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Metal oxides don't always form hydroxides with water. IT DEPENDS ON THE SOLUBILITY OF METAL OXIDES AND THE REACTIVITY OF METAL. 1)High reactivity metals form oxides soluble in water which give rise to metal hydroxides. Na2O + H2O --> 2NaOH K2O + H2O --> 2KOH CaO + H2O --> Ca(OH)2 2) Medium reactivity metals form sparingly or less soluble oxides. Al2O3 -----H2O-------> Al(OH)3 3) Low reactivity metal oxides are insoluble in water. CuO +H2O --> Cu(OH)2
*****Basically, I was wondering if this is a rule in chemistry; if you add water to a metal oxide you will always get a metal hydroxide, e.g: CalciumOxide + Water ----> CalciumHydroxide Reaction of a metal oxide with water produces a metal hydroxide; that is, a strong base. Reaction of a nonmetal oxide with water produces an oxyacid in which the nonmetal is in the same oxidation state as in the oxide you started with. Both of these are combination reactions, and both can be reversed by heating the products. Metal hydroxides decompose on heating to give the metal oxide and water, and oxyacids decompose on heating to give water and the nonmetal oxide in the appropriate oxidation state. Examples: Na2O + H2O NaOH MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 SO2 + H2O H2SO3 Cl2O5 + H2O HClO3 HNO3 N2O5 + H2O Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 + H2O

Solubility rules These rules are useful for determning:

Will a precipitation reaction occur? How can a particular solid compound be created? Will a compound dissolve in water?

Generally soluble

Compounds containing alkali metals or NH4+ Compounds containing NO3Compounds containing CH3COO- (acetates) Chlorides, bromides, iodides (these ions combined with Pb2+, Ag+, Hg22+ form insoluble compounds) SO42- (these ions combined with Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Hg22+ form insoluble compounds)

Generally insoluble

Compounds containing OH- or S2- (these ions combined with alkali metals, Ba2+ or the ammonium ion are soluble) Compounds containing CO32- or PO43- (these ions combined with alkali metals are soluble)

1. Force of attraction between H2O molecules and the ions of the solid This force tends to bring ions into solution. If this is the predominant factor, then the compound may be highly soluble in water. 2. Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions This force tends to keep the ions in the solid state. When it is a major factor, then water solubility may be very low. However, it is not easy to estimate the relative magnitudes of these two forces or to quantitatively predict water solubilities of electrolytes. Therefore, it is easier to refer to a set of generalizations, sometimes called 'solubility rules', that are based upon experimentation. It's a good idea to memorize the information in this table: Solubility Rules NO3- - All nitrates are soluble. Cl- - All chlorides are soluble except AgCl, Hg2Cl2, and PbCl2. SO42- - Most sulfates are soluble. Exceptions include BaSO4, PbSO4, and SrSO4.

CO32- - All carbonates are insoluble except NH4+ and those of the Group 1 elements. OH- - All hydroxides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 elements, Ba(OH)2, and Sr(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble. S2- - All sulfides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 and Group 2 elements and NH4+.

Activity Series for Metals and Non-metals Single Replacement Reactions

Name Metals Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Barium Strontium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Manganese Zinc Chromium Iron Cadmium Cobalt Nickel Tin Lead Hydrogen

Symbol Li+ Na+ K+ Rb+ Ba+2 Sr+2 Ca+2 Mg+2 Al+3 Mn Zn+2 Cr+3 Fe Cd+2 Co+2 Ni+2 Sn Pb H2

Decreasing activity

reacts with water and acids

reacts with acids replacing hydrogen

Antimony Bismuth Copper Mercury Silver Platinum Gold

Sb Bi Cu Hg Ag+1 Pt Au

fairly unreactive

Non-metals Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

The Activity Series of the metals is an invaluable aid to predicting the products of replacement reactions. It also can be used as an aid in predicting products of some other reactions. Pay attention to the notes below as they are provided to help you make better use of the activity series than just the list of metals by themselves. 1. Each element on the list replaces from a compound any of the elements below it. The larger the interval between elements, the more vigorous the reaction. 2. The first five elements (lithium - sodium) are known as very active metals and they react with cold water to produce the hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 3. The next four metals (magnesium - chromium) are considered active metals and they will react with very hot water or steam to form the oxide and hydrogen gas. 4. The oxides of all of these first metals resist reduction by H2. 5. The next six metals (iron - lead) replace hydrogen from HCl and dil. sulfuric and nitric acids. Their oxides undergo reduction by heating with H2, carbon, and carbon monoxide. 6. The metals lithium - copper, can combine directly with oxygen to form the oxide. 7. The last five metals (mercury - gold) are often found free in nature, their oxides decompose with mild heating, and they form oxides only indirectly.

lithium potassium strontium calcium


magnesium aluminum zinc chromium

iron cadmium cobalt nickel tin lead

antimony arsenic bismuth copper

mercury silver paladium platinum gold

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Important notes to remember: (1) NONE of the equations are balanced!! and (2) make sure to write correct formulas. DO NOT just copy the subscripts from the reactants over into the products. During decomposition, one compound splits apart into two (or more pieces). These pieces can be elements or simpler compounds Written using generic symbols, it is usually shown as:
AB ---> A + B

However, that really only works for splitting apart into the elements, like these examples.
HgO ---> Hg + O2 H2O ---> H2 + O2 MgCl2 ---> Mg + Cl2 FeS ---> Fe + S

Decomposition can also split one compound into two simpler compounds (or compound and an element) as in these examples:
CaCO3 ---> CaO + CO2 Na2CO3 ---> Na2O + CO2 KClO3 ---> KCl + O2 Ba(ClO3)2 ---> BaCl2 + O2

Notice how, in every case so far, there is only one substance on the left-hand (reactant) side. This is always the case in a decomposition reaction. Don't forget that!! Figuring out what the products are in decomposition is harder (maybe you'll think it's easier!!) because you will have to recognize several categories of decomposition reactions. Here are your first (yes, there's more!) three:
1) All binary compounds (like the four in the first example set above) will break down into their elements. 2) All carbonates (like the first two in the second example set above) break down to the oxide and carbon dioxide. 3. Chlorates (like KClO3 and Ba(ClO3)2 in the example) will break down to the binary salt and oxygen.

Here is one more category of decomposition reactions:

Ca(OH)2 ---> CaO + H2O NaOH ---> Na2O + H2O HNO3 ---> N2O5 + H2O H3PO4 ---> P2O5 + H2O

The first two substances are bases and the last two are acids. In each case, the acid or base breaks down into the oxide of the metal (in the case of bases) or the oxide of the nonmetal (in the case of acids) plus water. Here is one example of each category which are then solved below:
1) NaClO3 ---> 2) Li2CO3 ---> 3) KOH ---> 4) NaCl --->

Example #1 How to figure out the right (or product side): (1) Identify the type of compound decomposing:
NaClO3 is a chlorate

Notice that you have to be able to "read" a formula and identifiy the parts (cation and anion) that make it up. (2) Apply the rule for that type:
chlorates decompose to the binary salt and oxygen gas

(3) Write two new (CORRECT!!) formulas using the rule from step two.
NaCl since Na is positive 1 and Cl is minus one O2 since oxygen is a diatomic gas

So the final answer looks like this:

NaClO3 ---> NaCl + O2

Example #2 How to figure out the right (or product side):

(1) Identify the type of compound decomposing:

Li2CO3 is a carbonate

(2) Apply the rule for that type:

carbonates decompose to the binary oxide and carbon dioxide gas

(3) Write two new (CORRECT!!) formulas using the rule from step two.
Li2O since Li is positive 1 and O is minus two CO2 is the formula for carbon dioxide gas

So the final answer looks like this:

Li2CO3 ---> Li2O + CO2

Example #3 How to figure out the right (or product side): (1) Identify the type of compound decomposing:
KOH is a base

(2) Apply the rule for that type:

bases decompose to the binary oxide and water

(3) Write two new (CORRECT!!) formulas using the rule from step two.
K2O since K is positive 1 and O is minus two H2O is the formula for water

So the final answer looks like this:

KOH ---> K2O + H2O

Example #4 How to figure out the right (or product side):

(1) Identify the type of compound decomposing:

NaCl is a binary compound (that is not an acid or a base. I left this point until now.)

(2) Apply the rule for that type:

binary compounds decompose to the elements

(3) Write two new (CORRECT!!) formulas using the rule from step two.
Na is the proper symbol Cl2 is the proper symbol for chlorine since it is diatomic

So the final answer looks like this:

NaCl ---> Na + Cl2

Example #5 There is another type of acid which does not have oxygen in it. HCl, HBr and HI are examples. These acids simply decompose into their elements:
HCl ---> H2 + Cl2 Practice Problems

Note that none of the example problems above are balanced. Your teacher may require this, but the ChemTeam will only provide some of the following answers balanced. The rest are up to you!! Write correct formulas for the products in these decomposition reactions. #3 might be tough remember to preserve nitrogen's oxidation number. 1) Ni(ClO3)2 ---> 2) Ag2O ---> 3) HNO2 ---> 4) Fe(OH)3 ---> 5) ZnCO3 ---> 6) Cs2CO3 --->

7) Al(OH)3 ---> 8) H2SO4 ---> 9) RbClO3 ---> 10) RaCl2 ---> Chemistry 101 Dr. A. J. Pribula Some Common Types of Chemical Reactions 1. When two elements react, a combination reaction occurs (think: could any other type of reaction occur?), producing a binary compound (that is, one consisting of only two types of atoms). If a metal and a nonmetal react, the product is ionic with a formula determined by the charges on the ions the elements form. If two nonmetals react, the product is a molecule with polar covalent bonds, with a formula consistent with the normal valences of the atoms involved. Some pairs of elements may react only slowly and require heating for significant reaction to occur. Examples: K + S8 K2S (ionic) Ca + O2 CaO (ionic) Al + I2 AlI3 (ionic) H2 + O2 H2O (covalent) I2 + Cl2 ICl, ICl3, or ICl5 (covalent) (exact product depends on relative amounts of I2 and Cl2) (NOTE: The above reactions are not balanced, nor were they intended to be. They, like the others in this handout, are meant only to show the correct formulae for the reactants and products. You may wish to balance the reactions in the handout as an exercise.) 2. Reaction of a metal oxide with water produces a metal hydroxide; that is, a strong base. Reaction of a nonmetal oxide with water produces an oxyacid in which the nonmetal is in the same oxidation state as in the oxide you started with. Both of these are combination reactions, and both can be reversed by heating the products. Metal hydroxides decompose on heating to give the metal oxide and water, and oxyacids decompose on heating to give water and the nonmetal oxide in the appropriate oxidation state. Examples: Na2O + H2O MgO + H2O SO2 + H2O NaOH Mg(OH)2 H2SO3

Cl2O5 + H2O HNO3 Fe(OH)3

HClO3 N2O5 + H2O Fe2O3 + H2O

3. Reaction of a metal oxide with a nonmetal oxide gives an oxysalt; reaction of a metal hydroxide with a nonmetal oxide produces a "hydrogen" oxysalt. This is essentially a reaction of the O2- or OH- in the metal compound with the molecular nonmetal oxide. This combination reaction occurs only if no water is present; in the presence of water, the nonmetal and metal oxides react with the water to produce acid and hydroxide, respectively (as shown in (2) above), then these react as in (4) below. Examples: CaO(s) + SO3(g) NaOH(s) + CO2(g) CaSO4(s) NaHCO3(s)

4. Reaction of an acid with a base gives a salt plus water. The cation in the salt comes from the base; the anion comes from the acid. The base may be a metal hydroxide, a metal oxide, or a weak base such as NH3. The acid and/or base may be pure solids, liquids, or gases, or in aqueous solution. The oxidation states of the anion of the acid and cation of the base normally remain unchanged. Examples: HCl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) H2SO4(aq) + Fe(OH)3(s) NH3(g) + HC2H3O2(l) Al2O3(s) + HClO4(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4C2H3O2(s) Al(ClO4)3(aq) + H2O(l)

5. Ammonium salts react with metal hydroxides and oxides in an acid-base reaction to produce ammonia. This is essentially the reverse of one of the reaction types mentioned in (4) above. Either or both of the reactants may be a pure material or in aqueous solution. Examples: NH4Cl(aq) + KOH(aq) NH4NO3(s) + CaO(s) NH3(g) + H2O(l) + KCl(aq) NH3(g) + H2O(l) + Ca(NO3)2(s)

6. Reaction of the salt of a weak acid (that is, a compound containing the anion of a weak acid) with a strong acid produces the weak acid and a salt. This is another example of an acid-base reaction, in addition to the ones given in (4) and (5) above. The original salt of the weak acid may be either a pure solid or in aqueous solution. The cation in the salt formed as the product comes from the weak acid salt; the anion in the product salt comes from the strong acid. In many cases, the weak acid produced is unstable and decomposes to give the oxide of a nonmetal and water (see (2) above). This is especially true if the nonmetal oxide is a compound of limited solubility in water such as SO2, CO2, or the nitrogen oxides. The best-known examples of this type of reaction involve carbonates,

bicarbonates, sulfides, and sulfites, but many other examples are known as well. Normally, these reactions do not involve oxidation or reduction. Examples: BaCO3(s) + HBr(aq) BaBr2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) NaHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) MgS(s) + HCl(aq) H2S(g) + MgCl2(aq) K2SO3(aq) + HNO3(aq) KNO3(aq) + SO2(g) + H2O(l) Ca3(PO4)2(s) + HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + H3PO4(aq) Zn(C2H3O2)2(aq) + HBr(aq) ZnBr2(aq) + HC2H3O2(aq) 7. Reaction of solutions of two soluble salts with one another can give a precipitate of an insoluble salt formed by a double replacement reaction (also called a metathesis). Whether or not a precipitate forms depends on the exact combination of salts used. To make a prediction as to whether a reaction will take place or not, you must know the solubility rules for common salts (Ebbing 4/e, page 104; lab manual, Appendix 7). Some combinations of salts may give oxidation-reduction reactions (see (11) below), but most do not. Examples: CaCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq) AgNO3(aq) + FeCl3(aq) but: NiSO4(aq) + MgI2(aq) CaCO3(s) + KCl(aq) AgCl(s) + Fe(NO3)3(aq) no reaction

(NiI2 and MgSO4 are both soluble) Al(NO3)3(aq) + Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) no reaction (Al(C2H3O2)3 and Pb(NO3)2 are both soluble) 8. Heating an oxysalt produces a metal oxide plus a nonmetal oxide or a metal salt plus oxygen, or some combination of these two decomposition reactions. Examples: KClO3(s) CaCO3(s) Pb(NO3)2(s) KCl(s) + O2(g) CaO(s) + CO2(g) PbO(s) + NO(g) + NO2(g) + O2(g)

9. Heating a hydrated material initially causes a decomposition reaction to produce the anhydrous compound and water. Further heating may yield further decomposition, depending on the material. (See (2) and (8) above.) Most binary compounds are stable to heat.

Examples: H2C2O4. 2H2O(s) H2C2O4(s) CaCl2 6H2O(s) CaCl2(s)

. .

H2O(g) + H2C2O4(s); followed by H2O(g) + CO(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CaCl2(s); followed by

no reaction H2O(g) + CuSO4(s); followed by CuO(s) + SO3(g) (requires strong heating)

CuSO4 5H2O(s) CuSO4(s)

10. Reaction of an element with a compound often gives a single replacement reaction in which a nonmetallic element can replace a combined nonmetal, and a metallic element can replace a combined metal, or hydrogen from an acid. As a general rule, a more active (reactive) element will replace a less active (reactive) element from its compounds. In general (but with many exceptions), the most reactive nonmetals are found to the upper right in the periodic table, and the most reactive metals are found to the lower left. The order of reactivity of the halogens is F2>Cl2>Br2>I2. For hydrogen and the more common metals, the order of reactivity (the activity series) is Li>K>Ca>Na>Mg>Al>Zn>Cr>Fe>Ni>Sn>Pb>H2>Cu>Hg>Ag>Pt>Au In these two series, one element can replace another one to its right in the series. Metals to the left of H2 can replace H+ from acids. The very reactive metals (Li, K, Na, Ca) can replace H+ from cold water; metals of intermediate reactivity (Mg, Al) can replace H+ from hot water or steam. Any single replacement reaction can also be categorized as an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction. Examples: Al(s) + NiSO4(aq) Al2(SO4)3(aq) + Ni(s) Fe(s) + HBr(aq) FeBr3(aq) + H2(g) Cl2(g) + KI(aq) KCl(aq) + I2(s) Na(s) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) + H2(g) Zn(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu(s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) but: Ag(s) + HClO4(aq) Br2(l) + ZnCl2(aq) Sn(s) + H2O(l) Pb(s) + CrF3(aq) no reaction

no reaction no reaction no reaction

11. Compounds containing one or more atoms in high oxidation states often act as oxidizing agents; compounds containing atoms in low oxidation states often act as reducing agents. For most elements, the (old) group number of the atom in the periodic table gives the highest oxidation state possible for that element. For nonmetals, the lowest

oxidation state possible is given by the (old) group number minus eight. Elemental metals most often act as reducing agents (they are oxidized); nonmetals frequently act as oxidizing agents (they are reduced). For the representative elements (i.e., those in the first two and last six columns of the periodic table), oxidation states most often are two units apart. For example, Sn forms Sn(II) and Sn(IV); Br forms Br1-, Br(I), Br(III), Br(V), and Br(VII). For the transition elements, (i.e., those in the "center" ten columns of the periodic table), oxidation states are often one unit apart, but can be in almost any relationship to one another. For the transition elements, the common oxidation states (charges on their ions) must be memorized. For example, Fe forms Fe2+ and Fe3+; Cu forms Cu+ and Cu2+, etc. Some of the transition elements form oxyanions as well as cations. For example, Mn forms Mn2+, Mn3+, MnO42-, and MnO4-; Cr forms Cr2+, Cr3+, CrO42-, and Cr2O72-. Any atom in its highest possible oxidation state can only act as an oxidizing agent; any atom in its lowest possible oxidation state can only act as a reducing agent. Atoms in intermediate oxidation states can be either oxidized or reduced; that is, they can act as either reducing or oxidizing agents. Some of the oxidizing agents most commonly encountered are MnO4-, CrO42-, Cr2O72-, HNO3, H2O2, and the halogens. Some of the more common reducing agents are elemental H2, metals, carbon, and I-. In predicting products of oxidation-reduction reactions, don't forget their name--oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously! It is impossible for oxidation to occur without reduction or vice versa. Examples: Sn2+(aq) + F2(g) Sn4+(aq) + F-(aq) Mn2+(aq) + BiO3-(aq) Bi3+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) (note that the Bi is in its highest possible oxidation state in BiO3-) K(s) + P4O10(s) K3PO3(s) (note that P is reduced from P(V) to P(III)) MnO4-(aq) + I-(aq) Mn2+(aq) + I2(aq) CuS(s) + HNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + S8(s) + NO2(g) 20 (note S S and N(V) N(IV)) Fe2O3(s) + C(s) CO2(g) + Fe(s)