CHAPTER FOUR: Magnetic Field and Its Sources

4.1. Magnetic Field 4.2. Sources of Magnetic Fields


4.1 41 4.2

•Calculate the force exerted by magnetic fields Calculate •Calculate kinematical quantities in problems involving motion in magnetic fields

•Calculate the magnetic field due to different current and moving charge configurations •Define Ampere’s Law •Define Gauss’ Law for Magnetism

Outline: 1. The Magnetic Phenomenon 2. The Force of Magnetic Fields 3. The Gauss and the Tesla 4. Magnetic Field Lines 4 5. Motion in Magnetic Fields 6. Applications of the Velocity Selector

Ancient Greeks (around 2000 y g) years ago) were aware that magnetite (Fe3O4) attracts pieces of iron. There are written references h f to the use of magnets for navigation during the 12th century. century In 1269, Pierre de Maricourt discovered using simple observations, the existence of magnetic “poles”. In 1600, William Gilbert discovered that the earth itself is a natural magnet.

Magnetic Poles

◦ Are the basic elements of the magnetic phenomenon ◦ It comes with two varieties that exist as pairs: the “NORTH ( )” and the “ (N)” d h “SOUTH (S)” poles ◦ No matter what the shape nor the size, all magnets have two poles which can t can’t be isolated like electric charges!

Magnetic Fields emerges from the N pole and enters the S pole 5

Magnetic Interaction: The Fundamental Law of Magnetostatics:

“Like Poles Repel, Unlike Poles Attract”


g The magnetic effect and interaction can be better studied by analyzing the force exerted by a magnetic field on a test p specimen The Magnetic Field only interacts with the i ih h following tests: 1 1. Moving Charges 2. Current Carrying Wires

The north-pole end of a bar magnet is held near a positively charged piece of plastic. Is the plastic (a) attracted, (b) repelled, or ll d (c) unaffected by the magnet? Ans: (c)



When a test specimen is in a magnetic field, it experiences a magnetic p g force. The Magnetic Force on a moving test charge Th Magnetic F i Force on a The M current carrying wire

Since the force is a vector, we can determine magnitude it’s magnit de and direction. direction For the magnitude:
If the given are in g NEWSUD config If the given are in Unit Vector config If the given are in the simple 2-D config

•|FB| = qvB sinθ or |FB| = ILB sinθ |F B iθ iθ

•|FB| = qvB sinθ or |FB| = ILB sinθ

There is ZERO FORCE if: v(or L) and B are parallel (θ 0) or are (θ=0) anti parallel (θ=180)

Proof: It’s simple: take the sine of the angles!

For the direction:
If the given are in NEWSUD config If the given are in Unit Vector Notation If the given are in g simple 2-D config

• Use the Right Hand Rule for 3 Dimensions

• Use the Right Hand Rule for 2 g Dimensions


Steps: 1. Point your 4 fingers to the direction of v (or L). 2. 2 Curl your 4 fingers to the direction of B. 3. 3 Release your thumb and this will be the direction of the force!


First, First assume that the charge is positive and apply the Right Hand Rule R l to obtain the bi h direction of the force, Then, the direction of g a force acting on a negative charge is opposite to that of the direction attained for the positive charge

Some Conventions:
y-axis z-axis or “page” directions

x axis x-axis

in or –z axis out or +z axis










+ +














The Gauss and the Tesla serves as unit for Magnetic Field! The Gauss-Tesla Relation: The Tesla can be represented by:


A proton is moving with a velocity of 10Mm/s. It experiences a magnetic i ti field of 0.6G which is directed downward and northward, making an h d k angle of 70o with the o o ta horizontal. Find the magnetic force on the proton. proton


A wire segment 3mm long carries a current of 3A in the x-direction. It lies in a magnetic field y of 0.02T that is in the xyplane and makes an angle of 30o with the x-axis, as shown in the figure. h hf What is the magnetic f td force exerted on th wire the i segment.

Magnetic Field Lines are very similar to Electric Field lines in the following aspects
◦ The direction of the field is the direction of the field lines ◦ The magnitude of the field is the density of the lines h d f h f ld hd fhl ◦ Field Lines never cross

Magnetic Field Lines are very different to Electric Field lines in the following aspects

◦ Electric field lines are in the direction of the electric force while magnetic field lines are in a perpendicular direction of the magnetic force g ◦ Electric field lines have beginnings and ends, while magnetic field lines form closed loops 22

For the motion of charges in magnetic field, field we consider two situations:
1. 2.

The Charges are moving in a pure Magnetic Field The Charges are moving in a E-B crossed fields


v is always perpendicular to FB. From this we have general ideas:

FB only changes the lh th direction of the velocity but not the magnitude it d FB does no work on the charge FB therefore does not change the kinetic energy of the charge!
SPECIAL CASE: When v is perpendicular to B, the charge undergoes UCM


3. 3


p , In this special case, the magnetic force provides the centripetal force necessary for the centripetal acceleration in circular motion. i l ti We use Newton’s Second Law to relate the quantities. l h ii T and f are known as the cyclotron period and l id d frequency respectively. The cyclotron period and h l d d Cyclotron Period frequency depend on the charge-to-mass ratio q/m but are independent of r and v of the particle!
Cyclotron Frequency Cyclotron Radius


There are two interesting motion paths and behaviors involved with moving charges in magnetic fields THE HELIX:
Happens when charges enter B with a nonperpendicular velocity


Happens when the magnetic field is not uniform (being strong at ends, weak at the d k h center


The magnetic force can be balanced by an electric field by choosing a correct configuration, such as the figure to the right h Once there is a balance of the force, we have a region of crossed -fields! d fi ld ! To achieve the balance, the velocity must be chosen!
“Lorentz Force”

“Velocity Selector” 27

With the velocity selector selector, the charged particle will traverse the crossed fields undeflected! d fl d! If it enters the field with a v greater than the selector If it enters the field with a v lesser than the selector


Deflect to FB

Deflect to FE


The velocity selector for crossed-fields have crossed fields very important applications that were discovered during the late 19th and early 20th g y century.

In this course, two applications will be discussed: 1 Th M 1. The Mass S Spectrometer 2. The Cyclotron

The mass spectrometer, first g y designed by Francis William Aston in 1919, was developed as a means of measuring the masses of isotopes. Such measurements are an important way of determining both th b th the presence of isotopes fi t and their abundance in nature. For F example, natural l l magnesium has been found to have mass ratios of 24:25:26. The mass ratios are computed from the radius of curvature! Each element, by the way has a unique q/m ratio!


26 ion of charge +e and mass 9.62 x 10-26 9 62 kg is accelerated through a potential difference of 3kV and deflected in a magnetic field of 0.12T. (a) Find the radius of curvature of the orbit of the ion. (b) Find the difference in the radii of curvature of 58Ni ions and 60Ni ions. (Assume that the mass ratio is 58/60.) 58/60 )



The cyclotron was invented by E.O. Lawrence and M.S. MS Livingston in 1934 to accelerate particles such as protons or deuterons to high kinetic energies*.


A cyclotron for accelerating protons has a magnetic field of 1.5T and a maximum radius of 0.5m 0 5m (a) What is the cyclotron frequency? (b) What is the kinetic energy of the protons when they emerge?


1. Due to Moving Charges Ch 2. Due to Currents: Biot Savart Law

3. Gauss 3 Gauss’ Law for Magnetism 4. Ampere’s Law 5. Magnetism in Matter

◦ 2.1 Current Loops ◦ 2.2 Current of Solenoids ◦ 2 3 Current of Straight 2.3 Wires ◦ 2.4 Current of Toroids


Permanent Magnets were the earliest known sources of magnetism. Oersted announced his discovery p that a compass needle is deflected by an electric current. Jean Baptiste Biot and Felix Savart announced th results of their d the lt f th i measurements of the force on a magnet near a long currentyg y carrying wire and analyzed results in terms of the magnetic field. Andre-Marie Ampere extended these experiments and showed th i t dh d that current elements also experience a force in the presence g of a magnetic field and that two currents exert forces on each other.


There are two possible sources of magnetic fields 1. 1 Moving Charges 2. Currents in Wires
Our Quest is to find the ti field in magnetic fi ld i a certain field point P!


You will almost always encounter the permeability of free space during your computations in this chapter, so might as chapter well introduce it here:

In your calculators, press π first before multiplying it to 4 x 10-7!


When a point charge q moves with a velocity v, it produces a magnetic field f ld B at the field point h f ld P given by:

If the given are in UV Notation

If the given are in basic geo notation


A point charge of magnitude q = 4.5 nC is moving with speed v = 3.6 3 6 x 107 m/s parallel to / ll l the x-axis along the line y = 3m 3m. Find the magnetic fields g produced by this charge (x = -4m, y = 3m) at (1) the origin (2) the point (0 3 ) h i (0,3m) (3) the point (0, 6m)
Ans: (1) 3.89 x 10-10 T in the paper. (2) 0 (Why?). (3) 3.89 x 10-10 T out the paper


Since currents are basically moving charges y , only in wires, we can extend our earlier formula into a more definite law: To compute for the magnetic f ld caused b field d by currents on a certain field point P we implement P, BIOT-SAVART LAW!

Throughout this chapter, we shall encounter chapter four basic sources of magnetic fields that produces the field by carrying currents! They are: 1. Current Loops 2. S l Solenoids id 3. Straight Wires 4. Toroids

To find the direction of the field, apply RHD


Steps: 1. Grab the wire in such a way that your thumb is in the same direction and the current. 2. Your 4-fingers determines the direction of the magnetic fi ld as it ti field wraps around the wire



Figure shows a current loop.



To calculate the magnetic field caused by the loop at a certain point P along the central axis of the loop, we apply the formula: hl l hf l

Special Case: If P is the center of the loop, x =0, then the magnetic field at the center of the loop is


A circular loop of radius 5.0cm has 12 turns and lies in the yz-plane, where it is centered at the origin. It carries a g current of 4A. The current is counterclockwise from the perspective of the x-axis looking to the yz-plane. Find the magnetic field at (a) center of the loop (x = 0) (b) x = 15 cm (c) x = 3 cm.

gy A solenoid is a wire tightly wound into a helix of closely spaced turns as f illustrated. It is used to produce a strong, strong uniform magnetic field in a region surrounded by its loops. Its role in magnetism is analogous to that of the parallel-plate capacitor, which produces a strong, uniform electric field between its plates. The magnetic field of a solenoid is essentially that of a set of N identical current loops placed side by side. We have two types of solenoids: 1. Finite Solenoids 2. Infinite Solenoids 2 I fi it S l id


For PHYSICS 13, we 13 shall use the long solenoid approximation. n (turn density) = N/L We can calculate the magnetic field caused by solenoids at two locations: 1. At its center 2. 2 At its ends

At the center

At the ends 46

Find the magnetic field at the center of a solenoid of length 20 cm, radius 1.4 cm, and 600 turns that carries a current of 4A 4A.


As with solenoids, solenoids we there are two g kinds of straight wires 1. Finite Wires 2. Infinite Wires We wish to obtain the magnetic field at a point P perpendicular from the line f th li
Field caused by finite wires. R is the distance of P from the wires Field caused by infinite wires, R is the distance of P from the wires! 48

Find the magnetic field at the center of a q p square current loop of side L = 50cm carrying a current of 1.5A. Picture the Problem:

The magnetic field at the center is the sum fh b f of the contributions of each side!

A toroid consists of loops of wire wound around a doughnutshaped f h d form. he magnetic field at a distance r from the center of the toroid are given as:
If a<r<b If r<a (inner radius) or if r>b (outer radius) 50

We know that magnetic field lines differ from electric field lines. Magnetic field lines form closed loops. The magnetic equivalent of the electric charge is fh l h called a magnetic pole. Gauss s Gauss’s Law for Magnetism is stated as:

That is, no magnetic monopoles!


Ampere’s Law is very Gauss s analogous to Gauss’s Law for Electricity. It relates the magnetic field to the current enclosed by an imaginary loop (called Amperian Loop). Ampere’s Law works for configurations that have a g high degree of symmetry.


Checkpoint: In which of the four config h ese r guration does n Am mpere’s Law ho old?

Ampere s Ampere’s Law will only work if and only if the following statements hold: 1. The configuration has a very high level of symmetry 2. The current is continuous everywhere in space. Therefore, there are only three cases where Ampere’s p Law can be used:
◦ 1. Long straight lines g, g y ◦ 2. Long, tightly wound solenoids ◦ 3. Toroids


In our discussion of the magnetism in matter, we return t th atomic to the t t i model. Electrons orbit around the El bi dh nucleus, and since we can consider it as a current, it produces a magnetic field! If we look back at the electric dipole (and the corresponding electric dipole moment), we can also make the same analogy to create a magnetic dipole (and the corresponding magnetic di i dipole moment


We can classify matter i t th tt into three based on their reaction to an external magnetic field!

All materials have randomly oriented magnetic moments


Magnetic Moments align to oppose the external magnetic field, thus diagmagnets are slightly repelled by magnets Magnetic Moments align slightly with the external magnetic field, thus paramagnets interact weakly with magnets

Diamagnets g



Magnetic Moments align strongly with the external magnetic field, causing permanent magnetization, thus ferromagnets interact strongly with magnets


Bext 55

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