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Chapter 5

I

II

III

Projections

• Two basic types

– Orthographic/multiview – 3D Pictorials

• Perspective projection [Converging Projection Technique] • Parallel projection [Parallel Projection Technique ]

– Oblique – Axonometric » Trimetric » Dimetric » Isometric

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Perspective projections

Projectors converge at center of projection Notice how the lines converge together as the distance increases

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**Parallel projections Oblique
**

– Surfaces which are parallel to the front face are undistorted

• Draw the front face first

– Lines which are perpendicular to the front face are drawn at an angle of 15, 30, 45 and 60° – The top and side view are then projected back from the front view

– Cavalier Oblique

• Depth is drawn full size • Object looks distorted (depth is exaggerated)

– Cabinet Oblique

• Depth is drawn to 1/2 of full size • Depth appears more accurate (2/3 is best)

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Parallel projections Axonometric

Rotate Tilt

The Greek word “axon” means axis and “metric projection” means projection to a scaled measure. Axonometric projection is Axonometric a parallel projection technique used to drawing create pictorial drawings of objects by rotating the object on an axis relative to a projection plane to display all three 2/3/2009 Isometric Drawing dimensions in only one view.

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Types

Axonometric drawings are classified by the angles between the lines comprising the axonometric axes.

• Trimetric

– No equal angles

Axonometric axes

• Dimetric

– Two equal angles

• Isometric

– Three equal angles (120°)

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Isometric Views

• An isometric view of an object is created by rotating it 45 degrees about a vertical axis, then tilted forward until the body diagonal of the cube (A-B) appears as a point in the front view. • The angle the cube is tilted forward is 35 degrees 16 minutes.

45°

45°

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Isometric Views

• Isometric means equal measure. • The three corners meet to form equal angles of 120 degrees and is called the isometric axis. • Any line that is parallel to one of the legs of the isometric axis is called an isometric line. • The planes of the faces of the cube and all planes parallel to them are called isometric planes.

60° 30°

60° 30°

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Isometric drawings

The forward tilt of the cube causes the edges and planes of the cube to become foreshortened as it is projected onto the picture plane. Thus the projected lengths are approximately 80% of the true lengths.

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Isometric drawings

• If the drawing is drawn at full scale it is called an isometric drawing. • Isometric drawings are almost always preferred over isometric projection for engineering drawings, because they are easier to produce.

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Isometric standards

• Generally, DO NOT use hidden lines or centre lines on Isometrics

– Hidden lines may be shown to define a feature that would be unclear otherwise

• Usually orientation should be chosen so that hidden lines are not needed • Holes are assumed to go completely through

– unless depth is indicated with a note or with hidden lines

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Isometric Axis Convention

Height

Width

Depth Height

Front view

Depth

Width

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F

nt ro

iew v

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**Isometric representation of circles
**

Circles that lie on any face of an isometric cube will appear as ellipses.

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Basic steps used to create an isometric sketch of an object

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Boxing-in the Object Begin with Front Face

Front Face

Height

Width

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Boxing-in the Object: Add Side Face

Side Face

Height

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Depth

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Blocking in the Object: Add Top Face

Top Face

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Adding Detail Cut Outs – Part 1

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Adding Detail Cut Outs – Part 2

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Adding Detail Cut Outs – Part 3

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Darken Final Lines - Part 4

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**Surface Type A: Principal Surface
**

1 2

Miter Line

4 4,1

3 3,2

**• True size in one view A
**

3,4 2,1

• Edge (line) in other 2 views • Plane Line

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Surface Type B: Inclined Surface

1

2

**• Characteristic shape in 2 views but not true size in either
**

4 1

4 4,1

3

B

**• Edge (line) in 3rd view • Lengths of sides can be determined from appropriate views
**

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3,2 3

2

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**Surface Type C: Oblique Surface
**

• Characteristic shape in all 3 views but true size in none

Q: In which views could you get the true length of edges of this oblique surface?

2

1 1

3 2

C

1

2

3

3

1 to 2

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1 to 3

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Creating an isometric drawing using the boxing-in method.

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Constructing nonisometric lines by locating points in isometric

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• Tomorrow’s (04.02.09) tutorial class will be on isometric drawing

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