Changing to a bigger turbocharger


The T3/T4 hybrid turbocharger. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Overview: So you want to add a bigger turbo? As most 22R-TE owners now, or at least instinctively realize, the CT20 turbo th at comes stoc on the 22R-TE is pretty limited: it has a lot of lag and it doesn 't ma e a lot of power. It's also EXTREMELY expensive to replace (around US$2500 for a new unit; ~US$1000 for a rebuilt unit). Since there are many better turbo chargers out there, this is one of those upgrades that seems to ma e a whole lot of sense for both cost and performance. It's not for the faint of heart, however, as changing the turbo has significant ripple effects. Your exhaust and fuel system must be up to the increased load, a nd, if you're planning on running more than about 6 psi, you will need an interc ooler. Note, too, that this is not a wee end project.: There's no it for this u pgrade, and while there aren't *too* many parts that have to be custom made or m odified, your ride will be down for several days, minimum. Where possible, I ll gi ve you the part numbers for adapters and fittings...but there were a few places where I just got luc y, especially with some jun yard items, so you'll have to b e ready to improvise to get all the little pieces you'll need -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Getting the turbo Luc ily, there are plenty of better turbos out there. The one I went with is a G arrett T3/T4 hybrid, which is a perfect size for a 22R-TE that's not in a dedica ted race vehicle. The T3/T4 turbo is called a hybrid because it tt T3, (the same turbo used on the 2.3L turbo housing of a Garrett T4. This combination of quic ly and while pumping a larger volume of

has the turbine housing of a Garre Ford Mustangs), and the compressor parts allows the T3/T4 to spool up air than a straight T3.

New T3/T4 turbos cost around US$700. I got mine used for $400, including the ada pter to mount it to the stoc exhaust manifold (more about that in a minute). If you can't lay your hands on one, or simply want to do this as cheaply as possib le, search out a used T3 from a wrec ed Mustang. You can find em cheap -- often f or less than $200 -- and they are good units, easily capable of outperforming th e CT20.

Another option: If you want the increase jn power but don't feel li e putting all of the pieces together yourself, there is another option. The Turbo Engineering Corporation ma es a Garrett turbo conversion it for the 22RTE. The it includes a bigger turb o, downpipe, and other necessary hoses and pipes. David Rees, from the Old Celic a Club mailing list, has been ind enough to post a scanned copy of a Turbo maga zine article describing the upgrade, with pictures and performance results. If y ou're into older Celicas, you might want to chec out his Celica page.


















You can request more information from TEC's Michael Fran e at mfran e@turboengin, but I haven't found the email response to be all that speedy. A bett er bet would be to call them at 1-800-950-8872. As for Jason, who owns a modifi ed 22RTE truc and seems pretty happy to describe the benefits of their upgrade. If I had found these guys before I started my own project, I might have used the ir it instead.

Mounting the new turbo to the stoc exhaust manifold *News Flash (10/15/99)* L.C. Engineering is finally distributing the turbo heade r they've been developing since early 1999. I recently purchased one, and will p ost some more info on it as soon as I get it installed. Initial impressions: goo d design, so-so execution (some very sloppy welding), steep price ($895, plus co st of external wastegate).More details to follow... In order to mount a different turbo to the stoc manifold, you are going to need an adapter plate. I didn't ma e the adapter plate I'm using; it was made by the guy I bought my turbo from. However, before I installed the turbo I too some m easurements, listed below, so you could have one made by a fabricator or a machi ne shop (or ma e it yourself, if you have access to the appropriate tools). A word of warning about these measurements: I've tried to be as accurate as poss ible, but this is the sort of piece that requires that you have the manifold AND the turbo at hand. I thin my measurements are a good place to start, but you s hould double-chec them against the actual parts. Also, pay attention to the thi c ness of the adapter plate, as there may not be a lot of room between the wasta ge's vacuum actuator diaphragm and the rod that connects the steering wheel to t he steering gear box. Adapter plate info TIP: Ford ma es a very good Garret T-3 turbo-to-exhaust manifold gas et, p/n E3Z Z-9450-A, intended for 1986 Ford Mustang SVOs (and maybe other years). Cost: a w hopping $6.74 from the local Ford fol s.

The wastegate As you probably now, wastegates come in two flavors: internal/integral and exte rnal. I don't have any experience with external wastegates, although I hear they are generally more accurate and more capable. The stoc CT20 uses an internal wastegate, controlled by a vacuum actuator. It w ould be great if this unit bolted to the T3/T4 housing, but it doesn't -- major modifications would be necessary, and you most li ely wouldn't be able to use th e unit again on the CT20 if you needed to. There are a lot of Garrett turbos out there, however, so a trip to a good Pic -Y our-Part jun yard should allow you to piece something together. In my case, I fo und a jun yard in Hayward, California, that literally had a BIN of used turbos. I pic ed through it and scavenged some different vacuum actuators, brac ets, and miscellaneous small parts. For $15, I got two vacuum actuators, two brac ets, t wo pushrods, and a generous handful of bolts, fittings, etc. Note: If you decide to get a *turbo* from such a bin, ma e sure it spins freely and has no appearance of rust. These things spin at over 100,000 rpm, so any fla w in impeller material or bearing will reveal itself dramatically. Remember that


























there are certainly places to save money in a project li e this, but the turboc harger itself is probably not one of them. Be prepared to modify whatever you find to get it to fit your turbo. My actuator mounting brac et needed to be reversed and machined to accept the vacuum actuat or I ended up using. I also needed to cut down the actuator's pushrod so it reac hed the wastegate s arm at the right length. The right length means that the wastega te should be tightly shut when the actuator is in it's relaxed position. Ta e the time to get this distance as close to perfect as you can manage, because a loose wastegate will never allow you to build any power. Finally, be aware that there won't be a lot of clearance between the vacuum actu ator's mounting brac et and the rod that connects the steering wheel to the stee ring gear box. When I bolted it all together I found that I had to trim another 1/2 inch off my mounting brac et to get things to clear; in fact, I had to insta ll the brac et and actuator AFTER I bolted the exhaust manifold to the head, as there wasn't enough room to maneuver everything into place when it was fully ass embled. Just something to eep in mind...

The bearing water jac et lines These are pretty straightforward. I used some 3/8 inch hose barbs on 3/8 inch ta pered threads, and a couple of standard brass 90 and 45 degree fittings to bring things out to the angles that I wanted. No surprises here, but be sure to use e ither Teflon tape or pipe dope on the threads.

The oil feed line This is pretty straightforward, too, with one caveat: the stoc turbo uses a ban jo bolt with a thread pitch of 10MM X 1.25MM. This is NOT a common size, but Ear l's ma es exactly one fitting that's a match: a carb fitting that has this 10MM X 1.25 MM pipe thread on one side and a standard -6 A/N fitting on the other, wi th a crush washer (!) in between. (It would be great if I had the part number fo r you, but I can't find it -- sorry.) The oil feed fitting on most of the Garret t turbos is a female 1/8 tapered pipe thread hole; on mine, there was a 90 degree 1/8 to -4 A/N fitting installed, so I just needed a reducer to go from the -6 at the fitting on the bloc to the -4 at the turbo. It's important not to oversize these fittings, as you don't want to flood the turbo bearing (more on this belo w). Also, remember that if you plumb this using braided steel line (which you should ) this line will eat through anything it rubs against. Consequently, this line s hould be the correct length and shouldn't rest against anything, including the t urbo housing.

The oil return line Every project has its crux: the difficult spot that must be overcome for the pro ject to succeed. If you can't solve the crux, you must turn bac . For me, the oi l return line was just such an obstacle. Here's the most important thing to now about turbo oil return lines: unli e the















feed line, which is pressurized, the oil return line relies on gravity to get t he oil bac into the oil pan after it has bathed the turbo bearing. If oil doesn 't drain bac quic ly enough it swamps the bearing, and can wor its way past th e turbo s seals. This leads to oil contaminating the inta e tract, oil co ing, and ultimately seal failure. Ideally, the oil return line should be a straight shot bac into the oil return boss in the bloc (or pan, if this is not an OEM turbo setup). Turbonetics ma es an aluminum oil return fitting that fits both the T3/T4 (and p robably other Garrett oil return openings) AND the Toyota bloc . It's Turbonetic s part number PN 20259, and is available in 1/2 inch NPT (or PN 20382 for 3/8 in ch NPT). You can get this from Performance Techniques -- follow the lin to Inst allation Accessories. (A word about Performance Techniques: they have a lot of u seful stuff, including new turbos, intercoolers, hose connectors, etc., but they ONLY ship COD -- and they ONLY ta e cash (personal chec s not accepted). I've n ever had a problem with them, but I'm used to businesses that ta e credit cards. ..but I digress.) I pic ed up two of these, one for each end of the return line. Unfortunately, I had a hell of a time plumbing the gap between them; it was jus t too close. Too close to use braided steel hose and too close to use hard line and flared fittings. After hours (no exaggeration) of staring at it, I finally c ame up with a combination of Earl's fittings and brass plumbing fittings that sp anned the gap. The drain angle is a less than ideal, but it was the best I could do. This is definitely a case where access to narrow radius tubing bender and a TIG welder would be very, very helpful. (And some day soon there will be a pict ure here to compliment this description.)

The down pipe and O2 sensor I had my truc towed to a local muffler shop to have the down pipe bent up. I'm not thrilled with the job the guy did, but it's serviceable for now. I may have this piece redone by the guy who did the rest of my exhaust; he does outstanding wor , but towing to his shop would have been prohibitively expensive. As for the O2 sensor, be aware that the stoc location is in the turbo housing; you'll need to have a fitting welded in to your new down pipe. This might be a g ood time to convert to a heated three wire sensor: they're cheaper ($60 vs. $130 ) and allow you to use industry standard weld bungs. I d had another O2 sensor ins talled when I added my Halmeter Air/Fuel Meter, so I just tapped into its signal wire.

Other odds and ends before initial startup Remember to fill the turbo with a little bit of oil (inserted manually via the o il feed line) before you tighten the line s fittings. 10cc - 20cc is about right. This coats the bearing at initial startup. The T3/T4 is both a little noisier and a little hotter than stoc . Retain as muc h of the factory heat shield as you can. For anything more than about 10 psi you're going to need an intercooler, even if you didn't need one with the stoc CT20.




















Driving impressions The T3/T4 moves a lot more air than the CT20, and it spools up much more quic ly , too. As I said above, it's noisier and a little hotter, so it's important to m a e sure your cooling system is up to snuff - I'm still eeping an eye on mine, and despite some initial fears it seems to be doing a good job. Power and responsiveness have ntly running a bit more boost n even more -- perhaps 17 psi ger injectors (I installed RC easily eeping up with things increased throughout the engine's range. I'm curre than I did before (15 psi vs. 13 psi) and I may ru . I have yet to detect any detonation, and the big Engineering 320 cc/min Lucas style injectors) are so far.

About the only area that I find lac ing is the fuel mapping table of the stoc E CU. I've been having a difficult time getting the air/fuel ratio dialed in corre ctly, something I ll cover in more detail in the article on the bigger injectors. Suffice it to say: if I can solve the air/fuel ratio problem, I should see anoth er 15 hp or so, as I thin I'm easily losing that much to a sloppy mixture. The bottom line: this is a very good swap. This is an engine that responds well to a bigger turbocharger, and the T3/T4 fills that role very nicely. ****** Added note: it is now November, and I've had the truc on the road with the new setup since early August. The T3/T4 ic s ass! I still don't have the fuel table problem sorted out to my satisfaction, but I'm not lac ing for power. My engine ma es 175 - 185 hp, by my estimate -- numbers I hope to bac up with dyno time in the future -- and I'm really happy with the way it runs. My above fears about added heat and noise seem a little overstated. I'm still ru nning the stoc fan/fan clutch, and the engine isn't running any hotter than it was before. Some of my initial impressions were made before I had reinstalled th e stoc heat shields, and I was surprised to discover what a difference they mad e when I put them bac on. As for the noise, well, it's more li e the sound of p erformance -- a feature, not a bug.