Coexistentialism, the philosophy of A. Nagraj Sharma | Contentment | Happiness & Self-Help

8/3/11

The Jeevan Vidya workshop: An Introduction to A. Nagraji Sharma’s Coexistentialist Holistic Philosophy with Mahendra Singh

Co-existential-ism ~ “sah-astitva-vaad” or jivan vidya ~ “self-knowledge” Prologue – Three possibilities for theology: 1. Divisive, unverifiable assertions about form(s) (duality) vs. formlessness of God [Berkeleyan idealism/solipsism/emanation] 2. Reactionary, equally unverifiable atheism 3. Agnosticism – accepting the unverifiability of ultimate reality as a paradoxical sort of sight (compare the idea of neti neti – “neither/nor” as a [Popperian] way of discarding falsehood to get closer to an ineffable truth [“Zetetic skepticism”] with Jainism’s allegory of the blind men and the elephant). There is something enviable in the mystics’ state of silent wonder, or in the sage’s solitude, as but is this existing in truth, or a way of escaping existence? Though it may be gratifying to indulge our imaginative faculty, we cannot cure our rational capacity for curiosity—the desire for fulfillment of that curiosity. Imagination intimates satisfaction. Religion has answered with denial and asceticism. The highest a monk or mystic can get is samadhi—a transcendence of this reality. They might falter if they return. The rishi, or “seers” (from dr´s, “to see”) who authored the Vedas, existed in a higher but unified field of consciousness and therefore could only speak truth (satyavac). What would the world be like if inhabited by only/mostly truth-speakers?

Preliminary Propositions: I. Every ‘teaching’ in this course appears as a proposal, and is verifiable. A. Agreeing and disagreeing is not as important as understanding and experiencing. The point is to self-verify and know. B. Do not accept nor believe; received “wisdom” is only as good as hearsay and belongs to someone else. Common motives for accepting: i. Fear ii. Greed/gain

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iii. Faith (which forms from the previous two). Holds for atheism and hedonism as well a. Hedonism, or charvak, is one of the six Indian systems. For a sybarite, the present moment is the most real moment, which gets something right about the human experience. Beliefs can be right or wrong but the lens, or worldview, through which they are verified is also subject to antecedent beliefs. A. For example, the old saw, “In order to have happiness in this life, pain is necessary.” [cf. Zeus’ monologue in the first chapter of Homer’s Odyssey, which cites human reality as made up of triangles, with two sorrows for every joy] Unhappiness comes from a misalignment between one’s worldview/beliefs and reality [cf. disappointment born from attachment or expectations in Buddhism]. A. Uncertainty, fear, and doubt lead to discomfort—an indication that reality is being obfuscated by false premises/assumptions. Even in cases where a belief is correct, doubt can persist. Truth is practicable: understanding must be demonstrated, or lived accordingly, through work and behavior, to be authentic and put doubt to rest. A. “Work” is defined as interaction with the rest of nature B. “Behavior” is interactions with other humans This lived confirmation is not only a verification of truth, but also a demonstration of trust, which always leads to mutual fulfillment [cf Old Norse etymology of trsutr as “strength” (as in, “trusty”) yet this is among the most admirable qualities of children]. A. Truth is definitionally universal, meaning it is unchanging through time, space, and person [cf. Old English etymology of trowth as “faithfulness” or “constancy”]. Truth is confirmed on four levels: 1. Self, 2. Others/relationships, the model of which is the family, 3. Society, and 4. Nature

Coexisitentialist Ontology, Part I I. First postulate: Matter, Plants, and Animals, the basic triumvirate of nature, exist in interconnected, interdependent/complementary, mutually enriching relationships on earth (and, in theory, all places they exist) at all times. a. Corollary: Relationships between them maximize the desiderata of diversity, quantity, and quality/prosperity in a balance/equilibrium/harmony (even if natural [non-human] extinctions and ‘invasions’ compromise one of these in the shorter run).

which concerned with utility or production for bodily need. Science can impart technical skill.g. in contrast with the essentially competitive paradigm espoused. behavior is universally valid when it is mutually fulfilling. but not knowledge. This deep interconnectivity/complementarity/enrichment holds even after the addition of humanity on three levels: 1. Physical. and the growth and multiplication that characterizes the plant kingdom are paradigmatic for animals and humans as well.” This may require raising potential counter-examples/refutations as a way of replicating inspection by others. science is premised on differences instead of similarities [though experimental repeatability and physical law can also be seen as a cornerstones of science]. We will return to this trope in the section on Nature. “practicability” through work – The activity of humans living according to understanding will result in continued mutual prosperity. leading to happiness. To summarize. and animals exist in a pre-human relationship of complementarity or cooperation. proposals must be based on self-scrutiny/introspection [~first philosophy] and “natural acceptance. Consider a seemingly inert substance such as soil whose goodness is defined by diversity and accommodation. in contrast to the teleological or Aristotelian approach that emphasizes function or purpose to explain structures. or scientific authority (measurements of instruments or equipment). samadhi means transcending conflict but not physical reality. 2. implicitly or explicitly. humans are the only of the four kingdoms that is capable of completely disappearing from this earth. plants. Humans cannot create this balance and they cannot destroy it without destroying themselves first. Science usually proceeds from structure to function. as in nature. by Western philosophy (even in peace and conflict studies) and science (principally through its understanding of evolutionary biology). yet it freely gives to enable life and takes back in death in order to enable more life. the mind is seen as the object of nature’s development [deus ex machina?] whereas in the former. In this course. Confirmations in work and behavior jointly constitute samadhan. and living with trust or fearlessness. Coexistentialist Epistemology Proposals are traditionally/customarily verified on the bases of scripture. .” the ensuring of harmony among themselves and with all three kingdoms. matter. This points to a conflict-free world—one without fear. The non-zero sum character of matter. Despite working against the natural fecundity of nature (e. seedless produce). b. Put positively. greed. Psychological – In society. or “resolution.II. which concerns the self. it is a felicitious by-product of mounting complexity. 3. philosophic authority. Notably. nor violence. In the latter.

Why? Competition: while two to three tractors would be all that are necessary for tilling the 1000 acres in the village. 2. Socialization into this psychology of envy is the “hidden curriculum” in schools where one’s shoes or transportation (going barefoot or by bike is seen as shameful) or how well one speaks English are more important than what one says. writes. 5. happiness.Like the self. coexistentialism seeks to reframe the meaning of death as merely a bodily phenomenon but unlike these. . Feelings of inferiority led to wastefulness and away from cooperation. such as peace. Lightening is frightening but it also helps maintain the conditions for life by aiding in nitrogen fixation. But even these have solutions. The death of living things is the sine qua non for the birth and growth of more living things. or thinks [cf Rousseau on the origin of inequality]. however. knowledge is continuous (or unlimited) and speaks to desires leading to our end. Fear can be divided into four sections: 1. etc) because we don’t see their purpose as part of longer-term cycles (e. is a technical term relating only to these six areas: 1. Humans. don’t always see this. it does not seek to justify this event (or rather the cessation of [experienced] events) by focusing on an otherworldly fate of the soul. 2. 4. The only genuinely disastrous events. 3. respect. trust. It enables us to see the world differently. Fear of death Fear of poverty Fear of loss of status Fear of disrespect Trust is the absence of all of these fears. one study counted 197 in the village. are outcomes of human activity. “catastrophe”. many things in nature appear bad (hence “natural disasters”. to wild animals/predators. Televisions were in similar abundance. 3. 6. wildfires’ renewal or Nile’s flooding). the only problems. love. 4.g. Self Body Family/relationships Society Nature Existence/the universe Part I: Knowledge of Self The object of human fear has moved from natural disasters (divinely wrought flood or drought. freedom [and knowledge itself?]. Like many religious traditions. to fear of the inhuman behavior of other humans. therefore. without which there is no abundance.). “Knowledge”. [Q re: genuine catastrophes: Individuals can allegedly escape famine situations when they equip themselves with the proper life tools but what are our particular responsibilities to help those suffering now?] Farmers in the Indian village of Mandana spend several millions of rupees each year but hunger still exists.

grouped together under Protection In order to be genuinely prosperous and feel abundance. they would have to result in (practical) wisdom. Conventional education is too often narrow. and eristic. Basic/Familial Needs: 1. One cannot eat. they come and go. Proper use. and instill confidence (~trust) vs. they result in health. stress. they relate to the “I”/jeevan/consciousness/self. others. as desires. Means of communication (telephone and “television”/ videoconferencing) 2. Means of transportation Additionally. However ironically. if there is an excess of these. They are also limited by time. indefinitely. its purpose. Authentic needs are limited to two major areas: I. II. will be lost. the 20 years spent becoming “educated” would have to promote harmony at all four levels (self. Aspirational/Societal Needs. In other words. uneducated villagers are often more hospitable—that is. they relate to the physical/body. Clothing and Shelter. Spurious education solely addresses physical need. which enables one to live life in a truly prosperous way—a way in which virtue accrues to others. one will feel a lack & their relationship is reversed: one ceases to use possessions and becomes used by them. which applies to all these in terms of time management. and can show greater wisdom in their interpersonal relationships. which are nonetheless natural as areas for innovation: 1. one needs the skills to ensure all of these and the principle of 3. Relationships are not like food. 4. and nature). 3. attentive to basic physical needs—than educated Westerners who live in huge. 2. occupationally specific. Food – Nourishment 2. . Ironically. Desires proliferate but needs are finite. actually working against harmony. An educational system premised on a flawed economic model will perpetuate perceived privation. Human happiness with optimum health The ability to relate with others in mutually fulfilling joyful relationships The establishment of order/elimination of dysfunction The promotion of balance in nature through sustainable use of resources In order to be deemed successful. one must have more of each of these than is required.True education must fulfill four criteria: 1. Together. society. nourishment. even one’s favorite food. empty houses. Continuous needs relating to happiness are nonphysical/emotional/psychological. Basic and aspirational needs required for prosperity can be weighted. but especially the last two.

it is something we do versus something we have. as a measure. digestion). the feeling of insecurity will persist irrespective of the amount of resources mined. peace etc that comes with genuine prosperity masquerades as material privation. which paradoxically leads to further insecurity. need/privation is relative. Involuntary activities (breathing. This applies to self as well. It is not a matter of attachment or not. pleasures and pain: the “I” or the body? To summarize. The problem is a misapplication of limited resources to the “I”. Coexistentialism is a middle point between this ascetic religious impulse. leading to the pursuit of more possessions. Put negatively. trust. or is assured that she can produce it. the issue is proper use. self-respect protects against the misuse of physical things for self-validation or lasting satisfaction. sound waves. The lack of feelings of love. Only voluntary acts come with responsibilities [n. Understanding the nature and requirements of the body is necessary in striking this balance. When people lack the feeling of abundance. and 2. and the religion of consumerism. past the basic requirements.one does not grow tired of love. attempting to fill psychological needs with physical means will end in their frustration or exacerbation. Conversely. . provisions stockpiled. which are bodily functions. one will always worry about future security [cf. reception. Hobbes]. comprehension). worries re: overpopulation). there is an absence of all feeling of lack. Prosperity is the proof. thinking.” Feeling. or monk swearing unattachment to physical things (maya) and abandoning our social and familial natures. hermit. In the self. sleeping/dreaming. Which entity is responsible for: imagination/daydreaming. knowing comes with practice—the habit of living accordingly. Categorize each of your daily activities as voluntary or involuntary [or both?]. there are two kinds of activities: 1. This state must differ from mere material wealth since there are plenty of unhappy “haves” alongside relatively happy people that look to them as “have nots. and it is a matter of resources plus the feeling of abundance.g. The prescription is not to try to mimic the life of the Buddha. heartbeat.” Either one has what she requires. which are “I” functions. is subjective. or humanity generally (e. the essential connection of autonomy/agency to morality]. or possessions acquired. they attempt to replicate prosperity by trying to guarantee access to future resources. As stated previously. A discrepancy between speaking and acting belies a lack of understanding (mere belief). society. understanding either the physical world or self/consciousness is an activity that beyond a series of events ([thought/motive] voice vibration. whose needs are continuous. If relationships are not sound in family. exercise).b. Voluntary actions (imagination. also known as “happiness.

and war and creates further insecurity. II. Contradiction/conflict/problem in any of these areas is unhappiness. Together. This is an illusion. But the real source of the lack of assurance was not others (deprivation). along with inputs such as skill. Before a plant emerges. Take the example of fine rugs: The putative owners of the resources to make the rug — the shepherd and the factory laborers—often themselves do not own rugs. Profit (Price) – deals with physical resources to preserve the body . Health – deals with entire body 3. it will reportedly acquire a strange beauty]. nor reap. Before we experience.Coexistentialist Epistemology/Knowledge of Self (continued) Fear can lead to (hyper)consumption and hoarding. like bodily functions. e. these constitute thought. Those who can afford them are market middlemen trading the commodity and the factory owner/manager. Are ye not much more excellent than they?”]. technology (including management). V. e. How much/to what extent can we choose? Continuously. Resources belong to all. Desires are also influenced through conditioning/belief/images relating to: 1. Dysfunctional relationships begin with a poor relationship with/understanding of oneself. There are no inherent problems in any of these levels but the way in which we view them can lead to contradictions. Exploitation leads to indignation. I. but the holder of the resource is exploited. even though some die young or starve [individuals on the way to enlightenment will view this putatively Darwinian spectacle differently. IV. before this. Labor is added. The definition of happiness is to live in a state or situation of natural acceptance. and your heavenly Father nourishes them. Choice precedes actions but sometimes they are so habitual that they seem involuntary—effortless. What we choose is preceded by experience. Animals are similarly provisioned for. we analyze. nor gather into granaries. what it needs already exists [cf Matthew 6:26 on Providence. which in turn further exploits labor. [What about failure to remember bland experiences? Or to put a name with a taste. the potentially infinite number of things we choose not do to. opposition.g. or to visible things’ origin. red wines?]. “Look at the birds of the heaven. or none. positive or negative. and time. land inclusive. Preference (liking/disliking) – deals with sensory level 2. a state in which we live in harmony/synergy/order at all six levels. that they sow not.g. “Seeing” is an analogy for understanding but sometimes we need to observe activities/effects in order to get to the ‘truth’ of non visible things. we compare/evaluate. struggle. III. The solution is to recognize reality as it truly is.

Put negatively. Without contemplation.Considerations of health plus price amount to a cost/benefit analysis to determine “best” but preference can override this. Truth – decisions that take into account/deal with the entire universe. which frees individuals from conditioning by giving action a directedness/purposiveness. Unless this faculty is awakened. injustice will remain. treating it as a distribution problem. Recognition of other human beings. Corresponds to realization/enlightenment (anubhau). Contemplation is the capability in us able to recognize the needs of selves beyond our own. come from contemplation. attempts to amend justice will focus on resources. There is no (natural) division between human beings. it is the beginning of making human behavior definite [~ Confucian sincerity or righteousness]. Answers to “why” questions. Add to these the forms of decision-making that honor the self: 4. Understanding dharma through one’s actions will allow the human enrichment of nature as well. Justice is the minimum for human happiness. In other words. Religion/Dharma – redefined by Nagraji to mean harmony with human beings but also deals with nature the rest of nature. Corresponds to wisdom 6. par/tantra/ta. . when we know what is good for us but choose the opposite [“incontinence”]. Deals with the whole human being and corresponds to contemplation (chintan). Might also translate at resolution/holistic solution/synergy. Justice – defined as the “satisfaction point of behavior” between humans. “other-organized-ness”). As an animating principle. This is confirmed by our intuitions about justice. The most difficult challenge in achieving justice exists not in meditative practice (individual) or proper allocation of resources (economic) but in maintaining healthy relationships (familial/social). It answers questions relating to (collective) human ends. behavior that does not contribute to imbalance/poverty/exploitation. Justice turns profit into prosperity. for example. Justice does not exist without but begins within. Reading oneself is more important than reading books. (Future) Harmonious relationships will not be assured. Contemplation allows internal principles to inform desire. it is freedom (swa/tantra/ta – “self-organizedness” vs. and then extends to every human. beginning with the family. of their self and its continuous/emotional needs. questions about meaning. selfinterest. rather than images from without. will eliminate the unhappiness caused by misrelations based on competition for resources. 5. preferences. for which continuity of happiness is necessary. etc. ensuring harmony/mutual fulfillment.

to some degree. and their proper use. 4. protection. imagination plus the gift of free-will enables humans to act for the sake of realization/enlightenment through which they can gain comprehension and experience of the universe. Rather than seeing through the eyes in order to understand nature. and is therefore potentially enlightened (realized). Behind every choice is thought. The first 4. desiring. only experience/execution/implementation can confirm the reality/veracity of theory in practice (e. with or without analysis or comparison of physical and psychological need. thinking. the soul does not directly communicate. consciousness: 1. Knowledge of Self (continued): Science. imagining. These are the product of past experience. Behind thought are beliefs or opinions. riding a bike or swimming). 5.As far as the role of the will. And unlike materialist/scientific reductionist philosophies. However. choosing. Any original/authentic philosopher will have engaged in introspection but every human has a soul that resonates with love (“intuition”). an intellect capable of natural acceptance (listening). pre-conditioning (reports). 3. To summarize. Mind Comparison/evaluation + analysis = vritti. or expectations about the future. Intellect Realization/Enlightenment + authentication = atma. it is the “I” that sees through the eyes. the level to which we understand nature will allow us to see. Its requirement is health. In other words. The latter can be chimeras—combinations of received images— .g. understanding. The 5 below are inseparable and make up jeevan. Mind inevitably interacts with body in the holistic approach. An attempt to use them in the latter fashion will actually hinder comprehension of truth and the eternal. which is fulfilled by knowledge about our relationship with the six areas. Cognition Understanding/wisdom + will = buddhi. which the “I” desires and achieves through nourishment. These demand happiness. the senses are more useful in expressing/authenticating knowledge than in gaining knowledge. Experiences + choices = mun(n). involuntary actions deals only with the body. expecting are activities that define conscious entities. 2. preferences or desires that are the product of chitran—visualizations or images/imaginings.5 of these 10 faculties correspond to imagination. “soul” and “spirit” are never discussed separately from the jivan/self/conscious entity. Attitude Contemplation + desire (images/belief/conditioning) = chitta. Soul Unlike the rest of Indian spiritualism and the Abrahamic faiths. which animals enjoy as well. which concerns only the psysiochemically defined.

Thus. and mutual enrichment/fulfillment. The moment we obtain knowledge of the universe. Nature may be emitting sound constantly to which we are unattuned.but are not truly creative [n. thought is definite. to wisdom [cf Aristotle’s first philosophy/epistemology in Metaphysics]. motions. Plato’s Phaedrus and the anaology of the soul’s chariot].b. one’s aim becomes definite. more an action from happiness. paradox of perfect freedom as determined by the idea of perfection (or what is best)]. Contemplation is the faculty that helps elucidate meaning. Matter can be interrupted to make sound. Being in harmony is being attuned. without this anchoring. Plato’s Timaeus]. It can determine whether images are based on knowledge and are from within or are based on belief and from without.g. With this process. There will no desire for happiness. “self”. Once authenticated. with a body to receive it. this can be received by the ear as music. the pre-existing harmony in the universe is confirmed and reinforces harmony or peace within. this can happen even in our own language. We harness imagination in order to reach the highest thing—enlightenment [cf. Science should also proceed in support of wisdom. it will be rootless. Once this balance is set. eternal bliss. there are five states. Q: How can we gain knowledge of things of which we have no experience? A: (spoiler alert from existence chapter): because the universe is reflected in our own souls [cf. This dual movement uncovers an original state of ananda. which itself supports knowledge. work will automatically ensure prosperity. and. this is harmony. desire becomes definite (contrary to what we are told about this faculty’s ineluctable ravenousness and our experience of its contradictoriness). When the entirety of desire supports wisdom’s aim. there is a movement back down. understanding is define. This is coexistentialism. balance. Foreign words are words but they do not communicate a meaning. Images must be verified to see whether they connect with truth. and products/effects in the self: State: Experience Evaluation/Comparison Contemplation Wisdom/Understanding Motion: Choice Thought Product: Happiness Desire/Imaging/Belief Peace Will Contentment Everlasting Bliss Realization/Enlightenment Authentication . e. most importantly.

It is beyond the physical or even the psychological. acting in a way to promote mindfulness]. Societies want trust/security/fearlessness. prosperity in every family. Gandhis and Buddhas do not multiply like plants. “Education is to equip every human being with the ability to ensure sustained happiness in self. respectively. which are the natural outcome of the preceding and results in contentment. trust in society. Families want prosperity (beyond fulfillment of requirements) that results in peace. Individuals want the holistic solutions/resolution/clarity that results in happiness 2. Reaction to another’s disrespect says more about one’s own existence in this harmony or not. what our aims must like be when we take into account the body/others/sociability/world situation: 1. It is not a matter of fairness nor does it deal with the distribution of resources beyond the proper use by each. beginning with the family. understanding. circulation etc. These need happiness and health. breathing. This is the essence of nonviolence—refusing to react at another’s mindless action [and. 3. Activities of the body include digestion. If inner peace is ensured. Happiness is ensured by living and understanding at all six levels.Justice exists on the level of consciousness. Activities of the self include thinking.” -Nagraji The human is a coexistence of I/consciousness and body. equally. prosperity cannot be achieved. Actualizing real change is not a matter of changing a sufficient number of individuals to change society. This is self-fulfillment. *Requires every family having prosperity 4. desiring. Nature wants coexistence. Radical change will take place in human relationships. imagining. Neither is the answer to change the system in order to make individuals that are a certain way. one’s action is always going to lead toward harmony. Knowing and recognizing correspond to fulfillment/execution The realm of the “natural” is comprised of consciousness and physiochemical levels. Prescriptions for practice. and harmonious coexistence in entire nature. which results in bliss. Without it. Part II: Knowledge of Body/Holistic Health . which communicate through the brain.

Asana Pantanjali has only one line on poses in the Yoga Sutras.” This aspect has since been fetishized and yoga metonymized as exercise or stretches. Schauch – Cleansing the body through excretion. The four dimensions of human living: 1. 4. humility/ surrender) III. The five yam (social principles) belonging to Hinduism. 5. eternal bliss/lasting happiness for all/ananda Compare with the first of the eight steps of yoga (“union with god”): I. and fulfill the body’s aim/authenticate understanding 2. the mind through the senses 2.Whereas many religions denigrate the body as an impediment to enlightenment. ego i. 3. contentment. Work  prosperity. Sautosh – Satisfaction/contentment ~ mind-/desire-control 3. Truth/Non-lying Non-violence Non-stealing Non-accumulation Celibacy/Non-intercourse Which resemble the Judeo-Christian “Thou Shalt Not” prohibitions II. Thought  clarity/resolution/holistic solutions/harmony 4. Tap – Dabbling in extremes (e. it is an as important as the self/jeevan in achieving their joint purpose. IV. Realization  peace. including the following. and Buddhism 1. Jainism. Pratyahar .e. that they are used “To be in a state where stability/calmness is possible. Pranayam Breath control  mind-control V. Swadhyay – Self-study & of spiritual literature connecting to the object of attainment 5. 2. The five Niyam 1.g. to ensure health. Ishwar pranidhan – Attribution of all events to god (vs. Behavior  mutual fulfillment  justice 3. temperature) in order to steel oneself against distraction while meditating 4.

the unconditioned). not maya/illusion. We need a body for verification of the self’s purpose. like it. thought his answer was a dream. but became convinced that this was not human perfection. yantra – an instrument/tool for focusing vision VIII. It did not answer the question of origins: Why self? Was the world illusory after all? Why/Who created it/Where did it come from? The “a ha” moment gave way to bodily baggage. Psychological/Mental – Body is able to express the message of “I” and fulfill the need of the I. (the state where there is supposed to be nothing – i. a. Thus. down to the atomic level. e. which is true identity. where the nature of each thing introduced revealed itself. with the bonus of happiness! The next three years. Diet b. union Nagraji followed this path for 17 years. Behavior (I relating to I) . Dharana Focussing on one image VII. continuous). are temporary (and the self & its needs. LIfestyle 2.g. Knowledge of the Body (continued): Summary: All needs of the body. He put earth in.Literally “opposite” – the turning of senses inward VI. he concluded. and over the course of three years. leaving (authentic) self/soul & god. memory loss is a health issue. this was the genesis of jeevan vidya – an easier and more natural path to enlightenment. he put dhyan and dharana into samadhi. tantra (also fetishized since) – control of senses. Samadhi Elimination of that one point. inserted the component parts of reality in order to “view” their/its nature. samadhi was not true enlightenment.e. for example. Physical – Harmony and integration in all parts of body a. His conviction was that the ineffable sublimity of union ought to persist. it has two aspects that need to be in balance. Many methods. Holistic health is not simply the absence of disease. be continuous. So. mantra – repetitive sound. The world is real. Dyhan Moving concentration from one image to one point. each composed of two parts: 1. achieved Samadhi.

Removing these and attempting to enrich food will be a more energy intensive and less efficient process. The two major processes going on are oxygenation and digestion—the breakdown and integration of plant nature. This rejection. Thus. Sleep is principal in this category. and the mouth for gasses. vitamins. or what is naturally nutritive.b. protect.000 years ago but vegetarians can be cruel too. The veda’s claimed that we are what we eat 5. in terms of uptake as well. The four modes of excretion are: 1. “ease” or well-functioning is our natural state. The two major orifices for intake are the nose. minerals. Soil is a foreign body. into its own nature. Intestines Kidneys Lungs Skin Foreign matter that is not excreted can become toxic and contribute to dis-ease. It is us determining what we eat that is the issue: changing our mental state will have a trickle-down effect on diet. snorting material = unnatural). Another component of health is proper breathing. the first niyam principal). In other words. Proper diet entails understanding the human body’s design and what nature provides for these needs as much as the properties of food. etc. Nature does not waste. Ingesting less nutritious food (with more foreign material) will require bigger portions to satisfy the bodies demand and will put greater demands on the body’s excretive systems. we can make the best use of its chemical properties. a proper diet will pay attention to both quality and quantity. One way to do this is to . Pranayama breathing cleans the body through the lungs. 3. 2. and properly use the body through proper understanding of health. Thought (I) Sanyam – I’s acceptance of the responsibility to nourish. and solids (i. for gas. 4. Avoiding great variation is very important but this does not mean adhering to a rigid structure.” is only “foreign” to us but excrement constitutes potential food for other bodies. they are inversely proportional. but with the help of plants.e. which is a negative way of stating the stronger claim that everything has a purpose [ But is nature extravagant? What about vestigial structures? Opulence? Banyan’s billions of seeds]. sauch. which we say results in “waste. liquids. Enema cleans body through intestine. What is not integrated is deemed foreign and excreted. Perhaps first in importance under the heading of Lifestyle is proper daily routine. Sauna cleans the body through the pores (cf.

if it does not involve visiting others or true learning. with nature. The needs of I cannot be fulfilled living alone but living together is not enough. Recognition of the universe’s harmony is the principal means of ensuring bodily harmony. This is a waste of time and potentially. from self to existence. and bodybuilders may be working through their activity but they abuse their bodies for the sake of glory or attention. if there is conflict or lack. This is also the definition of education. Proper breathing is a precursor to/corollary with… Proper exercise.count breaths while in shavasana. Travel and technology/gadgetry could fall into this category as well. Mindful labor can bring joy. not consumptive. The are psychological/mental components of health that belong to the continuous realm: Behavior is also a component of health. with others. with song. Conflict-free thought. the repetitiveness of gym workouts. Repetition of mantras can calm the mind but this is temporary. there is not truly family. in order to be family and be called educated. rooted in resolution. Family Defined as the unit where the needs of I and body can be fulfilled completely. winning.g. glory—the attempt to establish identity through uniqueness (at the expense of another). Anything else will be reflected in the body. this is disconnection. Extreme athletes. Living according to meaning and purpose of life and being capable/actualizing mutually fulfilling relationships. e. with expensive equipment. True re-creation is productive. (Games can contribute to health and cooperation but sport often becomes more a matter of competition.) Proper relaxation is also necessary and should be used in conjunction with exercise. humans must be able to live together in harmony within self. it can be an unnecessary diversion of resources and a distraction from one’s own community. especially when done in groups. this comes from productive labor or its focus is relating with other people. It is also the place that members are able to gain knowledge. Games and recreation are the result of boredom. If this is not happening. sport seems to connect people but actually contributes to violence and othering. AND to ensure the physical requirements of the body—the understanding and skills that lead to a fulfilling life. Health ≠ what is often called fitness.g. For fans too. matters of consumption do not require physical things. Ideally. Burning calories is a waste. especially in contact sports. professional athletes. resources. . e.

create. One doesn’t need to nourished and protected when they are able/equipped to nourish and protect. These expectations can be recognized. Fulfillment of these expectations leads to mutual happiness. Trust (the foundational value) – the assurance that the other is always concerned with my happiness and would never harm. which speaks to the needs of the body. Put differently. 1. 3.Therefore. 2. who does the above for nourishment. 4. There are also self-related expectations regarding satisfaction of their curiosity. Verification. Children genuinely want to know. they preexist). there cannot be proper function. Each of these exist at four levels: 1. The other requirement is occupation. relationships. death that is not based in belief but is verifiable. 4. 3. These expectations are nine. with the addition of occupation and procreation. II. Without recognition and acknowledgement of these expectations in a relationship. “Brother/sisters/friends” are those with whom we verify.b. The needs/expectations of the child become the duties/responsibilities of the parent. it is emotional psychological in nature. Acceptance of responsibility Fulfillment of responsibility Mutual evaluation Mutual fulfillment “Mother” is defined as one. regardless of gender or maternity. We needn’t build. Respect III. Relationships are between I & I (not body to body. they are innate desires/impulses/instincts: I. Affection . 2. education re: the Q of “why” e. Exchange Every relationship has definite expectations. It entails reaching and holding the “satisfaction point” of human behavior. protection. There are expectations between I & I. i. It has two parts: 1. meaning it deals with self.e. 3. N. husband and wife are those who procreate. They are owed/entitled to 4. justice is the first requirement of family. For example with the birth of a child. which is mutual fulfillment. “Companion/comrade” are those with whom we work (occupation). parents do a disservice by dismissing these queries. This is a balance between human beings.g. “Father” is the one that accepts the above vis-à-vis protection. make. Finally. there are (bodily) expectations regarding 1. Production 2. nourishment and 2. “Teacher/guru” is the one who accepts #3.

resolve to develop our own ability to further their understanding . Why are we not as concerned by any doubt that we always want to make others happy? What is the meaning of this asymmetry of intention? Fixating on what the other is doing (actions that seem contrary to natural compassion stemming from conditioning) vs. we doubt that others universally want to make us happy. to trust. Refocus on the other’s intention. Check our competence (act. creating discomfort. In children and madmen. It entails: 1. can the man support the woman. but I doubt the same desire in others. IX. There is an asymmetry in many relationships insofar as most people’s focus on their wants/needs but focus on others’ deeds/acts. as others fail them. Therefore. I am violating my own nature. The recognition of these expectations Fulfillment of values Mutual evaluation Mutual fulfillment I. However. we need to 1. what they really want. VII. Care/motherliness [nurturance?] Guidance/fatherliness Gratitude Glory Reverence Love (the complete value) Justice means putting relationships first. is inconsistent. This is the first consideration. facial expression etc) of which we may not have been fully aware. Summary of day 5: The moment we recognize relationship there are immediately expectations. and 3. 3. However. or even superficial criteria like shared interests or activities. one must remain focused on intention (mine and theirs). in a conflict. every adult wants to be happy and wants to make others so but fails on both levels. If everyone wants trust. and take responsibility 2. Ask whether there is a way we can help the other’s competence and if not. anyone who hurts is hurting inside and is not assured of this. Trust – being insured in the intention of every human being. Everyone wants to do good. VI. However. in romantic relationships or otherwise. 4. Intention does not always match competence. Trust must be ensured for these to be fulfilled. V. VIII. This signals a discrepancy between competency/ability and intention. above conditioned desires. 2. we ignore this. the concern is often body-oriented instead— can the family pay the dowry.IV.

body – age. the satisfaction point of nourishment. A wise person is able to help anyone. education/literacy e. appearance. These extremes can lead to depression and ego-inflation. we must find the real commonality— humanity. Affection – Union in. with. When people want to relate.g.Understanding implies ability/competence. sex. they focus on similarities but they unwittingly focus on aspects of their personhood that does not fully respect themselves. Care – accepting the responsibility to nourish. just kindness. It is the only of the eight values that is associated with the body. caste. regardless of her situation. race.” We tend to judge/recognize based on: a. II. This needs to be found in at least one other person. it is also the source of innerconfidence. IV. which proceeds without expectation of reciprocation. one must be careful as self-identifying as a “coexistentialist. Every human has thoughts and desires. culturex Focusing on any of these actually does disrespect. ideally parents. strength b. belief – sects. The realization that the other is just like me is constitutive of respect. this means neither over nor under-evaluating/devaluating. For this reason. including the self that focuses on these for identity). nationality – language. This is divisive] c. Yet we do this all the time. wealth – class. “I am 32 years old” when the I is timeless.e. III. The proof of understanding is the ability to help others (understand). esp when dealing with children: “You are a princess” or “You are just a baby. Language does not help in respecting the divide between self/I/jeevan and body: e. and for. Respect follows naturally from trust. Or negatively. This may not entail lecturing. in order to arise with others. skills – ability. V.” In order to find unity. Respect – Sammaan ~ Samyak (Right[eous])+ Evaluation  seeing things as they are. status/position d. -isms [Is this true of the institution only? Even miracles and the negation of self in asceticism relate to the body. Even recognition of any of these ostensible similarities does both parties disrespect (i. including understanding. respectively. Two who lack (trust and respect and therefore) fulfillment who are attempting union will be frustrated in finding it in the other. Guidance – proposing so that others can have knowledge about self and existence . Every self is a combination of self and body. satisfaction/fulfillment.

In thought. Individually. Glory is the recognition of excellence and good feeling that comes with it. Care  Generosity. Gratitude . In behavior.VI. III. Guidance  Approachability/Sahajata ~ easygoingness or naturalness VI. protection. Respect  Appreciation. the absence of otherness Summary of fifth day: Relationships are defined as commitments for completeness. Realization Relationship could also mean the achievement of one’s true aim—by having harmony at all four levels: 1.acceptance of guidance. Love  absolute Unity. which is impossible to do alone. profit. The foundational value to move toward knowledge. Gratitude  Humility/gentleness VII. by ensuring . In work. Reverence – the desire/attempt to emulate excellence. complete resolution. 3. 2. Completeness in all things: 1. VIII. the ego will obstruct. Reverence  Worship in the form of imitation IX. IX. leads to happiness/fulfillment of emotional needs. Affection  Commitment IV. this means freedom from conflict and contradiction. or 4. which is defined as knowledge of the six levels and living in harmony with/through them. VII. becoming complimentary to every entity in the universe. Glory – gaurav – requires understanding excellence. in ensuring prosperity. In the family. that there is only coexistence. it ensures justice—mutual fulfillment. The proof of Trust is  Cooperation and collaboration. or health. I. which leads to lasting joy. rather than preference. Glory  Esteem/vandana VIII. (nourishment. “let live and live” ethos V. through resolutions (holistic solutions/clarity/understanding from self to existence) 2. II. without it. etc). This is the expressed in the acknowledgement portion of books. including Babaji’s. comprehension of knowledge is impossible. Evaluating things this way. This is turn guarantees the health of bodies. Love – the recognition that there is a relation with every single entity in existence.

lest families become specialists. 3. three generations. Society 1. By living with trust in society. acting) for physical. natural disasters). But is anything else required? Yes. and exchange (the latter two from occupation. communication and transport) of these needs. Knowledge. Grandparents are good at making themselves childlike. in turn from the body. This falls under the realm of exchange but should . their life begins again and they must adapt to solitude. and with security 4. Parents often think once their children are grown. fearlessly. e. A related concept is samskara—the understanding to live in harmony from self to existence. Others are engaging solely in the other two realms. And in coexistence with nature Q: How many members should be in a family? A minimum of five. happiness. feelings are unable to be exchanged for. relating between generations. health care—will not reach the emotional needs. Paradoxically. in turn from prosperity. farmers solely produce. production. Three things necessary to fulfill familial needs are justice. in the form of (and ensure prosperity and coexistence) 4. dancing. are a symptom of a flawed (socio)economic model that works against the needs of both I and body. In this way. Since humans wish to connect with all of humanity. intergenerational families are the most natural for human consciousness. For example. then we can address some (though never all. Education – to learn new skills. Storage – the family might have a silo or savings but society should also back up their rainy-day funds. Though not every family can be expected to be entirely self-contained in this respect. Because work is not always guaranteed to end in actual Productivity (e. family is a representation of the whole of society. their care—daycare. Ensures resolution. But this does not reflect society’s makeup.prosperity 3. esp. Yet the most well-rewarded individuals in society exchange non-physical things (singing. 2. society is necessary to provide insurance. knowledge of health will ensure prosperity. bridging a gap of 150+ yrs in terms of knowledge. Herding age groups together. teachers deal in knowledge. Even if these institutions are able to provide for bodily needs.g. gaining their identity from one activity. Health – families should be self-reliant re: Sanyam—the understanding to keep the body well. at least in generational terms. wisdom—what is being transmitted in education. this is where society comes in. justice stemming from the I). in emergencies. and they have interacted with their grandparents as children. Justice tells us what we need. Most families engage solely in exchange.g. they have similar psychological and bodily needs at their extremes. whether in pre-school or retirement homes.

000. This model would be replicated in a village group [town?]. 2. Babaji’s book on Cyclical Economics and Behavior-Centered Sociology Summary of Sixth Day Proof of individual knowledge/clarity within occurs in the family. will be dispensable. to reexamine the group’s efficacy fulfilling the preceding five criteria. In other words. This can also be better for one. up to a world family—the undivided society or universal order: a state in which the collective knowledge and facility of the human race accrues to each through communication. Ensures trust and prosperity. resulting in real security—enrichment. who are responsible for sustaining a health and educational system. Out of these ten. protection. electricity) but it also must be eco-friendly. resources are needed to avoid exploitation and other deprivation. Fire will be covered under security. Services such as “defense” or police.do proceed without usury. Beyond this. e. Ten families (of about 5-10) form a community. There are no ministries necessary beyond this five. (families. state. most importantly. but remember that family need not be blood related). 3. These communities can unite to form a family village of approximately 1. in order to ensure our own. Concern must be global but production remains local in order to reduce shipping by eating seasonal foods. resulting in prosperity. form community. and. 5. exploitation. nature yields water-filled fruits when we need it most. not individuals. which his a sort of peace. Cf. up to the world family. Ensures trust and coexistence. then city. we relate with other families and the larger world through 1.g. and happiness. Education is something for which none should have to pay. thus. or family group of about 100. We must guarantee prosperity in other families. This is the definition of self-reliance. Exchange Weddings Education Health System Technology should not replace human creativity but enhances it (e.g. 5. Children should not need more than 2-3 hrs of instruction but an hour of labor can be contributed in exchange . It adds the body to I. 4. one selfselected from each family. or profit. A committee can be formed from representatives. proper use of resources. one representative will be chosen for a village-level committee. it should be Just.

Plants differ from matter in that it uses air. “assume” and change their assumptions (~belief). constitution. and minerals. making individual’s aims definite (resolution. it is this very ability to change their nature and assumptions (esp in regard to humans) that defines them—e. Even human seeks knowledge. trust. Even though the social interaction of grade school can and younger be salutary. prosperity. We can call this the vital order. no matter what is it. Therefore. it leads to wisdom. When secured. the chief manner in which animals differ from plants is in their ability to begin to approximate thought. animals not exhibiting this characteristic. will be included in the vital order. and are more dependent on their particular conditions. These activities deserve the name consciousness. Nature Def – anything that can be captured by the five senses. even in ways that might seem to be against their nature. In the form of comprehension of existence. This ensures universal human education. and enrich nature. work. and human. other. we call it unnatural. water. This is all a confirmation of wisdom/human aims. Self-reliance should arise by grade 3-4. respire. This would apply as easily to a TV as it would a tree—matter as well as plant. . Relating to humans in an emotionally fulfilling way means behaving with justice. excellence. An individual making a change in society is like a subatomic particle making a change in an object. as does family. Atoms are what participates in structure. the atomic unit of society. animal. Knowledge can only take place here. Participating in all of this together leads to a selforganized and free individual and genuinely free individuals contribute to an undivided/unified/just society. to grow. coexistence).g. completing the circle. learn behavior. However. The questioning phase from pre-school period should not wither but must be cultivated. as with the production of plastic. its substance should be understanding and skills. will ensure prosperity for self. When the cyclical relationship between these categories is broken. leading to right conduct. like certain insects [≠bees?]. Rather than locomotion or presence of a brain. This can be thought of as digestion—the process by which it incorporates these inputs into its own form or nature.for teaching to run the school. order (law as reform). Humans add to this faculty imagination and the propensity to question. that in turn ensures the continuity of humane civilization. and reproduce. They can change their conduct. this leads to a situation in which (mutual) trust rules. After ensuring justice. the ability of domestics to respond to name and be trained.

defies the imagination. only translucent. there is variation in the number and quality of seeds. Physical law is continuous across the four areas. It is homogenous: understanding space in one place means understanding it everywhere. it is therefore the precondition for both nature (~ “matter” )and energy c. Thus.e. it is unlimited. to universe. understanding space requires comprehension. Units only make sense in the context of the space around them. Space is permeable: it is transparent but does not constitute a barrier. i. b. for which space is antecedent Nature and Space are constant. Nature is divided into the inert and conscious realms but they form a unit. nor is there pressure. to separate solids. Emptiness/Space – Vyapak – pervasiveness (noun). Space divides matter/nature. Neither created the other. Not all sprout. to galaxy. allpervading. The space between in an atomic nucleus and electrons if it were the size of a soccer ball. One. . Every entity in nature has definite distance. reproduction is not a matter of pure physical law. from our planet. nothing manmade can be transparent. Rather than germination rate. Exist/ence – Asti/tva: is/essence or order. The “final frontier” to understand space is in the soul. There is no activity here. In the plant order. our focus should be on the ability of plants to maintain an ecosystemic balance. to melting or atomizing a metal. This logically holds even in an expanding universe.Changes at the subatomic level determine properties. it is the interconnectivity of space and matter/nature that makes existence. We are unconcerned with what has been and what will be but what presently exists. and consistent across space and time. e.g. infinite. and 2. formlessness d. for this would be activity or motion. from picking up one object from off the floor. measureless. to solar system. would be 20-30 miles. which are definite. nor waves. the Zero. they coexist. However. through another faculty: atma—the soul (hence the unlimited desire for knowledge) e. Energy must be added. there is no space within space. the medium of which is form. The possibility of motion [cf Aristotle’s physics] but also ~ Brahma/God [cf Aristotle’s metaphysics] a. Remove space (in time) and you have all the matter in the world in one point—the singularity that we are told preceded the big bang. technically speaking. the unity of: 1. Existence is free from boundaries. Therefore.

by being: 1. These are never at rest. i. This is development. ceaseless. giving and taking. Electrons in the atoms that comprise the unit of nature are always in motion. however.5). hence vyapak.  which regulates or controls every entity. vs. It is unborn. what is actually taking place is simply a movement of particles (that is changing the state of matter and thereby chemical/physical law). Nature is therefore constantly changing but by virtue of the preceding. God. for example. always in three ways. This is relative. or purposive energy. the natural state of human consciousness. dipped.” freed from bondage—liberated [~moksha?] from accepting and donating.  the space around allows function. of relative energy in the constant energy of space that together yield/guarantee abundance. Effort is only expended for the sake of effortlessness. Nature does not come from God.  netting balance 3. the pervasiveness of space and its energetic features. A certain tendency to come together.] Space is complete in the sense that it is rest. self-sufficient. but all diversity (includingmatter order.e. or positively speaking. which can be achieved after the 10 activities of self. Constitution – the particular atomic makeup. What this translates to individually is a state in which thought. desire. i.k. It is the coexistence of the latter the former. or law. complete. a. that is. the translation of force to motion.e. and choices are . which describes coexistentialism. like iron or musketball. it is existing in God. equilibrium. Effort + b. This is called knowledge. frustrating entropy. indestructible.a. These characteristics are not available via imagination. soaked. water and soil). Turning the earth into a sun—a place with only two types of atoms— reverses the fundamental basis of the natural order and militates not only against human existence. Form is submerged in formlessness. Motion = c. This cannot be captured or diminished.  indicating a definite principal. like cotton or sponge  and therefore energized  force  electromagnetism  mutual “recognition” of particles 2. a. surrounded. Consciousness is the only complete “atom.The introduction of energy seems to increase intra-molecular distance. changeless energy. nature takes part in its perfection or completeness. This is anti-development/anti-anthropic/moving away from consciousness: interfering with the definite distances between nuclei and in the fission and fusion processes that normally take place at the distance of sun to earth. 4. Motion does not cease in this state but it becomes complete. This is development. constantly present (nitya vartmaan). [Nuclear technology seems to produce energy but actually represents the ultimate regression in the human species. But it is also constant.

When added to the aspects of the conscious order this yields an animal order and a knowledge order (psychology). but eyes only see 180* of objects. In order to do so. order) and actualization. The study of these is called physics and chemistry. imagining that . The manifestations of the vital order are plant. Matter can be subdivided into atoms. and their structure dictates their state. Structure connotes three qualities: a. we combine biology and the social sciences. itself begetting the other social sciences. Nature is comprised of physiochemical/temporary and conscious/continuous aspects that coexists with space (metaphysics).” When this is true of the self. The former. what. Through mathematics. “every entity is in order within itself [dharma] and participates in higher order. solid or liquid. temporal order can be further divided into the matter order and vital order. Space is knowledge. & how” questions of children are significant—they are the stuff of metaphysics. it’s presence/acknowledgement is comprehension. Its four orbits[/valences?] correspond to the remaining eight activities of self (in terms of force and power/state and motion). their absence)—whereby the human does what humans are meant to do. molecules. This is accumulation. we exploit the vital order. This is not demonstrated by rote learning or memorization but by living accordingly in prosperity. According to Nagraji. it completes our (field of) vision [cf. To say we know an entity. Nature – participation in higher order 4. not growth. only one of which is available to the senses: 1. animal body. Many of these answers become “pat” superstion by the age of six (cf recurrence of fear due to ghosts). Soul is the nucleus of the consciousness atom. including ourselves. Greekdefinitionof mathematics according to Heidegger]. respectively. we must understand entities’ four qualities. and human body (biology). Density The complete structure of any entity can be seen through mathematics. yet ignored. 2.guided by something definite (vs. Innateness – everything is in order within itself We now only understand science through the senses/causation but the language of Reason—“why. Furthermore. participation leads to harmony. We limit the study of growth and development to the hard sciences’ treatment of the matter order. Quality – the effect of two units acting on each other determines attributes 3. Shape – seen with eyes. we can “see” the rest. b. Volume – these are limited to the latter sort of seeing c. Activities proceed at 2n^2: 2+8++18+32 = 61 x 2 = 122 total. which has the activities of realization (anu/bhav – the totality of existence in its sequence.

we need to understand the relationship between 1. adultery. There are three aspects: Value/”Instrinsicness”. even as a doctor. The assurance of enlightenment comes from the freedom of conflict in all relationships. they also look for satisfaction in sex and comfort. even with his own grandchildren. he will only treat/teach if asked. Peace iii. Character. body. and Policy 1. (inner) Strength/Altruism/Dheerata = Commitment to live with Justice (defined as mutual fulfillment/maintaining the satisfaction pt btwn humans) ii. and sleep. Receptivity This is≠ judgment v. he will greet you. Process is also en-couraging iii. While humans share the concern about food and fear. “Hari har” Vishnu + Shivu. human and otherwise. Jeevan values i. Ability—which exists in a virtuous relationship with 3. animals’ motivations are limited to bodily concerns—food. fear. . Happiness ii.humans are animals. cruelty. procreation. Generosity/Udarata = Investment of entire of entire resources. In order to understand this and the next two values. and wealth iv. Human Conduct: The goal is for our conduct to become definite. However. Human values (Jeevan + body) i. Potentiality—the inherence of natural acceptance 2. Grace/Benevolence/Kripa = proposing knowledge relevant to living in prosperity in a manner so that others can receive. Last/Complete Day Nagraji never broaches do’s and don’ts. Bliss/Ananda b. mind. Courage/Bravery/Veerata = the ability to inspire/empower others to live with justice—the real way for all to be free from fear. When you meet Nagraji. God (state) + Nature (motion/change). Contentment iv. Kindness/Daya = helping to enhance others’ ability. greed. But it is the fixation on these pursuits that result in envy. Value/”Intrinsicness” – ensures harmony within me and all relationships a.

Utility – for nourishment. Cruelty (injuring/killing) Informed by the following viewpoints i. Fidelity/swa-purush nari. Kind work-behavior/Daya purna (completely kind) Karya-byavahar – leading to mutual prosperity and happiness cf definition of Kindness before. opposite of cruelty 3. Profit And the following motivations/concerns . Understanding (mind/jeevan) iii. Compassion/Karuna = combination of the previous two (the highest human virtue according to Buddha) When we attend Human values. Subjugation (theft) b. Prosperity (wealth) b. protection. and truth For a total of 30 values. Liking ii. Opposite of stealing/taking others’ wealth c. art value. Religious/Dharma – proper use of these resources Human Consciousness: 1. jeevan values are accomplished c. Policy – ensures the continuity of Value and Character through a. Health (body) ii. or being recognized with a prize. Character – ensures harmony in society a. derived from utility vs. and animals) i. Deceptiveness (lying/cheating) c. Family values (see 18 previous) d. Economic – enrichment of all three resources i. contra comparative advantage. primarily between husband and wife. and togetherness. Health iii. “Self-wealth”/swa-dhan – either being involved in production. plants. bringing trust. matter. Subhuman/animalistic consciousness leads to the following behaviors a. Natural values (relating to the rest of nature. as infidelity leads to conflict. Art – fulfillment of the needs of the self: justice. b. dharma. fearlessness.vi. assurance. Political – protection/preservation for future generations of the previous c. and proper use of the body ii. 2.

consistent with coexistence and unchanging. Courage c.1. garnering acclaim 4 . 2. Grace With a viewpoint consistent with/adhering to dharma. 3. and 3. Saintly consciousness manifests as: 1. 4. Strength b. Any concern with acclaim falls away. Food Fear Sex/Sensual pleasure Comfort 2. Progeny 2. Human consciousness instead displays a. Generosity With a viewpoint of Justice and concern with 1. and having fulfilled the above (progeny and prosperity) so they can focus on helping society. Divine consciousness is complete compassion and a viewpoint from truth. to be replaced by universal goodness—constant contribution to all humans and all levels (nature. Acclaim – being recognized for goodness/the worthy subject of reverence 3. Prosperity/wealth. universe). Kindness 2. .

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