b o d y in space has six degrees of freedom; i.e., three translational and three rotational. W h e n joints are a d d e d to connect bodies, constraints are i m p o s e d to restrict the relative m o t i o n b e t w e e n them. F o r example, the revolute j o i n t defined in the engine e x a m p l e restricts m o v e m e n t on five d o f s so that only one rotational m o t i o n is allowed b e t w e e n the propeller assembly and the engine case. Since the engine case is a g r o u n d b o d y , the propeller assembly will rotate along the axis of the revolute joint, as illustrated in the s y m b o l s h o w n in Figure 1-16b. Therefore, there is only one degree of freedom left for the propeller assembly. F o r a given m o t i o n m o d e l , y o u can determine its n u m b e r of degrees of freedom u s i n g the G r u e b l e r ' s count. COSMOSMotion uses the following equation to calculate the G r u e b l e r ' s count: D = 6M-N-0 (1.3)

w h e r e D is the G r u e b l e r ' s count representing the total degrees of freedom of the m e c h a n i s m , M i s the n u m b e r of bodies excluding the g r o u n d b o d y , TV is the n u m b e r of d o f s restricted by all joints, and O is the n u m b e r of m o t i o n drivers defined in the system. In general, a valid m o t i o n m o d e l should h a v e a G r u e b l e r ' s count 0. H o w e v e r , in creating m o t i o n m o d e l s , s o m e joints r e m o v e redundant d o f s . F o r example, t w o hinges, m o d e l e d using t w o revolute joints, support a door. T h e second revolute j o i n t adds five r e d u n d a n t d o f s. T h e G r u e b l e r ' s count b e c o m e s : D = 6x1 -2x5 = -4 For kinematic analysis, the G r u e b l e r ' s count m u s t be equal to or less than 0. T h e ADAMS/Solver recognizes a n d deactivates redundant constraints during analysis. For a k i n e m a t i c analysis, if y o u create a m o d e l and try to animate it with a G r u e b l e r ' s count greater than 0, the animation will n o t r u n and an error m e s s a g e will appear. T h e single-piston engine s h o w n in Figure 1-15 consists of three bodies (excluding the ground body), one revolute j o i n t and three cylindrical joints. A revolute j o i n t r e m o v e s five degrees of freedom, and a cylindrical j o i n t r e m o v e s four d o f s. In addition, a m o t i o n driver is a d d e d to the rotational d o f of the revolute joint. Therefore, according to Eq. 1.3, the G r u e b l e r ' s count for the engine e x a m p l e is

If the G r u e b l e r ' s count is less than zero, the solver will automatically r e m o v e redundancies. In this engine example, if the t w o of the cylindrical j o i n t s ; b e t w e e n piston and the piston pin, and b e t w e e n the connecting r o d and the crank shaft, are replaced by revolute joints, the G r u e b l e r ' s count b e c o m e s D = 6x(4-l)-(3x5-1x4) lxl = -2

To get the G r u e b l e r ' s count to zero, it is often possible to replace j o i n t s that r e m o v e a large n u m b e r of constraints with j o i n t s that r e m o v e a smaller n u m b e r of constraints a n d still restrict the m e c h a n i s m m o t i o n in the s a m e w a y . COSMOSMotion detects the redundancies a n d ignores r e d u n d a n t d o f s in all analyses, except for d y n a m i c analysis. In d y n a m i c analysis, the redundancies lead to an o u t c o m e with a possibility of incorrect reaction results, yet the m o t i o n is correct. F o r complete a n d accurate reaction forces, it is critical that y o u eliminate redundancies from y o u r m e c h a n i s m . T h e challenge is to find the joints that will i m p o s e n o n - r e d u n d a n t constraints and still allow for the intended motion. E x a m p l e s included in this b o o k should give y o u s o m e ideas in choosing proper j o i n t s . Forces Forces are u s e d to operate a m e c h a n i s m . Physically, forces are p r o d u c e d by m o t o r s , springs, dampers, gravity, tires, etc. A force entity in COSMOSMotion can be a force or torque. COSMOSMotion provides three types of forces: applied forces, flexible connectors, a n d gravity. A p p l i e d forces are forces that cause the m e c h a n i s m to m o v e in certain w a y s . A p p l i e d forces are very general, b u t y o u m u s t supply y o u r o w n description of the force by specifying a constant force value or expression function, such as a h a r m o n i c function. The applied forces in COSMOSMotion include actiononly force or m o m e n t (where force or m o m e n t is applied at a point on a single rigid body, and no reaction forces are calculated), action a n d reaction force and m o m e n t , and impact force. T h e force and m o m e n t symbols in COSMOSMotion are s h o w n in Figure 1-17 and 1-18, respectively.

Figure 1-17 T h e Force (or Translational Driver) S y m b o l

Figure 1-18 T h e M o m e n t (or Rotational Driver) S y m b o l

Flexible connectors resist m o t i o n a n d are simpler and easier to use than applied forces because y o u only supply constant coefficients for the forces, for instance a spring constant. T h e flexible connectors include translational springs, torsional springs, translational dampers, torsional d a m p e r s , a n d bushings, which symbols are s h o w n in Figure 1-19.

A m a g n i t u d e and a direction m u s t be included for a force definition. Y o u m a y select a predefined function, such as a h a r m o n i c function, to define the m a g n i t u d e of the force or m o m e n t . F o r spring and damper, COSMOSMotion automatically m a k e s the force m a g n i t u d e proportional to the distance or velocity b e t w e e n t w o points, b a s e d on the spring constant a n d d a m p i n g coefficient entered, respectively. The direction of a force (or m o m e n t ) can be defined by either along an axis defined by an edge or along the line b e t w e e n t w o points, w h e r e a spring or a d a m p e r is defined. Initial Conditions

In m o t i o n simulations, initial conditions consist of initial configuration of the m e c h a n i s m a n d initial velocity of one or m o r e c o m p o n e n t s of the m e c h a n i s m . M o t i o n simulation m u s t start with a properly assembled solid m o d e l that determines an initial configuration of the m e c h a n i s m , c o m p o s e d by position and orientation of individual c o m p o n e n t s . T h e initial configuration can be completely defined by assembly m a t e s . H o w e v e r , one or m o r e assembly m a t e s will h a v e to be suppressed, if the assembly is fully constrained, to provide adequate m o v e m e n t . In COSMOSMotion, initial velocity is defined as part of definition of a m o v i n g part. T h e initial velocity can be translational or rotational along one of the three axes. Motion Drivers

M o t i o n drivers are u s e d to i m p o s e a particular m o v e m e n t of a j o i n t or part over time. A m o t i o n driver specifies position, velocity, or acceleration as a function of time, and can control either translational or rotational motion. T h e driver symbol is identical to those of Figures 1-17 and 1-18, for translational and rotational, respectively. W h e n properly defined, m o t i o n drivers will account for the remaining d o f s of the m e c h a n i s m that brings the G r u e b l e r ' s count to zero or less. In the engine e x a m p l e s h o w n in Figure 1-15, a m o t i o n driver is defined at the revolute j o i n t to rotate the propeller at a constant angular velocity. Motion Simulation

The ADAMS/Solver employed by COSMOSMotion is capable of solving typical engineering p r o b l e m s , such as static (equilibrium configuration), kinematic, and dynamic, etc. Static analysis is u s e d to find the rest position (equilibrium condition) of a m e c h a n i s m , in w h i c h n o n e of the bodies are m o v i n g . A simple e x a m p l e of the static analysis is illustrated in Figure 1-20, in w h i c h an equilibrium position of the b l o c k is to be determined according to its o w n m a s s m, the t w o spring constants ki and k , and the gravity g.
2

As discussed earlier, kinematics is the study of m o t i o n without regard for the forces that cause the motion. A m e c h a n i s m can be driven by a motion driver (e.g., a servomotor) for a kinematic analysis, w h e r e the position, velocity, a n d acceleration of each link of the m e c h a n i s m can be analyzed at any given time. Figure 1-21 shows a servomotor drives a m e c h a n i s m at a constant angular velocity. D y n a m i c analysis is u s e d to study the m e c h a n i s m m o t i o n in response to loads, as illustrated in Figure 1-22. This is the m o s t complicated a n d c o m m o n , and usually a m o r e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g analysis.

In addition to the capabilities discussed above. Animations will give y o u a global v i e w on h o w the m e c h a n i s m b e h a v e s . for example. graphs. time of the piston in the engine e x a m p l e shown in Figure 1-24. results of the m o t i o n analysis can be realized using animations. In addition. for example. reports.Viewing Results In COSMOSMotion. Y o u m a y also export the animation to A V I or V R M L for various purposes. the position vs. . and queries. y o u m a y choose a j o i n t or a part to generate result graphs. for example. y o u m a y ask COSMOSMotion for a report that includes a complete set of results output in the form of textual data or a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet. the reaction forces calculated can be u s e d to support structural analysis using. T h e s e graphs give y o u a quantitative understanding on the characteristics of the m e c h a n i s m . A n i m a t i o n s show the configuration of the m e c h a n i s m in consecutive time frames. T h e result data will appear next to the cursor. In addition. COSMOSMotion allows y o u to check interference between bodies during m o t i o n (please see Lesson 5 for m o r e details). Furthermore. the single-piston engine s h o w n in Figure 1-23. COSMOSWorks. Y o u m a y also query the results by m o v i n g the cursor closer to the curve and leave the cursor for a short period.

cam-followers. an application e x a m p l e will be introduced to illustrate the steps and principles of using COSMOSMotion for support of m e c h a n i s m design.. Lesson 8 is an application lesson. gears. in w h i c h an assistive soccer ball kicking device that can be m o u n t e d on a wheelchair will be introduced to show y o u h o w to apply w h a t y o u learn to real-world applications. We will start w i t h a simple ball-throwing example in Lesson 2. and result visualization capabilities in COSMOSMotion. including revolute. etc.1. In these lessons. forces and connections. cylindrical. drivers and forces. various analyses. simulation. Lessons 3 through 7 focus on m o d e l i n g and analysis of basic m e c h a n i s m s and d y n a m i c systems. . In addition. All examples a n d m a i n topics to be discussed in each lesson are s u m m a r i z e d in the following table. planar. including springs.5 Motion Examples N u m e r o u s m o t i o n examples will be introduced in this b o o k to illustrate the step-by-step details of m o d e l i n g . and graphs and results. y o u will learn various j o i n t types. This e x a m p l e will give y o u a quick run-through on using COSMOSMotion.

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75 is specified to determine the b o u n c e velocity (therefore. w h e r e V% and are the velocities of the ball before and after the impact. N o t e that in order for COSMOSMotion to capture the m o m e n t w h e n the ball hits the ground. a n d certainly. D u e to gravity. and then p i c k the units system y o u prefer. N o t e that y o u m a y check o r c h a n g e the units system b y choosing f r o m the p u l l . In this lesson. N o t e that very often the erroneous results are due to m o d e l i n g errors. the force) w h e n the impact occurs. T h e ball and g r o u n d are a s s u m e d rigid. Before y o u arrive at that level. w h e n e v e r possible.1 . A coefficient of restitution C = 0. T h e ball will b o u n c e b a c k w h e n it hits the ground. second). we will define a 3D contact constraint b e t w e e n the ball a n d the ground. 2. T h a t is. and animate the ball motion. pound. the ball will travel following a parabolic trajectory and b o u n c e b a c k a few times w h e n it hits the ground. and c o m p a r e our calculations w i t h results obtained from COSMOSMotion.General dialog b o x . y o u will learn h o w to create a m o t i o n m o d e l to simulate the ball motion. Simulation results obtained from COSMOSMotion can be verified using particle d y n a m i c s theory that w a s learned in high school Physics. T h e gravitational acceleration is 386 i n / s e c . and u s e the true g e o m e t r y of the parts for a finer interference calculation during the simulation. it will be indispensable to verify the simulation results. We will review the equations of motion. calculate the position and velocity of the ball.2 T h e Ball T h r o w i n g E x a m p l e Model Physical T h e physical m o d e l of the ball e x a m p l e is very simple. T h e units system e m p l o y e d for this e x a m p l e is IPS (inch. click the n o d e . T h e ball is m a d e of Cast Alloy Steel with a radius of 10 in. This e x a m p l e simulates a ball t h r o w n w i t h an initial velocity at an elevation. F o r this e x a m p l e . as depicted in Figure 2 .d o w n m e n u 2 Tools > Options Units and choose the Document Properties tab in the System Options . Validating results obtained from computer simulations is extremely important. C = V/V . It requires a certain level of experience a n d expertise to master the software. R R t .1 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n T h e purpose of this lesson is to provide y o u a quick run-through on using COSMOSMotion. run a simulation. Verifying the simulation results will increase y o u r confidence in using the software a n d prevent y o u from being occasionally fooled by the erroneous simulations p r o d u c e d by the software. in the opposite direction. the b o u n c e velocity will be 7 5 % of the i n c o m i n g velocity. COSMOSMotion is n o t foolproof.2. as s h o w n in Figure 2-2.

SLDPRT). 3 . You can find these files at the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site (ht1p://www. Lesson2.SLDASM. T h e y are Front (ball)/Front (ground). T h e distance b e t w e e n the reference planes Top (ball) and Top (ground) is 100 in.04 in. SLDASM. and Lesson2withresults. w h i c h defines the initial position of the ball. in w h i c h s o m e of the assembly m a t e s w e r e suppressed in order to provide adequate degrees of freedom for the ball to m o v e . Since the gravity is defined in the negative 7-direction of the global coordinate system as default. T h e radius of the ball is 10 in. SLDPRT. T h e ball is fully assembled with the g r o u n d by three assembly mates of three pairs of reference planes. We will start with Lesson2.schrofflxom/). T h e assembly Lesson2. ball.SLDASM.SLDPRT) and the ground (ground.SLDPRT.e. There are four files created. as s h o w n in Figure 2 . and the ground is m o d e l e d as a 30*500*0. the parts and assembly h a v e b e e n created for y o u in SolidWorks. ground. Y o u m a y w a n t to open this file to see h o w the ball is supposed to m o v e ...SLDASM consists of a complete simulation m o d e l with simulation results. all parts a n d assembly are created for a m o t i o n simulation that complies with the default setting. rectangular block.SLDASM consists of t w o parts: the ball (ball. Right (ball)/'Right (ground). no m o v e m e n t is allowed. i.3 ..SolidWorks Parts and Assembly For this lesson. as s h o w n in Figure 2-4. In addition. the assembly file Lesson2withresults. a n d Top (ball)/7b/? (ground). in w h i c h the ball is fully a s s e m b l e d to the ground.

In this example. Especially. W h e n COSMOSMotion is active. but in the opposite direction. 2 R 2 .N o t e that the 7-axis of the global coordinate system (located at the lower left corner of the SolidWorks graphics screen. the Play Simulation button is h a n d y w h e n y o u finish running a simulation and ready to animate the motion. All y o u h a v e to do is to click the Motion Motion and Assembly button buttons w h e n needed. T w o assembly m a t e s . W h e n y o u click the a different set of entities to enter COSMOSMotion. Distancel and Coincident^. a coefficient of restitution C = 0. This b r o w s e r provides y o u with a graphical. 4 T h e S o l i d W o r k s A s s e mbly A gravitational acceleration -386 i n / s e c is defined in the 7-direction of the global coordinate system. Switch b a c k a n d forth b e t w e e n COSMOSMotion and SolidWorks assembly m o d e is straightforward.SLDASM. Motion Model In this e x a m p l e .75 will be specified to determine the force that acts on the ball w h e n the impact occurs. as s h o w n in Figures 2-3a and 2-3c. w h i c h is consistent with the default direction of the gravity. the browser has an extra tab (the Motion button) for the Motion (see the buttons on top of the browser s h o w n in Figure 2-5). we will use the IntelliMotion Builder for m o s t of the steps. an additional toolbar is added to SolidWorks. in addition. As discussed earlier. will be listed in the browser. This toolbar provides settings. In this lesson. A 3D contact constraint will be added to characterize the impact b e t w e e n the ball and the ground. located at the top of the graphics screen. the ball will be t h r o w n with an initial velocity of VQ = 150 in/sec. T h e ball will reveal a parabolic trajectory due to gravity. The IntelliMotion Builder is the primary interface in COSMOSMotion. It is a t a b b e d dialog b o x and a w i z a r d that leads y o u through . the ball will be the only m o v a b l e b o d y . no friction is assumed. will be suppressed to allow the ball to m o v e o n the X-Y plane A s m e n t i o n e d earlier. hierarchical v i e w of the m o t i o n m o d e l a n d allows y o u to access all COSMOSMotion functionalities t h r o u g h a combination of drag-and-drop and right click m e n u s . as s h o w n in Figure 24) is pointing u p w a r d . simulation a n d post processing features.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion Start SolidWorks and open assembly file Lesson2. as s h o w n in Figure 2-6. Click some of the buttons and try to get familiar with their functions. R 2.

The first tab of the IntelliMotion Builder is Units. press the right m o u s e button.ball<l>). Mates branch by clicking the small Choose Distance 1 (Ground< 1 >. ball<1>). w h i c h brings up the Units p a g e . Click the Motion button enter COSMOSMotion. right click the Motion Model n o d e from the browser. the IPS units system h a s b e e n chosen. If y o u m o v e the cursor to the root n o d e . and choose Suppress. y o u should see a rectangular b o x appears in the graphics screen. As shown in Figure 2-9. Both mates will b e c o m e inactive. No action is needed. a n d e x p a n d the button in front of it. R e p e a t the same for Coincident3(Ground<l>. we will suppress t w o assembly mates to allow the ball to m o v e on the X-Y plane. C h o o s e the Assembly button on top of the browser. Start the IntelliMotion Builder on ton of the b r o w s e r to To use the IntelliMotion Builder.Before we start. w h i c h is simply the b o u n d i n g b o x for the assembly (see Figure 2-8). a n d then select IntelliMotion Builder (see Figure 2-5). . in the browser. Lesson2 (Default<Display State-1>).

as s h o w n in Figure 2 . and animation process.At the lower-left corner of each p a g e in the IntelliMotion Builder are the Back a n d Next buttons. all of the assembly c o m p o n e n t s are listed u n d e r the Assembly Components b r a n c h (right column) of the Parts p a g e . T h e Gravity p a g e (Figure 2-10) shows that the default acceleration is 386. R e p e a t the same steps to m o v e ground-1 to the Ground Parts n o d e . pressing and holding Shift key. a n d no action is needed. C h o o s e Next or click the Parts tab. C h o o s e Next or click the Gravity tab. This is w h a t we want. Click ball-1 and drag it by holding d o w n the left-mouse button. Or y o u can drag-select by pressing the left-mouse button and m o v i n g the . and then selecting the last component. 2 Defining Bodies T h e first step in creating a m o t i o n m o d e l is to indicate w h i c h c o m p o n e n t s from y o u r SolidWorks assembly m o d e l participating in the m o t i o n m o d e l . Part ball-1 is n o w added to the m o t i o n m o d e l as m o v i n g parts (can m o v e ) . Y o u m a y select multiple c o m p o n e n t s by selecting the first component. We will m o v e ball-1 to Moving Parts (left c o l u m n ) and Ground-1 to Ground Parts by using the drag-and-drop m e t h o d . All of the c o m p o n e n t s b e t w e e n the first and second selected components will be selected. a n d then releasing the m o u s e button. m o v i n g the m o u s e until the cursor is over the Moving Parts n o d e . In an assembly that does n o t yet h a v e any m o t i o n parts defined.22 i n / s e c and is acting in the negative 7-direction. N o w .1 1 . which help you move sequentially through the motion model creation. N o t e that y o u m a y select multiple c o m p o n e n t s by h o l d i n g Ctrl k e y and selecting each component. the part Ground-1 is a d d e d to the m o t i o n m o d e l as a g r o u n d part (cannot m o v e ) . simulation.

there is only o n e j o i n t listed. T h e Joints p a g e allows y o u to modify joints that w e r e automatically created f r o m assembly mates. A list of m a p p i n g s b e t w e e n the assembly and m o t i o n joints that are frequently encountered can be found in A p p e n d i x A. Defining Initial Velocity x We will add an initial velocity Vo =150 in/sec to the ball. Understanding joints and the m a p p i n g will help y o u assemble parts adequately for m o t i o n m o d e l s . COSMOSMotion looks at all of the assembly m a t e s that are attached to that component. In this case. the Edit Part dialog b o x will appear. . and choose Properties (see Figure 2-12). Take a few m i n u t e s to review A p p e n d i x A to b e c o m e m o r e familiar with the m a p p i n g a n d the j o i n t types supported in COSMOSMotion. A n y time a c o m p o n e n t (a part or an assembly) is a d d e d to the m o t i o n m o d e l .1 3 . a m o t i o n j o i n t that m a p s to the assembly m a t e is generated. Click Apply. Coincident!. This allows y o u to take a fully assembled m o d e l and quickly build a simulation-ready m o t i o n m o d e l by indicating w h i c h c o m p o n e n t s from the assembly participate in the m o t i o n m o d e l .m o u s e so that the selection rectangle intersects the c o m p o n e n t s . w h i c h m a t e s Front Plane of ball to the Front Plane of the ground to allow a planar m o t i o n for the ball. press the right m o u s e button. As s h o w n in Figure 2-14. avoiding unnecessary m o d e l editing and confusion. This p a g e contains a single tree that lists all of the joints in the m o t i o n m o d e l . T h e initial velocity has b e e n defined. any c o m p o n e n t s within the selection rectangle will be selected. If an assembly m a t e b e t w e e n the n e w l y a d d e d c o m p o n e n t a n d another c o m p o n e n t that is already participating in the m o t i o n m o d e l is found. as shown in Figure 2 . Click ball-1 from the Parts p a g e . Defining Joints C h o o s e Next or click the Joints tab. Y o u m a y add additional joints to the m o t i o n m o d e l if adequate. Click the IC's tab and enter 150 for X Velocity.

We will stay with these default values for the time being.1 5 .. Coincident2. Running Simulation Click the Next button three times or click the Simulation tab directly (no spring or driver is n e e d e d for this example.On the right. i. H o w e v e r . As s h o w n in Figure 2 .e. is exactly w h a t we want. The first j o i n t Revolute is selected by default. . therefore. no action is n e e d e d for the time being. Click Simulate to run a simulation. y o u will see a list of j o i n t types y o u can choose to add to y o u r motion m o d e l . therefore. three translational and t w o rotational. the j o i n t carried over from SolidWorks. a revolute j o i n t r e m o v e s five degrees of freedom. As indicated in the m e s s a g e . the simulation duration is 1 second a n d the n u m b e r of frames is 50 as defaults. we are skipping the Spring and Motion tabs). for this ball-throwing example.

. T h e 3D Contact constraint will create a force to prevent the ball from penetrating the ground. as s h o w n in Figure 2-17. and delete the simulation Delete Results button JIL at the b o t t o m of the browser (see Figure 2-17 for the location of the delete button). N o w . w h i c h is n o t realistic. For the time being we will h a v e to add a 3D Contact constraint b e t w e e n the ball and the ground in order to m a k e the ball b o u n c e b a c k w h e n it hits the ground. the ball will start m o v i n g .After a few seconds. close the result by clicking the T h e 3D Contact constraint cannot IntelliMotion Builder. We will learn h o w to do that later. Before creating a 3D Contact IntelliMotion Builder. The Insert 3D Contact dialog b o x will appear (Figure 2-18). This constraint will be only activated if the ball comes into contact with the ground. right click the Contact branch. Also. N o t e that the trace path that indicates the trace of the center of the ball is turned on in Figure 2-16. Defining a 3D Contact Constraint be created in the browser or the pullconstraint.d o w n m e n u . choose COSMOSMotion > Contacts > 3D Contact or from the browser. F r o m the p u l l . and then select Add 3D Contact. the ball should return to its initial position. As s h o w n in Figure 2-16 the ball will fall through the ground. save y o u r m o d e l before m o v i n g forward. We will h a v e to u s e the d o w n m e n u .

Click Apply to accept the 3D Contact. R i g h t click the Motion Model n o d e from the b r o w s e r and choose Run Simulation. the increment is insignificant for this simple example. Click the Add Container for contact pairs button (in the m i d d l e ) . H o w e v e r . choose Use Precise Geo/?. as shown in Figure 2-19. N o t e that we will define a coefficient of restitution for the impact. C h o o s e Coefficient of Restitution I in the middle). T h e 3D Contact constraint should appear in the browser. COSMOSMotion performs a finer interference calculation b e t w e e n the t w o bodies. for 3D Contact.. Rerun the Simulation Before we rerun the simulation. Click the Contact tab to define contact parameters. and enter 0. similar to thai of Figure 2-8. Click OK io accept the definition a n d close the dialog b o x . F r o m the browser. and pick ball-1 The part ball-1 will be listed in Container 2 (lower field).COSMOSMotion calculates w h e t h e r the parts' b o u n d i n g boxes (usually the rectangular box. and enter 3 seconds for Duration and 500 for Number of Frames.75 for Coefficient Restitution. N o t e that we increase the n u m b e r of frame so that we will see smooth graphs in various result displays. After a few seconds. If they interfere. As s h o w n in Figure 2-22 the ball will hit the ground and b o u n c e back a . we will h a v e to adjust some of the simulation parameters. the ball starts m o v i n g . the g r o u n d part will be listed in the first container (upper field). b u t for individual parts) interfere. Y o u w i l l h a v e to e x p a n d the Constraints branch and then the Contact branch to see the contact constraint. as s h o w n in Figure 2-20. Especially we will ask COSMOSMotion to u s e precise geometry to check contact in each frame of simulation. R i g h t click the Motion Model n o d e from the browser and choose Simulation Parameters. In the COSMOS Education Edition Options dialog b o x appearing (Figure 2-21). At the same time. ADAMS/Solver c o m p u t e s and applies an impact force on both bodies. Increasing the number of frame will certainly increase the simulation time. as s h o w n in Figure 2-18. select Ground-7. In the three sets of parameters appearing in the dialog b o x (Figure 2-19). turn off the Use Materials (deselect the entity) and Friction (click None).

few times before the simulation ends. T h e ball did n o t fall t h r o u g h the g r o u n d this t i m e due to the addition of the 3D Contact constraint. Displaying Simulation Results

COSMOSMotion allows y o u to graphically display the path that any point on any m o v i n g part follows. This is called a trace path. N o t e that the trace path of the ball w a s displayed in both Figures 2-16 and 2-22. We will first learn h o w to create a part trace path. F r o m the browser, right click the Results n o d e , a n d choose Create Trace Path (see Figure 2-23) to bring up the Edit Trace Path dialog box, as s h o w n in Figure 2-24. N o t e that Assem2 should be listed in the Select Reference Component text b o x , w h i c h serves as the default reference frame for the trace path. T h e default reference frame is the global reference frame included as part of the g r o u n d body. No change is needed.

To select the part u s e d to generate the trace curve, select the Select Trace Point Component text field (should be highlighted in red already), and then select one m o v i n g part; i.e., the ball, from the graphics screen. The part ball-1 will be listed in the Select Trace Point Component text field, and balll/DDMFace2 is listed in the Select Trace Point on the Trace Point Component text b o x . Click Apply button, y o u should see the trace path appears in the graphics screen, similar to that of Figure 2-22. Next, we will create a graph for the 7-position of the ball using the XY Plots. F r o m the browser, right click ball-1 (under Parts, Moving Parts) a n d choose Plot > CM Position > Y. T h e XY Plot for the CM (Center of M a s s ) position of the ball in the 7-direction will appear, similar to that of Figure 2 - 2 5 . N o t e that y o u m a y adjust properties of the graph, for instance the axis scales, following steps similar to those of Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet graphs. The graph shows that the ball w a s t h r o w n from Y= 100 in. and hits the ground at Y= 10 in. ( C M of the ball) a n d time about t— 0.6 seconds. T h e ball b o u n c e s b a c k and m o v e s up to an elevation determined by the coefficient of restitution. T h e m o t i o n continues until reaching the end of the simulation.

N o t e that y o u m a y click any location in the graph to bring up a fine r e d vertical line that correlates the graph with the position of the ball in animation. As s h o w n in the graph of Figure 2.25, at t = 1.4 seconds, the ball is r o u g h l y at Y= 44 in. T h e snapshot of the ball at that specific time a n d 7-location is shown in the graphics screen.

turned off all friction for the 3D Contact constraint earlier, therefore, no energy loss due to contact. Figure 2-27 shows 7-velocity of the ball. T h e ball m o v e s at a linear velocity due to gravity. The 7velocity is about -263 in/sec at t = 0.67 seconds. Y o u m a y see this data by m o v i n g the cursor close to the corner point of the curve and leave the cursor for a short period. The data will appear. Y o u m a y also convert the XY Plot data to Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet by simply m o v i n g the cursor inside the graph and right click to choose Export CSV. O p e n the spreadsheet to see m o r e detailed simulation data. F r o m the spreadsheet (Figure 2-28), the 7-velocity right before a n d after the ball hits the g r o u n d are -264 and 198 in/sec, respectively. T h e ratio of 198/264 is about 0.75, w h i c h is the coefficient of restitution we defined earlier. In addition, y o u m a y u s e the Export A VI button on top of the graphics screen to create an AVI m o v i e for the m o t i o n animation. In the Export A VI Animation File dialog b o x (Figure 2-29); simply click the Preview button to review the AVI animation. L e a v e all default data for Frame and Time. Click OK to accept the definition. An AVI file will be created in your current folder with a file n a m e , Lesson2.avi. Y o u m a y play the A VI animation using, for example, Window Media Player. Be sure to save y o u r m o d e l before exiting from COSMOSMotion. 2.4 Result Verifications

In this section, we will verify analysis results obtained from COSMOSMotion u s i n g particle dynamics theory y o u learned in high school Physics. There are t w o assumptions that we h a v e to m a k e in order to apply the particle d y n a m i c s theory to this ballt h r o w i n g problem: (i) (ii) T h e ball is of a concentrated m a s s , a n d No air friction is present. of Motion

Equation

It is w e l l - k n o w n that the equations that describe the position and velocity of the ball are, respectively,

and g is the gravitational acceleration.3 1 .where P a n d P are the X. In Figure 2-30.2b.01 seconds. V and V are the X. 2.and 7-directions.and 7-positions of the ball. 7 5 % aof that atrespectively. T h e s e equations can be i m p l e m e n t e d using. N o t e that the solution spreadsheet am be found at the p u b l i s h e r ' s website (filename: . the results obtained from theory and COSMOSMotion are very close. N o t e that w h ewith a ball hits the ground. . Columns D and E are graphed in Figure 2-32.1a a n d 2. C o l u m n s B and C s h o w the results of Eqs. Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet shown in Figure 2-30. P and P y are the initial positions in the X. respectively. and COSMOSMotion does its j o b and gives us g o o d results. respectively. n the time interval from 0 to seconds and increment of 0. respectively. C o l u m n s D haveE to reset the velocity qto. on2. x y x y respectively. Data in c o l u m n C is graphed in Figure 2 . C omparing Figure 2-31 with Figure 2-25 and Figure 232 with Figures 2-26 and 2-27.1b. and show the results of E s 2.2a n d 2. we 3will respectively.xls). the prior time step a n d in the opposite direction. for numerical solutions.and 7-directions. w h i c h -:eans the d y n a m i c m o d e l has b e e n created properly in JSMOSMotion. for e x a m p l e . V a n d Vg are 0x 0 0x y the initial velocities in the X.and 7-velocities.

5 seconds in both vertical and horizontal directions obtained from COSMOSMotion.1 . C o m p a r e y o u r solutions with those obtained from COSMOSMotion. and acceleration of the b l o c k in both vertical and horizontal directions at 0. Report position. A 1 "xl "xl" block slides from top of a slope (due to gravity) w i t h o u t friction. 2.1. Derive and solve the equations that describe the position and velocity of the ball. U s e the s a m e m o t i o n m o d e l to conduct a simulation for a different scenario. as s h o w n in Figure E 2 .2 . Create a LimitDistance m a t e to stop the b l o c k w h e n its front lower edge reaches the e n d of the slope. (i) Create a d y n a m i c simulation m o d e l using COSMOSMotion to analyze m o t i o n of the block. velocity. a n d acceleration of the ball at 0. Y o u m a y w a n t to review COSMOSMotion h e l p m e n u or p r e v i e w Lesson 3 to learn m o r e about the LimitDistance m a t e . Report position. C o m p a r e your solutions with those obtained from COSMOSMotion. velocity. C o m p a r e your calculation with the simulation results obtained from COSMOSMotion..5 seconds obtained from COSMOSMotion. This t i m e the ball is t h r o w n at an initial velocity of from an elevation of 750 in. (ii) (iii) Calculate the time for the ball to reach the g r o u n d and the distance it travels. as s h o w n in Figure E 2 . . (ii) (iii) Derive and solve the equation of m o t i o n for the system. (i) Create a d y n a m i c simulation m o d e l using COSMOSMotion to simulate the trajectory of the ball. The material of the b l o c k and the slope is AL2014.

3. essentially. a free vibration. SLDPRT. In this lesson. free and forced vibrations. 9 3. i. d o w n w a r d along the 30° slope. w h e r e the b l o c k is stretched 1 in. f 2 SolidWorks Parts and Assembly F o r this lesson.2 The Spring-Mass System Model Physical N o t e that the IPS units system will be u s e d for this example. y o u will learn h o w to create the spring-mass m o d e l .SLDASM.. Lesson3Awithresults. in w h i c h a steel b l o c k of V'xV'xl" is sliding along a 30° slope with a spring connecting it to the top e n d of the slope. T h e b l o c k will slide b a c k and forth along the slope u n d e r three different scenarios.com/). a planar (or coincident) joint.schroffl.1 . Lesson3Bwithresults. Finally.1 . a n d c o m p a r e our calculations w i t h results obtained from COSMOSMotion.. First. we will add a friction b e t w e e n the b l o c k and the slope face. As m e n t i o n e d earlier. as s h o w n in Figure 3 . All three scenarios will be simulated u s i n g COSMOSMotion. Friction will be i m p o s e d for Scenario 2. Similar to Lesson 2. the first scenario assumes a free vibration. F o r the second scenario. an external force p(t) = 10 cos 360t l b is applied to the block. solve the differential equations. y o u will learn h o w to add a friction to a joint. SLDPRT. We will start with Lesson3. Lesson3. T h e analysis results of the spring-mass e x a m p l e can be verified using particle dynamics theory. In the third scenario.1 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n In this lesson. block. ground. graph positions of the block.SLDASM. in w h i c h the friction coefficient is a s s u m e d jU = 0. we will r e m o v e the friction and add a sinusoidal force p(t) therefore. in this case.e. r u n a m o t i o n analysis. There are six files created. and visualize the analysis results. we will create a simple spring-mass system and simulate its d y n a m i c responses u n d e r various scenarios. and U = 3 in. respectively.SLDASM. SLDASM. in w h i c h the b l o c k . a forced vibration. and Lesson3Cwithresults. respectively. A schematics of the system is s h o w n in Figure 3 . All three scenarios will a s s u m e a gravity of g = 386 i n / s e c in the negative 7-direction. T h e spring constant and unstretched length (or free length) are k = 20 lbf/in. Gravity will be turned on for all three scenarios. the b l o c k will slide due to a small initial displacement. we will formulate the equation of motion. SLDASM. Y o u can find these files at the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site (http://www. In addition. the parts and assembly h a v e b e e n created for y o u in SolidWorks.25. Specifically. we will focus on the first a n d the last scenarios.

If y o u choose the Move Component button component on T h e b l o c k is allowed to m o v e along the slope face. as F r o m the browser. 1. and Lesson3Cwithresults... N o t e that y o u will h a v e to choose Advanced Mates in order to access the limit fields. SLDASM contain the complete simulation m o d e l s with simulation results for the three respective scenarios. righ-click the third m a t e .is a s s e m b l e d to the g r o u n d and no m o t i o n entities h a v e b e e n added. T h e length of the slope face is 10 in. so that the b l o c k will stop w h e n its front lower edge reaches the end of the slope face. y o u should be able to m o v e the b l o c k on the slope face. T h e m a t e is brought b a c k for reviewing or editing. the u p p e r limit is set to 9. Lesson3Bwithresults. If y o u choose the Move Component button m top of the graphics screen.00 in. see Figure 3-2c) is 3. SLDASM. there are three a s s e m b l y mates.00 in. In addition. SLDASM. This is because the third m a t e is defined to restrict the b l o c k to m o v e b e t w e e n the lower a n d upper limits. will be added to connect the b l o c k (Face<2>. and drag the b l o c k in the graphics screen. Coincident3(ground<l>. shown in Figure 3-2. respectively. T h e upper and lower limits of the distance are 9. LimitDistance on In the assembly m o d e l s .. but not b e y o n d the slope face. We will take a look at the assembly m a t e LimitDistancel.block<l>). therefore. w h i c h is the neutral position of the b l o c k w h e n the spring is undeformed. as s h o w n in Figure 3-2c) with the ground (Face<l>). . Coincidentl(ground<l>. N o t e that the distance b e t w e e n the t w o faces (Face<2>@block-l and Face<l>@ground-l. and LimitDistancel(ground<l>. Motion Model f A spring with a spring constant k = 20 lb /in.00 in.. and choose Edit Feature. m T h e b l o c k is allowed to m o v e along the slope face. the assembly files Lesson3Awithresults. LimitDistance 1.00 and 0.ball<l>). and an unstretched length U = 3 in. as shown in Figure 3-3.ball<l>).

a friction force will be a d d e d b e t w e e n the b l o c k and the slope face for Scenario 2. 2 Defining Bodies F r o m the browser.SLDASM. to and and COSMOSMotion. a n d only k e e p Coincident 1 in order for COSMOSMotion to impose a planar (or coincident) j o i n t b e t w e e n the b l o c k and the slope face. Y o u s h o u l d s e e t h a t the IPS units system has b e e n chosen. m o v i n g the b l o c k b a c k to its initial position. right click Suppress. N o t e that we will m o v e the b l o c k 1 in. Y o u m a y unsuppress these m a t e s w h e n y o u w a n t to m a k e a change to the assembly. In this lesson. . Similar to Lesson 2. block-1 a n d ground-7. the gravity is 386 in/sec in the negative 7-direction of the global coordinate system by default. choose from the null-down m e n u C h o o s e t h e Document Properties t a b in t h e System Options . No reference points are needed. e x p a n d the Assembly Components b r a n c h (right underneath the Motion Model node) by clicking the small + button in front of it. the ends of the spring will connect to the center of the corresponding square faces (see Figure 3-4). we will use the browser. N o t e that before entering COSMOSMotion we will suppress t w o assembly mates. As m e n t i o n e d earlier. Before creating any entities. Gravity will be turned on for all three scenarios. In addition. for example.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion Start SolidWorks Before LimitDistancel. in the LimitDistancel assembly m a t e . Coincident3 Save your model. assembly Repeat mates. same suppress F r o m the browser. Coincident^ a n d LimitDistancel. always check the units system. will will suppress become two inactive. mate F r o m the Assembly browser. instead of using IntelliMotion Builder (as in Lesson 2). This m o d e l is adequate to support a free vibration simulation u n d e r the first scenario. 3. choose LimitDistancel. d o w n w a r d along the slope face for the simulation.By default. click the Motion button on top to enter COSMOSMotion. a sinusoidal force p(t) = 10 cos 360t will be a d d e d to the b l o c k for the 3rd scenario. c l i c k t h e Units n o d e . e x p a n d the Mates branch. In this units system. entering The and open assembly we file Lesson3. Y o u should see t w o parts listed. This can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by changing the distance from 3 to 4 in. the Coincident3 Coincident3. No change is needed. and basic drag-and-drop and right click activated m e n u s to create and simulate the b l o c k motion.General d i a l o g b o x .

A planar j o i n t symbol should appear in the m o t i o n m o d e l . respectively. Click block-1 and drag it by holding d o w n the left-mouse button. Also. E x p a n d the Constraints branch. connecting the center points of the t w o selected faces. block-1 and block-l/DDMFace3 should appear in the Select 2nd Component field and Select Point on 2nd Component field. the Select 1st Component field is highlighted in red and r e a d y for y o u to pick. a spring symbol should appear in the graphics screen. Part block-1 is n o w a d d e d to the m o t i o n m o d e l as m o v i n g parts. We will m o v e block-1 to Moving Parts and ground-1 to Ground Parts by using the drag-and-drop method. R e p e a t the same steps to m o v e ground-1 to the Ground Parts n o d e . w h i c h indicates that the spring will be connected to the center point of the face. it is therefore a planar joint. E x p a n d the Coincident! b r a n c h to see that the assembly m a t e is defined between ground-! and block-1. N o w . is listed. N o w . as s h o w n in Figure 3-9. Rotate the view. right click the Spring n o d e a n d choose Add Translational Spring (see Figure 3-7).as s h o w n in Figure 3-5. Since this coincident j o i n t restricts the b l o c k to m o v e on the slope face of the ground. Defining Spring F r o m the browser. a n d ground l/DDMFace4 should appear in the Select Point on 1st Component field. Pick the face at top right of the g r o u n d (see Figure 3-9). and then releasing the m o u s e button. A l s o expand the Parts branch. Y o u should see that only one joint. and then pick the face in the block. y o u should see Moving Parts and Ground Parts listed. as s h o w n in Figure 3-4. as s h o w n in Figure 3-6). In the Insert Spring dialog b o x (Figure 3-8). m o v i n g the m o u s e until the cursor is over the Moving Parts n o d e . and then the Joints branch. . Coincident1. the Select 2nd Component field should n o w highlight in red. the part ground-1 is a d d e d to the m o t i o n m o d e l as a ground part (completely fixed.

Right c l i c k L i m i t D i s t a n c e l ( z r o u n d < l > . Y o u should see the definition of the assembly m a t e in the dialog b o x like that of Figure 3-3. the b l o c k should m o v e 1 in. Enter 0.00 in. . and click the c h e c k m a r k on top to accept the change.25 for simulation duration and 500 for the n u m b e r of frames.. change the distance d i m e n s i o n from 3 to 4 in.. d o w n w a r d along the slope face as the initial position for the block. b a l l < l > ) again and choose Suppress. Y o u should see the b l o c k start m o v i n g b a c k and forth along the slope face. right click and c h o o s e Unsuppress. press the right m o u s e button a n d select Simulation Parameters. Right click the same assembly m a t e and choose Edit Feature. Click the c h e c k m a r k again to close the assembly m a t e b o x . unsuppress LimitDistancel. d o w n w a r d along the slope face. Go b a c k to Assembly by clicking the Assembly button on top of the browser. i. We will graph the position of the b l o c k in terms of the m a g n i t u d e (instead o f X .or 7-component) next. Y o u may also click the Run Simulation button | J | ] right b e l o w the browser to run a simulation.e. Click the Motion Model n o d e again. Click the Motion Model n o d e . In the graphics screen. the first scenario. T h e b l o c k will be released from this position to simulate a free vibration. We will go b a c k to the Assembly m o d e . and then sunnress the m a t e before returning to COSMOSMotion.00 to 4. C h a n g e the distance from 3.. Go b a c k to COSMOSMotion by clicking the Motion button (y .Defining Initial Position We w o u l d like to stretch the spring 1 in. press the right m o u s e button and select Run Simulation. E x p a n d the Mates branch listed in the browser.

We will create a graph for the distance b e t w e e n the t w o faces that w e r e selected to define the spring. This is because the unstretched length of the spring is 3 in. F r o m the browser. Rotate the view. Similar to the spring. we will h a v e to create one. as shown in Figure 3-9. N e x t . p i c k the face of the g r o u n d (see Figure 3-9). In the Insert Linear Displacement dialog b o x (Figure 3-11). a n d we stretched the spring 1 in.Displaying Simulation Results Since there is no position graph defined for the block. e x p a n d the Results branch. right click LDisplacement > Plot > Magnitude (see Figure 3-13). A graph like that of Figure 3-14 should appear. T h e small vibration period can be attributed to the fact that the spring is fairly stiff (20 lb /in). Also.04 seconds to complete a cycle. as s h o w n in Figure 312. to start the motion. and then pick the face in the block. we will create a graph for the displacement of the b l o c k using the XY Plots option. A straight line that connects the center points of these t w o faces appears. right click the Linear Disp n o d e . We will select exactly the same t w o faces s h o w n in Figure 3-9 for this displacement. the Select First Component field should be highlighted in red a n d ready for y o u to pick. f . F r o m the graph. F r o m the browser. w h i c h is small. This dialog b o x is very similar to the upper half of the Insert Spring dialog b o x (Figure 3-8). it takes about 0. and choose Create Linear Displacement (Figure 3-10). the block m o v e s along the slope face b e t w e e n 2 and 4 in. Click Apply button to accept the definition. This position graph should reveal a sinusoidal function as we h a v e seen in m a n y vibration examples of Physics.

Save y o u r m o d e l . the distance the b l o c k travels) is decreasing over time due to friction. is 0. In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x . Length: 1. Width: 1. Scenario 2: With Friction We will a d d a friction force to the planar j o i n t {Coincident 1) b e t w e e n the b l o c k and the ground. Before we do that. COSMOSMotion m o d e l s a planar j o i n t as one b l o c k sliding a n d rotating on the surface of another block. Y o u m a y save the m o d e l under different n a m e a n d use it for the next scenario..25 for Coefficient (mu).414. w h e n the distance is 4 in. Graph the displacement of the block. W is the w i d t h of the top rectangular block.N o t e that y o u can also export the graph data. Save y o u r m o d e l before m o v i n g to the next scenario. T h e amplitude of the graph (that is. i. enter 0. and R is the radius of a circle. T h e time for the b l o c k to m o v e b a c k to its initial position. by right clicking the graph and choosing Export CSV. and enter Joint dimensions. Before m a k i n g any change to the definition of the simulation m o d e l . We will m o v e into Scenario 3.e. . we will h a v e to delete existing simulation results. for example. Click the Delete Results button to delete the results. Right click the Coincident! n o d e and choose Properties. click the Use Friction.25. Y o u m a y save the m o d e l again under different n a m e and use it for the next scenario. Open the spreadsheet and e x a m the data. The friction coefficient is ju = 0. w h i c h circumscribes the face of the sliding block. E x p a n d the Constraints branch and then the Joints branch.. Click Apply button to accept the definition. We will carry out calculations to verify these results later in Section 3. as illustrated in Figure 3-15.037 seconds. a n d Radius: 1. w e will w o r k o n t w o m o r e scenarios: with friction and with the addition of an external force. choose the Friction tab. as shown in Figure 3-17. at the b o t t o m of the b r o w s e r Note that for calculating friction effects. y o u should see a graph similar to that of Figure 3-18. w h e r e L is the length of the top (sliding) rectangular block.4. R u n a simulation (with the same simulation parameters as those of Scenario T). centered at the center of the top b l o c k face in contact with the b o t t o m block.

N o w in the Insert Action-Only Force dialog box. the Select Component to which Force is Applied field will be active (highlighted in red) and ready for y o u pick the component. as s h o w n in Figure 3-19.In this scenario we will add an external force p(t) = 10 cos 360t at the center of the end face of the block in the d o w n w a r d direction along the slope. . a n d deselect the Use Friction by clicking the small b o x in front of it. Pick the end face of the block. At the same time. right clicking the Action Only n o d e . Right click the Coincidentl n o d e and choose Properties. as s h o w n in Figure 3 . Click Apply button to accept the change. Delete the results by clicking the Delete Results button at the b o t t o m of the browser. In the Insert Action-Only Force dialog b o x (see Figure 3-20). the Select Reference Component to orient Force field is active (highlighted in red) a n d is ready for selection. That is. a n d choosing Add Action-Only Force. The force can be a d d e d by expanding the Forces branch. In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x . Before creating a force. choose the Friction tab.2 1 . All parameters a n d selections on the dialog b o x should b e c o m e inactive. We will p i c k the g r o u n d part for reference. we will delete the simulation results and r e m o v e the friction. we will r e m o v e the friction in order to simplify the problem. the force will be applied to the center of the selected end face a n d in the direction that is normal to the selected face. ground-1 will n o w appear in the Select Reference Component to orient Force field. and block-l/DDMFace8 is listed in both the Select Location and the Select Direction fields. P i c k any place in the g r o u n d part. T h e part block-1 is n o w listed in the Select Component to which Force is Applied field.

C h a n g e the simulation duration to 0. choose Harmonic. simply unsuppress the assembly m a t e .5-second duration is half the h a r m o n i c function period of the force applied to the block. and choose Run Simulation. right click the Motion Model n o d e . for example. . Close the graph a n d click Apply button to accept the force definition. the sinusoidal force function will appear like the one in Figure 3-23.5 seconds (in order to see a graph later that covers a larger t i m e span). right click the Motion Model n o d e again. Y o u should see a force symbol a d d e d to the block. F r o m the browser. a n d choose Simulation Parameters. the block starts m o v i n g . as s h o w n in Figure 3-24. and enter the followings: Amplitude: 10 Frequency: 360 Phase Shift: -90 N o t e that the -90 degrees entered for Phase Shift is to convert a sine function (default) to the desired cosine function. This is indeed the cosine function p(t) = 10 cos 360t we w a n t e d to define. N o t e that the 0. as s h o w n in Figure 3-4. F r o m the browser.Click the Function tab (see Figure 3-22). Click the graph button (right m o s t and circled in Figure 3-22). the b l o c k m a y slide out of the slope face during the simulation. After 2 to 3 seconds. to restricts the b l o c k to stay on the slope face. Coincident3. W h e n this h a p p e n s . N o t e that in s o m e occasions.

Figure 3-25 The D i s p l a c e m e n t Graph: Scenario 3 In this section.e.04 seconds to complete a cycle. we will verify analysis results of Scenarios 1 and 3 obtained from COSMOSMotion. F r o m the graph... Equation of Motion: Scenario 1 F r o m the free-body diagram s h o w n in Figure 3-26. applying N e w t o n ' s Second L a w a n d force equilibrium along the X-direction (i. Please refer to the assembly file Lesson3Cwithresults. w h i c h is u n c h a n g e d from the previous case. the planar j o i n t will b e c o m e a translational j o i n t (converted by COSMOSMotion) c o m p o s e d of t w o assembly mates. We will carry out calculations to verify these results later. free vibration with gravity). As soon as the simulation is completed. Save y o u r model. The vibration amplitude is e n v e l o p e d by a cosine function due to the external force p(t). We will a s s u m e that the block is of a concentrated m a s s so that the particle d y n a m i c s theory is applicable. no friction). b a c k and forth (since friction is turned off). R e r u n a simulation if necessary. Also. the block m o v e s along the slope face r o u g h l y for 2 in.After unsuppressing Coincident3. and then solve the equations of m o t i o n for Scenario 3 (forced vibration. it takes about 0. we h a v e .SLDASM for the translational j o i n t e m p l o y e d for this example. Coincident 1 and Coincident^. along the 3 0 ° slope). We will start with Scenario 1 (i.e. a graph like that of Figure 325 should appear.

This can be obtained from m SolidWorks by opening the b l o c k part file. m e a s u r e d from the top right end. This is a second-order ordinary differential equation.3) determined with initial conditions.d o w n m e n u .264 l b . F r o m the Mass Properties dialog b o x (Figure 3-27).m a s s unit l b is n o t as c o m m o n as slug that we are m o r e familiar with. m 2 m m . N o t e that there are 2 decimal points set in SolidWorks by default. w e h a v e mx + kx = mgsin 0 + Uk w h e r e b o t h terms on the right are time-independent. N o t e that the m a s s of the steel b l o c k is 0. It is well k n o w n that the general solution of the differential equation is (3. the m a s s of the b l o c k is 0. Tools > Options). m N o t e that the p o u n d . T h e double dots on top of x represent the second derivative of x with respect to time.2. T h e corresponding force unit o f l b i s l b i n / s e c according t o N e w t o n ' s S e c o n d L a w . and choosing. Tools > Mass Properties.w h e r e m is the m a s s of the block.Units dialog b o x (choose from p u l l . l b ) . U is the unstretched length of the spring. 3. R e a r r a n g e Eq. x is the distance b e t w e e n the m a s s center of the b l o c k and the top right end of the slope. from the p u l l . Y o u m a y increase it t h r o u g h the Document Properties .d o w n m e n u .264 p o u n d s (pound-mass.

7 can be i m p l e m e n t e d into Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet. F o r Scenario 3 we m u s t include the force p = fo cos (cot) along the X-direction for force equilibrium. as s h o w n in Figure 3-28. C o l u m n B in the spreadsheet shows the results of Eq.e. the results obtained from theory and COSMOSMotion agree very well.. i. . 3.7. w h i c h is graphed in Figure 3-29. C o m p a r i n g Figure 3-29 with Figure 3-14. and COSMOSMotion gives us g o o d results. Equation of Motion: Scenario 3 Refer to the free-body diagram s h o w n in Figure 3-26 again. w h i c h m e a n s the m o t i o n m o d e l has b e e n properly defined.Equation 3.

12. Scenario 1. is a combination of graphs shown in Figures 3-29 and 3-30. Eq. For the time-dependent term. the results obtained from theory and COSMOSMotion are very close. T h e overall solution of Scenario 3. The second term of Eq.e. C o m p a r i n g Figure 3-31 with Figure 3-25. the particular solution is 0 N o t e that t e r m s grouped in the first bracket of Eq. i. 3. Eq. T h e graph shows that the amplitude of the b l o c k is kept within 1 in.e. T h e data are g r a p h e d in Figure 3 . b u t the position of the b l o c k varies in time.3 1 .w h e r e the right-hand side consists of constant and time-dependent terms.. In fact. the particular solution is identical to that of Scenario 1\ i.5. N o t e that the spreadsheet s h o w n in Figure 3-28 can be found at the p u b l i s h e r ' s website (filename: lesson3. 3. 3. i.12 are identical to those of Eq. For the constant terms.e. p = f cos (cot). 3.12 has b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d in C o l u m n C of the spreadsheet. 3..7. .. 3.xls).12 graphed in Figure 3-30 represents the contribution of the external force p(t) to the b l o c k motion. The vibration amplitude is enveloped by a cosine function.. Eq.

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R e p e a t the Scenario 3 of this lesson.8 by simply plugging Eq.01 l b sec/in. .Exercises: 1.8. S h o w that Eq. Will this external force c h a n g e the vibration amplitude of the system? Can y o u simulate this resonance scenario in COSMOSMotion! 3. Calculate the natural frequency of the system and compare y o u r calculation with that of COSMOSMotion. except changing the external force to p(t) = 10 cos 9798. C o m p a r e your solutions with those obtained from COSMOSMotion. 3. 3. f 2. and repeat the Scenario 1 simulation f using (i) COSMOSMotion. A d d a d a m p e r with d a m p i n g coefficient C = 0. 3. 3. (ii) Derive a n d solve the equations that describe the position and velocity of the m a s s . Ot l b .12 is the correct solution of Scenario 3 g o v e r n e d by Eq.12 into Eq.

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This revolute j o i n t allows the p e n d u l u m to rotate. respectively. Similar to Lessons 2 and 3. and acceleration of the p e n d u l u m . T h e top of the rod will be connected to the wall with a revolute joint. and visualize the analysis results. the gravitational acceleration is 9.5 m m . 2 T h e p e n d u l u m will be released from an angular position of 10 degrees m e a s u r e d from the vertical position about the rotational axis of the revolute joint. y o u will learn h o w to create the p e n d u l u m m o t i o n model. . The MMGS units system is selected for this e x a m p l e (millimeter for length. run a d y n a m i c analysis.1 . and second for time). B o t h r o d and sphere are m a d e of A l u n i m u m . T h e d y n a m i c analysis results of the simple pendulum e x a m p l e can be verified using particle dynamics theory. The p e n d u l u m will then rotate freely due to gravity. we will create a simple p e n d u l u m m o t i o n m o d e l using COSMOSMotion. T h e radius of the sphere is 10 m m .1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson In this lesson. In this lesson. T h e length and radius of the thin r o d are 90 mm and 0. N e w t o n for force.2 T h e Simple P e n d u l u m E x a m p l e Model Physical T h e physical m o d e l of the p e n d u l u m is c o m p o s e d of a sphere and a r o d rigidly connected. calculate the angular position. The p e n d u l u m will be released from a position slightly off the vertical line. 4. velocity. as shown in Figure 4 .4. The rotation angle is intentionally k e p t small so that the particle dynamics theory can be applied to verify the simulation result. anc c o m p a r e our calculations with results obtained from COSMOSMotion.806 m m / s e c . N o t e that in the MMGS units system. we will formulate the equation of m o t i o n . N o t e that from the SolidWorks material library the Aluminum Alloy 2014 has b e e n selected for b o t h sphere and rod.

We will start with Lesson4. . the assembly file Lesson4withresults.SLDASM consists of a complete simulation m o d e l with simulation results.SLDASM. In addition.schroffl.Y o u can find these files at the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site (http://www. in w h i c h the p e n d u l u m is fully assembled to the ground.com/).

click the Motion button to enter COSMOSMotion. ground-1 and pendulum-7. M a k e sure that MMGS is chosen. Go ahead to m o v e pendulum-1 to Moving Parts and ground-1 to Ground Parts by using the drag-and-drop method.4-3 F r o m top of the browser. F r o m top of the browser. as s h o w n in Figure 4-5 and a revolute j o i n t symbol should appear in the graphics screen (see Figure 4-3). Before creating any entities. y o u should see Moving Parts and Ground Parts listed. A l s o e x p a n d the Parts branch. click the Motion button $ to enter COSMOSMotion. as Figure 4-4. e x p a n d the Assembly branch (right u n d e r n e a t h the Motion Model clicking the small H button in front of it. always check the units system. a n d then the Joints branch. E x p a n d the Constraints branch. Defining Bodies Components n o d e ) by should see s h o w n in F r o m the browser. Y o u t w o parts listed. . Y o u should see a Revolute j o i n t listed.

by right clicking the graph and choosing Export CSV.6 seconds to complete a cycle. press the right m o u s e button and select Simulation Parameters.64 second. and acceleration of the p e n d u l u m can be directly obtained by right clicking the m o v i n g part. from the browser. F r o m the browser. Click OK to accept the gravity setting. and acceleration of the p e n d u l u m next.Setting Gravity We w o u l d like to m a k e sue the gravity is set up properly. for e x a m p l e . Enter 1. and acceleration of the p e n d u l u m can be directly obtained by right clicking the m o v i n g part. is 0. N o t e that y o u can export the graph data. right-click the Motion Model n o d e and select System Defaults. we will graph the angular velocity and acceleration of the p e n d u l u m . velocity. N o t e that the Bryant angles are also k n o w n as X-Y-ZEuler angles or Cardan angles. Click the Motion Model n o d e again. pendulum-7.5 for simulation duration and then 300 for the n u m b e r of frames. i. Defining and Running Simulation Click the Motion Model node. press the right m o u s e button and select Run Simulation. and m a k e sure the Direction is set to -7 for Y. We will carry out calculations to verify these results later. Before we do that.e. enter 9806 for Acceleration (mm/sec**2) w h i c h should appear as default already. pendulum-7. A graph like that of Figure 4-7 should appear. Right-click pendulum-7. e x p a n d the Parts n o d e and the then Moving Parts n o d e . Also. F r o m the graph.. it takes about 0. and Z-axes of the reference coordinate system. Y o u should see the p e n d u l u m start m o v i n g b a c k and forth about the axis of the revolute joint. the t i m e for the p e n d u l u m to swing b a c k to its original position. velocity. . We will graph the position.. and choose Plot > Bryant Angles > Angle 3. The results of angular position. the p e n d u l u m swings about the Z-axis b e t w e e n -10 and 10 degrees. -10 degrees. T h e y are simply the rotation angles of a spatial object along the 7-. F r o m the browser. as s h o w n in the spreadsheet of Figure 4 . O p e n the spreadsheet and e x a m the data. F r o m the spreadsheet. velocity. from the browser.8 . Displaying Simulation Results The results of angular position. Angle 3 is m e a s u r e d about the Z-axis. as expected (since no friction is involved). In the Options dialog b o x (Figure 4-6).

T h e p e n d u l u m m o d e l has b e e n created to comply with these assumptions as m u c h as possible. and No friction is present.J 0 (4. Also. T h e sphere is of a concentrated m a s s . w h i c h is expected. T w o approaches will be presented to formulate the equations of m o t i o n for the p e n d u l u m : energy conservation and N e w t o n ' s law. There are four assumptions that we h a v e to m a k e in order to apply the particle dynamics theory to this simple p e n d u l u m p r o b l e m : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) M a s s of the r o d is negligible (this is w h y the diameter of the p e n d u l u m r o d is very small).1) . we will verify the analysis results obtained from COSMOSMotion using particle dynamics theory. We expect that the particle dynamics theory will give us results close to those obtained from simulation. T h e angular velocity varies b e t w e e n r o u g h l y -100 a n d 100 degrees/sec.000 degrees/sec . Energy Conservation Referring to Figure 4 . the kinetic energy and potential energy of the p e n d u l u m can be written.4 Result Verifications In this section. the angular acceleration varies b e t w e e n roughly -1. 2 4. as T=.1 1 . A r e these results correct? We will carry out calculations to verify if these graphs are accurate.and c h o o s e Angular Acceleration > Z Component.000 and 1. Y o u should see graphs like those of Figures 4-9 and 410. Rotation angle is small ( r e m e m b e r the initial conditions we defined?). Figure 4-9 s h o w s that the angular velocity starts at 0. respectively.

i.w h e r e J is the polar m o m e n t of inertia.e. is a constant with respect to time. i..e.. F r o m the free-body diagram s h o w n in Figure 4-12. w h i c h is the s u m of the kinetic energy and potential energy. the equilibrium equation of m o m e n t at the origin about the Z-axis (normal to the paper) can be written as: . the total mechanical energy. J = m£ \ and U=mg/(l-<:os 6) 2 A c c o r d i n g to the energy conservation theory.

the angular position of the p e n d u l u m is set to zero w h e n it aligns with the vertical axis. The m o t i o n m o d e l has b e e n properly defined. for example.005 seconds.1 3 . D a t a in these three c o l u m n s are graphed in Figures 4-14. Solving the Differential Equation T h e a b o v e equations represent angular position. the p e n d u l u m swings b e t w e e n -10 a n d 10 degrees. and D in the spreadsheet s h o w the results of Eqs.9a. T h e s e equations can be i m p l e m e n t e d into. velocity. T h e linear ordinary second-order differential equation can be solved analytically. therefore. Excel spreadsheet s h o w n in Figure 4 . C. the results obtained from theory and simulation are v e r y close. . 4. N o t e that in the calculation. b e t w e e n 0 and 7. b. 15.N o t e that the same equation of m o t i o n has b e e n derived from t w o different approaches. C o m p a r i n g Figures 4-14 to 16 with Figures 4-7. respectively. of the revolute joint. and 16. 4-9. respectively. a n d c. and COSMOSMotion gives us g o o d results. for numerical solutions. and 4-10. a n d acceleration. C o l u m n s B.5 seconds with an increments of 0.

. the COSMOSMotion results should approach those obtained through spreadsheet calculations. If y o u reduce the diameter of the rod.H o w e v e r . This is because that the COSMOSMotion m o d e l is not really a simple p e n d u l u m since m a s s of the rod is non-zero. even t h o u g h graphs obtained from COSMOSMotion and spreadsheet calculations are alike these results are not identical.

2637 l b / i n ) . .Exercises: 1.1 . N o t e that the unstretched spring length is 3 in. If a force p = 2 l b is applied to the ball as s h o w n in Figure E 4 f 1. (ii) 2. and the material is Cast Alloy Steel (mass density: 0. Solve the same p r o b l e m u s i n g N e w t o n ' s laws. 3 m (i) Find the spring length in the equilibrium condition using COSMOSMotion. using COSMOSMotion. as s h o w n in Figure E 4 . repeat b o t h (i) and (ii) of P r o b l e m 1.5 in. C o m p a r e y o u r results w i t h those obtained from COSMOSMotion. Create a spring-damper-mass system. The radius of the ball is 0.

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M o r e j o i n t types will be introduced in this lesson. In this example. T h e y are c o m m o n l y found in m e c h a n i c a l systems. y o u will learn h o w to create simulation m o d e l s for a slider-crank m e c h a n i s m and conduct three analyses: kinematics. as s h o w n in Figure 5 . N o t e that in any case the length of the crank m u s t be smaller than that of the r o d in order to allow the m e c h a n i s m to operate. interference. At the e n d of this lesson. we will verify the kinematic simulation results using theory and computational m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d for m e c h a n i s m design. conducting a kinematic analysis. subassemblies). internal combustion engine and oil-well drilling equipment. All parts are m a d e of A l u m i n u m . The rotational m o t i o n is converted to a reciprocal m o t i o n at the piston that digs into the ground. 5.1 . and dynamics. This lesson will start with a brief overview about the slider-crank assembly created in SolidWorks. we will turn on interference checking and repeat the analysis to see if parts collide. F o r the internal c o m b u s t i o n engine. It is very important to m a k e sure no interference exists b e t w e e n parts while the m e c h a n i s m is in motion. We will first drive the m e c h a n i s m by rotating the crank with a constant angular velocity. respectively.1 O v e r v i e w of the L e s s o n In this lesson.. therefore. the m e c h a n i s m is driven by a firing load that pushes the piston. the lengths of the crank and r o d are 3" and 8". The final analysis will be d y n a m i c . 2014 Alloy. In the oil-well drilling equipment.5. N o t e that the units system chosen for this e x a m p l e is IPS (in-lbj-sec). After we complete a kinematic analysis. a torque is applied at the crank. e. This is c o m m o n l y referred to as the G r a s h o f s law.2 The Slider-Crank Example Model Physical T h e slider-crank m e c h a n i s m is essentially a four-bar linkage. No friction is assumed between any pair of the components (parts or . Y o u will learn h o w to select assembly mates to connect parts in order to create a successful m o t i o n m o d e l .g. w h e r e we will add a firing force to the piston for a d y n a m i c analysis. converting the reciprocal m o t i o n into rotational m o t i o n at the crank.

as shown in Figure 5-3b. We will start with LessonS. We will suppress one a s s e m b l y m a t e in order to allow for m o v e m e n t .SLDASM. In addition. S a m e as before. In the m e n u option appearing next. T h e next t w o mates (Concentric2 and Coincident^) assemble the r o d to the crank.SLDPRT. a n d drag a m o v a b l e part. to a revolute joint. y o u should see the entities selected for the assembly m a t e highlighted in the graphics screen. T h e y are bearing. pin. as s h o w n in Figure 5-3a. M o v e y o u r cursor on any of the m a t e s . In this a s s e m b l y the bearing is anchored (ground) and all other parts are fully constrained. defined in the assembly.SolidWorks Parts and Assembly T h e slider-crank system consists of five parts and one subassembly. and rodandpin. choose Move Component. Coincident 1. rod. a revolute j o i n t (or a concentric j o i n t in some cases) will be added b e t w e e n the piston and the pin. rod.SLDASM (with firing force) consist of complete simulation m o d e l s with simulation results. Since the translational j o i n t is c o m p o s e d of Coincident5 and Coincident4. SLDPRT. An exploded v i e w of the m e c h a n i s m is s h o w n in Figure 5-2. the r o d is allowed to rotate with respect to the crank. there are three assembly files. Therefore. pin. Concentricl and Coincident 1. As a result.SLDASM. There are eight assembly mates. allowing the piston to rotate about the pin. and LessonSBwithresults. COSMOSMotion will add a translational j o i n t b e t w e e n the piston and the ground. T h e y are bearing. SLDASM.SLDPRT. and Coincident!) assemble the crank to the fixed bearing.SLDASM. a cylindrical j o i n t appears in the m o t i o n model. Concentric3 will be carried over to COSMOSMotion as it is. the assembly file LessonSAwithresults. piston. Y o u can find these files at the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site. The final m a t e (CoincidentS) eliminates the rotation by m a t i n g t w o planes. crank.SLDASM. N o t e that the m a t e Coincident! orients the crank to the upright position. leading to another revolute j o i n t in COSMOSMotion. instead of a revolute joint. including five coincident and three concentric. SLDASM and Lesson5Bwithresults. SolidWorks parts and assembly h a v e b e e n created for you. As a result. in w h i c h all c o m p o n e n t s are properly assembled.SLDPRT. a m a t e has b e e n suppressed. Lesson5. as s h o w n in Figure 5-3c. consisting of r o d and pin). . Y o u can also see h o w the parts m o v e by m o v i n g the cursor to the graphics screen and press the right m o u s e button. for e x a m p l e drag the crank to rotate it with respect to the bearing. Y o u m a y w a n t to expand the MateGroupl branch in the b r o w s e r to see the list of mates. This m a t e will be suppressed before entering COSMOSMotion. U n l i k e the crank. Right Plane of the piston and the Top Plane of the assembly. the crank is completely fixed. and rodandpin (subassembly. The next t w o m a t e s (Concentric3 and Coincident4) assemble the piston to the pin. Lesson5Awithresults. COSMOSMotion will convert these t w o m a t e s . crank. Suppressing this m a t e will allow the crank to rotate with respect the bearing. T h e first three m a t e s (Concentric 1.SLDPRTpiston. In these assembly files with complete simulation results. T h e w h o l e m e c h a n i s m will m o v e accordingly. Y o u m a y w a n t t o open these files to see the m o t i o n animation of the m e c h a n i s m .

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after suppressing Coincident COSMOSMotion converts assembly m a t e s to four joints: Concentric3 (directly carrying over from assembly m a t e ) . Revolute. T h e n e x t and final analysis will be d y n a m i c . this m e c h a n i s m is identical to that of the single piston engine presented in Lesson 1. w h e r e we will a d d a firing force to the piston for a d y n a m i c simulation. instead of the IntelliMotion Builder. we will use drag-and-drop as well as right-click activated m e n u s . The simulation results are included in LessonSAwithresults. velocity. Since the m e c h a n i s m has one free degree of freedom.1 (concentric) x4 (dof s/concentric) = 18-19 = -1 X 5 (dofs/revolute) 1 (translational) X 5 (dofs/translational) Apparently. e x p a n d the Mates branch. Before entering COSMOSMotion.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion Start SolidWorks and open assembly file Lesson5. This will be essentially a kinematic simulation. Coincident2. T h e m e c h a n i s m will b e f i r s t driven b y rotating the crank at a constant angular velocity of 360 degrees/sec. In this lesson. SLDASM. It is very important to m a k e sure no interference exists b e t w e e n parts while the m e c h a n i s m is in motion. the engine e x a m p l e e m p l o y s three cylindrical joints and one translational joint. right click Coincident2. F r o m the Assembly browser.SLDASM. Save y o u r m o d e l . or m o v i n g the piston horizontally (along the translational joint) will be sufficient to uniquely determine the position. T h e m a t e Coincident2 will b e c o m e inactive.2 (revolute) . and Translational. T h e total n u m b e r of degrees of freedom of the slider-crank m e c h a n i s m can be calculated as follows: 3 (bodies) x6 (dofs/body) . Since COSMOSMotion will automatically detect a n d r e m o v e r e d u n d a n t d o f s during m o t i o n simulation.SLDASM. This m o d e l will also serve for interference check.Simulation Model In this example. Kinematically. T h e results are included in LessonSBwithresults. and acceleration of any parts in the m e c h a n i s m . we will not m a k e any changes to the j o i n t s converted from the assembly mates. Revolute2. 5. as s h o w n in Figure 5-4. and one translational joint. we will suppress the third assembly m a t e . resulting one free degree of freedom. Gravity will be turned off. . and choose Suppress. either rotating the crank or the r o d (about the axis of the revolute joints). one concentric joint. In Lesson 1. there are t w o redundant d o f s e m b e d d e d in the m o t i o n m o d e l . instead of defining t w o revolute j o i n t s .

Before creating any entities. similar to that of Figure 5-4. always check the units system. and enter 360 degrees/sec for Angular Velocity (should appear as defaults). a n d click the last part listed u n d e r the Assembly Components node (should be rodandpin-1). Right click the Revolute n o d e a n d choose Properties (see Figure 5-7). choose Velocity for Motion Type. In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x (Figure 5-8). press the Shift key. Revolute. and then the Joints branch. M a k e sure IPS units system is chosen for this example. We are ready to run a simulation. Concentric3. click bearing-1 and drag and drop it to the Ground Parts n o d e . Turning Off Gravity . are listed (Figure 5-6). Y o u should see that four joints. All j o i n t symbols should appear in the graphics screen. choose Constant for Function. Defining Bodies F r o m the browser. as s h o w n in Figure 5-8. Driving Joint F r o m the browser. E x p a n d the Constraints branch. Click the first part u n d e r the Assembly Components n o d e (should be crank-1). Revolute2. w h e r e we will add a driver next. and Translational. e x p a n d the Constraints n o d e and then the Joints n o d e . u n d e r the Motion tab. All three c o m p o n e n t s will be selected. E x p a n d all j o i n t s in the b r o w s e r and identify the parts they connect. T a k e a look at the j o i n t Revolute (connecting crank to bearing). D r a g and drop t h e m to the Moving Parts n o d e . Click Apply to accept the definition.

After a few seconds. press the right m o u s e button and select Run Simulation. in reference to the global coordinate system. At the starting point. since the default simulation duration is 1 second. y o u should see the m e c h a n i s m starts m o v i n g . and angular velocity of Revolute2 (between crank and rod). N o t e that the lengths of the crank and 2 2 . Right click the piston-1 n o d e . X-velocity. similar to that of Figure 5-10. e x p a n d the Parts branch and then the Moving Parts branch. the piston m o v e s b e t w e e n about 5 a n d 11 in. a n d X-acceleration of the piston. and the piston is located at 7. in w h i c h the origin of the coordinate system coincides with the center point of the hole in the bearing. the crank is at the upright position. (that is. Click the Motion Model n o d e . Saving and Reviewing Results We will create four graphs for the m e c h a n i s m : Apposition. horizontally. T h e graph should be similar to that of Figure 5-12. V8 -3 ) to the right of the origin of the global coordinate system. T h e crank rotates 360 degrees as expected and the piston m o v e s a complete cycle.Running Simulation We will u s e all default simulation parameters for the kinematic analysis. and choose Plot > CM Position > X ( s e e Figure 5-11).42 in. N o t e that from the graph. Figure 5-10 M o t i o n A n i m a t i o n F r o m the browser.

CM Accel . R e p e a t the same steps to create graphs for the velocity direction. Y o u can check any of the c o m p o n e n t s in your . right clicking Revolute2 and selecting Plot > Angular Velocity > ZComponent. If y o u e x p a n d the entities listed. CM Figure 5-15. as s h o w n in and acceleration of the piston in the inand 5-14. is a d d e d u n d e r the j o i n t Revolute2 in the browser. The graphs should be similar to those of Figures 5-13 piston-1 n o d e in the browser. the position b e c o m e s 5 (which is 8-3). y o u should see there are three Position -X-piston-1. and CM Velocity-X-piston-1. Angular Vel . An entity. T h e graph of the angular velocity of the j o i n t Revolute2 can be created by expanding the Constraints b r a n c h a n d then the Joints branch. W h e n the crank rotates 270 degrees. the piston position is 11 (which is 8+3). Interference Check N e x t we will learn h o w to perform interference check. W h e n the crank rotates to 90 degrees counterclockwise.X-piston-1. respectively.Z-Revolute2.. COSMOSMotion allows y o u to check for interference in y o u r m e c h a n i s m as the parts m o v e .r o d are 3 and 8 in. respectively. The graph should be similar to that of Figure 5-16.

the Find Interferences Over Time dialog b o x expands. Close the dialog b o x and save y o u r m o d e l . R i g h t click the Motion Model n o d e in the b r o w s e r and then select Interference Check. in w h i c h the crank rotates a complete cycle. y o u m a y w a n t to save it again u n d e r a different n a m e and u s e it for the next simulation. respectively. We will u s e the default n u m b e r s . End Frame.SolidWorks assembly m o d e l for possible interference. i. T h e frame. T h e Start Frame. T h e assembly is m o v e d to the position w h e r e the interference occurred. After pressing the Find Now button. simulation time. and the v o l u m e of the interference detected are listed. (2) M a k e sure y o u h a v e completed a simulation before proceeding to the interference check.e. and increment in b e t w e e n for the interference check. T h e Find Interferences Over Time dialog b o x appears (Figure 5-17). Using the interference detection capability. To select the parts to include in the interference check. regardless of w h e t h e r a c o m p o n e n t participates in the m o t i o n m o d e l . a n d 2. y o u can find: (1) All the interference that occur b e t w e e n the selected c o m p o n e n t s as the m e c h a n i s m m o v e s through a specified range of motion. T h e list at the lower half of the dialog b o x shows all interference conditions detected. parts that caused the interference. the m e c h a n i s m starts m o v i n g .. and Increment. or T h e place w h e r e the first interference occurs b e t w e e n the selected c o m p o n e n t s . End Frame. After saving the m o d e l . Click the Find Now button (circled in Figure 5-17) to start the interference check. 1. 51. final position. for the Start Frame. select the Select Parts to test text field and then p i c k all four c o m p o n e n t s from the graphics screen (or from the browser). . At the same time. and Increment allow y o u to specify the m o t i o n frame u s e d as the starting position.

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Click Apply to accept the change. the force is simplified as a step function of 3 l b along the negative X-direction applied for 0. nothing will h a p p e n since there is no m o t i o n driver or force defined (gravity has b e e n turned off). and piston1/DDMFacelO is listed in both the Select Location and the Select Direction fields. That is. N o w we are ready to add the force. as s h o w n in Figure 5 . right clicking the Action Only n o d e . In order to do so. and choosing Add Action-Only Force. It will be m o r e realistic if the force can be applied w h e n the piston starts m o v i n g to the left (negative X-direction) a n d can be applied only for a selected short period.d o w n the Motion Type a n d choose Free. as s h o w n in Figure 52 3 . T h e force can be a d d e d from the b r o w s e r by expanding the Forces branch. i.2 1 . and then the Joints branch. as s h o w n in Figure 5 . P u l l ..2 1 . the force will be applied to the center of the end face a n d in the direction that is n o r m a l to the face.Creating and Running a Dynamic Analysis A force simulating the engine firing load (acting along the negative X-direction) will be a d d e d to the piston for a d y n a m i c simulation. f Before we add the force. the Select Component to which Force is Applied field (see Figure 5-24) will be active (highlighted in red) and ready for y o u to p i c k the component. such a capability is n o t available in COSMOSMotion. Unfortunately.1 seconds. We will h a v e to delete the simulation before we can m a k e any changes to the F r o m the browser. . in the positive X-direction. e x p a n d the Constraints branch. Pick the end face of the piston. The part piston-1 is n o w listed in the Select Component to which Force is Applied field. In the Insert Action-Only Force dialog box. Right click Revolute to bring up the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x (Figure 5-22).e. we will turn off the angular velocity driver defined at the j o i n t Revolute2 in the previous simulation. T h e force will be defined as a point force at the center point of the end face of the piston. we will h a v e to define m e a s u r e s that monitor the position of the piston for the firing load to be activated. Therefore. N o t e that if y o u run a simulation n o w .

choose Step for function. the crank w o u l d h a v e b e e n oscillating at the left of the center of the bearing. Before running a simulation. H a d the force application lasted longer. as s h o w n in Figure 5-25). the piston could be continuously p u s h e d to the left (negative X-direction) even w h e n the piston reaches the left end and tries to m o v e to the right (due to inertia). F r o m the browser.15 seconds before reversing its direction.1 seconds. the Select Reference Component to orient Force field is active (highlighted in red) and is ready for selection.e. We will p i c k the bearing y o u should see As semi appear in the Select Reference Component to orient Force field. Click the Function tab (see Figure 5-25). the force will be activated at the beginning. The m e c h a n i s m will m o v e and the crank will m a k e several turns before reaching the e n d of the simulation duration. a n d enter the followings: Initial Value: -3 Final Value: 0 Start Step Time: 0 End Step Time: 0. Click the graph button (right most. b e t w e e n 0 a n d 180 degrees about the Z-axis.N o w in the Insert Action-Only Force dialog b o x (Figure 5-24).. i. right click the Motion Model n o d e . A c c e p t the change and then right click the Motion Model n o d e . D u r i n g the simulation. Recall that the force w a s applied for the first 0. such as the piston position. and choose Run Simulation.1 N o t e that the negative sign for the initial value is to reverse the force direction to the negative Xdirection. Close the graph and click Apply button to accept the force definition. N o t e that this is a s m o o t h e d step function with time extrapolated to the negative domain. Y o u should see a force symbol a d d e d to the piston. 1 second by default. It is also evident in the velocity graph s h o w n in Figure 5-28 that the velocity changes signs at t w o instances (close to 0. .. and choose Simulation Parameters. As s h o w n in Figure 5-27.e.. i. should appear immediately at the e n d of the simulation. etc.negative X-direction for about 0.1 seconds. G r a p h s created in previous simulation. as s h o w n in Figure 5-4. we will increase the n u m b e r of frames in order to see m o r e refined results and graphs.e. C h a n g e the n u m b e r of frames to 500. the piston m o v e s along the. T h e force varies from -3 at 0 second to 0 at 0. w i t h o u t m a k i n g a complete turn. As a result.48 seconds). 0 second.15 a n d 0. the step function will appear like the o n e in Figure 5-26. i..

48.15. T h e reaction force that represents the actual force applied to the piston appears. G r a p h the reaction force at the j o i n t Revolute (between crank and the ground) along the X-direction. The results m a k e sense. as s h o w n in Figure 5-29. w h i c h occurs at close to 0. a n d 0.e. w h i c h is w h a t we expected and is consistent with the force function. a n d choosing Plot. T h e graph shows that the force of 3 lbf w a s applied at the beginning of the simulation. as seen in Figure 5-26. then the Action Only branch. w h e n the piston reverses its m o v i n g direction. i. There are three peaks in Figure 5-30 representing w h e n the largest reaction forces occur at the joint.G r a p h the reaction force for the applied force at the piston by expanding the Forces branch..7-second period. 0. T h e force gradually decreases to 0 in the 0. y o u should see a graph like that of Figure 5-30. .8 seconds. right clicking the ForceAO.

A vector plot that represents the positions of joints of the planar m e c h a n i s m is s h o w n in Figure 5-31. and 6 are given. and accelerations of the m e c h a n i s m . 5. Zj. All b o d i e s (or links) are a s s u m e d massless. position. We are solving for Z a n d 6 . 5 . we will verify the m o t i o n analysis results using kinematic analysis theory often found in m e c h a n i s m design textbooks. can be written as In Eqs.2b are non-linear. Z . velocity. using trigonometric relations. The vector plot serves as the first step in c o m p u t i n g position. T h e position equations of the system can be described by the following vector summation.2a and 5. H e n c e .2a and 2 A 3 B 5.e.. Solving t h e m directly for Z and 0 is not straightforward. N o t e that in kinematic analysis.2b. we will calculate s B Z first. m a s s properties defined for bodies are not influencing the analysis results. corresponding to the X and / c o m p o n e n t s of the vectors. velocity. Equations 5.5. T h e slider-crank m e c h a n i s m is a planar kinematic analysis problem. are analyzed. Instead. a n d acceleration of given points or axes in the m e c h a n i s m .4 Result Verifications In this section. 1 . T h e real and imaginary parts of Eq. 3 . In kinematic analysis. forces a n d torques are not involved. i.

w h e r e t w o solutions ofZ represent the t w o possible configurations of the m e c h a n i s m s h o w n in Figure 53 32. B Taking derivatives of Eqs. 5. corresponding to vector Z j .2b with respect to time. 1 A Figure 5-32 T w o Possible Configurations Similarly. N o t e that point C can be either at C or C for any given Z and 0 . we h a v e . 0 has t w o possible solutions.2a and 5.

relatively. In Figure 3-37, the angular velocity 0

B

is the angular velocity of the r o d referring to the

ground. Therefore, it is zero w h e n the crank is in the upright position. N o t e that the accelerations of a given j o i n t in the m e c h a n i s m can be formulated by taking one m o r e derivative of Eqs. 5.5a and 5.5b with respect to time. T h e resulting t w o coupled equations can be solved, using Excel spreadsheet. This is left as an exercise.

Exercises: 1. Derive the acceleration equations for the slider-crank m e c h a n i s m , by taking derivatives of Eqs, 5.5a a n d 5.5b with respect to time. Solve these equations for the linear acceleration of the piston and the angular acceleration of the j o i n t Revolute2, u s i n g a spreadsheet. C o m p a r e y o u r solutions with those obtained from COSMOSMotion. U s e the same slider-crank m o d e l to conduct a static analysis using COSMOSMotion. The static analysis in COSMOSMotion should give y o u equilibrium configuration(s) of the m e c h a n i s m due to gravity (turn on the gravity). S h o w the equilibrium configuration(s) of the m e c h a n i s m and use the energy m e t h o d y o u learned from S o p h o m o r e Statics to verify the equilibrium configuration(s). C h a n g e the length of the crank from 3 to 5 in. in SolidWorks. R e p e a t the kinematic analysis discussed in this lesson. In addition, change the crank length in the spreadsheet {Microsoft Excel file, lesson5.xls). Generate position and velocity graphs from b o t h COSMOSMotion and the spreadshee: Do they agree with each other? D o e s the m a x i m u m slider velocity increase due to a longer crank? Is there any interference occurring in the m e c h a n i s m ? D o w n l o a d five SolidWorks parts from the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site to your c o m p u t e r (folder name Exercise 5-4). (i) U s e these five parts, i.e., bearing, crankshaft, connecting rod, piston pin, and piston (see Figure E5-1), to create an assembly like the one s h o w n in Figure E 5 - 2 . N o t e that the crankshaft m u s : orient at 45° C C W , as s h o w n in Figure E 5 - 2 . (ii) Create a m o t i o n m o d e l for kinematic analysis. C o n d u c t m o t i o n analysis by defining a d r i v a that drives the crankshaft at a constant angular speed of 1,000 rpm.

2.

3.

4.

Figure E5-1

Five SolidWorks Parts

Figure E 5 - 2 A s s e m b l e d Configuration

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if the gear teeth m e s h adequately.e. depending on h o w the gears are shaped and arranged as well as the fuctions they intend to perform. a revolute j o i n t m a y be coupled to a translational joint. A l t h o u g h cylinders or disks are sufficient to m o d e l gears in SolidWorks. Gear ratio of the gear train. gear pair is defined as a special coupler constraint. we will focus m o r e on graphical . we will u s e m o r e realistic gears throughout this lesson. i. There are different kinds of gear trains. such as reaction force exerting on the driven shaft (for a d y n a m i c analysis). screws a n d aligning pins are included for a realistic gear train system. cylindrical. such as simple gear train. w h i c h is critical for m e c h a n i s m design. or the translational m o t i o n of a translational j o i n t m a y be coupled to the rotary m o t i o n of a cylindrical joint. c o m p o u n d gear train.. T h e gear train we are simulating in this lesson is a c o m p o u n d gear train. as seen in previous lessons. Coupling t w o revolute j o i n t s for a gear pair will be carried out in SolidWorks using the advance assembly m a t e option.1 . A gear train is a set or system of gears arranged to transfer torque or energy from one part of a m e c h a n i c a l system to another. For example. All gears included in this lesson are spur gears. Joint couplers allow the m o t i o n of a revolute. All gears in the e x a m p l e are s h o w n with detailed geometry.6. or translational j o i n t to be coupled to the m o t i o n of another revolute. The coupled motion m a y also be of the same or different type. No detailed tooth profile is necessary for any of the computations involved.. T h e t w o coupled j o i n t s m a y be of the same or different types. including shafts. For example. force and m o m e n t b e t w e e n a pair of teeth in contact will not be calculated in gear train simulations. In fact.1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson In this lesson we will discuss h o w to simulate m o t i o n of a spur gear train. In this gear train simulation. Y o u m a y simply uses cylinders or disks to represent the gears. the rotary m o t i o n of a revolute j o i n t m a y be coupled to the rotary m o t i o n of a cylindrical joint. pitch circle diameters are essential for defining gear pair and gear trains in COSMOSMotion. the shafts that these gears m o u n t e d on are in parallel. detailed parts. in w h i c h t w o or m o r e gears are u s e d to transmit torque or energy. w h i c h is defined by the ratio of the angular velocities of the output a n d input gears. there are other important data being calculated by COSMOSMotion. A gear train consists of driving gears that are m o u n t e d on the input shaft. driven gears m o u n t e d on the output shaft. w h e r e t w o axes that pass through the respective revolute j o i n t s (or gears) are picked for the gear mate. we will be coupling t w o revolute j o i n t s . bearing. and idler gears that interpose b e t w e e n the driving and driven gears in order to maintain the direction of the output shaft to be the same as the input shaft or to increase the distance b e t w e e n the drive and driven gears. H o w e v e r . is determined by the pitch circle diameters of the individual gear pairs in the gear train. T h e gear m a t e will be m a p p e d to a gear m a t e j o i n t in COSMOSMotion. In addition. as s h o w n in Figure 6 . therefore. Apparently. In any case. neither SolidWorks nor COSMOSMotion cares about the detailed geometry of the gear pair. cylindrical or translational joint. In COSMOSMotion. epicylic gear train. To create a gear pair. etc. Usually a concentric and a coincident mates will lead to a revolute joint. including teeth.

T h e four spur gears form t w o gear pairs: Pinion 1 and Gear 7. 120. driving Pinion 1. respectively. and rotates in a clockwise direction. respectively. as s h o w n in Figure 6 . as depicted in Figure 6-1 a n d 6-2. B o t h rotate in a counterclockwise direction. Therefore. The gear train consists of four spur gears m o u n t e d on three parallel shafts. the circular pitch P the diametral pitch P . a motor. and Pinion 2 and Gear 2. and 50. driven by a m o t o r p o w e r e d by solar energy. The p u r p o s e of the gear train is to convert a high-speed rotation a n d small torque generated by the m o t o r to a low speed rotation and large torque output in order to drive the wheels of the rover. The gear train is located in a gear b o x w h i c h is part of the transmission system of the rover. a n d the n u m b e r s of teeth are 2 5 . therefore. respectively C9 d .animation. N o t e that the diameters of the pitch circles of the four gears are: 50. 2 4 . T h e m o t o r rotates in a clockwise direction. e. Gear 1 is the driven gear of the first gear pair.1 . a n d m o d u l e m of the first gear pair are. 6. less on computations of physical quantities. We will a d d a m o t i o n driver to drive the input shaft.. w h i c h is m o u n t e d on the same shaft as Pinion 2.2 T h e G e a r Train E x a m p l e Model Physical T h e gear train e x a m p l e we are using for this lesson is part of a gearbox designed for an experimental lunar rover. and 125 m m .g. 60. N o t e that Pinion 1 is the driving gear that connects to the m o t i o n driver. Gear 2 is driven by Pinion 2. 6 0 .

Parts in each assembly w e r e then m e r g e d into a single gear part in SolidWorks. We will start with Lesson6. gbox housing. There w e r e nine. respectively. N o t e that before entering COSMOSMotion. and Coincident6 does the same for the output gear (see Figures 6-3g. T h e third set of mates. Again.SLDASM (and Lesson6withresults.SLDASM. nine.e.com/). SolidWorks parts of the gear train h a v e b e e n created for you.. Lesson6. In addition. Coincident6 will be suppressed to allow for rotation.SLDPRT. e.SLDASM. in w h i c h the gears are a s s e m b l e d to the housing. N o t e that the h o u s i n g part in SolidWorks w a s converted directly from Pro/ENGINEER part. friction.n u m b e r of teeth of the four respective gears.schroffl. Coincident^ a n d Coincident4 assemble the m i d d l e gear to the housing. T h e gear ratio of the gear train s h o w n in Figure 1 is 1:5. . the angular velocity is r e d u c e d 5 times at the output. the assembly file Lesson6withresults. and six distinct parts within the three gear assemblies. Theoretically. In the SolidWorks assembly m o d e l s Lesson6. h a n d i). Coincident5. There are six files created. T h e detailed part a n d assembly conversions as well as m e r g i n g multiple parts into a single part in SolidWorks can be found in A p p e n d i x C. Y o u can find these files at the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site (http://www.SLDPRT. Concentric1. gbox input. SolidWorks Parts and Assembly In this lesson. the next three mates. i. b. Concentric3. and c). e and f).SLDPRT. and Lesson6withresults. gbox_output.SLDASM). and Coincident2 assemble the input gear to the housing. so that the gear teeth m e s h well b e t w e e n pairs. we will suppress Coincident2 in order to allow rotational degree of freedom for the input gear about the Z-axis (see Figures 6-3a..SLDASM.g. Similarly. N o t e that the three suppressed m a t e s are created to properly orient the three gears. T h e first three m a t e s . N o t e that we will use MMGS units system for this lesson.SLDPRT. T h e three gear parts in SolidWorks w e r e converted from respective Pro/ENGINEER assemblies. the torque output will increase 5 times if there is no loss due to. Similarly. gboxjniddle. Concentric2. These three Pro/ENGINEER assemblies (and associated parts) w e r e first converted to SolidWorks as assemblies. there are nine a s s e m b l y m a t e s . T h e input gear is fully constrained.SLDASM consists of a complete simulation m o d e l with simulation results. Coincidentl. we will suppress Coincident4 to allow the m i d d l e gear to rotate about the Z-axis (see Figures 6-3d.

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Y o u m a y w a n t to use the Front v i e w and z o o m in to the tooth m e s h areas to check if the t w o pairs of gears m e s h well (see Figure 6-4). T h e revolute j o i n t b e t w e e n the h o u s i n g and the input gear will be driven at a constant angular velocity of 360 degrees/sec. Pinion 1 with Gear 7. T h e four gears will be m e s h e d into t w o gear pairs. a n d Pinion 2 with Gear 2. instead of m o r e popular ones such as involutes.As m e n t i o n e d earlier. . We will basically conduct a kinematic analysis for this example. axes that pass through the center of the gears about the Z-axis are defined for each gear. Simulation Model T h e gear h o u s i n g will be defined as the ground part. W h e n these m a t e s are suppressed. T h e y should m e s h well. j u s t for simplicity. as discussed earlier..e. All three gears will rotate with respect to their respective axes. Coincident2. gear pairs are created by selecting t w o axes of respective gears (or cylinders) u s i n g Advanced Mates capability. N o t e that the tooth profile is represented by straight lines. as s h o w n in Figure 65. revolute joints will be created b e t w e e n the h o u s i n g and the three gear parts in COSMOSMotion. Before the gear m a t e s can be created. Coincident4 a n d Coincident6. In SolidWorks. in order to allow desired gear rotation motion. one important factor for the animation to " l o o k right" is to m e s h the gear teeth properly. i. Figure 6-4 Gear Teeth Properly M e s h e d If y o u turn on the axis display (View > Axes). These axes are necessary for creating gear m a t e s . we will suppress the three coincident mates that help properly orient the gears. w h i c h is accomplished by the three coincident mates that will be suppressed before entering COSMOSMotion.

gbox_middle<l>) and GearMate2(gbox_middle<l>. do not choose Reverse. Therefore. In this example. . R e p e a t the same steps to define the second gear mate. Since the input gear assembly and its associated parts are not available in the Lesson 6 folder. SolidWorks is trying to locate the assembly from w h i c h the input gear part w a s created. Pick the axes of the input and m i d d l e gears from the graphics screen. all three axes are pointing in the same direction. turn on the axis v i e w by choosing from the p u l l . as s h o w n in Figure 6-6. and enter 50mm and 120mm for Ratio. Save y o u r m o d e l . and choose Suppress. right-click Coincident2. SolidWorks is unable to locate it. e x p a n d the Mates branch. After clicking No.gbox_output<l>). Before entering COSMOSMotion there are t w o things n e e d to be done. the Mate Selections field will be active (in red). p i c k the axes of the m i d d l e and output gears. T h e m a t e Coincident2 will b e c o m e inactive.d o w n m e n u . we will suppress three assembly m a t e s . will appear in the graphics screen. as s h o w n in Figure 6-7. C h o o s e Advanced Mates. Coincident4 and Coincident6. Click the c h e c k m a r k button on top to accept the m a t e definition. C h o o s e No for both. indicating that SolidWorks is u n a b l e to locate gbox input.sldasm. N o t e that w h e n y o u o p e n the assembly. and enter 60mm a n d 125mm for Ratio. and is ready for y o u to pick entities. All three axes. First.6. y o u will see a m e s s a g e w i n d o w . sldasm. F r o m the Assembly browser.3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion Start SolidWorks and open the assembly file Lessond. Y o u m a y choose Yes from the m e s s a g e w i n d o w and locate the missing files in one of these t w o folders. are n o w listed u n d e r Mates. Second. In the Mate dialog b o x (overlapping with the browser). we will create t w o gear m a t e s for the t w o gear pairs. and click the same button one m o r e time to close the dialog b o x . It is fine to click No and not to locate gbox_input. Gear Mate 1 (gbox_input<l>. The assembly files that SolidWorks is looking for are actually located in the subfolder u n d e r Lesson 6 as well as the A p p e n d i x C folder. SLDASM. N e x t .d o w n m e n u Insert > Mate. W e will create t w o gear mates. View > Axes. click Gear. respectively. one for each gear. This time. SolidWorks will ask y o u to locate the m i d d l e gear assembly and output gear assembly. Coincident2. C h o o s e f r o m the p u l l . y o u will h a v e to click Reverse (right b e l o w the Ratio text field in the Mate dialog b o x ) to correct the rotation direction. N o t locating the assembly file for the input gear part will n o t affect the m o t i o n simulation in this lesson. T w o n e w m a t e s . N o t e that if the axes of the t w o gears are pointing in the opposite direction. R e p e a t the same to suppress Coincident4 and Coincident6.

Y o u should see t w o gear m a t e s and three revolute joints listed. always check the units system. We are ready to run a simulation. w h e r e we will a d d a driver next. Driving Joint F r o m the browser. E x p a n d the Constraints branch. Similar to previous lessons. In addition. choose Rotate Z for Motion On. A m o t i o n driver symbol should appear at Revolute2.N o w we are r e a d y to enter COSMOSMotion. Before creating any entities. We will u s e all default simulation parameters. as s h o w n in Figure 6-8. gboxjnput-l. as shown in Figure 6-9. E x p a n d all joints in the b r o w s e r a n d identify the parts they connect. gboxmiddle1. y o u should see the revolute j o i n t symbols appear in the graphics screen. u n d e r the Motion tab (default). N o w we are r e a d y to enter COSMOSMotion. . similar to those of Figure 6-5. M a k e sure y o u pick the right one. Click Apply to accept the definition. we will u s e the browser. M a k e sure the units system chosen is Defining Bodies MMGS. a n d gbox_output-l. A l s o e x p a n d the Parts branch. a n d then the Joints branch. Right-click the Revolute2 n o d e and choose Properties. gbox housing-1. F r o m the browser. Y o u should see four parts listed. Take a look at the j o i n t Revolute2 (connecting the input gear to the gear housing). and basic drag-and-drop and right-clicl^ m e t h o d s to create a n d simulate the gear train motion in this lesson. as s h o w n in Figure 6-5. Go ahead to m o v e gboxjiousing-l to Ground Parts and m o v e the three gears to Moving Parts by using the dragand-drop m e t h o d . expand the Assembly Components branch. N o t e that y o u m a y see a different revolute j o i n t connecting the input gear to the gear housing. e x p a n d the Constraints n o d e and then the Joints n o d e . Click the Motion button enter COSMOSMotion. and enter 360 degrees/sec for Angular Velocity (should appear as defaults). In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x (Figure 6-10). Click the Motion button # enter COSMOSMotion. y o u should see Moving Parts a n d Ground Parts listed. choose Constant for Function. choose Velocity for Motion Type.

w h i c h shows that the output velocity is a constant of 72 degrees/sec. e x p a n d the Parts branch and then the Moving Parts branch. . Saving and Reviewing Results We will graph the angular velocity of the output gear. and choose Plot > Angular Velocity > Z Component (Figure 6-11). N o t e that this m a g n i t u d e is one fifth of the input velocity since the gear ratio is 7:5.Running Simulation Click the Motion Model n o d e . After a few seconds. T h e graph should appear and is similar to that of Figure 6-12. Save your m o d e l . T h e input gear rotates 360 degrees as expected since the default simulation duration is 7 second. y o u should see the gears start turning. F r o m the browser. press the right m o u s e button and select Run Simulation. B o t h the input (Pinion 7) and output gears (Gear 2) rotate in the same direction. Right-click the ghox_output-l n o d e . COSMOSMotion gives g o o d results.

Define and r u n a 2-second d y n a m i c simulation for the gear train. Turn on friction for all three axles (Steel-Dry/Steel-Dry). (i) W h a t is the m i n i m u m torque that is required to rotate the input gear. W h a t is the reaction m o m e n t obtained from simulation? (ii) (iii) . Create a graph for the reaction m o m e n t b e t w e e n gears of the first gear pair {GearMatel) due to the 100 mm N torque.SLDPRT) about the Z-axis. and therefore. the entire gear train? If the torque applied to the input gear is 100 mm N. T h e same gear train will be u s e d for this exercise. w h a t is the output angular velocity of the gear train at the end of the 2-second simulation? Verify the simulation result using y o u r o w n calculation. Create a constant torque for the input gear (gboxinput.Exercises: 1.

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5 in. T h e lower arc is concentric with the shaft.52+0. radii. w h i c h k e e p s the c a m s synchronized with the m o v e m e n t of the piston so that the valves are o p e n e d or closed at a precise instant. T h e m e c h a n i s m w e will b e w o r k i n g with consists o f bushings. T h e spring surrounding the v a l v e gets compressed. in terms of position. or cam-follower. radius) of . We will learn to create a m o t i o n m o d e l and simulate the control of opening and closing of an inlet or exhaustive valve. The follower will thus rise and fall at exactly the same a m o u n t as the variation in radius. we will learn c a m and follower. T h e profile of the c a m consists of t w o circular arcs of 0. respectively. camshaft. W h e n the camshaft rotates w h e r e the larger circular arc (0.7. pushrod. as s h o w n in Figure 7 .1 .1 . T h e valve will m o v e again up to 0. velocity. T h e cam-follower connects the camshaft and the pushrod. In a design such as that of Figure 7 .2 The Cam and Follower Example Model Physical T h e camshaft and the rocker will rotate about the axes of their respective revolute j o i n t s connecting t h e m to their respective bearings (defined as g r o u n d b o d y ) . as s h o w n in Figure 7-2.5 = 0. using cam-follower connections.52 in. can be produced. a n d the center of the u p p e r arc is 0.1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson In this lesson. (that is. As a result. T h e simplest form of a c a m is a rotating disc w i t h a variable radius. the rocker rotates and p u s h e s the valve on the other side d o w n w a r d . The camshaft is driven by a m o t o r of constant velocity of 600 r p m (or 10 rev/sec). By profiling a c a m appropriately. valve. the rocker will rotate and p u s h the valve at the other e n d d o w n w a r d at a frequency of 10 times/sec. W h e n the camshaft rotates. usually found in internal c o m b u s t i o n engines. and opens up the inlet for air to flow into the combustion chamber. 7. its edge (or side face) p u s h e s against a follower (or c a m follower). W h e n the disc rotates. A cam-follower is a device for converting rotary m o t i o n into linear motion. d o w n w a r d since the p u s h r o d and the valve are positioned at an equal distance from the rotation axis of the rocker. rocker. above the center of the shaft. so that its profile is n o t circular b u t oval or egg-shaped. valve guide and spring. w h i c h m a y be a small w h e e l at the end of a lever or the end of the lever or r o d itself.5 in. 0.27).27 in.25 and 0. the drive for the camshaft is taken from the crankshaft t h r o u g h a timing chain. a n d acceleration. W h e n the c a m on the camshaft p u s h e s the p u s h r o d u p . a desired cyclic pattern of straight-line motion.27 in. the c a m m o u n t e d on the shaft p u s h e s the p u s h r o d up by up to 0.25-0.

the c a m is in contact with the follower (in this example. rocker.1 . y o u should see the entities selected for the assembly m a t e highlighted in the graphics screen. the valve will m o v e u p . A n d the n e x t three distance m a t e s assemble the valve guide to bushing<l>. T h e second bushing (bushing<2>) and the valve guide (valve guide<l>) w e r e fully assembled to bushing<l>. Distance 1. In addition. The r e m a i n i n g four parts will be defined as m o v a b l e parts in COSMOSMotion. in w h i c h the parts are adequately assembled. As mentioned earlier.SLDASM and Lesson7withresults. and valve. SLDASM. Y o u m a y w a n t to e x p a n d the Mates b r a n c h in the b r o w s e r to r e v i e w the list of a s s e m b l y mates. seven distance. At this point. Y o u can also see h o w the parts m o v e by right clicking in the graphics screen. The w h o l e m e c h a n i s m will m o v e accordingly. M o v e the cursor over any of the m a t e s . three concentric. T h e unit system chosen for this e x a m p l e is IPS and all parts are m a d e up of steel. SolidWorks Parts and Assembly T h e cam-follower system consists of seven parts. In the assembly w h e r e a m o t i o n m o d e l is completely defined. Lesson7. SLDASM contains a complete simulation m o d e l with simulation results. These three parts will be assigned as g r o u n d parts. We will start with Lesson 7. the pushrod). and one cam-mate-tangent. as listed in the b r o w s e r (see Figure 7-3). the first bushing. and Distance2. there are t w o assembly files.SLDASM that you m a y d o w n l o a d f r o m the p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site. s h o w n in the b r o w s e r is anchored to the assembly. b u s h i n g (two). pushrod. There are eighteen assembly m a t e s . camshaft. as s h o w n in Figure 7 . o n e tangent. and dragging any m o v a b l e parts. As a result. a m a t e has b e e n suppressed to allow m o v e m e n t b e t w e e n components. valve guide. the assembly file Lesson 7withresults. including four coincident. bushing<l>. In this assembly the first bushing is anchored (ground) and the second busing and the valve guide are fully constrained. close the inlet. Y o u m a y w a n t to open the assembly to see the m o t i o n animation of the m e c h a n i s m . t w o parallel. Coincident 1. T h e first three mates. a n d therefore. the p u s h r o d has r o o m to m o v e d o w n w a r d . the rocker will rotate b a c k since the spring is being uncompressed. Same as before. choosing Move Component. w e r e e m p l o y e d to assemble bushing<2> to bushing<l>. T h e valve will be o p e n for about 120 degree p e r cycle. for e x a m p l e the camshaft to rotate with respect to the second bushing. . b a s e d on the c a m design shown in Figure 7-2.

N o t e that the distance mates are essentially coincident m a t e with distance b e t w e e n entities. the p u s h r o d is allowed to m o v e vertically at a distance of 1. as s h o w n in Figures 7-4a and b. Concentric 1 and Coincident!. respectively. as s h o w n in Figures 7-4c. As a result. allowing a rotation degree of freedom about the Z-axis. T h e n e x t part assembled is the p u s h r o d (pushrod<l>). maintaining t a n g e n c y b e t w e e n the top of the cylindrical surface of the p u s h r o d and the socket surface of the rocker. Distance6. and e. T h e n e x t t w o m a t e s .25 in. and Coincident3 mates. d. assemble the rocker {rocker<l>) to the first b u s h i n g (hushing<l>). All three parts will be defined as the g r o u n d part in COSMOSMotion. T h e p u s h r o d w a s a s s e m b l e d to the rocker using Tangent/. (c) Pushrod: T a n g e n t l (d) Pushrod: Distance6 (e) Pushrod: Coincident3 Figure 7-4 A s s e m b l y M a t e s Defined for the M e c h a n i s m . at the same t i m e . COSMOSMotion will m a p a revolute j o i n t b e t w e e n the rocker and the first bushing. T h e distance mates w e r e created to properly position the second bushing with respect to the first bushing. from the Right plane of the first b u s h i n g (Distanced).

U s e . As a result. and then to the pushrod. the rocker. Y o u m a y either rotate the camshaft. Coincident4 mates the center plane of the camshaft to that of pushrod. N o t e that all surrounding surfaces on the c a m and follower m u s t be selected for the cam-follower joint. Concentric2 aligns the camshaft and the second bushing. as shown in Figures 7-4f and g. T h e camshaft w a s first assembled to the second b u s h i n g (bushing<2>). the camshaft is allowed to rotate about the Z-axis. or m o v e the p u s h r o d vertically to see the relative m o t i o n of the assembly. In addition. as s h o w n in Figure 74h. N o t e that the assembly should h a v e overall one degree of freedom at this point. the CamMateTangentl defines a c a m a n d follower b e t w e e n the c a m surface of the camshaft a n d the cylindrical surface at the b o t t o m of the pushrod. four surfaces are selected for the c a m ( m o u n t e d on the camshaft) and one surface is included on the follower. In this case.T h e next part is the camshaft (cam_shaft<l>).

Apparently. as discussed i n A p p e n d i x A . this result implies that there are r e d u n d a n t d o f s created in the system. T h e final m o t i o n m o d e l is s h o w n in Figure 7-6. from the pulld o w n m e n u . COSMOSMotion > Show Simulation Panel. w h e r e the Z-rotation of the concentric joint. Concentric2. Y o u m a y w a n t t o r e v i e w A p p e n d i x A for m o r e information about defining j o i n t s a n d calculating degrees of freedom. Y o u m a y w a n t to check the r e d u n d a n c y by choosing. b e t w e e n the camshaft and the second b u s h i n g is driven by a constant angular velocity of . This is fine since COSMOSMotion filters out the r e d u n d a n t d o f s .

e. Bushing-2. valve guide-1. rocker-7. M a k e sure that IPS units system is chosen for this example.3. E x p a n d all joints in the browser and identify the parts they connect. Again. Defining Bodies F r o m the browser. and then the Joints branch. Bushing-1. In addition. always check the units system. F r o m the browser. close the valve. a spring surrounding the valve will be created in order to provide a vertical force to p u s h the rocker u p . A l s o expand the Parts branch. Y o u should see that ten j o i n t s are listed (see Figure 7-5). and valve-1. w h e r e we will add a driver next. The spring has a spring constant of 10 lbf/in and an unstretched length of 1. D r a g a n d drop t h e m to the Ground Parts n o d e . Y o u should see seven entities listed. . e x p a n d the Assembly Components branch. therefore. as s h o w n in Figure 7-7. We will m o v e Bushing-1. pushrod-1. similar to that of Figure 7-6. 7. click the Motion button if 1 to enter COSMOSMotion. All joint symbols should appear in the graphics screen. SLDASM.3 Using COSMOSMotion Start SolidWorks and o p e n assembly file Lesson 7. about the Z-axis of the global coordinate system.25 in. F r o m the browser. E x p a n d the Constraints branch. All three parts should be selected. cam_shaft-1. R e p e a t the same to select the r e m a i n i n g four parts u n d e r the Assembly Component branch. D r a g and drop t h e m to the Moving Parts n o d e . a n d valve guide-1 to Ground Parts and the r e m a i n i n g four parts to Moving Parts b y using the drag-and-drop m e t h o d .. T h e spring is created b e t w e e n the b o t t o m face of the rocker a n d top face of the valve guide. T a k e a look at the j o i n t Coincident2 (connecting camshaft to Bushing-2). y o u should see Moving Parts and Ground Parts listed. 600 rpm. Bushing-2. Press the Ctrl k e y and click Bushing-2 and valve guide-1. i.600 degrees/sec. click Bushing-1.

Driving Joint R i g h t click the Concentric2 n o d e a n d choose Properties (see Figure 7-8).1 Click Apply to accept the spring definition and close the Insert Spring dialog b o x . Click the Motion Model n o d e again. simply select the entire text in the respective text field in the dialog b o x . the Select 1st Component field should be highlighted in red and ready for y o u to pick. u n d e r the Motion tab (default). Defining and Running Simulation Click the Motion Model n o d e . choose Constant for Function. Rotate the v i e w back. In the Input Spring dialog b o x (Figure 7-11). Click Apply to accept the definition. and press the Delete k e y to delete the text. valve guide-1 and valve guide-l/DDMFace20 should appear in the Select 2nd Component field a n d Select Point on 2nd Component field. the Select 2nd Component field should n o w highlight in red. Defining Spring F r o m the browser. Enter the followings: Stiffness: 10 Length: 1. as s h o w n in Figure 7-9. N o w .25 (Note that y o u h a v e to deselect the Design b o x to the right before entering this value) Force: 0 Coil Diameter: 0. press the right m o u s e button and select Run Simulation. w h i c h indicates that the spring will be connected to the center point of the face selected. respectively. Y o u should see that the camshaft starts rotating. the p u s h r o d is m o v i n g up a n d d o w n . and rocker-1/DDMFace 19 should appear in the Select Point on 1st Component field.5 for simulation duration a n d 500 for the n u m b e r of frames. and then p i c k the top face in the valve guide. choose Rotate Z for Motion On. Also. choose Velocity for Motion Type. press the right m o u s e button and select Simulation Parameters. a spring should appear in the graphics screen. . w h i c h drives the rocker. as s h o w n in Figure 7-12. and enter 3600 degrees/sec for Angular Velocity. e x p a n d the Forces branch. Enter 0. right click the Spring n o d e a n d choose Add Translational Spring (see Figure 7-10). In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x (Figure 7-9). T h e text field will turn b a c k to red and will be ready for y o u to p i c k another entity.75 Number of coils: 8 Wire Diameter: 0. Rotate the v i e w a n d pick the b o t t o m face of the rocker (see Figure 7-12). connecting the center points of the t w o faces. In case y o u p i c k e d a w r o n g entity.

T h e valve stays closed with zero velocity. yielding high contact force b e t w e e n the top of the valve and the socket surface in the rocker. respectively. T h e camshaft rotates 5 times in the 0. roughly 120 degrees.5-second simulation duration. respectively. The . the valve will open for about 0. Figure 7-16 reveals h i g h accelerations w h e n the valve is p u s h e d and pulled.066 seconds. approximately 240 degrees of the camshaft rotation in a complete cycle. As s h o w n in Figure 7-15. there are t w o velocity spikes per cycle. and acceleration of the valve next.034 seconds per cycle. velocity. As s h o w n in Figure 7-14. We will graph the position. Therefore. the flat portion on top indicates that the valve stays completely closed. Graph the 7-velocity and 7-acceleration of the valve by choosing Plot > CM Velocity (and CM Acceleration) > Y Component. representing that the valve is p u s h e d d o w n w a r d (negative velocity) for opening and is being pulled b a c k (positive velocity) for closing. w h i c h spans about 0. This high acceleration could p r o d u c e large inertial force on the valve. We w o u l d like to check the reaction force b e t w e e n the top of the valve and the rocker. The graphs of the velocity a n d acceleration are s h o w n in Figures 7-15 and 16.and then the valve. N o t e that such a high acceleration is due to high-speed rotation at the camshaft.

03 \b x5.4 l b . the m a s s of the valve is 0. m 2 2 m m f . Therefore.600 i n / s e c = 168 l b i n / s e c = 168/386 l b = 0. N o t e that this small reaction force can f be attributed to the small m a s s of the valve. w h i c h is insignificant. the inertia for the v a l v e at the p e a k accelerations is about 0. please refer to A p p e n d i x B for m a s s and force unit conversions. a n d choosing Plot > Reaction Force > Y Component. T h e reaction force graph (Figure 7-17) shows that the reaction force b e t w e e n the top of the valve a n d the socket face of the rocker is about 0.03 l b . choose Tools > Mass Properties).44 lbf.graph of the reaction force can be created by expanding Constraints and Joints branches. Save your m o d e l . If y o u open the valve part and acquire its m a s s (from pulld o w n m e n u . w h i c h is consistent to peaks found in Figure 7-17. right clicking Concentric2 (between the valve a n d the rocker). If y o u are n o t quite sure about w h y this 386 is factored in for force calculation.

40. If we change the Parallel! m a t e b e t w e e n the Right plane of the valve and the Right plane of the first b u s h i n g to a distance m a t e .25 to 0. will t h e m e c h a n i s m m o v e ? W h a t other changes m u s t be m a d e in order to create a valid and m o v a b l e m e c h a n i s m similar to that w a s presented in this lesson? . D o e s this redesigned c a m alter the reaction force? 2.1 . as s h o w n in Figure E 7 .2 and reducing the center distance of the small arc from 0.52 to 0.Exercises: 1. R e p e a t the d y n a m i c analysis a n d check reaction force b e t w e e n t h e valve and the rocker. R e d e s i g n the c a m by reducing the small arc radius from 0.

In order to n a r r o w d o w n the design options to be m o r e m a n a g e a b l e . we will u s e COSMOSMotion to help choose a spring. M a k e the simplified m o d e l w o r k s first. W h e n we are dealing w i t h such applications. we will e m p l o y the spiral d e v e l o p m e n t principle. m a k e sure that the simulation m o d e l does w h a t y o u expect it to do before bringing it to the next level. the simulation m o d e l y o u created has to be physically meaningful and is as consistent to the physical conditions as possible.8. it is strongly r e c o m m e n d e d that y o u e m p l o y the principle of spiral d e v e l o p m e n t to incrementally build up y o u r simulation m o d e l . M o r e specifically. Since m o s t of y o u will be often learning the software as y o u are tackling simulation and/or design p r o b l e m s . T h e examples we h a v e discussed in previous lessons are simple e n o u g h so that some of the simulation results can be verified by h a n d calculations (for example. The design is essentially n a r r o w e d d o w n to the selection of . including the e x a m p l e of this lesson. we will focus on h o w to use COSMOSMotion to support design. The focus of this lesson is slightly different from previous ones. m o s t of the real-world applications. This e x a m p l e w a s extracted from an undergraduate student design project that w a s carried out in conjunction with a local children hospital. very often y o u will h a v e to m a k e assumptions in order to simplify the p r o b l e m s so that the simulations can be carried out. Since the users of this device are children with limited physical h a n d strength. y o u m a y w a n t to start from a simplified m o d e l with simple scenarios by m a k i n g adequate assumptions to y o u r simulation m o d e l . as well as determine if the required operating force is acceptable. First. y o u will h a v e to understand the physical p r o b l e m s very well. then relax the assumptions and add m o t i o n entities to m a k e y o u r m o d e l closer to the real situation. we will assume all major c o m p o n e n t s are designed w i t h dimensions determined. Second. H o w e v e r .1 O v e r v i e w of the Lesson This is an application lesson. be familiar with the capabilities and limitations of the software y o u are using. In another w o r d . the operating force m u s t be m i n i m i z e d in order to m a k e the device useful. R e p e a t the process until y o u reach a simulation m o d e l a n d simulation scenarios that answer y o u questions a n d help y o u m a k e design decisions. in the m e a n time. In order to effectively u s e the simulations to support design. t w o principles are helpful in leading to successful simulations. Instead of focusing on discussing h o w to use COSMOSMotion to create m o t i o n entities. This device w a s intended primarily to be u s e d in the s u m m e r c a m p sponsored by the children hospital. In this lesson. Such a device will provide m o r e incentive and realistic experience for children with physical disabilities to participate in soccer g a m e s . In each step. We will apply w h a t we learned in previous lessons to a real-world application. This application involves designing a device that can be m o u n t e d on a wheelchair to m i m i c soccer ball-kicking action w h i l e b e i n g operated by a child sitting on the wheelchair with limited mobility and h a n d strength. using a spreadsheet). We will assume that all c o m p o n e n t s and their physical dimensions are determined. This is b e c a u s e that the simulation m o d e l s m u s t c o m p l y w i t h the ability of the software y o u are using. are too complicate to verify by h a n d calculations.

the best w a y to p r o c e e d is to c o m p o s e a simpler simulation m o d e l and/or try a different ( m o r e idealized) scenario until the simulation result is physically meaningful b a s e d on y o u r educated j u d g m e n t . Y o u will see trialsand-errors in this lesson and m a n y other real-world applications in the future. spring constant. S o m e of the conditions simulated are physically meaningful a n d yet COSMOSMotion gives unrealistic simulation results due to its limitations. as illustrated in Figure 8-1. plate. kicking-rod. the handle bar rotates about the pivot pin.a spring. . 8. therefore. Again. and to ensure that the required force is small e n o u g h for a child to easily operate the device. graphs. handle bar. such as the initial condition (that is.2 T h e Assistive Device Model Physical This assistive device for soccer g a m e s consists of five major c o m p o n e n t s : the clamper. W h e n a result is determined unrealistic after r e v i e w i n g animation. COSMOSMotion is not foolproof.. etc. O n e cannot blindly accept the simulation results. A spring is a d d e d b e t w e e n the u p p e r bracket and the handle bar to restore the handle bar to its neutral position after pulling. drives the kicking r o d to m o v e forward along the longitudinal direction through the link b e t w e e n the b o t t o m slot of the handle bar and the middle pin of the kicking rod. We will try our best to check and hopefully verify the simulation m o d e l in each step. The h a n d l e b a r is m o u n t e d to the plate at the pivot pin of the plate and linked to the m i d d l e pin of the kicking rod. etc. In reality these five c o m p o n e n t s will be assembled first and c l a m p e d to the lower frame of the wheelchair for use. The spring also helps the user to pull the handle b a r with a lesser force. N o t e that COSMOSMotion is very sensitive to s o m e of the conditions and parameters. W h e n the handle (on top of the handle bar) is pulled backward. including both spring constant and free length. T h e kicking r o d is inserted into the t w o lower brackets m o u n t e d on the plate. the handle bar orientation). T h e forward m o v e m e n t of the kicking r o d produces m o m e n t u m to " k i c k " the soccer ball. and spring.

Concentric3 a n d Distance4. T h e distance m a t e provides an adequate clearance between the h a n d l e bar and the plate.SLDPRT.SLDPRT m& foot. t w o parallel. one of the critical parameters is the location of the pivot pin. The s u b a s s e m b l y is kickingjrod. choosing Move Component. collar. a m a t e (Anglel) has b e e n suppressed. rod. T h e first nine mates assemble the clamper to the wheelchair. with the exception of Lesson8.SLDPRT. N o t e that t h e j o i n t is a SolidWork part that connects the plate a n d the c l a m p e r rigidly. the purpose of this lesson is not necessarily to determine the final design of the device. Y o u m a y w a n t to e x p a n d the Mates b r a n c h in the b r o w s e r to see these assembly m a t e s . the j o i n t to the clamper a n d the wheelchair. the assembly files. T h e s e nine m a t e s are pretty standard. and then the plate to the joint part. mdLesson8TaskThreeLargeFriction. T h e lower the pivot pin is located the lesser force is required to operate the m e c h a n i s m . Lesson8TaskTwo. In these assembly files. clamper. COSMOSMotion will convert these m a t e s to a revolute joint. T h e n e x t t w o m a t e s . consist of complete simulation m o d e l s with simulation results u n d e r respective simulation scenarios. Y o u can also see h o w the parts m o v e by right clicking in the graphics screen. allowing the h a n d l e bar to rotate at the pivot pin. SLDASM. Lesson8TaskThreeSmallFriction. foot. as s h o w n in Figure 8-3a. All these parts are fully constrained and are fixed to the wheelchair. SLDASM. Lesson8TaskOne.SLDASM. y o u should see the entities chosen for the assembly m a t e highlighted in the graphics screen. Lesson8TaskThreeNoFriction. as listed in the b r o w s e r (see Figure 8-2). assemble the h a n d l e bar to the plate at the pivot pin. SLDPRT. SLDPRT. b u t illustrate t h e process of using COSMOSMotion to assist the design. as m e n t i o n e d earlier. plate. as s h o w n in Figure 8-3b. for example dragging the h a n d l e to drive the kicking rod. SLDPRT. In addition.SLDASM. M o v e y o u r cursor over any of the m a t e s . defined in the assembly. Y o u m a y w a n t to open these files to see the motion animations of the m e c h a n i s m . For example. H o w e v e r . and wheelchair. Therefore. and dragging any m o v a b l e parts. Y o u can d o w n l o a d these files from p u b l i s h e r ' s w e b site.SLDPRT. There are fifteen assembly m a t e s . joint.SLDPRT. Lesson8.T h e focus of this lesson is to u s e COSMOSMotion to simulate the position a n d velocity of the kicking r o d for a given force that can be comfortably p r o v i d e d by a child with limited physical strength. S a m e as before.SLDASM. there are six assembly files. SolidWorks Parts and Assembly T h e a s s e m b l y of the m e c h a n i s m consists of eight parts and one subassembly. and one angle. four distance. T h e s e parts are handle.SLDASM w h i c h consists of rod.SLDASM.SLDPRT. Lots of factors contribute to the operating force of the m e c h a n i s m . SLDASM. including four coincident. . t h e scope of t h e design has b e e n n a r r o w e d d o w n to the selection of the spring and to determine if the force is small e n o u g h for a child to operate the device.SLDPRT. three concentric.

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orients the vertical plane of the h a n d l e bar {Right Plane) respect to that of the plate {Right Plane). as s h o w n in Figure 8-3c.T h e n e x t three m a t e s . T h e final m a t e . As a result. a n d Coincident4. Similarly Coincident4 m a t e s the rear face of the kicking r o d to the inner side face of the first lower bracket of the plate. These t w o m a t e s restrict the kicking r o d to slide along the longitudinal direction. as s h o w n in Figure 8-3d. as s h o w n in Figure 8-3e. Anglel. CamMateTangentl. This m a t e will help determine an initial condition for m o t i o n simulations. Coincident3. assemble the k i c k i n g r o d to the plate and the h a n d l e bar. the m i d d l e pin of the kicking r o d is a s s e m b l e d to the inner surface of the b o t t o m slot of the h a n d l e b a r using CamMateTangentl. N o t e that the Anglel m a t e to orient the handle. w h i c h will be converted to a translational j o i n t by COSMOSMotion. it will has to be suppressed to allow the handle bar to rotate . Second Coincident3 m a t e s the b o t t o m face of the kicking r o d to the inner b o t t o m face of the first lower bracket of the plate. First. w h i c h is desirable. the pin can only m o v e within the slot.

a restitution coefficient of 0.. T h e third and final j o i n t is the CamMateTangent b e t w e e n the outer surface of the m i d d l e pin and the inner surface of the slot at the b o t t o m of the handle bar. as s h o w n in Figure 8-5. as illustrated in Figure 8-6.e. In addition to joints. a translational j o i n t is created by COSMOSMotion b e t w e e n the kicking r o d and the first lower bracket. There is one contact constraint a d d e d to the m o t i o n m o d e l . Simulation Model In this m o t i o n m o d e l . COSMOSMotion will add a revolute j o i n t to the m o t i o n m o d e l b e t w e e n the h a n d l e bar and the plate at the pivot pin. as shown in Figure 8-5. the handle will travel a total of 18.2 in. the only m o v i n g parts are the handle bar and the kicking rod.5 is assumed. f .. as s h o w n in Figures 8-4c and 8-4d. the kicking r o d m o v e s 5.d o w n m e n u Tools > Measure. i. N o t e that these m e a s u r e m e n t s shown in Figure 8-4 can be obtained by using the Measure option in SolidWorks. is added to restore the handle b a r to a neutral position after pulling. providing additional pulling force that helps the users to pull b a c k the handle bar. N o t e that the impulse force m u s t first p u s h the handle b a r about 10 degrees forward before pulling it back. simply choose from the p u l l . After suppressing the m a t e Angle1.6 in. In addition. Finally. the Z-direction. b a c k w a r d until the side face of the handle bar b e c o m e s in contact w i t h the front end face of the first lower bracket. Since the free spring length is set to a slightly larger value so that the handle bar will be oriented at a negative 5~/0-degree angle (about the X-axis). At the same time. as s h o w n in Figure 8-4b.B a s e d on the geometry of the m e c h a n i s m and dimensions of its constituent c o m p o n e n t s . as shown in Figure 8-5. respectively. a spring is a d d e d b e t w e e n the u p p e r bracket of the plate and the h o o k on the side of the handle bar. N o t e that the pulling action will p u s h the kicking r o d forward (positive Z-direction) to " k i c k " the soccer ball. A larger spring free length will p u s h the h a n d l e leaning further b a c k w a r d (toward the user). Therefore. This j o i n t restricts the pin to m o v e inside the slot.6 in. To access the Measure option. the user will h a v e to p u s h the handle forward before pulling it b a c k to kick the ball. 9. The h a n d l e bar is allowed to rotate about the X-axis of the global coordinate system at the pivot pin. This j o i n t constrains the kicking rod to translate along the longitudinal direction. T h e contact constraint is defined b e t w e e n the outer side face of the handle bar and the front end face of the first lower bracket. to simulate the operating force.0 second will be added to the handle bar along the Z-direction. This spring.98 b a c k w a r d and 8. forward (positive Z-direction with respect tot the m i d d l e pin) until its m i d d l e pin b e c o m e s in contact with the inner face at the lower end of the slot. This contact constraint will prevent the handle bar from m o v i n g further b a c k w a r d and penetrating t h r o u g h the brackets. the kicking r o d is able to travel a total of 12. In this contact constraint. T h e kicking r o d can m o v e 6. an impulse force of 5-65 l b in a time span of 1. as s h o w n in Figure 8-4a. forward.82 in.34 in. along the longitudinal direction (Z-direction). Similarly.

This assumption will greatly simplify the simulation m o d e l a n d help set up the m o t i o n m o d e l correctly. the default setting. i.In this example. We will u s e this m o d e l to choose a spring. . should h a v e b e e n suppressed. as s h o w n in Figure 8-2. In addition. T h e unit system is IPS.SLDASM.. In addition. N o t e that the m a t e angle is set to positive 10 degrees for the time being. w h i c h is acting in the negative 7-direction (vertically d o w n w a r d ) . there is o n e contact joint. W h e n y o u open this assembly file. as discussed earlier. Angle1. N o t e that this angle is w h a t we a s s u m e for T a s k O n e simulations. we will turn on the gravity. and the handle b a r is leaning forward (toward the Z-direction). If y o u enter COSMOSMotion and e x p a n d the Parts a n d Constraints branches in the browser. T h e simulation results of this non-friction m o d e l h a v e b e e n created in the assembly files Lesson8TaskOne. D u e to the contact constraint and the restitution coefficient defined. including the selection of spring constant and free length.SLDASM and Lesson8TaskTwo.SLDASM. and Lesson8TaskThreeLargeFriction. the operating force. as s h o w n in Figure 8-7. we will start with a valid simulation m o d e l defined in the assembly Lesson8. as s h o w n in Figure 8-8. T h e friction force will be turned on for both the revolute and translational joints to determine the required force for operating the m e c h a n i s m .e. there are three j o i n t s defined. Results of these simulations can be found in Lesson8TaskThreeNoFriction. w h e r e the last constraint.SLDASM. defined to prevent the kicking rod from penetrating into the brackets. m o d e l e d as an impulse force will be a d d e d to the m e c h a n i s m . We will first a s s u m e no friction in any joints. N o t e that the friction is not a d d e d to the CamMateTangent j o i n t b e t w e e n the m i d d l e pin and the slot since such a capability is not currently supported by COSMOSMotion. CamMateTangentl. There are four parts u n d e r the Ground Parts branch. 8. In the Contact branch u n d e r the Constraints. Lesson8TaskThreeSmallFriction. Contact 3D. y o u should see the existing m o t i o n entities. the handle bar will b o u n c e b a c k w h e n it hits the front edge of the first lower bracket. Revolute. SLDASM. y o u should see a properly assembled m o d e l with fifteen m a t e s .SLDASM. O n l y h a n d l e bar and kicking r o d are m o v a b l e .3 U s i n g COSMOSMotion In this example. and Translational.

N o t e that a desired free length should bring the handle b a r b a c k w a r d a negative 5-10 degree angle ( a b o u t the X-axis). In the assembly.SLDASM. Y o u m a y w a n t to o p e n the Contact3D constraint by right clicking Contact3D from the b r o w s e r and choosing Properties. respectively. We will adjust the spring constant and its free length until we reach an equilibrium configuration that we can w o r k with. Task One: Determining Contact Constraints We will carry out simulations for the m o t i o n m o d e l defined in Lesson8. a n d then turn on friction in both the revolute and translational joints. we will start with a non-friction case.There are three major tasks we will carry out in this design. After the spring is determined. . If y o u choose the Contact tab. In T a s k T w o . We h o p e to k e e p the m a x i m u m force m a g n i t u d e under 20 lbf. we will determine if the operating force is sufficient to p u s h the handle forward about 10 degrees before pulling it backward. as s h o w n in Figure 8-9. The m a g n i t u d e of the force will answer the critical question: if the design is acceptable. N o t e that no friction is i m p o s e d for this constraint. we will add an operating force at the handle in Task Three. and hopefully. In T a s k Three. sufficient m o m e n t u m to kick the ball. F r o m the friction cases. Close the dialog b o x by clicking the Apply button. In the Edit 3D Contact dialog box. y o u should see that the Coefficient of Restitution is 0. we will add the spring. We will vary the friction coefficients to simulate different scenarios and then determine the m a g n i t u d e of the operating forces accordingly. and the gravity is turned on. the contact j o i n t Contact 3D is defined. and the restitution coefficient we a s s u m e d in the contact constraint gives us reasonable results. N o t e that the force will first p u s h the handle b a r forward about 10 degrees (positive. y o u should see that the plate a n d handle are included in the first and second containers. the handle is leaning forward 10 degrees (see Figure 8-7). In T a s k O n e we will run simulation to check the function of the 3D contact constraint. We h o p e to ensure that all joints are adequately defined.5. as s h o w n in Figure 8-10. a b o u t the X-axis) before pulling it b a c k w a r d in order to provide e n o u g h travel distance for the kicking rod.

right click the Motion Model n o d e and select System Defaults. as s h o w n in Figure 8- . F r o m the browser. we w o u l d like to m a k e sure that the gravity is set up properly. press the right m o u s e button a n d select Simulation Parameters. In the Options dialog b o x (Figure 8-11). Click OK to accept the gravity setting. and the Direction is set to -1 for Y. 2 Click the Motion Model n o d e from the browser.A l s o . Enter 2 for simulation duration a n d the 200 for the n u m b e r of frames. y o u should see the acceleration is 386.22 i n / s e c .

N o t e that the vertical scales of the graphs h a v e b e e n adjusted for clarity.6 in. This is certainly due to the 0. N o t e that the free length we specify will h a v e to bring the handle b a r b a c k w a r d about 5-10 degrees (that is. Click the Motion Model n o d e again. F r o m the browser. b o u n c e s back. the kicking r o d rests and stays in contact with the bracket. therefore the kicking rod. w h e r e the handle bar is in contact with the first lower bracket. the handle b a r b o u n c e s b a c k slightly due to the contact constraint we defined.8 in. Right click kickingjrod7. and Plot > CM Velocity > Z Component.. and the center m a s s of the kicking r o d reaches to Z = 18. a n d choose Plot > CM Position > Z. We will adjust the spring constant and its free length until we reach an equilibrium configuration that we can w o r k with. T h e position graph shows that the m a s s center of the kicking r o d w a s located at Z = 21. Y o u should see that the h a n d l e bar start m o v i n g forward and the kicking r o d m o v i n g b a c k w a r d due to gravity.6 in. negative 5-10 degrees a b o u t the X-axis). press the right m o u s e button and select Run Simulation. After about 1. T h e m a s s center m o v e s to the right to Z = 17. M a k e sure the Use Precise Geometry for 3D Contacts is selected in order for COSMOSMotion to detect contact during simulation. Next. Y o u m a y w a n t to save the m o d e l u n d e r different n a m e and u s e it for T a s k T w o simulations. Task Two: Adding Spring In Task T w o . T w o graphs like those of Figures 8-13 and 8-14 should appear. we will add a spring to the m e c h a n i s m . The handle bar. T h e velocity graph (Figure 8-14) shows that the b o u n c i n g velocity is half of the i n c o m i n g velocity in the opposite direction.12. e x p a n d the Parts n o d e and then the Moving Parts n o d e . . W h e n the handle b a r and the first lower bracket is in contact.5 seconds. before it slides to the right again due to gravity. F r o m these t w o graphs. initially. w e conclude that the m o t i o n m o d e l has b e e n defined correctly.5 restitution coefficient defined at the contact constraint. Save y o u r m o d e l . we will graph the position and velocity of the kicking r o d a l o n g the Z-direction.

The graphs s h o w that the period of one vibration is j u s t u n d e r 0. R u n a simulation. similar to Figures 8-17 and 8-18. the position a n d velocity graphs of the kicking r o d will appear. the handle bar is not colliding with the bracket. W h e n the simulation is completed. Y o u should see that the handle bar start m o v i n g b a c k w a r d a n d the kicking r o d m o v i n g forward due to the stretching of the spring. Enter the followings: Stiffness: 30 Length: 5 Force: 0 Coil Diameter: 1 Number of coils: 10 Wire Diameter: 0.Delete the simulation result. Pick the center hole of the u p p e r bracket and the h o o k of the handle bar. Also. w h i c h can be obtained by clicking the Design b o x to the right of the Length field. B o t h the position and velocity graphs reveal a sinusoidal type curve. Click the Apply button to accept the spring. the purpose of entering a larger free spring length is to m a k e the handle bar lean b a c k w a r d at equilibrium. F r o m the browser. is larger than the actual distance. right click the Spring n o d e and choose Add Translational Spring. In the current configuration. T h e n u m b e r we enter.34 in. the spring is c o m p r e s s e d since the h a n d l e is leaning 10 degrees forward. the Insert Spring dialog b o x will appear (Figure 8-15).25 N o t e that the actual distance b e t w e e n the hole and the h o o k under the current configuration is about 4. 5..5 seconds. . as shown in Figure 8-16. Again. This is due to the fact that no friction has b e e n applied to the joints.

R e r u n the simulation. On the other hand..9 .N o w we will add a graph to s h o w the rotation angle of the handle b a r .5 in. if the spring is too stiff. N o t e that a softer spring will increase the oscillation angle. w h i c h is desired.e. w h i c h is far less than the desired angle (negative 5-10 degrees). Delete the simulation result. T h e angle of the handle b a r at equilibrium (assuming friction is added to dissipate energy) will be roughly the average of 10 and . about the Xaxis. similar to Figure 8-19. right click the handle-1 a n d choose Plot > Bryant Angles > Angle7. The angle graph s h o w n in Figure 8-20 indicates that the handle bar oscillates b e t w e e n 10 and -25 degrees. the angle graph should appear. i.. similar to w h a t w a s s h o w n in Figure 8-4a. Delete the simulation result. T h e graph shows that the h a n d l e b a r is oscillating b e t w e e n 10 and -9 degrees.e. i. the . change the free length to 5. If the spring constant is too small. F r o m the browser.. the handle b a r m a y reach a dead lock position w i t h the m i d d l e pin of the kicking rod. say 2 lbf/in. and rerun the simulation. and the m e a n angle is about -7 degrees. less than 1 degree. w h i c h is not desirable.

We will add a force at the handle. This parameter will be revisited later in T a s k Three. we will determine the operating force. N e x t we will create a force at the handle. T h e force can be a d d e d from the b r o w s e r by e x p a n d i n g the Forces branch. Rotate the m o d e l a n d p i c k the face of the handle. and go b a c k to SolidWorks assembly m o d e by clicking the Assembly buttons % on top of the browser. a n d click the c h e c k m a r k button on top to accept the definition.e. a n d use simulation results to determine the required operating force. First unsuppress the m a t e AngleL Then. and determine the operating force again. Then. Delete the simulation result. a n d choosing Add Action-Only Force.. Anglel m a t e and choose Edit Feature. the spring constant is set to 30 lbf/in. T h e part handle-1 is now listed in the Select Component to which Force is Applied field. a n d handle. clicking the Assembly buttons on top of the browser. i. In the Insert Action-Only Force dialog box. In the Anglel w i n d o w (Figure 8-21). The handle b a r should rotate to a 7-degree position b a c k w a r d in the graphics screen. In the simulation. This is the initial configuration for T a s k Three simulations.force required to p u s h the h a n d l e bar forward m a y be excessive. T h e force to be determined is supposed to p u s h the h a n d l e forward about 10 degrees. as s h o w n in Figure 8-6. We will adjust the friction coefficient (assuming different physical conditions) in order to determine a range of the operating force. Task Three: Determining the Operating Force In Task Three. we will turn on friction at both translational and revolute joints. say Task3. as determined in T a s k T w o . T h e force m u s t be small e n o u g h to allow children w i t h limited physical strength to operate the m e c h a n i s m . click the Flip direction button (to deselect it). Currently. change the angle to 7.1/DDMFace 10 is listed in both the Select Location a n d the Select Direction fields. right click the Anglel. and then pull it b a c k w a r d to p u s h out the kicking rod. the Select Component to which Force is Applied field (see Figure 8-23) is active (highlighted in red) and ready for y o u to pick the entities. as s h o w n in Figure 82 2 . e Figure 8-21 . right clicking the Action Only n o d e . in its neutral position. Save y o u m o d e l before m o v i n g to T a s k Three. Save the m o d e l under a different n a m e . we will start with a configuration w h e r e the handle bar is set to -7 degrees. as s h o w n in Figure 8-24.

A force symbol will appear in the graphics screen pointing d o w n w a r d . w h i c h is not w h a t we want. T h e arrow of the force symbol should n o w point to the negative Z-direction. We will click the ground button • to the right of the field. w h i c h is n o r m a l to the face we picked. We will click the ground button to the right 01 the h e l d . We will h a v e to change the force direction. y o u should see Assem5 (representing the ground) appear in the text field. to orient the force along the negative Z-direction. A l t e r that.N o w the Select Reference Component to orient Force field is active for selection. as s h o w n in Figure 8-24. w h i c h is not w h a t we want. N o w the Select Reference Component to orient Force field is active for selection. y o u should see Assem5 (representing the ground) appear in the text field. We will h a v e to change the force direction. Select all the text in the Select Direction field (press the let m o u s e button and drag to select all text). and press the Delete k e y to delete the current selection. After that. Pick the end face of the foot. . A force symbol will appear in the graphics screen pointing d o w n w a r d .

the function graph will appear like the one in Figure 8-26. and swing forward to a 13degree angle.2 (backward) a n d then to about 26. E v e n t h o u g h the force data we entered s h o w a polyline in Figure 8-26. This velocity will p r o d u c e a m o m e n t u m of about 310 lbf-sec at 0. assuming no friction at any joints. as s h o w n in Figure 8-30. w h i c h seems to be sufficient to produce e n o u g h m o m e n t u m to k i c k the ball. T h e result graphs will appear at the e n d of the 2-second simulation. forward due to the pulling force and stretch of the spring. T h e position graph in Figure 8-28 s h o w s that the m a s s center of the kicking r o d starts at about 24 in..Click the graph button (right most. It then travels to about 21. T h e handle then m o v e s b a c k w a r d to about 26 degrees.5 seconds.6 in. To create a m o m e n t u m graph y o u m a y simply right click kicking_rod-l from the browser and choose Plot > Translational Momentum > Z Component. due to the forward force. Figure 8-29 shows that the velocity of the kicking r o d reaches about 27 in/sec w h e n the r o d is p u s h e d near the foremost position. and then oscillates. with the m a s s of the kicking r o d as the scaling factor. N o t e that the velocity and m o m e n t u m are proportional. Note that internally COSMOSMotion will create a smooth spline function using the data entered. w h i c h is desirable. the actual force e m p l o y e d for simulation in COSMOSMotion is a spline curve generated f . T h e overall distance that the kicking r o d travels is about 5. T h e angle graph (Figure 8-27) shows that the h a n d l e bar starts at an orientation angle of -7 degrees as expected. as circled in Figure 8-25). R u n a simulation. Close the graph a n d click Apply button to accept the force definition. T h e m a x i m u m force required to operate the device is determined to be 5 l b ( m a x i m u m force value entered).8 in.

03. click the Use Friction. We will turn on friction at both the revolute and the translational joints. Enter Joint dimensions. Friction for the CamMateTangent j o i n t is currently unavailable in COSMOSMotion. Radius: 0. We will turn on friction and continue determining the required operating force. and choose Aluminum Greasy for both Material 1 and Material 2.26 and Length: 0. choose the Friction tab. N o t e that the dimensions entered are the diameter of the pivot pin and the thickness of the handle b a r w h e r e the j o i n t is located.31. The Coefficient (mu) will show 0. Click Apply button to accept the definition.Save y o u m o d e l . . R i g h t click Revolute a n d choose Properties. Delete the simulation result from the browser. E x p a n d the Constraints a n d then the Joints branch. In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog b o x (Figure 8-33).

E v e n t h o u g h the friction coefficient is small (ju = 0. respectively..25 in. i.. 7. choose the Function tab (see Figure 8-25). for Length. the handle bar hardly m o v e s . E x p a n d the Forces a n d then the Action Only n o d e s from the browser.Similarly. R u n a simulation a n d check the angle of the h a n d l e bar. Delete the simulation result. 7 and 0. We will follow in general the overall force pattern. for the first and second lower brackets. respectively. Therefore. respectively. The width and height of the inner square of the brackets is 7 and 7 in.03) for both joints. as s h o w n in Figure 8-34. and Height. a n d 7. and increase the force m a g n i t u d e to p u s h the handle bar forward. Enter 7. and enter the followings: . the force m a g n i t u d e m u s t be increased. N o t e that the length dimension entered is the sum of both the lower brackets.e. In the Edit Action-Only Force dialog box. Right click the ForceAO n o d e a n d choose Properties. turn on the friction for the translational joint.25. Width.

03. the function will appear like the one in Figure 8-35. therefore the kicking rod. M o r e specifically. N o t e that after several attempts. is about 65 lbf. w h i c h is less than the previous non-friction case. we will increase the friction coefficient by changing the material from Aluminum Greasy to Aluminum Dry. Next. Delete the simulation results. R i g h t click Revolute and choose Properties. the force will h a v e to be increased again.Click the graph button.l b force seems to be acceptable. a force that is large e n o u g h to m o v e the handle bar. R u n a simulation. T h e positive part of the force is k e p t the same since the spring will contribute partially to the pulling force. T h e overall force pattern is similar to that of Figure 8-26. choose the Friction tab. After reviewing the graphs. The force data entered are results of a few trials-and-errors. the 7 2 .. i. is due to a very small friction force. and the positive portion remains the same. E x p a n d the Constraints a n d then the Joints branch. H o w e v e r . In the Edit Mate-Defined Joint dialog box. The handle b a r is hardly m o v e d . R i g h t click the ForceAO n o d e to enter the force data. 12 lbf. friction coefficient jU = 0. r f Delete the simulation result.e. The m a x i m u m force is n o w 12 lbf. N o t e that the first half of the force (negative part) is increased m o r e than twice. R e p e a t the s a m e for the translational joint. the force data entered are: . The Coefficient (mu) will show 0. That is.20. this small operating force. a n d choose Aluminum Dry for both Material 1 and Material 2. This result also indicates that the spring constant 30 lbf/in seems to be adequate. T h e m o m e n t u m graph (Figure 8-37) shows that w h e n the rod is p u s h e d near the foremost position the m o m e n t u m of the kicking rod is about 230 l b s e c .

A r e : running a simulation. until a simulation can be completed.. Y o u may encounter p r o b l e m s while carrying out some of the simulations in T a s k Three. raises a flag. Even though the m a x i m u m p u s h i n g force is n o w 65 lb . W h e n this happens. The m e c h a n i s m requires too large a force for a child to operate. f f N o t e that the simulation engine. the pulling force (positive portion) remains the same. . the large operating force.g. the function will appear like the one in Figure 8-38.. simply c h a n g e the m a x i m u m force data. is very sensitive to the force data entered. e. H o w e v e r .Click the graph button.g. to a slightly different value. Save y o u r m o d e l . e. 63. 65. 65 lb . ADAMS/Solver. the angle and m o m e n t u m graphs appear as in Figures 8-39 and 8-40. respectively B o t h seem to be reasonable.

is n o t stable. The physical device confirms that the contact b e t w e e n the kicking r o d and the t w o brackets produces a large friction force. the simulation engine. especially the translational j o i n t b e t w e e n the kicking r o d and the t w o lower brackets on the plate. the force is still too large.4 Result Discussion Apparently. A l t h o u g h this friction coefficient represents an extreme case since in reality some lubricant w o u l d be added to the joints to reduce friction resistance. ADAMS/Solver.e. This p r o b l e m is m o r e vivid w h e n we ran the same simulation using different computers. R e d u c i n g the friction force at joints. First. . Therefore. Y o u can easily confirm that the translational j o i n t contributes significantly to the friction encountered in the m e c h a n i s m by conducting separate simulations w h e r e friction is only present in one of the t w o joints. K n o w i n g these limitations will help y o u u s e COSMOSMotion m o r e effectively. Nevertheless. and t w o are underneath the kicking rod. T w o are a d d e d to the top surface of the kicking rod. such a device is unattractive. as s h o w n in Figure 8-42. F o r children with limited physical strength.5 C o m m e n t s on COSMOSMotion Capabilities a n d Limitations U s i n g COSMOSMotion does answer critical questions a n d help the design process. As revealed in simulations. i. provided by COSMOSMotion for Aluminum-Aluminum contact without lubrication. 12 lbf for small friction (ju = 0. a n u m b e r of limitations in COSMOSMotion h a v e also b e e n encountered. is critical for a successful device. 8.20). Sometimes w h e n y o u rerun the same simulation.03) to 65 lbf for large friction (ju = 0. T h e actual operating force is less than 20 lbf. The friction coefficient ju = 0. T h e flag raised by the simulation has b e e n observed in the physical device. resulting in a large operating force to operate the device. W i t h the bearings. as demonstrated in this example. In order to reduce the friction. Task Three.20. a smaller force is required to operate the device. y o u could see slightly different results.4 1 . from this e x a m p l e . seems to be physically reasonable. w h i c h solves the equations of m o t i o n for the m e c h a n i s m . the biggest concern raised in the simulations is the large operating force.8.. four bearings are a d d e d to the device. as s h o w n in Figure 8 . built by students following the design created in SolidWorks and COSMOSMotion. H o w e v e r . the friction is significantly reduced. the m a x i m u m operating force increases from 5 lbf for non-friction.

the s l o w . the solution engine encountered p r o b l e m s .75. Before creating a simulation m o d e l . A n u m b e r of restitution coefficients w e r e used. with spikes. Second. and terminated the simulation prematurely. y o u always w a n t to formulate y o u r design questions and set up y o u r simulation m o d e l a n d scenarios gearing t o w a r d answering these specific questions.5. as m e n t i o n e d in this b o o k n u m e r o u s times. adding a 3D contact j o i n t significantly slow d o w n the motion of the handle bar and the kicking r o d since lots of contact are encountered b e t w e e n the outer surface of the m i d d l e pin and the inner surface of the slot w h e n the m e c h a n i s m is in motion. Y o u will h a v e to e x a m the simulation results very carefully and challenge yourself about the validity of the results since if y o u d o n ' t s o m e b o d y else will do. H o w e v e r . etc.d o w n is w a y too m u c h to grant a physically reasonable simulation. no software is foolproof. usually in a less friendly w a y . the simulation engine p r o d u c e d results. In addition. . including 0. for example. S o m e of the spikes disappear or b e c o m e smaller w h e n we rerun the same simulation. m o r e spikes appear in graphs. 0. an attempt w a s m a d e to add a 3D contact j o i n t b e t w e e n the m i d d l e pin and the slot of the handle bar. M o r e contact causes m o r e energy dissipation. such as in velocity. H o w e v e r . such as the velocity or m o m e n t u m (see Figures 8-37 and 8-40). Therefore. friction is n o t supported for a CamMateTangent joint.Moreover. force imbalance at certain time steps during the simulation. Overall COSMOSMotion is an excellent tool with lots of nice features and capabilities for support of m e c h a n i s m design and analysis. Yet. w h i c h is not quite realistic. For some simulations. H o w e v e r . the biggest issue with adding the 3D contact is that the simulation engine b e c o m e s extremely sensitive to the initial orientation angle of the handle bar and the m a g n i t u d e of the operating force.

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A j o i n t b e c o m e s excessive w h e n it does n o t introduce any further restriction on a body's motion. the m o d e l contains excessive d o f s . The ADAMS/Solver recognizes and deactivates redundant constraints during m o t i o n simulation..APPENDIX A: DEFINING JOINTS Degrees of F r e e d o m Understanding degrees of freedom is critical in creating successful motion model. COSMOSMotion uses the following equation to calculate the G r u e b l e r ' s count: (A. Redundancy R e d u n d a n c i e s are excessive d o f s . y o u m a y apply this formula to a door m o d e l that is supported by t w o hinges m o d e l e d as revolute joints. For example.4 . i. For a kinematic analysis. Joints added to the m e c h a n i s m constrain the system. y o u restrict its m o v e m e n t to rotation about an axis. each m o v a b l e b o d y introduces six degrees of freedom. if y o u create a m o d e l w i t h a G r u e b l e r ' s count greater than 0 and try to simulate it. three translational and three rotational. and acceleration of each rigid b o d y in the system for any given time. also k n o w n as redundancies. velocity. e. If y o u do not r e m o v e redundancies. M o t i o n inputs. r e m o v e additional d o f s . if possible. COSMOSMotion detects the redundancies and ignores one of the resolute j o i n t s in its analysis. A completely unconstrained b o d y in space has six degrees of freedom. The o u t c o m e m a y be incorrect in reaction results. F o r example. the G r u e b l e r ' s count m u s t be equal to or less than 0. Since a revolute j o i n t r e m o v e s five d o f s . y o u m a y n o t get accurate values w h e n y o u check j o i n t reactions or load reactions.g. TV is the n u m b e r of d o f s restricted by all joints. If the G r u e b l e r ' s count is less than zero. w h i c h include f i v e redundant d o f s . F o r kinematic analysis.e. M is the n u m b e r of bodies excluding the g r o u n d b o d y . As m e n t i o n e d above. and O is the n u m b e r of the m o t i o n inputs in the system. the solver will automatically r e m o v e redundancies. If y o u add a joint. m o t i o n drivers. T h e m e c h a n i s m ' s Gruebler count is calculated using the m e c h a n i s m ' s total n u m b e r of bodies. The free degrees of freedom of the m e c h a n i s m represent the n u m b e r of independent parameters required to specify the position. if y o u m o d e l a door using t w o revolute j o i n t s for the hinges. F o r a given m o t i o n m o d e l .. yet the . and the free degrees of freedom of the b o d y are r e d u c e d from six to one. the G r u e b l e r ' s count b e c o m e s : T h e calculated degrees o f f r e e d o m result i s . a revolute j o i n t to the b o d y . W h e n a j o i n t constrains the m o d e l in exactly the same w a y as another j o i n t (like the door example).1) w h e r e D is the Gruebler count representing the total free degrees of freedom of the m e c h a n i s m . the simulation will not r u n and an error m e s s a g e will appear. It is important that y o u eliminate redundancies from y o u r m o t i o n m o d e l while carrying out d y n a m i c analyses. the second revolute j o i n t does not contribute to constraining the door's motion. y o u can determine its n u m b e r of degrees of freedom using the G r u e b l e r ' s count. or r e m o v e d o f s .

N o t e that the DOF field in the dialog b o x will show the G r u e b l e r ' s count if a simulation has b e e n completed. redundancies in y o u r m o d e l do not alter the performance of the m e c h a n i s m . Before y o u select a j o i n t to add to y o u r m o d e l . After y o u decide w h i c h joints y o u w a n t t o use. Y o u can eliminate or reduce the redundancies in y o u r m o d e l by carefully choosing joints. . it is critical that y o u eliminate redundancies from your mechanism. T h e following table describes the c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d j o i n t types in COSMOSMotion and the degrees of freedom they r e m o v e . velocity. Y o u m a y click the Calculate button to ask COSMOSMotion to calculate the actual dof. These j o i n t s m u s t be able to restrict the same d o f s . and acceleration. Y o u m a y also ask COSMOSMotion to calculate the G r u e b l e r ' s count for you. F o r a kinematic simulation w h e r e y o u are interested in displacement. y o u should k n o w w h a t m o v e m e n t y o u w a n t to restrain for the b o d y and w h a t m o v e m e n t y o u w a n t to allow. In the m e s s a g e window appearing next (Figure A-2). COSMOSMotion identifies redundant dofs a n d recalculates the dof for the simulation model.m o t i o n is correct. as s h o w n in Figure A1. For complete and accurate reaction forces. Y o u can simply click the Show simulation control button on top of the graphics screen to bring up the dialog box. introducing redundancies. b u t not duplicate each other. If not. y o u can use the G r u e b l e r ' s count t o calculate the d o f s and check redundancies.

T h e origin of the revolute j o i n t can be located a n y w h e r e along the axis about w h i c h the bodies can rotate with respect to each other. Orientation of the cylindrical j o i n t defines the direction of the axis about w h i c h the bodies rotate or slide along with respect to each other. Revolute Joint A revolute joint. allows the rotation of one rigid b o d y w i t h respect to another rigid b o d y about a c o m m o n axis.T h e following provides m o r e details about the j o i n t s listed in the table above. Orientation of the revolute j o i n t defines the direction of the axis about w h i c h the bodies can rotate with respect to each other. as s h o w n in Figure A . Cylindrical Joint A cylindrical j o i n t allows b o t h relative rotation and relative translation of one b o d y with respect to another b o d y . w i t h respect to each other. T h e direction of the m o t i o n of the translational j o i n t is parallel to the orientation vector and passes t h r o u g h the origin.5 . T h e rigid bodies m a y only translate.3 . as depicted in Figure A . T h e rotational axis of the revolute j o i n t is parallel to the orientation vector a n d passes t h r o u g h the origin. . as illustrated in Figure A . T h e origin of the cylindrical j o i n t can be located a n y w h e r e along the axis about w h i c h the bodies rotate or slide with respect to each other. not rotate. T h e orientation of the translational j o i n t determines the direction of the axis along w h i c h the bodies can slide with respect to each other (axis of translation). T h e j o i n t origin is assigned by COSMOSMotion w h e n y o u enter COSMOSMotion from SolidWorks.4 . T h e location of the origin of a translational j o i n t with respect to its rigid bodies does n o t affect the m o t i o n of the j o i n t but does affect the reaction loads on the joint. T h e rotational/translational axis of the cylindrical j o i n t is parallel to the orientation vector a n d passes t h r o u g h the origin. Translational Joint A translational j o i n t allows one rigid b o d y to translate along a vector with respect to a second rigid body. T h e location of the j o i n t origin determines w h e r e the j o i n t symbol is located.

8 . as depicted in Figure A . A universal j o i n t allows the rotation of one b o d y to be transferred to the rotation of another b o d y . T h e t w o shaft axes identify the center lines of the t w o bodies connected by the universal joint. The origin location of the spherical j o i n t determines the point about w h i c h the bodies pivot freely with respect to each other. y o u can define the pitch. T h e origin location of the universal j o i n t represents the connection point of the t w o bodies. A screw j o i n t r e m o v e s one degree of freedom. This j o i n t is particularly useful to transfer rotational m o t i o n around corners. or to transfer rotational m o t i o n b e t w e e n t w o connected shafts that are permitted to b e n d at the connection point (such as the drive shaft on an automobile). N o t e that COSMOSMotion uses rotational axes parallel to the rotational axes y o u identify b u t passing t h r o u g h the origin of the universal joint. It constrains one b o d y to rotate as it translates w i t h respect to another body. as shown in Figure A .6 .Spherical Joint A spherical j o i n t allows free rotation about a c o m m o n point of one b o d y with respect to another body. The displacement of the first b o d y . T h e pitch is the a m o u n t of translational displacement of the t w o bodies for each full rotation of the first body. W h e n defining a screw joint.7 . as s h o w n in Figure A .

T h e cylindrical j o i n t r e m o v e s t w o translational and t w o rotational degrees of freedom. is parallel to the orientation vector. Figure A . as shown in Figure A . V e r y often.1 0 . w h i c h is normal to the j o i n t ' s plane of motion. T h e screw j o i n t r e m o v e s one m o r e degree of freedom by constraining the translational m o t i o n to be proportional to the rotational motion. Planar Joint A planar j o i n t allows a plane on one b o d y to slide and rotate in the plane of another body.relative to the second b o d y is a function of the b o d y ' s rotation about the axis of rotation. . T h e rotational axis of the planar joint.1 0 F i x e d Joint S y m b o l A fixed j o i n t locks t w o bodies together so they cannot m o v e w i t h respect to each other. T h e fixed j o i n t symbol is s h o w n in Figure A . the screw j o i n t is u s e d with a cylindrical joint.9 Planar Joint S y m b o l Fixed Joint Figure A . T h e orientation vector of the planar j o i n t is perpendicular to the j o i n t ' s plane of motion.9 . For every full rotation. the displacement of the first b o d y along the translation axis with respect to the s e c o n d b o d y is equal to the value of the pitch.

is given in the next table for your reference.M a p p e d SolidWorks Mates After y o u bring an assembly from SolidWorks to COSMOSMotion a n d assign c o m p o n e n t s to g r o u n d part and m o v i n g parts. In m o s t cases. COSMOSMotion automatically m a p s assembly m a t e s to joints. w h i c h is c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d in assembly. these j o i n t s w o r k well for the m o t i o n simulation. A selected set of the m a p p e d SolidWorks m a t e s . .

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l b . . we h a v e the m a s s unit.l c . a 1 l b s e c / i n b l o c k will w e i g h 386 l b 2 on earth. W h e n applying a 1 lbf force to the m a s s block. and the force in l b f 2 m i n / s e c unit 2 is 386 times smaller than that of l b that we are m o r e u s e d to. from Eqs. as illustrated in Figure B .2 and B . It m e a n s that a 1 l b m a s s b l o c k f m 2 f f 2 is 386 times smaller than that of a 7 l b s e c / i n block. 7 l b 2 f 2 m 1/386 l b s e c / i n . it will accelerate at a 7 i n / s e c rate. it will accelerate 386 i n / s e c . Therefore. we h a v e 7 l b = 386 l b f f m i n / s e c . On the other hand. 3 . W h e n y o u apply a 7 l b force to the same m a s s block.Therefore. B. as s h o w n in Figure B .

A C I S . extrude. support such geometric translations well. SolidWorks provides an excellent capability that support importing solid m o d e l s from a b r o a d range of software and formats. a n d pull d o w n the Files of type in the File Open dialog box. several other translators. and then importing assemblies. SolidEdge. etc. For a complete list of supported software and formats in SolidWorks. etc. T h e y are Option 1: importing solid features a n d Option 2: importing j u s t geometry. in w h i c h solid features e m b e d d e d in the part geometry. such as Pro/ENGINEER. for instance revolve. Pro/ENGINEER. y o u will end up with an imported feature that y o u cannot c h a n g e since all solid features are l u m p e d into a single imported geometry without any solid features nor dimensions. In addition. including Parasolid. please refer to Figure C . Importing solid m o d e l s w i t h solid features is a lot m o r e challenging. In fact. S T E P (STandard for E x c h a n g e of Product data). Importing g e o m e t r y is relatively straightforward. I G E S (Initial Graphics E x c h a n g e Standards). if y o u do n o t anticipate m a k i n g design changes in SolidWorks. . Therefore. We will use the gear train e x a m p l e e m p l o y e d in Lesson 6 as the test case a n d as an example for illustrations. importing solid features v s . sketches that w e r e e m p l o y e d for generating the solid features m u s t be recovered and the feature types. Importing solid features m a y bring y o u a parametric solid m o d e l that j u s t like a SolidWorks part that y o u will be able to modify.. W i t h virtually infinite n u m b e r of possibilities in creating solid features. chamfers. m e t h o d s and principles y o u learn from this appendix will be applicable to importing solid m o d e l s from other software and formats. such as IGES and S T E P . if y o u choose to import geometry only.APPENDIX C: IMPORTING Pro/ENGINEER PARTS AND ASSEMBLIES F r o m time to time w h e n y o u use COSMOSMotion for simulations. In each case. m u s t be identified first. it is almost certain that y o u will encounter p r o b l e m s while importing solid models with feature conversion. etc.. such as holes. SolidWorks provides capabilities for importing both part and assembly. Users can choose t w o options in importing solid m o d e l . e will try both options.1 . Y o u m a y access this list by choosing File > Open from the pull-down m e n u .e. On the other hand. SolidWorks does a g o o d j o b in bringing in Pro/ENGINEER part as a single imported geometry. m u s t be identified. Hopefully. In this appendix.. In general. it is highly r e c o m m e n d that y o u import parts as a single geometric feature. y o u m a y encounter the n e e d for importing solid m o d e l s from other C A D software. We will discuss the approaches of importing parts. I G E S and S T E P are especially useful w h e n there is no direct translation from one C A D to another. we will focus on importing Pro/ENGINEER parts and assemblies. importing geometry. i. sweep.

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especially. choose Import geometry directly (default). Click OK. w h e n the solid features are relatively simple (but n o t this gear h o u s i n g part). If y o u take a closer look at any of the successful solid features. In addition. y o u will see that the sketches (for example Sketch3 of ExtrudeS) of the solid features do not h a v e complete dimensions. Option 2: Importing Geometry Importing geometry is m o r e straightforward and has a higher successful rate than that of importing solid features. Usually a (—) symbol is placed in front of the sketch. Apparently. Certainly. gboxjiousingprt. R e p e a t the same steps to open the gear housing part. this translation is not satisfactory. for e x a m p l e ExtrudeS. the b a c k plate (Extrudel in the browser) is recognized incorrectly. w h e n y o u translate an assembly with m a n y parts. it m a y take only a small effort to repair or re-create wrong or unrecognized solid features. this translation represents a typical scenario y o u will encounter for the majority of the parts. indicating that the sketch is not fully defined. H o w e v e r . SolidWorks is capable of importing s o m e parts correctly and completely. In the Pro/ENGINEER to SolidWorks Converter dialog b o x (Figure C-8). Unfortunately. only b o u n d a r y surfaces will be imported. N o t e that if y o u choose BREP (Boundary Representation). In m a n y cases. the effort could be substantial.sketches in the graphics screen by clicking their n a m e s listed in the browser. . a n d then Kniting (default) in order to import solid m o d e l s instead of j u s t surface m o d e l s .

However.asm) s h o w n in Figure C-10 using b o t h options.T h e conversion process will start. This translation is successful. e m p l o y e d in Lesson 6 w a s created by u s i n g Option 2. T h e gear housing part. there will be no parametric solid feature with dimensions and sketch converted if y o u choose Option 2.e. After about a m i n u t e or two.. As m e n t i o n e d earlier. As s h o w n in Figure C-10 {Pro/ENGINEER Model Tree w i n d o w ) . Since we do not anticipate m a k i n g any change to the gear housing. sldprt. i. SolidWorks will try to import this assembly as well as the 11 parts from Pro/ENGINEER. as shown in Figure C-9. an entity Importedl will appear in the browser (Figure C-9). . gbox housing. importing solid features. All the geometric features in Pro/ENGINEER shown in Figure C-3 were included in this imported feature. the geometry converted seems to be accurate. We will import the input gear assembly (gbox_input. this imported part is satisfactory. there are 11 parts (and several d a t u m features) in this assembly. We will try Option 1 first. In addition. the converted m o d e l will appear in the graphics screen.

C h o o s e Overwrite for If same name SolidWorks file is found. T h e conversion process will begin. T h e assembly a n d all 11 parts s e e m to be correctly imported. gbox input. After about a m i n u t e or t w o . R e p e a t the same steps to open the input gear assembly.l 4 . and choose Import material properties and Import sketch/curve entities. In the Pro/ENGINEER to SolidWorks Converter dialog b o x (Figure C .asm. y o u will see an imported feature listed. the gear (wheel_gbox_pinion_ls<l>). and then Kniting (default) in order to import solid m o d e l s . as . Click Import. choose Use body import for all parts (default). If y o u expand any of the part branch. the converted assembly will appear in the graphics screen. as s h o w n in Figure C . for example.l 3).Importing geometry is also m o r e straightforward for assembly and has a higher rate of success.

Since we do n o t anticipate m a k i n g any change to this input gear assembly. all with arrows.depicted in Figure C-14. we will select all 11 parts a n d m e r g e t h e m into the n e w part. and gbox output. M a k e sure y o u open gbox input.. B e c a u s e we are creating a j o i n e d part. Top a n d Right planes for the axis in gbox Jnput. All y o u h a v e to do is to click the c h e c k m a r k on top to accept the parts. as s h o w n in Figure C-18. All 11 parts will be selected. the Mates branch is empty. N o t e that there is an arrow symbol -> to the right of the root entity.sldprt. T h e m e r g e operation r e m o v e s surfaces that intrude into each other's space. T h e Join w i n d o w will appear (overlapping with the browser) as s h o w n in Figure C-16. press the Shift key. w h e n the referring parts are r e m o v e d from the folder. we do not n e e d a sketch. E x p a n d the Joinl branch. choose Insert > Features > Join. as discussed in Lesson 6. F r o m the p u l l . This symbol indicates that these entities enclosed in this part refer to other parts or assembly. In SolidWorks.d o w n m e n u . Again. In addition. In the n e w part. and m e r g e s the parts into a single solid v o l u m e . for e x a m p l e pick the assembly Front plane from the browser. screw_setjip_6*6<2>. the Front plane will appear in the graphics screen (Figure C-15). Save the assembly (and the part). as s h o w n in Figure C-17. In the Save As dialog b o x . gboxjniddle. gbox Jnput. C h o o s e from the pull-down m e n u Insert > Component > New Part. Close the sketch. Next. y o u can j o i n t w o or m o r e parts to create a n e w part in an assembly. . a sketch opens on the selected plane. for e x a m p l e . T h e s e axes are necessary for creating gear pairs. except it does not have any assembly mates.e. sldasm. enter gbox Jnput for part n a m e . gbox Jnput. we will m e r g e all 11 parts into a single part. Since we do not anticipate m a k i n g change in h o w these parts are assembled. pointing to the actual parts currently in the same folder. sldprt. O n e axis in each part that passes t h r o u g h the center hole of the gear w a s created simply by intersecting t w o planes. click the first part wheel box_shaftinput<l>. Click a plane or planar face on a component. We will insert a n e w part into the assembly and m e r g e all 11 parts into that n e w part. this imported assembly is satisfactory. all entities b e l o n g to this part will be listed in the browser. y o u will see 11 parts listed. N o t e that the Joinl branch has the same symbol. T h e n e w part gboxinput<l> will appear in the browser. sldprt. there is no solid feature converted in any of the parts. N o w open the part gbox Jnput. Assemble all 11 parts (may be m o r e for some cases) will take a non-trivial effort. T h e three gear parts. i. a question m a r k symbol will be added to the arrow. sldprt. SolidWorks is expecting y o u to select a plane or a flat face to place a sketch for the n e w part. sldprt instead of gboxJnput. and then close the w h o l e assembly. and click Save. F r o m the browser. e m p l o y e d for Lesson 6 w e r e created following the approach discussed. In the Join w i n d o w . In addition. and then click the last part. T h e part gbox input will appear in the graphics screen. all 11 parts are listed. W h e n the link is broken.

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