ABSTRACT

Although phenomenon of advertising is researched for several decades but intercultural advertising is rather new scope of research. One of the key elements that characterise culture is cultural values. The paper proposes two different points of view towards cultural values and their impact on advertising as one of marketing elements. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to reveal how stability of cultural values can impact strategy of advertising. Cultural values doubtless affect both: customer behaviour and marketing solutions of advertising. Thus cultural values are the crucial element while making decisions concerning with segmentation and positioning. Two different approaches regarding stability of cultural values are represented in scientific literature. Some authors believe that within changing environment mutations of consumption appear, respectively, cultural values undergo changes as well. This means that some values are changed with the other ones. Despite of this, some of scientists highlight that values are basis of culture, so they cannot change. Impact of these two approaches on advertising is revealed in the paper.

INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC he advertising business has become such an important factor in the economy in many countries, especially in the United States, that it also changes the economy itself, society, culture, and the political system. The stimulation for the demand of products and services helps the economy grow stronger and stronger. New inventions become known much faster and can establish their spot in the sales figures of the economy. If there are more people buying these products the overall costs will drop and the product will become cheaper for the customer which raises his willingness to buy even more. On the other hand advertisements are very expensive and some economists believe that these costs are put on top of the actual price paid by the customer. Critics argue that advertising can also have a huge influence on society. It tells the consumers that only purchasing products makes you happy and therefore people compare each other on their belongings. Women also compare themselves with the beautiful and very skinny models they see on commercials and ads. This sometimes results in eating disorders and a low self-esteem of women who don’t look like these models. Another bad effect is, that minority groups, especially in the United States are portrait in a subordinate position, which settles in the minds of people. Commercials are also an important part of the income of a TV station which leads to the suspicion that a news channel might not report on an incident about a company they depend on. A lot of TV shows are also based on these commercials, and if the ratings aren’t good enough the show will be stopped. Only those shows which attract a lot of viewers will be shown, which is not very differentiated and put minorities like older people at a disadvantage. Advertising can also have an impact in politics. $ 467 million were spent on advertisements and TV commercials in the elections of 1998. It gives the opponents the chance to respond to charges very quickly reaching a few million viewers. But since this is very expensive only very rich people have to chance to run for a political position or at least depend on the donation of wealthier people who could have a huge impact on

democracy this way. The political issues talked about in an election are also very much simplified because the spots are only about 30 seconds long, and you can’t really discuss a lot in such a short period of time. There is finally the impact advertising can have on the culture of a country. The globalized economy uses the same commercials in a lot of different countries, which leads to a break down in the differences of these societies. Children will grow up not knowing how their culture has been before in their country. It can also lead to a lot of discussion about moral values if we just think about the very controversial ads of Benetton we have discussed \ English-language advertising in India is among the most creative in the world. TV advertising (especially in the Hindi language) has made major headway in the past 10 years, especially with the advent of satellite TV. Hindi TV channels - such as ZEE and Sony TV - have fashioned themselves on lines of Western channels, and most advertising on such channels is glitzy, smart and tailored for the middle classes. Such channels have forced the state-owned channel, Doordarshan, to add spice to their programmes which, earlier, were quite drab. The importance of the Hindi-speaking market (which is also fluent in English) is borne out from the fact that STAR TV, once an all-English channel, is now rich in Hindi programmes. Even the British Broadcasting Corporation is reportedly toying with the idea of airing Hindi programmes. Most major international advertising firms have chosen local Indian partners for their work in this market. Mumbai (formerly Bombay) remains the centre of the advertising business in India. India has a diverse and growing number of daily newspapers. Since 1991, the increase of business and financial news reports in English-language and vernacular dailies has paralleled the economic reform programme and the movements of the stock markets. Most leading publications have their circulation audited by the Audit Bureau of Circulation which has an India-dedicated office in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). Leading business newspapers include Business Standard and Economic Times. Magazines include

Some soft-drink companies have used beauty queens to make surprise knocks on the doors! Marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers' (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. the likes of which are now done by computer and laser printer). A large of exhibitions are held all over India. An inefficient state-owned banking system also prevents prompt transfers of funds from consumers to retailers. until goods can be ordered conveniently and delivered with certainty. using "addressable" media such as mail and email. and Business World. Telephone service is poor. but rapidly improving. Marketing will be limited to door-to-door sales. Credit card companies are increasingly targeting India's one million cardholders through directly-mailed offers of goods and services. and by Herb Ahrend who introduced mass direct mail advertising techniques as early as the 1940s (employing hundreds of typists in New York City to mass produce offerings. The term was coined in the 1970s by Lester Wunderman. Conferences and seminars are also widespread. Marketing is a form of marketing that attempts to send its messages directly to consumers.India Today. . From ice cream vendors to carpet sellers. India 's residential neighbourhoods are frequently visited by merchants offering a variety of products. Business India . The most successful direct marketers in India today are the millions of door-to-door sales representatives who visit neighborhoods and villages across India. While private courier services are growing strongly and the telecommunications sector is opening up for a range of modern services. Business Today. who pioneered Marketing techniques with brands such as American Express and Columbia Records. other kinds of trade promotion activities are also well-developed in India. the most prominent ones at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. In addition to advertising. Marketing The mail service in India is slow though generally reliable.

because in many cases its effectiveness can be measured . Instead. vibrant. service to consumers. are "addressable". and ten thousand customers can be tracked as having responded to the promotion.Therefore. at their workplace or other places away from permanent retail locations. directly. The strength of direct selling lies in its tradition of independence. For example. is explored in greater detail elsewhere in this article. email. or in the public market. or contact strategy. if a marketer sends out one million solicitations by mail. e. In fact all Marketing is done through media. since there is no direct response from a consumer. SMS. Measurement of results.g. Marketing uses non-addressable media as well as addressable ones. on. which are sometimes referred to as junk mail and e-mail spam. a fundamental element in successful Marketing. the marketer can say with some confidence that the campaign led directly to the responses. bases their future actions. generally in their homes or the homes of others. telemarketing. Direct selling is a dynamic. It usually is not taken to include face-to-face contact. While many marketers like this form of marketing. such as a billboard or a radio commercial would. By contrast. Direct Marketing is attractive to many marketers. and commitment to entrepreneurial growth in the free market system. Direct selling can best be described as the marketing of products and services directly to consumers in a face to face manner. measurement of other media must often be indirect. usually a marketer. it is sometimes criticized for generating unwanted solicitations. the marketing of the service or commodity is addressed directly to the target customer. it's just that many. These salespeople are commonly referred to as direct sellers. Direct sales typically occur through explanation or personal demonstration by an independent direct salesperson. The important thing is that it seeks a response and it is this which the recipient. Marketing differs from regular advertising in that it does not place its messages on a third party medium. rapidly expanding channel of distribution that has proven to be a highly successful and effective method of compensating direct sellers (independent contractors) for the marketing and distribution of products and services directly to consumers.

Essentially. Direct selling offers an alternative to traditional employment for those who desire a flexible income earning opportunity to supplement their household income. laundry and personal care items. books and educational products. and most work in their direct selling businesses on a part-time basis. In many cases. toys. The products sold by direct sellers are as diverse as the people themselves and include: cosmetics and skin care products. Independent direct sellers are those individuals engaged on their own behalf.selling provides accessible business opportunities to people looking for alternative sources of income. household specialties. or whose responsibilities or circumstances do not allow for regular part-time or full time employment. household cleaning products. A very small percentage of direct sellers are employees of the companies whose products they sell. telecommunication and technology oriented products. or on behalf of a direct selling company. selling products and services through personal sales contacts. and whose entry is generally not restricted by gender. jewelry and fashion accessories. These independent direct sellers have an opportunity to earn profits from their business. It should be noted that around the world a substantial majority of direct sellers are women. food and nutrition products. or previous experience. education. and are commonly referred to in some jurisdictions as independent contractors. age. and also accept the responsibility for the risks associated with operating a business. nutritional products. department stores and to the consumer products market. vacuum cleaners and home appliances. and clothing. direct selling opportunities develop into a fulfilling career for those who achieve success and choose to pursue their independent direct selling business on a full time basis. . this means that the company whose products they distribute does not employ these independent salespeople with each individual operating their own businesses. Direct selling provides important benefits to individuals who desire an opportunity to earn an income and build a business of their own and to consumers who enjoy an alternative to shopping centers.

and direct response. or who cannot afford to compete with the enormous advertising and promotion costs associated with gaining space on retail shelves. Although direct selling organizations occasionally use some Marketing or distance selling techniques and technology to enhance their businesses. Moreover. direct mail. Direct selling is the direct to home service of consumer goods cutting the middlemen in the manufacturer-distributor-wholesalerretailer channel. the primary difference between the two methods of marketing is the face to face. including personal demonstration and explanation of products.Direct selling allows individuals to become proactive and positive about their lives instead of waiting for the economy to improve. home delivery. . the next salary increase or hoping for circumstances to change. Consumers benefit from direct selling because of the convenience and service it provides. or personal presentation that is always an aspect of the direct selling relationship. Direct selling should not be confused with terms such as Marketing or distance selling such as telemarketing. and generous satisfaction guarantees. direct selling provides a channel of distribution for companies with innovative or distinctive products not readily available in traditional retail stores.

SYSTEM OF DIRECT SELLING Direct Selling encompasses:- .

many products are required on a regular basis bringing repeat sales and further income. . These new independent contractors also recruit. who also recruit. Multi-Level and Network Marketing These terms refer to a marketing system in which individual independent contractors recruit. Classical direct selling Independent Contractors sell products directly to a wide customer base and earn financial rebates on all products sold. The emphasis in classical direct selling is for the independent operator to sell products to a wide base of their own customers. depending on the nature of products. The main difference between a Multi-Level Marketing company and a Network Marketing company is the structure and benefits of the Compensation plan.• • • Classical Direct Selling Multi-Level Marketing (MLM) Referral Marketing These are selling systems. In many cases. train and develop their own team of product users. Although there can be variations between companies. thereby earning rebates on all products they sell. etc. which offer a variety of compensation plans (financial reward) and administrative systems. train and develop a team of product users. New customers are sought to add to their client base. the basic concept is that any individuals sales performance can be multiplied by using the efforts of others.. train and develop their own team. individual to each company.

More and more classical direct selling companies now use elements of multilevel/network marketing as they recognize its potential for exponential growth. The emphasis in Multi-Level and Network Marketing is for the independent operator to be a product user. Financial reward is gained through rebates paid on the individuals product sales. and so on.e. etc. train and develop many other product users who will also sell products to a small base of their own customers and recruit. and almost all new direct selling companies. train and develop other product users. This lineage of people is (typically) called a "downline". the success of any business depends upon how well individuals "duplicate" their efforts – all independent contractors – whatever level . to sell products to a small base of their own customers..should personally be using the products and should receive and give regular training regarding products. "A" contacts "B" who contacts "C" who contacts "D".The multi-level/network marketer creates a "network" of people who work directly for themselves and indirectly for the person who introduced them into the network i. Over half of the direct selling companies worldwide. and to recruit. use multi-level/network marketing as a means to promote their business. and rebates paid on his/her down line product sales. business skills and life skills. However. Such referrals usually take place . Referral Marketing This term refers to a marketing system in which individual independent contractors refer other independent contractors to a network marketing or multilevel organization for the purpose of selling or providing products and services.

TYPES OF DIRECT SELLING • Person-to-person selling This is a method of direct selling where independent contractors sell services and products directly to people on a one-to-one basis in the home. office or workplace. orders are received for products.down to four or six levels with all referring Independent contractors earning a referral income for the products or services introduced to the marketing organization. using the event to display and demonstrate the product or products to those gathered. In the course of this "party". . The business opportunity is also often presented during this meeting. • Party-Plan or Group Selling Under this type of plan. and then to take orders for the products before the gathering ends. The "hostess' receives merchandise/products as compensation for the use of her home and her help in getting their friends together. The party plan is a method of marketing products by hosting a social event. the direct seller or retailer arranges with a friend who shall act as "hostess" to invite a group of friends for demonstrations of a product or products. away from a retail outlet.

Generally. these products are sold in group presentations (Party Plan).This plan has been used primarily to sell items whose main appeal is to women.commissions on sales generated.By contrast. Much has been made of the decline of the number of women with no employment outside of the home and its implications for the future of this form of marketing. at a time. the direct salesperson demonstrates products to a group of guests. or on a person-toperson basis. which is convenient for them. Tupperware India which is growing on a fast track year after year follows a single level method of compensation. it was group selling that contributed to a great deal to improving their working condition. Thanks to group selling and Marketing. fewer work hours and no boss. the sales of AVON. home decor items. There is no upper limit to what you can earn in group selling. an US multinational dealing with beauty products crossed Rs 1 Crore sales in quick time. the system of taking orders for later delivery of products has in some instances been replaced by the direct sale of items out of an inventory. Especially in the case of these items. but numerous organizations are still using it and have no plans to discontinue it. such as Tupperware itself (a food-storage system). and similar products. It also offers a business opportunity with a little or no investment. It has one of the few sectors that have “women on top”. kitchen utensils. . In a Party Plan approach. other direct sellers will often explain and demonstrate the products they offer to consumers in the comfort of the consumers' homes. In a state where limited avenues of employment forced them to take menial jobs. The direct sales cosmetics market has grown 11 per cent in 2004-2005. The party plan is largely regarded as primarily the invention of Brownie Wise. They have the flexibility of choosing their working hours. invited by a host in whose home or other location the direct selling demonstration takes place. who developed it for the Tupperware company in the early 1950s.

REVIEW AND RESEARCH K S Oils is a leading integrated edible oil company and is the trusted name behind renowned brands like Kalash. K S Gold.The success of Tupperware was widely emulated. The media is big business in India. There are 2 types of direct selling1. full-time commissioned representatives of the sales organization. almost invariably women. K S Oils today enjoys 11% market share in the overall mustard oil segment with a dominant 25% market leadership in branded mustard oil. A leader in mustard oil in India. But it is hard to claim it is a public good that reaches most citizens. approach other women about hosting a social event in their homes during which a product will be demonstrated. Our consumer brands and products in mustard oil. relying on corporate advertising and the spending of the middle class. In this system. among others. 2. soybean oil and palm oil are a household name with Indian consumers who use our oils regularly as a healthy cooking medium. \ Single level Marketing and Multi Level marketing. . Double Sher.

Though The Economic Times is the clear leader. A business daily is apparently good business in India. this often leads to inferior coverage of more important issues. Democracy has enabled historically marginalised sections of society to become politically powerful through sheer numbers and effective grassroots mobilisation. The Times of India has become a notorious example of this phenomenon. . And what is happening in newspapers is being repeated in magazines. The fact the media is primarily a profit-driven industry limits the scope of what it is likely to report and at times promotes trashy sensationalism in the name of news. The media often abdicates its role as an educator in favor of being an entertainer. Competitors such as The Hindustan Times. Indian media today must cater to the interests of readers to stay in business. and Beyonce’s public statements fill the international news pages in some papers. More people want to find out about the new iPod than Indian foreign policy. Economic success has enabled a middle class to emerge. coverage of political issues tends to be quite good — but as long as more than 700 million Indians are sidelined from its gaze by their inability to conspicuously consume. Economic growth has led to greater inequalities.Contrary to what we might think. India's rapid economic growth has encouraged a sixth national contender. The emergence of small-town and rural India has similarly encouraged Hindi and otherlanguage ventures. The media may do a good job of providing news to the estimated 300 million members of the Indian middle class — in fact. but middle class culture remains irrelevant to the many Indians left behind economically. there is an inherent tension between India’s muchhyped economic growth and its deepening democracy. while the elite have tended to retreat from the political sphere. Paris Hilton’s jail term. Those who read papers and watch TV are often more interested in interviews with Bollywood stars than rural poverty. the media’s role as public service is severely limited. while democratic growth has given a stronger voice to those who suffer from those inequalities. Yet. The Indian Express and Hindi papers like Dainik Jagran and Amar Ujala provide a better balance of the serious and the frivolous. Lindsay Lohan’s alcohol rehab.

managing director of the Business India Group of Publications. That is less than a tenth of the circulation of The Economic Times. according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).of the Dainik Bhaskar group) is available as a stand-alone product in some markets. But the other players still feel that the economics work out for them and that they don't need that particular kind of scale. The Economic Times probably has 90% market share.DNA -.the product of a Hindustan Times-Wall Street Journal tie-up -. too. "All these new entrants hope to emerge among the winners. But India's changing demographics." India's publishing environment suggests there is room for many winners. "In the business space. Given the low production cost. and lower production costs than elsewhere in the world. it is pretty much the same story in India as elsewhere of having only one dominant player. publisher of Business India magazine. starting with editions in Hyderabad and Chennai with a print run of 70. make the economics of even a small business daily promising. The Financial Express and Mint -. "In terms of actual readership." says Pheroza Bilimoria. The Economic Times had average net paid sales of 750. That is the case in India. Whether they will sustain their . whether it's the Financial Times in the United Kingdom or The Wall Street Journal in the United States." says Ravi Bapna. the Financial Chronicle.000.621 in the July-December 2007 period.000. which could be on the stands in its Indian edition as early as January. joined the contest.In April. Two others. And waiting in the wings is the Financial Times (FT) of London. which is much higher than the cost of production here.did not participate in the ABC audits. from the Hyderabad-based Deccan Chronicle group.378 and The Hindu Business Line was third at 146. Mint started in February 2007 with an initial print order of around 80. Business Standard was a distant second with 170. a professor and executive director of the Centre for Information Technology and the Networked Economy at the Hyderabad-based Indian School of Business. "This is like the gold rush of the mid-nineteenth century. DNA Money (a part of Daily News & Analysis -. The challenge abroad is the cost of production. there is room for smaller players here. In most mature markets there is a single leader.925.

has tied up with Fortune to bring out a local edition.operations in the long run depends on how differentiated they can be...000. Business Today had readership of 416." Other-language business publications also have been active. And we know that we will have company. will enter the market in the coming weeks and months. Rival Hindi business newspapers. Local media house Network18 is working on an Indian edition of Forbes. other editions will roll out in the coming days. "The rush to launch business newspapers and magazines in India can be explained by the economic growth India is experiencing now. Business India followed with 291." says ABP chief executive officer Dipankar Das Purkayastha. Businessworld and Business Today -. Outlook Business. Ninan explained: "Business Standard has launched itself today as a Hindi business newspaper . The Economist has been looking for a partner. Writing in Business Standard on the occasion of the recent launch.have been around for a few decades. And there is hardly any growth in Europe.000 and Businessworld had 224.N. According to the latest Indian Readership Survey. Business Standard and The Economic Times have launched Hindi editions in several cities. "On the other hand.000." . We have started with the New Delhi and Mumbai editions.S. in addition to the 33year-old English one. But one can expect some kind of M&A activity in the next two to three years. McGraw-Hill has explored publishing an Indian edition of BusinessWeek with Delhi-based Cyber Media. because every market in emerging India is going to be competitive. Calcutta-based ABP. Three magazines -Business India. launched in April 2006. and foreign publications are attracting the most attention." A Raft of Magazines What's happening in newspapers is being repeated in magazines. which publishes Bengali daily Anandabazar Patrika. is in the grip of a recession. had readership of 226. the U. More magazines are in the works.000. editor T. English morning newspaper The Telegraph and Businessworld. too. A newcomer.

Meanwhile. In India." he said. "Look at the total population. but they are rising. grew at 17%. newspaper marketers are aiming to fill that gap. Business newspapers and magazines also appeal to publishers because they are seen as serious products in an age where content is being "dumbed down. Venkattram Reddy. the Indian print media industry recorded a growth of 16% over the previous year. which constitutes 87% of the segment. The Hindi and other-language ventures are springing up because small-town and rural India is coming into its own. whereas magazine publishing. is not on their agenda. similarly implied while launching his new paper that rising literacy levels provided new opportunities. we also have the gap of those who cannot read newspapers. Rising Literacy Levels Newspapers are recording handsome growth in India and also in China. Spending power is moving to smaller cities. which publishes Hindi daily Dainik Bhaskar. "Financial Chronicle has been crafted as a pure-play business daily to build on the aspirations of a young and prosperous India. rival Dainik Jagran is also planning a Hindi business daily in a joint venture with media conglomerate Network18. English." According to a PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report." T." says Agarwaal of Dainik Bhaskar. "We have done our research. In India. there are those who do not. will launch a Hindi business daily soon. But English business newspapers and magazines don't think their market is saturated. which . The Dainik Bhaskar group. Among the people who can read newspapers. In the U. the language of the metro elites. China has only recently opened up and has developed a huge appetite for newspapers and magazines. The initial print order is likely to be 200. chairman of the Deccan Chronicle group.Ninan is correct about rivals. This has a lot to with the growth of their economies. "There are the people who can read newspapers and those who cannot." says group director Girish Agarwaal.S.. "In 2007. but other reasons exist. Newspaper publishing.000. the Gujarati Divya Bhaskar as well as DNA and DNA Money. literacy levels are low.

900 crore] in 2007. Subscription schemes have not only accelerated penetration of dailies. and the sheer size of the India market is driving the foreign media interest in India. up from Rs. So why should publishing be left out?" Prohibitions on Foreign Ownership . Additionally. of the Indian School of Business.1% for magazines. Penetration of print media is improving owing to growing income levels and aggressive marketing. the growing interest in India. 149 billion [14.800 crore] in 2006. at 30%.contributes the remaining 13%. 128 billion [12." PwC estimated the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for 2008 through 2012 at 13% for newspapers and 15% for magazines. Its reach in urban areas is 58%. Unlike in most parts of the world." Adds Business India Group's Bilimoria: "India is the flavor of the next few decades in other business areas. • Increasing spending on circulation. The reach of print media in India is 38%. but also have helped push multiple dailies into homes. • Rising literacy rates. Such factors have made a lot of people gung-ho about the business. "The overall globalization. The number of potential readers is growing. which is becoming [more and more] global.1% for newspapers and 3. What all the global publications are probably looking for is to get an increasing mind share of the large Indian middle class. On an overall basis. "This is no different from players from any other industry. readership is growing. The comparative estimated CAGR internationally (for 2007 through 2011) is 2." says Bapna. the print media industry stood at Rs. which leaves further scope for improvement in penetration levels. grew at a marginally lower rate of 15%. Among the reasons for the PwC report's bullishness about India's newspapers and magazines: • Low print media penetration. 359 million literate people in the country do not read any publication. substantially higher than in rural areas.

"profitability is not a primary concern right now. information and broadcasting minister Priya Ranjan Dasmunshi told Parliament that 172 foreign magazines in the specialty. The stricture applies to "news". scientific and technical sectors had been given permission to launch Indian editions. among other titles) took a 13.India is relatively virgin territory whereas the rest of the world is saturated. Now. An Indian edition of Fortune would not be so pricey. however.. however. is Rs. But they also need to make money." The first challenge for a foreign business magazine or newspaper would be determining a cover price. 10 and Rs." . 14. But it could hardly come down to local levels. it is not clear how much it got back." Bapna says. currently distributed in India by the Living Media group. In March. Foreign media houses may have deep pockets. that deal has fallen apart. The cover price of Fortune. Adds Bilimoria: "The economics of publishing in India are quite different from that in the West where markets are not so price-sensitive. But the niches could be large. 180." And they may not be too bothered about the bottom line initially. The Fortunes and FTs would have to operate in niche markets. Says Bapna: "The global players will certainly focus on the higher end of the segment which. Not all deals will work out. Business Standard is now going it alone. Pearson paid Rs. 15. foreign stakes could be higher in nonnews products. Many are in tie-ups with Indian partners. Purkayastha of ABP estimates that a business newspaper could need a break-even period of around five years. incidentally. Indian law prohibits foreign ownership of more than 26% in a newspaper or newsmagazine. The first such deal dates to September 2003. is pretty large and underserved in India currently. too. it has freedom to pursue new plans with Network18." he says. But it has its challenges. "Magazines would need less investment with a similar break-even time.85% stake in Business Standard Ltd. "For the major players. I expect them to come in aggressively and compete for readership and grab market share. The leading Indian business magazines are priced between Rs.1 crore for the stake. Overseas publishers will need to come to terms with this reality. The Pearson Group of the United Kingdom (which owns the Financial Times.

Newspapers in India are facing a threat from an unexpected quarter: the price of newsprint.The Importance of Advertising Given the low cover prices.000 crore. 8. but it is available at Rs. the numbers are further skewed. which makes it the cheapest business daily. has been launched with a cover price of Rs. which must be made up by charging more for advertisements. This has its own problems.50. which adds to the financial challenges. 2. 1. it does. "The primary source of revenue in the print media in India has always been advertising. An article in The Hindu. advertising is the principal revenue stream. The Hindustan Times has a cover price of Rs. while circulation revenues are Rs." Bilimoria says. 1 under annual schemes. 5. PwC projects growth in magazine advertising revenues over the next five years at 16%. The Economic Times (or the morning tabloid Mumbai Mirror) is available free with flagship The Times of India in some markets. sponsorships and associations are contributing a larger chunk of the revenue stream. "But slowly.50. as the figures show. Indian newspapers will be in crisis because their circulations are rising. particularly in the area of newspapers' resisting advertiser pressure to encroach upon editorial. (They are also sold independently. 500 crore. The Financial Chronicle. For newspapers. for instance. at 16% and 8%.000 crore and Rs." The point is not that circulation does not bring in money. But it does not pay for itself.) . Magazine advertising revenues are Rs." The newer breed of papers uses pricing as a marketing strategy. compared with 10% growth for circulation revenues. The peculiar economics also make newspapers vulnerable to changes in input costs. publisher of The Hindu Business Line. notes: "If newspapers in the U. Every extra copy sold is an additional loss. Some newspapers have taken to offering annual subscriptions. 1.S. which has climbed more than 30% to $850 a ton in less than a year. respectively. For newspapers. are in crisis because their circulations are dropping.400 crore. the corresponding figures are Rs. It will be a while before circulation sales will contribute in any significant numbers to overall revenues.

a clear choice. "In the long term. the publisher is preparing to launch its luxury men's magazine GQ and expects a similar rush of advertisers in Asia's third-largest economy. They can pursue mass markets and lose money for some years." says Bapna. new titles are coming thick and fast in one of the few markets in the world where . it is a good development. That potential is waiting to be tapped. Bapna says. Now. strategies will go beyond advertising packages. golf and parenting. it carried a whopping 168 pages of advertisements of a total 400 pages. therefore. Bapna thinks foreign media houses have an edge here.For foreign media houses it is. From specialist magazines on whiskey. Eventually. increase journalists' wages. where rising incomes and growing literacy are boosting readership and revenues of magazines and newspapers. "The coming of global players in a big way will improve the overall quality of journalism in India and also open our minds to what is happening in the rest of the world. web-based or even mobile and entertainment will have a clear differentiation because that is something that the Indian players have not been able to do from the ground up." It will also mean casualties in coming years. all the different media will need to be integrated. "India is definitely underserved by way of quality.as distinct from foreign majors -. radio. So a Hindi and Gujarati general newspaper group like Dainik Bhaskar wants an English presence (DNA). and get more people into the profession. an English business daily (DNA Money). Consolidation is inevitable. So why are so many Indian publications -. a Hindi business daily (to be launched soon). The Times of India has shown that it pays to offer advertisers package deals across various publications.entering this bruising battle? For many it is a question of adding to their range of offerings. They will put in more resources." he says When Conde Nast launched its premium lifestyle magazine Vogue in India last year. In that sense. TV and the Internet. But more so they may lose their image as prestige publications. The alternative is to offer a quality product with a high cover price. to regional-language newspapers and financial dailies. "Multi-publication advertising packages are very important." says Purkayastha of ABP. those players who are able to integrate their print with other channels like digital.

With secured raw material supply source. The company has in the recent past successfully undertaken the growth strategy of capacity expansion. Indonesia and Singapore.ensuring good health and mental & physical prosperity for the whole family. it has generated a turnover of over Rs. "It's a fast growing economy and with consumption so robust and with incomes rising. vendors & partners and society as a whole. a leader in the edible oil market in India. shareholders & investors. it's a fertile ground for the print media. .advertising and readership for print media are expanding. A strong leadership team comprising of the founders and senior industry professionals have laid a robust strategy and execution deliverables for the company. The company believes in its vision of “Delivering Health & Prosperity”. "There is also a buoyancy in print advertising that is encouraging new launches and niche publications in particular. with its deep understanding of the mustard oil sector.000 crores during the financial year 2008-09. Malaysia. opportunity for fresh and experienced talent is immense with Indian and overseas opportunities. K S Oils’ relentless focus on quality and hygiene has ensured that “purity” and “freshness” of mustard and other oils are preserved till it reaches the home of the consumers in every nook and corner of the country. the company today reaches out to millions of Indian consumers. K S Oils is a strong family of near to 3000 employees spread over its 6 manufacturing plants. ‘near to customer’ sales points and a robust distribution and dealer network. executive director of Hong Kong-based research firm Media Partners Asia. 3. With the company registering explosive growth. thus creating an unchallenged competitive advantage. thus “Delivering Health & Prosperity” not only to consumers but every other stakeholder – employees." K S Oils is an Indian company with international footprint and global ambitions. K S Oils is creating market and brand leadership." says Vivek Couto. marketing offices and plantations in India. green field projects and acquisitions. It is delivering healthy cooking medium to Indian homes .

K S brands dominate the market especially in East and North East India. Today. K S Oils is part of the Indian growth story – using the country’s inherent strength in agricultural resources and best managerial talent to serve millions of consumers in India and abroad. The company’s strict adherence to quality. thus catering to the tastes and preferences of different categories of consumers. nurtured and continually improved upon its various brands of edible oils. K S Oils has deep understanding of agri-commodity and farmer community issues. K S brands are trusted by millions of consumers and are delighting their palate. K S brands comprise a range of healthy cooking oil brands in mustard.As one of India’s leading companies in the edible oil sector. Creating an Indian MNC with international footprint of knowledge. refined oil and vanaspati. Over the years we have invested significantly in nurturing these brands in terms of quality. Our emphasis on 'convenience' packaging of our brands ensures that they meet the needs of consumers at every price point. K S has been able to create two very powerful brands in the mustard oil segment. All our brands have been developed on the basis of consumer feedback and preferences derived from in-depth market research. As a leading FMCG player in India and a leader in the mustard oil segment. purity and delivering unadulterated oil to consumers has won it . health. a very significant achievement as 75% of mustard oil in India is sold loose. leadership and value for its stakeholders across the globe! Over the past two decades. K S Oils has built. Today. Recently the Company has forayed into Central and North India and the consumer response has been encouraging. packaging and market penetration.

from TV commercials to health camps to promotions informing consumers of the health benefits of its products. Under further processing the remaining oil-cake is passed through solvent extractors to draw solvent oils.unstinted loyalty from millions of homemakers who trust K S Oils products as their cooking oil partner for the whole family. solvent extractor. Superior quality mustard seeds are selected for the process of manufacturing to produce the best quality edible oil. The uniqueness of the packaging department is that apart from packing the products. refineries to refine the crude oil. De-oiled cake . Manufacturing Process K S Oils has all its manufacturing plants located in the rich mustard growing belt of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in India. it also produces the packing materials in-house. The solvent oil is either sold for industrial use or sent to refinery to make refined oil. The refined oil finds its place directly to the market or is further hydrogenated to generate vanaspati. which is further refined and blended to produce the best quality edible oil.475 metric tonnes of mustard seed per day. making it the largest integrated mustard oil Manufacturing Plant in the country. With the help of commercial hexanes the solvent is extracted. These seeds are cracked and adjusted for moisture content and then subsequently rolled into flakes. vanaspati plant and storage tanks. the Company has created strong brand recall and loyalty among every Indian household. what makes it an integrated plant is its packaging department. Each brand in the K S basket has a distinctive positioning catered to address a specific consumer need. This unit situated in the midst of the Mustard growing region of Madhya Pradesh is a state-of-theart plant that houses all facilities under one roof. These seeds are then crushed in Kohllus and expellers to obtain crude oil. which is directly sold as crude/virgin mustard oil to suit the taste of the conventional consumers. In the extraction of Soybean Oil dehulled yellow soybeans of high quality are selected. Equipped with Kohllus and expellers to crush the oil seeds. The Company invests significantly in creating brand awareness and consumer education. The Plant has a capacity of crushing 1. The mother plant is situated in Morena and is one of the best state-of-the-art integrated manufacturing facilities in the country.

Imported and local crude oils like soyabean and palm are refined in the refinery and sold as refined soyabean oil and refined palm oil. From the storage tanks it is routed to the packing department. The pungent oil from the crushers and the less pungent one from the expellers are blended in a pre-defined proportion to obtain the edible oil of right pungency. Vanaspati: Hydrogenation of the refined oil produces Vanaspati. • • Solvent Oil: The filtrate from the extractor is sprayed with Hexane and distilled to produce Solvent Oil. This state-of-the-art packing system at K S Oils not only • • . where it is directly filled into tins. The residue obtained from crushers is processed further in the expellers to obtain oil with less pungency.obtained from the extraction procedure is either sold locally or exported to cattle/ aqua feed manufacturing companies abroad. Kachi Ghani or Crude Oil: The seeds are cleaned and loaded through conveyors into the crushers under controlled temperature to maintain pungency. The integrated process (flow chart) from raw material to finished products enables K S Oils to cater to a range of consumers depending upon the taste and budget of the customer. de-odorized oil or refined oil. Storage and Packing: The oil produced in the crude. • Refined Oil: The solvent oil is passed through refineries to obtain crystal clear. De-oiled cakes formed during the process is exported to cattle feed manufacturers. bottles and pouches mechanically. The entire process • Selection of Seed: Seeds are selected meticulously for the production of best quality edible oil. solvent and refined forms and the Vanaspati are sent to separate storage tanks.

It has therefore adopted the Green Power Technology and has set up 34 wind mills of total 32 Mega Watt capacity to generate green energy. The team ensures the quality of the seeds and crude oil that find its way to the factory and the purity and edibility of the oil is ascertained of QC before it leaves the Company premises. This green energy saves power consumption in addition to reducing cost of production. K S Oils has a highly efficient and skilled workforce and believes that their human resource is the key to their success. quality and best practices Collaborating with farmers to create a bottom up R&D approach With the aspiration to provide the best to its precious customers. To augment the skills of its employees. Also K S Oils have bought palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia to keep pace with the requirement of raw materials that would arise upon the plants being operational. This initiative taken by the R&D team of K S Oils would help in . K S Oils expansion plan has 4 plants coming up in the mustard producing belts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. K S Oils has focused R&D initiatives on two fronts • • Current production. but also gives a profound thought to the purity of the product and health consciousness of the Indian customers. Also these plants would provide job opportunities to the people in the region. These key steps taken by K S Oils to increase production would help the country at large to meet its growing demand and attain self-sufficiency.makes the packing attractive and durable. K S Oils have given them the liberty to experiment with the manufacturing process resulting in high quality products. K S Oils is also concerned about the environmental safety. To operate a manufacturing unit of its magnitude. K S Oils has set up to an effective R&D team with an indispensable R&D lab within the Company that envisions innovation. The R&D team in close association with the farmers also conducts study and research to produce the best seeds. Research and Development: As a leading agri-commodity and edible oil player in India.

It also has its own depots at the major railway arrival points. This distribution network services the urban and rural market alike. K S Oils regularly communicates with the consumer on various platforms to increase awareness of health and healthy cooking oil medium. As part of its sales and marketing efforts. helping the Company in selling its strong value proposition of purity. K S Oils has developed a deep distribution network to reach out to its customers across the country. As a leading edible oil player in the FMCG segment. K S Oils has set up a network of C&F agents and Central Distribution Points. which in turn would help in keeping pace with the growing demand. For the rest of the market in the country.85. health camps are conducted to educate the consumer and also ensure first time trials and word of the mouth publicity.000 retailers market K S Oils products across Eastern and Central India. Railways being the faster mode of transport.increasing the supply of raw material to increase productivity. Sales and Marketing: K S Oils believes in creating a strong consumer facing front end and invests heavily in creating a well oiled sales and marketing machinery. Today approximately 1. An aggressive nationwide growth is being rolled out by almost doubling the number of distributors from the current size. RECOMMENDATIONS . K S Oils prefers rail to road for reaching its finished products. quality and healthy cooking oil. sales and marketing play a key role in ensuring that the corporate and products brands communicate and reach out to the customers in proper way.193 distributors and 1. This growing awareness has widened the markets for K S Oils across India.

Next you'll want to look for ezines geared to readers who would be interested in art posters.If you're selling products online. Something like "Jane Sweetheart owns the Postershop. Look for good circulation numbers. Getting the right exposure is the trick. you'll find advertising on the internet a successful venture indeed. Include a link to your site. offering the article for free in exchange for your byline. If the site owner likes the article. as related content. your prospects are out there. Here's how it works. another may not. Approach the website owner. When you consider there are billions of users out there. While one advertising effort works for you. botanical prints and antique posters. all about exposure of your product and the public. You know your product better than anyone. Have you heard of Google "AdWords"? These are big impact text ads that appear on the right hand side of the Google Search page and may also be displayed on other sites. include your byline. Write different ads. If you're selling art posters. This form of advertising on the internet can bring good and swift results. of course. When developing your advertising campaign. You need to determine. Advertising on the internet is. but the prices aren't steep compared to the exposure and traffic you gain. Advertising as a sponsor for electronic newsletters will cost you some money. through testing. . you've lightened his load in producing his newsletter and gained some good exposure. but once you get used to the jargon and learn the ropes. radio and television commercials were the heavy hitters. advertising on the internet for free.com site. write an article on a famous and interesting artist. specializing in fine art prints. where magazine ads. The electronic advertising campaign may seem a bit confusing to a novice. At the end of the article. Advertising on the internet requires different methods than conventional advertising campaigns of the past. you may well succeed or fail based on the soundness of your advertising campaign. don't neglect the ezine advertising opportunities. Some people feel that "pay-per-click" advertising on the internet is the best way to reach targeted traffic. right? Dust off your keyboard and write an article that showcases your knowledge of your subject product. There are lots of avenues to explore to get your product before your target audience." will do just fine. which should generally be about 25 words. which advertising on the internet avenues bring customers to your site. This may be a good strategy if your advertising budget is small.

Once the ad is "perfect". CONCLUSION Internet marketing is the fastest growing marketing and advertising method for all companies recently. pull the ads from publications that don't bring a good response. We are an India based online advertising company dealing with . keep advertising in the ones that do and search out new ezines to test your ads.focused on different customer perspectives and run them in different newsletters. Track your response rates and fine tune your ads.

The process of Email marketing is not about a large number of email addresses that you can get from different sources. search engine marketing is quite a complex activity due to a lot of options available. Before you start to advertise your business website on the search engines you need to put your advertising budget to one side and stick to it. This will not only prove extremely costly on your . If the online advertising company you chose believes that their internet marketing strategy is a good one this should not be a problem for you to arrange.internet marketing solutions. Some companies want a small deposit upfront and still their work do not offer any benefit for your company website in return. Your advertising budget also needs to last throughout the year so you want an internet marketing company that offers little initial investment for your online advertising campaign so you can use the reward of the promotion to pay for more of internet marketing activities. A few methods have been outlined in the field of internet marketing for the companies who are willing for advertising their business online. There are a lot of companies advertising for carrying out online marketing solutions that it is difficult to choose which web marketing company to trust to do your search engine advertizing. We have kept the layout as simple as possible so new businesses advertising their business online can grasp the ultimate solution. The Companies which have been involved in internet marketing promotions. Companies have to keep themselves updated daily to keep up with the competition and the pace set by new products being introduced. have seen the rewards of successful strategies and the profits gained by the work once the campaign has been finalized and launched. This will make you get the best price possible for your company's strategy from the agency and will help your advertising budget last the full year. Choose the company who want a small deposit before you launch your internet marketing campaign but are willing to do more work for your company website that makes the small deposit a good long term investment. You should not use all the forms of website marketing when starting your internet marketing promotions.

You also have to ensure that the company is permitted to providing these email addresses for you to contact as you do want to be accused of spamming. the banner is exclusive to you and you are on every page throughout the search. Website Marketing with Banners across major search engines is mainly for branding purposes for your company.advertising budget but also a waste of your valuable time in carrying out your internet marketing strategy. Pay per click is one of the most common forms of online search engine marketing service available. . Cost per acquisition is the best way to do your internet marketing with emails. Email web marketing is all about quality of the data the provides you with because that is important in making your strategy successful. Search engine marketing with sponsored links will bring around decent traffic. When you use pay per click for your internet marketing you will surely get quality traffic to your website by spending a small amount for getting the traffic. You need to look for a SEM company which does your web marketing and has good experience within the SEO field. The use of proper website design & search engine optimization can result in huge savings on your advertising budget in medium to long term. Advertising with Adwords on Google is highly recommended for your web marketing campaigns. By doing so you will be on the most popular in search engine on the internet and can get campaigns out on a monthly basis until you close on the most suitable keywords that will bring the best result for your business website. This is great branding for your company website and will be a more effective strategy. Your most effective form of internet marketing with banners is to get a deal where you are the only banner on the page. The most common types of pay per click used are Overture and Google pay per click campaigns. You will get traffic through to your company website. Promote an email marketing campaign where you only pay on acquisition (for leads with name and contact details). One has to bid for the top position for the desired keyword phrases when carrying out pay per click solutions. Email marketing has been proven to be successful if quality of leads is good.

“The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. Search engine optimization is a process which places your company business website on top in the natural search engine listings. As an responsible internet marketing firm we only employ most ethical and successful optimization techniques to optimize required pages of your website. This is of huge benefit to you as the organic listings on a search engine such as Google receive at least 80% of the traffic the search engines receive. p. (May 1. Your SEO consultant will be in regular touch with you advising on progress of your campaign. New York. We offer customized payment terms and possess the ultimate internet marketing strategy for you to advertise your business with our website marketing promotion . unethical or undesirable techniques as we want all our search engine optimization campaigns to work for our clients. We clearly stay away from any spamming. New Delhi Digital Works wants you to win and ride the competition within internet marketing. BIBLIOGRAPHY McChesney.Website optimization and promotion is the premier solution to your internet marketing requirements.company website design search engine optimization campaigns. Internet marketing with New Delhi Digital Works is a unique experience. You will have your website pages worked on to gain those positions you want for your company website. 2008). 266. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 . You will have full web marketing account management all round the year. New Delhi Digital works SEO is done strictly as per guidelines provided by Google from time to time. Monthly Review Press. Robert W. We as a internet marketing company place our focus solely on our clients. Therefore you have to find an internet marketing agency that can provide you with a successful search engine marketing campaign and it will be of great benefit for your company website to get high search engine positioning on the search engines such as Google. Emerging Dilemmas”.

New York. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 ^ Lasn. ^ Lasch. Monthly Review Press. Manfred (2005): Werbung . Christopher. Emerging Dilemmas”. 2008). Edition.org/cgi/content/full/8/3/421 ^ Knoche. New York. in: Seufert. (May 1. Monthly Review Press. 256. New York.): Theorie und Praxis der Werbung in den Massenmedien. Emerging Dilemmas”. 254. (May 1. Emerging Dilemmas”.csupomona. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. Emerging Dilemmas”. Baden-Baden: Nomos. Norton. Emerging Dilemmas”. Robert W. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. 252. 2000. ISBN-13: 978-158367161-0 ^ McChesney. New York. Robert W. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. ISBN 978-0393307382 ^ http://www. pp.edu/~jkirkpatrick/Papers/EthicsAdvtTaxation. 272. 265. Robert W.zeit. 2008). Georg: Ökonomie der Aufmerksamkeit. Touchstone. p. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. (Economy of Attention).ISBN-10: 0688156568. Wolfgang/Müller-Lietzkow. Carl Hanser. ISBN 978-3-446-19348-2. “The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues. 2008). Monthly Review Press. Monthly Review Press. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 ^ http://www. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations. Robert W.ein notwendiges "Lebenselixier" für den Kapitalismus: Zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie der Werbung. William Morrow & Company. Jean: Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. 132. New York. p. Monthly Review Press. 1. 1st edition (November 1999).de/2008/47/Vermuellung ^ McChesney. ISBN-13: 978-158367161-0 ^ Franck. ISBN-13: 978-0688156565 ^ Kilbourne. March 1998. (May 1. Kalle in: Culture Jam: The Uncooling of America. 2008). Robert W.oxfordjournals. p. ISBN-13: 978-0684866000 ^ McChesney. . (May 1. ISBN-13: 978158367161-0 ^ http://joeg. 249. 239-255. ISBN 3-446-19348-0. Ein Entwurf. Jörg (Hrsg. p. New York.^ McChesney. 249. 2008). (May 1.pdf ^ McChesney.

645. Hoffmann und Campe. . 6. p. 2003. published in Konrad Paul Liessmann (Hrg. Philosophicum Lech Vol. S. (The Culture of Narcissism). 1-15 ^ Lasch. Die Kanäle der Macht. Vienna: Zsolnay. 36-60. January 2003.^ Lecture held at Philosophicum Lech (Austria) 2002. 1.). Christopher: Das Zeitalter des Narzissmus. Herrschaft und Freiheit im Medienzeitalter. preprint in Merkur No. Edition. Hamburg 1995.

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