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Exercises for Process Control System Courseware

Process Control System DE 05/06

Intended use

This courseware has been developed and manufactured exclusively for vocational and continuing training in process automation and control engineering. The training company and / or trainers have the duty to ensure that trainees observe all safety precautions described in the accompanying manuals and data sheets. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. and ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH will not be liable for any damage or injury to trainees, the training company and / or other third parties resulting from use of the equipment for any other purpose than training, unless Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. or ADIRO Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has caused such damage or injury willfully or through negligence.

Order no Designation Description Status Authors Translation Graphics Layout Courseware Exercises for process and control engineering 05/2006 Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch, Andreas Wierer (ADIRO) Williams Technical Communication Pty Ltd, Brisbane Jrgen Helmich, Stefan Knoblauch (ADIRO) Jrgen Helmich (ADIRO)

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co., 05/2006 Internet: www.festo.com/didactic http://www.festo.com/didactic/de/ProcessAutomation e-mail: did@festo.com

The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.

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Contents

Intended use _________________________________________________________ 2 Contents ____________________________________________________________ 3 1 Introduction ______________________________________________________ 7 1.1 Material covered ______________________________________________ 8 1.2 Important notes_______________________________________________ 9 1.3 Operators responsibilities _____________________________________ 9 1.4 Trainees responsibilities _______________________________________ 9 1.5 Hazards associated with operating the Process Control System _______ 10 2 Project planning _________________________________________________ 11 2.1 PI diagram __________________________________________________ 12 2.2 Equipment list _______________________________________________ 15 Exercise 2.2 _______________________________________________________ 15 Worksheet 2.2.1 ___________________________________________________ 16 2.3 Project planning Controlled system ____________________________ 17 Exercise 2.3.1 _____________________________________________________ 18 Exercise 2.3.2 _____________________________________________________ 20 Exercise 2.3.3 _____________________________________________________ 22 3 Analysis ________________________________________________________ 25 3.1 Analysis of the container_______________________________________ 26 Exercise 3.1.1 _____________________________________________________ 26 Worksheet 3.1.1 ___________________________________________________ 27 3.2 Analysis of a pump ___________________________________________ 28 Exercise 3.2.1 _____________________________________________________ 28 Worksheet 3.2.1 ___________________________________________________ 29 Exercise 3.2.2 _____________________________________________________ 31 Worksheet 3.2.2 ___________________________________________________ 32 Exercise 3.2.3 _____________________________________________________ 33 Worksheet 3.2.3 ___________________________________________________ 34 3.3 Analysis of a proportional valve ________________________________ 35 Exercise 3.3.1 _____________________________________________________ 35 Worksheet 3.3.1 ___________________________________________________ 36 Exercise 3.3.2 _____________________________________________________ 37 Worksheet 3.3.2 ___________________________________________________ 38 3.4 Analyze of a process drive _____________________________________ 39 Exercise 3.4.1 _____________________________________________________ 39 Worksheet 3.4.1 ___________________________________________________ 40 Exercise 3.4.2 _____________________________________________________ 42 Worksheet 3.4.2 ___________________________________________________ 43 Exercise 3.4.3 _____________________________________________________ 44 Worksheet 3.4.3 ___________________________________________________ 45 3.5 Analysis of a heating element___________________________________ 46 Exercise 3.5.1 _____________________________________________________ 46 Worksheet 3.5.1 ___________________________________________________ 47 3.6 Analysis of an ultrasound sensor _______________________________ 48

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Inhalt

Exercise 3.6.1 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.6.1 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3.6.2 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.6.2 ___________________________________________________ 3.7 Analysis of a flow meter _______________________________________ Exercise 3.7.1 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.7.1 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3.7.2 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.7.2 ___________________________________________________ 3.8 Analysis of a pressure sensor __________________________________ Exercise 3.8.1 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.8.1 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3.8.2 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.8.2 ___________________________________________________ 3.9 Analysis of a temperature sensor________________________________ Exercise 3.9.1 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.9.1 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3.9.2 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.9.2 ___________________________________________________ 3.10 System behavior of a container _______________________________ Exercise 3.10.1 ____________________________________________________ Worksheet 3.10 ____________________________________________________ 4 Commissioning __________________________________________________ 4.1 Commissioning a level-controlled system _________________________ Exercise 4.1.1 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.1.1 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 4.1.2 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.1.2 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 4.1.3 _____________________________________________________ Exercise 4.1.4 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.1.3/4.1.4 ______________________________________________ 4.2 Commissioning a flow controlled-system _________________________ Exercise 4.2.1 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.2.1 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 4.2.2 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.2.2 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 4.2.3 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.2.3 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 4.2.4 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.2.4 ___________________________________________________ Exercise 4.2.5 _____________________________________________________ Worksheet 4.2.5 ___________________________________________________ 4.3 Commissioning a pressure-controlled system______________________ Exercise 4.3.1 _____________________________________________________

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Inhalt

Worksheet 4.3.1 ___________________________________________________ 96 Exercise 4.3.2 _____________________________________________________ 97 Worksheet 4.3.2 ___________________________________________________ 98 Exercise 4.3. 3 _____________________________________________________ 99 Worksheet 4.3.3 __________________________________________________ 100 Exercise 4.3.4 ____________________________________________________ 101 Worksheet 4.2.4 __________________________________________________ 102 Exercise 4.3.5 ____________________________________________________ 103 Worksheet 4.3.5 __________________________________________________ 104 4.4 Commissioning a temperature-controlled system__________________ 105 Exercise 4.4.1 ____________________________________________________ 106 Worksheet 4.4.1 __________________________________________________ 107 Exercise 4.4.2 ____________________________________________________ 108 Worksheet 4.4.2 __________________________________________________ 109 Exercise 4.4.3 ____________________________________________________ 110 Worksheet 4.4.3 __________________________________________________ 111 5 Control engineering______________________________________________ 113 5.1 Identifying the controlled system_______________________________ 114 Exercise 5.1.1 ____________________________________________________ 115 Worksheet 5.1.1 __________________________________________________ 116 Worksheet 5.1.2 __________________________________________________ 117 5.2 Controller functions__________________________________________ 118 Exercise 5.2.1 ____________________________________________________ 119 Worksheet 5.2.1 __________________________________________________ 120 Exercise 5.2.2 ____________________________________________________ 121 Worksheet 5.2.2 __________________________________________________ 122 Exercise 5.2.3 ____________________________________________________ 123 Worksheet 5.2.3 __________________________________________________ 124 Exercise 5.2.4 ____________________________________________________ 125 Worksheet 5.2.4 __________________________________________________ 126 Exercise 5.2.5 ____________________________________________________ 127 5.3 Worksheet 5.2.5 ____________________________________________ 128 Exercise 5.2.6 ____________________________________________________ 129 Worksheet 5.2.6 __________________________________________________ 130 5.4 Controller setting using the Ziegler-Nichols method________________ 131 Exercise 5.3.1 ____________________________________________________ 132 Worksheet 5.3.1 __________________________________________________ 133 Exercise 5.3.2 ____________________________________________________ 134 Exercise 5.3.3 ____________________________________________________ 135 Worksheet 5.3.2 __________________________________________________ 136 5.5 Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method _ 137 Exercise 5.4.1 ____________________________________________________ 138 Worksheet 5.4.1 __________________________________________________ 139 Exercise 5.4.2 ____________________________________________________ 140

Inhalt

Worksheet 5.4.3 __________________________________________________ 141 Worksheet 5.4.3 __________________________________________________ 142 Exercise 5.4.3 ____________________________________________________ 143

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. Process Control System

Introduction

The Festo Didactic Learning System for Process Engineering is based on various training prerequisites and vocational requirements. The Process Control System Compact Workstation allows vocational and continuing training that is highly practice-oriented. The hardware comprises industrial components that have been didactically prepared. The courseware in combination with the Compact Workstation of the Process Control System provides a system that is suitable for practice-oriented training of new key competencies: Social skills Technical competence Methodoligical competence Teamwork, cooperation and organizational skills can be trained at the same time. Real project phases can be trained during the learning projects, including: Planning Assembly Programming Commissioning Operation Maintenance Troubleshooting

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Project planning

1.1 Material covered

Material from the following areas can be covered: Mechanical engineering Mechanical design of a station Process engineering Reading and creating flow diagrams and documentation. Installation of piping for process components Electrical engineering Correct wiring of electrical components Sensors Correct use of sensors Measurement of non-electrical, process-engineering and control-engineering variables Learning to use and parameterize fieldbus technology such as PROFIBUS Closed-loop control engineering Fundamentals of closed-loop control engineering Expanding measuring chains to closed control loops Analysis of controlled systems P, I, D controls Optimization of a control loop Controlling system (industrial controller) Configuration, parameterization and optimization of an industrial controller Commissioning Commissioning a control loop Commissioning a processing plant Troubleshooting Checking, maintaining and repairing process plants Controlling and monitoring processes with a PC Systematic troubleshooting a processing plant

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Project planning

1.2 Important notes

The basic prerequisite for safe handing and fault-free operation of a Process Control System station is knowledge of the basic safety instructions and regulations. These operating instructions contain the most important safety instructions for safe operation of a station. In particular, the safety instructions are to be observed by all persons working at the workstation. In addition, local rules and accident-prevention regulations must be observed.

1.3 Operators responsibilities

The operator is responsible for ensuring that people working at the workstation are limited to: Those with a basic knowledge of work safety and accident prevention and who have been instructed in the operation of the station. Those who have read and understood the safety chapter and warning notices in these operating instructions and have signed to this effect.

1.4 Trainees responsibilities

All persons assigned to working with the workstation are required to carry out the following before starting work: To observe the basic regulations for work safety and accident prevention. To read and understand the safety chapter and warning notices in these operating instructions and sign to this effect.

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Project planning

1.5 Hazards associated with operating the Process Control System

The workstation has been built in accordance with the state of the art and recognized safety regulations. Nonetheless, operation of the station can result in the danger of injury or death to the user or third parties or damage to the machine or other property. The station is only to be used For the intended purpose and When in perfect condition from a safety point of view.

Any faults that could compromise safety must be eliminated immediately!

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Project planning

Project planning of a process plant should include the following documents: Specifications Process description, associated conditions such as environmental protection Start of scheduling and schedule monitoring Planning of flow diagrams Basic flow diagram Process flow diagram Piping and instrumentation diagram (PI diagram) Function diagrams Design of process plant Environmental protection requirements Specification of all equipment, Instrumentation and Control (EMCS) point list EMCS point plan outline EMCS point plan detailed Wiring and terminal diagrams Assembly plans Installation planning Acquisition Assembly, commissioning and acceptance of the system

The planning of a process-engineering project should be practiced using a PI diagram, an EMCS point list and an EMCS point plan for a controlled system.

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Project planning

2.1 PI diagram

The development of a PI diagram is a significant part of the project work. A PI diagram explains the EMCS functions using measuring points and final control elements. EMCS point designation

LIC 102

The process-related functions in an EMCS plan (Electrical, Instrumentation & Control) are described by EMCS points. The designation indicates the measured variables or other input variables, their processing, the direction of control action, and location. A EMCS point consists of an EMCS circle and is designated by code letters (A-Z) and a code number. The code letters are entered in the upper half of the EMCS circle, the number in the lower half. The sequence of the code letters is based on the following table EMCS code letters DIN 19227.
Example: L First letter Level I Supplementary letter Display C 1st following letter Automatic closed-loop control

The coding system for the EMCS points can be freely selected. Sequential numbering makes sense, as an EMCS points code must only occur once, even if there are several measuring points with the same measured variable. For more information, please see DIN standard 19227 Part 1.

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Project planning

EMCS code letters DIN 19227 Measured variable or other input variable, Letter First letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pressure Material properties, quality variables Radiation variables Speed, rotational speed, frequency Temperature Composite variables Viscosity Weight force, mass Other variables Arithmetic function Emergency intervention, preventive triggering, protective device, safety-related message + / Upper limit value Intermediate value Lower limit value Integral, sum Recording Switching, sequence and logic control Transducer function Composite drive functions Final control element function Indicator, Yes/no output Time Level (including interface applications) Humidity Lower limit value (Low) Measuring point sensing Density Electrical variables Flow rate, through put Displacement, length, position Manual input, manual intervention Upper limit value(High) Display Ratio Difference Sensor function Automatic closed-loop control final control element Supplementary letter Error message Processing letter Sequence: O,I,R,C,S,Z,A

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Project planning

Examples for EMCS symbols


EMCS symbols DIN 19227 Pipe Pipe with direction of flow

Pump, controlled, flange-mounted motor

P101
M

Container, top open

B101

Container, closed

B303

Valve, manually operated

V102
Control valve with actuator

V206
Heating element

E401
LIC 102
EMCS task with process master display Level display automatic closed-loop control

EMCS task with process master display

FIC 201
PIC 303

Flowrate display automatic closed-loop control

EMCS task with process master display Pressure display automatic closed-loop control

TIC 401

EMCS task with process master display Temperature display automatic closed-loop control

Pipe input (output)

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Project planning

2.2 Equipment list

An equipment list provides a first indication which controlled system should be used for the measurement and which components are relevant to it.

Exercise 2.2
Equipment list Name: Controlled system: Task: Create an equipment list Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

Task Draw up an equipment list for the controlled system based on the information given. Consider which of the items of equipment and elements listed in the worksheet you need for setup of the system or controlled system and mark these in the worksheet. View the individual components and the data sheets and acquaint yourself with the variables used in the system. Resources Worksheet 2.2.1 Equipment list Compact Workstation Manual, Chapter Function and design Collection of data sheets

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Project planning

Worksheet 2.2.1
Equipment list Name: Controlled system: Task: How to plan a equipment list Page 1 of 1 Date:

Which components are necessary for the chosen close-loop control system?

Equipment list

Components PLC / controller Tank pressure gauge pump ultrasonic sensor pressure sensor flow rate sensor temperature sensor proportional valve industrial controller proximity switch float switch, overflow float switch for raising level pressure tank SCADA piping and hand valves heating

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Project planning

2.3 Project planning Controlled system

Draw up a flow diagram, an EMCS point list and an EMCS point plan for a controlled system. The Compact Workstation comprises the following controlled systems (controls): Level Flow rate Pressure Temperature

For use of the individual controlled systems, please use the manual valve settings given in the manual.

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Project planning

Exercise 2.3.1
Project planning for a controlled system PI diagram Name: Controlled system: Task: Draw up a PI diagrams for a controlled system Sheet 1 of 3 Date:

Preparation Read the documentation for the Compact Workstation. Task Based on the overall flow diagram of the Compact Workstation, draw the flow diagram for the selected controlled system with all components relevant to the controlled system.

Worksheets Worksheet 2.3.1 PI diagram

Resources Electrical circuit diagram, Compact Workstation Pipe and instrument flow diagram, Compact Workstation Data sheets, Compact Workstation Workbook Control of temperature, flow rate and level , Festo, 170677 Standard DIN ISO EN 10628 Flow diagrams for process plants general rules (replaces DIN 28004) Standard DIN 19227 Part 1 Graphical symbols and code letters for process control (ISO3511)

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Project planning

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. Process Control System


Arbeitsblatt 2.3.1 / worksheet 2.3.1

RI-Fliebild / process flowsheet

1
Automatisierungstechnik GmbH Limburgstr. 40 D-73734 Esslingen

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Project planning

Exercise 2.3.2
Project planning for a controlled system EMCS point list Name: Controlled system: Task: Complete an EMCS point list for a controlled system Sheet 2 of 3 Date:

Task Complete the EMCS point list for the selected controlled system. Worksheets Worksheet 2.3.2 EMCS point list

Resources Electrical circuit diagram, Compact Workstation PI diagram for controlled system from Worksheet 2.3.1 Data sheets, Compact Workstation Standard DIN 19227 Part 2 Graphical symbols and code letters for process control (ISO3511)

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Project planning

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Project planning

Exercise 2.3.3
Project planning for a controlled system EMCS points plan Name: Controlled system: Task: Draw an EMCS point plan of a controlled system Sheet 3 of 3 Date:

Task Create the EMCS point plan for the selected controlled system.

Worksheets Worksheet 2.3.3 EMCS points plan

Resources Electrical circuit diagram, Compact Workstation PI diagram of the controlled system from Worksheet 2.3.1 EMCS point list from Worksheet 2.3.2 Data sheets, Compact Workstation Workbook Control of temperature, flow rate and level , Festo, 170677 Standard DIN 19227 Part 2 Graphical symbols and code letters for process control (ISO3511)

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Project planning

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Project planning

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Analysis

In the exercises, commissioning a system is divided into three areas: Analysis of the components, sensors and actuators System behavior Commissioning of the controlled systems

The analysis is to cover the function of the actuators and sensors of the Process Control System. The following questions are to be answered: How does an actuator function? Of what parts does an actuator comprise? What is the characteristic of a sensor? Acquisition of measured values based on practical examples Processing and evaluation of measured values

The following exercises are provided to support training in the area of measurements on actuators and sensors. Instructors notes The following application task offers a good introduction to the topic of measurement technology. The task is to understand the function of a flowrate sensor by recording the characteristic and working with the data sheet. Target audience and required prior knowledge This task requires basic technical understanding and basic knowledge of electrical engineering. The tasks are designed to provide the trainee with an introduction to various controlled systems. To this end, it makes sense to look at the individual components first.

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Analysis

3.1 Analysis of the container

Exercise 3.1.1
Volume of the container Name: Project name: Task: Calculation of container volume Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

Task Calculate the volume (capacity) of the container. Determine the relationship between the volume (liters) and the container scale (indicated in mm). How much water is in the container if it is filled to a level of 300 mm? What volume is required to achieve a reading of 100 or 1 mm on the scale?

Worksheets Worksheet 3.1.1 Analysis of the container

Resources Container data sheet Workstation manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.1.1
Analysis of the container Name: Project name: Task: Calculate the volume of the container Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

Calculating the volume of the container

Where:

Container height Container width Container depth

h = 300 mm w= d=

Find:

Solution:

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Analysis

3.2 Analysis of a pump

Exercise 3.2.1
Analysis of a pump Name: Project name: Task: Determining how a pump functions Sheet 1 of 3 Date:

Task What type of pump is used in the Festo Didactic Process Control System? Count how many other different types of pump there are and name the main differences to different types of pumps. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the individual pump types? What are all the things that must be taken into account when using the pump? Calculate the rated current of the pump. Worksheets Worksheet 3.2.1 Determine how a pump functions type, operation, component parts

Resources Pump data sheet Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.2.1
Analysis of a pump Name: Project name: Task: Determining how a pump functions type Sheet 1 of 4 Date:

What type of pump is it? Name the main differences to different types of pumps.

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Analysis

Analysis of a pump Name: Project name: Task: Determining how a pump functions operation Sheet 2 of 4 Date:

What must be taken into account when using the pump?

Calculating the rated current Where: Find: Solution:

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Analysis

Exercise 3.2.2
Analysis of a pump Name: Project name: Task: Determining the structure of a pump Sheet 2 of 3 Date:

Task Name the component parts of the pump. Compare your results with the data sheet.

Exploded view of the pump

Worksheets Worksheet 3.2.2 Component parts of the pump

Resources Pump data sheet Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.2.2

Analysis of a pump Name: Project name: Task: Determining how a pump functions Components Sheet 3 of 4 Date:

Exploded view of pump

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Name of part

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Analysis

Exercise 3.2.3
Analysis of a pump Name: Project name: Task: Determining the delivery rate of a pump Sheet 3 of 3 Date:

Task Determine the delivery rate of a pump. Which components of the Process Control System can you use to complete this task? Identify the parts and if appropriate do the tasks associated with the parts before undertaking the measurement. How do you undertake the measurement? Plan the steps. Calculate the delivery speed of the pump. Calculate the delivery rate of the pump. Analyze you measurement and your result compared those of other groups.

Worksheets Worksheet 3.2.3 Delivery rate

Resources Collection of data sheets Book of tables Stopwatch FluidLab-PA with EasyPortDA Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.2.3
Pump Name: Project name: Task: Determine the delivery rate of the pump Sheet 4 of 4 Date:

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Analysis

3.3 Analysis of a proportional valve

Exercise 3.3.1
Analysis of a proportional valve Name: Project name: Task: Determine mode of operation of a proportional valve Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Acquaint yourself with the mode of operation of a proportional valve. What does the term proportional valve mean? What electrical signals do you need to work with a proportional valve?

Worksheets Worksheet 3.3.1 Analysis of a proportional valve

Resources Proportional valve data sheet Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.3.1
Analysis of a proportional valve Name: Project name: Task: Determine mode of operation of a proportional valve Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

What does the term proportional valve mean?

What electrical signals do you need to use a proportional valve?

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Analysis

Exercise 3.3.2
Analysis of a proportional valve Name: Project name: Task: Determining the flow rate of a proportional valve Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

Task What is the maximum rate at which you can pump the medium used through the proportional valve? Note that other components between the pump and proportional valve may cause flow resistance. On what is this value dependent? What possibilities are there for adjusting the valve?

Worksheets Worksheet 3.3.2 Analysis of a proportional valve

Resources Data sheets Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.3.2
Analysis of a proportional valve Name: Project name: Task: Determine the flow rate of a proportional valve Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

What is the maximum rate at which you can pump the medium used through the proportional valve? What does this value depend on?

What possibilities are there for adjusting the valve?

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Analysis

3.4 Analyze of a process drive Exercise 3.4.1


Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a process drive Sheet 1 of 3 Date:

Task Acquaint yourself with the mode of operation of the process drive. Draw up a parts list for the process drive module. What electrical signals are used to drive the process drive? Describe briefly the mode of operation of this module.

Worksheets Worksheet 3.4.1 Analysis of a process drive

Resources Data sheets Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.4.1
Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a process drive Sheet 1 of 4 Date:

What components is the process drive made up of? Draw up a list of parts

Parts list for process drive module

Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

List of parts, process drive

Type

Quantity

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Analysis

Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a process drive Sheet 2 of 4 Date:

What electrical signals do you need to work with the process drive?

Give a brief description of the modules mode of operation.

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Analysis

Exercise 3.4.2
Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation a sensor box Sheet 2 of 3 Date:

Task What function does the sensor box fulfill? Name the signals you receive from the sensor box and, where appropriate, how you can record these signals.

Worksheets Worksheet 3.4.2 Analysis of a process drive

Resources Sensor box data sheet PCS circuit documentation Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.4.2
Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Explain briefly the mode of operation of the sensor box Sheet 3 of 4 Date:

What function does the sensor box fulfill? Name the signals you receive from the sensor box and, where appropriate, how you can record these signals.

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Analysis

Exercise 3.4.3
Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation a semi-rotary actuator Sheet 3 of 3 Date:

Task What type of drive is it? How does it work?

Worksheets Worksheet 3.4.3 Analysis of a process drive

Resources Semi-rotary actuator data sheet Station manual

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.4.3
Analysis of a process drive Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation a semi-rotary actuator Sheet 4 of 4 Date:

What type of drive is it? How does it work?

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Analysis

3.5 Analysis of a heating element Exercise 3.5.1


Analysis of a heating element Name: Project name: Task: Operation of a heating element Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

Task What do you have to take into account when using the heating element? Calculate the rated current of the heating element. To what temperature may you heat the water in the container?

Resources Heating element data sheet Station manual

Worksheets Worksheet 3.5.1 Heating element

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.5.1
Analysis of a heater element Name: Project name: Task: Operation o of a heater element Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

What are all the things you have to take into account when using the heating element?

Calculate the rated current of the heater.

Where: Find: Solution:

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Analysis

3.6 Analysis of an ultrasound sensor Exercise 3.6.1


Analysis of an ultrasound sensor Name: Project name: Task: Operation of an ultrasound sensor Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Study the ultrasound sensor data sheet to become acquainted with its mode of operation. Briefly describe the mode of operation in your own words. What do you need to take into account if you wish to achieve an accurate measurement with an ultrasound sensor? Measure the output signal of the sensor with a voltmeter. Sketch the measurement setup in the worksheet. Calculate parts need, if required. How is the sensor signal measured in the system? Give possible reasons why the circuit was designed in this way?

Resources Ultrasound sensor data sheet PCS system manual

Worksheets Worksheet 3.6.1 Ultrasound sensor

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.6.1
Analysis of an ultrasound sensor Name: Project name: Task: Operation of an ultrasound sensor Sheet 1 of 3 Date:

Describe the mode of operation of the ultrasound sensor in your own words. What do you need to take into account if you wish to achieve accurate measurements?

Space for calculations and sketches

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Analysis

Exercise 3.6.2
Analysis of an ultrasound sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic of an ultrasound sensor Sheet 3 of 2 Date:

Task Record the characteristic of the ultrasound sensor. Take a sufficient number of measurements and enter these into a chart. Evaluate the resulting characteristic. Where is the optimum operating range of the sensor, or to what level must the container be filled for the ultrasound sensor to operate optimally?

Resources Ultrasound sensor data sheet

Worksheets Worksheet 3.6.2 Ultrasound sensor

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.6.2
Analysis of an ultrasound sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic of an ultrasound sensor Sheet 2 of 3 Date:

Level [mm] 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300

Signal [V]

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Analysis

Ultrasound sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recoding the characteristic of the sensor Sheet 3 of 3 Date:

Level [mm]

Fllstand [mm]

300

250

200

150

100

50

10 9 Sensorsignal [V] signal [V]

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Analysis

3.7 Analysis of a flow meter Exercise 3.7.1


Analysis of a flowmeter Name: Project name: Task: Operation of a flow meter Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task How does the flow meter work? What other types of flow meter are there? How can you measure signals from the sensor? What is the measuring range of the sensor?

Resources Flow meter data sheet

Worksheets Worksheet 3.7.1 Analysis of a flow meter

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.7.1
Analysis of a flowmeter Name: Project name: Task: Determine the mode of operation of a flow meter Sheet 1 of 4 Date:

How does the flow meter work? What other types of flow meter are there?

How can you measure signals from the sensor?

What flow rates can be measured with the sensor?

Lower limit of measuring range: Upper limit of measuring range:

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Analysis

Exercise 3.7.2
Analysis of a flowmeter Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic and calculations Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

Task Based on the data in the data sheet, calculate the minimum and maximum output frequency of the sensor. Record the characteristic of the flow meter. Take a sufficient number of measurements and enter these into a chart. Evaluate the resulting characteristic. Compare your result to the characteristic in the data sheet.

Resources Oscilloscope Flow meter data sheet

Worksheets Worksheet 3.7.2 Analysis of a flow meter

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.7.2
Analysis of a flowmeter Name: Project name: Task: Calculate the output frequency of a flow meter Sheet 2 of 4 Date:

Calculate the minimum and maximum output frequency of the sensor.

Where: Find: Solution:

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Analysis

Analysis of a flow meter Name: Project name: Task: Determine the characteristic of a flow meter Sheet 3 of 4 Date:

Procedure 1. First calculate the frequency (Hz) for the flow rates. 2. Measure the frequency with the oscilloscope and set the pump voltage to the desired frequency or flow rate. 3. Calculate the flow rate in the upper container that has to be reached within 1 minute for the set pump output. 4. Determine the flow rate for 1 minute experimentally.

Measured-value table

Flow rate [l/min] 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10

Frequency [Hz]

Calculated flow rate after 1 min

Measured flow after 1 min

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Analysis of a flow meter Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic of a flow meter Sheet 4 of 4 Date:

Diagram

flow rate [mm]

Durchfluss [l/min]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100 1200 Frequenz [1/s]

frequency [1/s]

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3.8 Analysis of a pressure sensor Exercise 3.8.1


Analysis of a pressure sensor Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a pressure sensor Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task How does the pressure sensor work? What other types of pressure sensor are there? How can you measure the signal from the sensor? What is the measuring range of the sensor?

Resources Pressure sensor data sheet

Worksheets Worksheet 3.8.1 Analysis of a pressure sensor

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.8.1
Analysis of a pressure sensor Name: Project name: Task: How does a pressure sensor work? Sheet 1 of 4 Date:

How does a pressure sensor work? What other types of pressure sensor are there?

How can you measure the signal from the sensor??

What is the measuring range of the sensor?

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Exercise 3.8.2
Analysis of a pressure sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic Sheet 2 of 4 Date:

Task Record the characteristic of the pressure sensor. Take a sufficient number of measurements and enter these into a chart. Evaluate the resulting characteristic. Compare your result to the characteristic in the data sheet .

Resources Pressure sensor data sheet

Worksheets Worksheet 3.8.2 Analysis of a pressure sensor

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.8.2
Analysis of a pressure sensor Name: Project name: Task: Determine the mode of operation of a pressure sensor Sheet 3 of 4 Date:

3.8.1

Measured-value table
Voltage [V] 0 1.25 2.5 4.75 5.0 6.25 7.5 8.75 10 Notes

Pressure [mbar] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

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Analysis of a pressure sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic Sheet 4 of 4 Date:

3.8.2

Diagram

voltage [V]

Spannung [V]

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Druck [mbar] pressure [mbar]

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Analysis

3.9 Analysis of a temperature sensor

Exercise 3.9.1
Analysis of a temperature sensor Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a temperature sensor Sheet 1 of 5 Date:

Task The thermal sensor used is a PT100. Explain this designation. What does it mean? How can you measure the signal from the sensor? What is the resistance of the sensor at 0C, and at 100C? What is the measuring range of the sensor?

Resources PT100 temperature sensor data sheet

Worksheets Worksheet 3.9.1 Analysis of a temperature sensor

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.9.1
Analysis of a temperature sensor Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a temperature sensor Sheet 2 of 5 Date:

What does the designation PT100 mean?

How can you measure the signal from the sensor?

What is the resistance of the sensor at 0C, and at 100C?

What is the measuring range of the sensor?

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Analysis

Exercise 3.9.2
Analysis of a temperature sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic Sheet 3 of 5 Date:

Task Record the characteristic of the temperature sensor. Take a sufficient number of measurements and enter these into a chart. Evaluate the resulting characteristic. Compare your result to the characteristic in the data sheet .

Note Before starting, consider the procedure for measurement. As you have to heat the fluid in the container, the measurement is more time-consuming. If you make mistakes during measurement, you will have replace the fluid or wait for it to cool! Caution For technical and physical reasons, you cannot measure the entire characteristic of the sensor. The maximum temperature in the container must not exceed 60C. Please observe the safety instructions in the manual for your station/system. Resources Thermometer

Worksheets Worksheet 3.9.2 Analysis of a temperature sensor

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.9.2
Analysis of a temperature sensor Name: Project name: Task: Measuring the temperature sensor signals Sheet 4 of 5 Date:

Measured-value table

T[C] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

R[Ohm]

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Analysis

Temperature sensor Name: Project name: Task: Recording the characteristic Sheet 5 of 5 Date:

R [Ohm]

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120 T[C]

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Analysis

3.10 System behavior of a container

To complete the task you need either: Level Control Station, Compact System, Compact Workstation or Level Workstation.

Exercise 3.10.1
System behavior of a container Name: Project name: Task: Determining the behavior of flow into and out of a container Sheet 1 of 5 Date:

Preparation Fill approx. 10l water into the container. This corresponds to a level of approx. 300mm. Task The behavior of flow into and out of the container is to be determined. Measure the behavior for the container with the pump switched on, outlet valve closed and inlet valve open. Measure the behavior for the container with the pump switched off, outlet valve closed and inlet valve open. Measure the behavior for the container with the pump switched on, outlet valve open and inlet valve open. What result do you expect for each of the measurements? Write down the behavior you expect in the prepared worksheet before starting measurements. Make a sufficient number of measurements and enter these into the prepared coordinate systems. Do not forget to label the axes! Compare the characteristics. What do you notice?

Resources Stopwatch Worksheet 3.10.1 System behavior of a container

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Analysis

Worksheet 3.10
System behavior of a container Name: Project name: Task: Carry out various measurements that will allow you to describe the flow behavior into and out of the container. Sheet 2 of 5 Date:

What result to you expect to get? Measurement 1: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump running

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

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System behavior of a container Name: Project name: Task: Carry out various measurements that will allow you to describe the flow behavior into and out of the container. Sheet 3 of 5 Date:

What result to you expect to get? Measurement 2: Inlet valve open, outlet valve closed, pump not running

Level [mm] 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160

Time [s] 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Level [mm]

Time [s]

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Analysis

System behavior of a container Name: Project name: Task: Carry out various measurements that will allow you to describe the flow behavior into and out of the container. Sheet 4 of 5 Date:

What result to you expect to get? Measurement 3: Inlet valve open, outlet valve open, pump running.

Level [mm] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Time [s] 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Level [mm]

Time [s]

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Analysis

System behavior of a container Name: Project name: Task: Carry out various measurements that will allow you to describe the flow behavior into and out of the container. Sheet 5 of 5 Date:

300

200

100

60

120

180

240

300

360

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Commissioning

The following application tasks are designed to help the trainee learn to use the controlled systems and the controllers. A controlled system is to be taken into operation with defined parameters. The behavior of the system is to be observed while it is in operation. Target audience and required prior knowledge This task requires technical understanding. The tasks are designed to give the trainees an introduction to control engineering. The trainees should have a theoretical knowledge of the fundamentals of control engineering. This task is designed to allow the trainee to see theory in a practical example and thus enhance their knowledge. Note Defined parameters are given for commissioning of the controllers used. The parameters were determined using comparable controlled systems, but part tolerances could result in malfunctioning of the controlled systems used. In this case adjustments have to be made to the parameters.

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Commissioning

4.1 Commissioning a levelcontrolled system

To complete the task you require either: Level-Control System, Compact System, Compact Workstation or Level Workstation.

Flow diagram of a level-controlled system for example, the PCS Level Workstation

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.1.1
Commissioning a level-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Manual operation of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 7 Date:

Task The level of a container is to be kept constant. Preparation Fill approx. 10l water into the lower container. Note Please note that the entire system must not contain more water than the capacity of one container! Settings and procedure 5. 6. Deairate the pipe system of the level-controlled system. Set the manual valves so that the medium can flow directly into the upper container. Leave the outlet valve closed so that no water can flow out of the container. 7. Open the outlet valve so that water can flow out of the container. Try to maintain the level at a constant midrange reading by switching the pump ON and OFF (0/24VDC). 8. Use analog control of the pump to improve the result. At what pump voltage is the mean measured value of the controlled system constant? Are you using closed- or open-loop control to regulate the level? Give reasons for your answer. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a level-controlled system

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Worksheet 4.1.1
Commissioning a level-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the setpoint Sheet 2 of 7 Date:

Are you using close-loop or open-loop control of the level?

Is it possible to maintain a constant level manually?

Pump voltage measured for mean measured value


Mean measured value [mm]

Pump voltage [V]

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.1.2
Commissioning a level-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system. Sheet 3 of 7 Date:

Purpose of the exercise The purpose of the exercise is to replace a person as a controller by an automatic controller. The actual value is to be measured by a sensor. The pump is to be switched ON and OFF by means of a controller. Task Determine a suitable setpoint (desired level) to be used for commissioning of the controller. Take the operating range of the sensor into account. Enter the value of the sensor into the worksheet supplied when you have reached the desired level. Procedure 1. Determine the values for the sensor based on the data sheet. 2. What is the reading on the container scale for minimum level? What signal does the ultrasound sensor deliver before and after the transducer (for Level Workstation or Compact Workstation). 3. Switch on the pump to fill the upper container to maximum. What is the reading on the container scale? Measure the sensor signal and the transducer output signal. 4. What measured value is exactly midway between the minimum and maximum levels? Measure the sensor signal and the transducer output signal. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a level-controlled system,

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Worksheet 4.1.2
Commissioning a controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system Sheet 4 of 7 Date:

Determining the operating range of the level sensor


Sensor Level h [mm] Output signal I [mA] Transducer Output signal U [V]

Max. measured value

Mean measured value

Min. measured value

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.1.3
Commissioning a level-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values. Sheet 5 of 7 Date:

Task Commission the level-controlled system. Observe the following points: Preparation Acquaint yourself with the operation and parameterization of your controller (industrial controller, PLC or FluidLab-PA). When preparing the controlled system, please observe the notes in Worksheet 4.1.1. 1. Set the manual valves so that the medium can flow directly into the upper container. 2. Open the outlet valve so that water can flow out of the container.

Parameterization Please set the following parameters for the controller:


Parameter KP TN [s] TV [s] Value 10 5 0

Start the controller. Worksheets Worksheet 4.1.3 Commissioning a level-controlled system

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Exercise 4.1.4
Commissioning a level-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 6 of 7 Date:

Task How does the system respond? Describe your impressions. Close valve V112 with the controller running. How does the system respond? Describe your impressions. Worksheets Worksheet 4.1.3 Commissioning a level-controlled system

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Commissioning

Worksheet 4.1.3/4.1.4
Commissioning a level-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values. Sheet 7 of 7 Date:

How does the system respond with the outlet valve closed?

How does the system respond with the outlet valve open?

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Commissioning

4.2 Commissioning a flow controlled-system

To complete the task you require either: Flow Control System, Compact System, Compact Workstation or Flow Workstation.

Flow diagram for flow controlled-system for example, PCS Flow Workstation

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.2.1
Commissioning a flow controlled-system Name: Project name: Task: Manual operation of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 10 Date:

Task The flow rate in a pipe system is to be kept constant. Preparation Note Fill approx. 4l water into the (lower) container. Please note that the entire system must not contain more water than the capacity of one container! Settings Set the manual valve so that the medium can flow, for example, via manual valve V104. There should be no flow through other valves and assemblies. Please observe the settings in the manual. Procedure 1. Switch the pump on. 2. Try to keep the flow rate at a constant 2l/min by switching the pump ON and OFF. 3. Use analog control of the pump to improve the result. At what pump voltage is the flow rate constant at 2l/min? Are you using open-loop or closed-loop control of the flow? Give reasons for your answer. Is it possible to achieve a constant flow rate through manual operation? Give reasons for your answer. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a flow controlled-system

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Worksheet 4.2.1
Commissioning a flow-controlled system, Controlling the flow rate with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operator as controller Sheet 2 of 10 Date:

Are you using closed-loop or open-loop control of flow?

Is it possible to maintain a constant flow rate manually?

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.2.2
Commissioning a flow controlled-system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system. Sheet 3 of 10 Date:

Purpose of the exercise The purpose of the exercise is to replace a person as a controller by an automatic controller. The actual value is to be measured by a sensor. The pump is to be switched ON and OFF by means of a controller. Task Based on the data sheets of the components, develop the measuring chain controlled system sensor transducer (if a transducer is present). Determine a suitable setpoint (constant flow rate) for commissioning of the control. Take the operating range of the sensor (actual value) and the pump (final control element) into account. Enter the measured values for the mean flow rate into the worksheet. Calculate the missing values, for example the maximum measurable flow rate of the transducer. Procedure 1. What is the measured value for minimum flow? What signal does the flow meter deliver before and after the transducer (for Level Workstation or Compact Workstation). 2. Switch the pump on (max.). Measure the output signal of the transducer. 3. What measured value is exactly midway between the minimum and maximum flow rate? Set this as the operating point for the pump voltage. Measure the sensor signal and the output signal of the transducer. 4. What is the pump voltage for a constant flow rate at the operating point? Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a flow controlled-system

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Worksheet 4.2.2
Commissioning a flow-controlled system, Controlling the flow rate with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system. Sheet 4 of 10 Date:

Determining the measuring chain of a flow-controlled system with a pump as final control element
Flow control Pump operating range Flow rate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flow rate Q [l/min] Output signal f [Hz] Input signal f [Hz] Sensor

Transducer Output signal U [V] Flow rate Q [l/min]

MAX

MIN

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a pump as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable flow rate of 7.5 l/min would have the value 1.0.

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.2.3
Commissioning a flow controlled-system, Controlling the flowrate with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 5 of 10 Date:

Task Commission the flow controlled-system. Preparation Acquaint yourself with the operation and parameterization of your controller (industrial controller, PLC or FluidLab-PA). When preparing the controlled system, please observe the notes in Worksheet 4.2.1. Set the manual valves so that the medium can flow directly through manual valve V104. Parameterization Please set the following parameters for the controller:
Parameter KP TN [s] TV [s] Value 1 2 0

Start the controller. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a flow controlled-system

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Worksheet 4.2.3
Commissioning a flow-controlled system, Controlling the flow rate with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 6 of 10 Date:

Describe your impressions

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.2.4
Commissioning a flow controlled-system, Controlling the flow rate with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system. Sheet 7 of 10 Date:

Task For commissioning of the flow controlled-system, determine the operating range of the proportional valve and a suitable operating point. Enter the mean flow rate of the proportional valve into the worksheet. Preparation Set the proportional valve to minimum maximum flow rate. You will find instructions for adjustment in the data sheet for the proportional valve . Procedure 1. Switch the pump on and activate the proportional valve (Workstation). For PCS stations/Compact Systems with Brkert or Siemens industrial controllers switch the PUMP and VALVE switches ON. Increase the output voltage for proportional valve V106. What is the reading for the minimum flow rate through proportional valve V106? What signal does the flow meter deliver before and after the transducer (for Level Workstation or Compact Workstation). Switch the pump ON (max.). Measure the sensor signal and the output signal of the transducer. What measurement is exactly midway between minimum and maximum flow rate? Set this as the operating point for the pump voltage. Measure the sensor signal and the output signal of the transducer. What is the pump voltage for constant flow rate at the operating point?

2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a flow controlled-system

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Worksheet 4.2.4
Commissioning a flow-controlled system, Controlling the flowrate with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system. Sheet 8 of 10 Date:

Determining the operating range of a flow-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element
Flow control Proportional value operating range Flow rate Q [l/min] Signal f [Hz] Flow rate Q [l/min] Output signal f [Hz] Input signal f [Hz] Output signal U [V] Flow rate Q [l/min] Sensor Transducer

MAX

MIN

Mean value of the operating range of the control system with a proportional valve as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable flow rate of 7.5 l/min would have the value 1.0.

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.2.5
Commissioning a flow controlled-system, Controlling the flow rate with a proportional valve as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 9 of 10 Date:

Task Commission the flow controlled-system with the proportional valve as the final control element. Set the proportional valve (see notes in the data sheet). Preparation Acquaint yourself with the operation and parameterization of your controller (industrial controller, PLC or FluidLab-PA). When preparing the controlled system, please observe the notes in Worksheet 4.3.1. Set the manual valves so that the medium can flow directly through proportional valve V106. Parameterization Please set the following parameters for the controller:
Parameter KP TN [s] TV [s] Value 2 1 0

Start the controller. Worksheets Worksheet 4.2.5 Commissioning a flow controlled-system

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Worksheet 4.2.5
Commissioning a flow-controlled system, Controlling the flow rate with a proportional valve as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 10 of 10 Date:

Describe your impressions

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Commissioning

4.3 Commissioning a pressurecontrolled system

To complete the task you need either: pressure-controlled system, Compact System, Compact Workstation or Pressure Workstation.

Flow diagram for the pressure-controlled system for example: PCS Pressure Workstation

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Exercise 4.3.1
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Manual operation of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 10 Date:

Task Commission the pressure-controlled system. The pressure level in the pressure reservoir is to be kept constant at a certain value. Preparation Fill approx. 5l of water into the lower container. Close all manual valves. Set the manual valves so that the medium can be pumped directly into the pressure reservoir. Pump the water into the pressure reservoir and carefully open pressure relief valve V107 until the pressure reservoir is half-filled with air and half-filled with water. Close pressure relief valve V107. The pressure relief valve is NEVER to be opened during measurements or normal operation! Note Please note that the entire system must not contain more water than the capacity of one container! Procedure Try to maintain a constant pressure in the pressure reservoir by switching the pump ON and OFF. Task Are you using open-loop or closed-loop control of the pressure? Give reasons for your answer. Is it at all possible to maintain a constant pressure by manual operation? Give reasons for your answer. Worksheets Worksheet 4.3.1 Commissioning a pressure-controlled system

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Commissioning

Worksheet 4.3.1
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, Controlling the pressure with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operator as controller Sheet 2 of 10 Date:

Are you using open-loop or closed-loop control of the pressure?

Is it possible to maintain constant pressure manually?

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Exercise 4.3.2
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system Sheet 3 of 10 Date:

Purpose of the exercise The purpose of the exercise is to replace a person as a controller by an automatic controller. The actual value is to be measured by a sensor. The pump is to be switched ON and OFF by means of a controller. Task Based on the data sheets of the components, develop the measuring chain controlled system sensor transducer (if a transducer is present). Determine a suitable setpoint (constant pressure in the container) for commissioning of the control. Take the operating range of the sensor (actual value) and the pump (final control element) into account. Enter the measured values for the mean reservoir pressure into the worksheet. Calculate the missing values. Procedure 1. What is the measured value for minimum pressure? What signal does the pressure sensor deliver? 2. Switch the pump ON (max.). Measure the sensor signal. What is the maximum pressure the sensor can read? 3. What measured value is exactly midway between the minimum and maximum levels? Set the operating point for the pump voltage to this value. Measure the sensor signal. 4. What is the pump voltage for a constant pressure close to the operating point? Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a pressure-controlled system

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Commissioning

Worksheet 4.3.2
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, Controlling the pressure with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system Sheet 4 of 10 Date:

Determining the measuring chain of a pressure-controlled system with a pump as final control element
Pressure control Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Output signal U [V]

MAX

MIN

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a pump as the final control element

Mean measured value [l/min]

Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ]

Pump voltage [V]

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

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Exercise 4.3. 3
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 5 of 10 Date:

Task Commission the pressure-controlled system with set values for the control parameters. Preparation Acquaint yourself with the operation and parameterization of your controller (industrial controller, PLC or FluidLab-PA). When setting up the controlled system, please observe the notes in Worksheet 4.3.1. Parameterization A functioning control system comprises a controlled system and a controlling unit (controller). This requires various parameters. Please set the following parameters for the controller:
Parameter KP TN [s] TV [s] Value 1,0 2,0 0,1

Start the controller. How does the system respond? Describe your impressions on the worksheet provided. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, IBN_P_AB04_3

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Worksheet 4.3.3
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, Controlling the pressure with a pump as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 6 of 10 Date:

Describe your impressions

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Exercise 4.3.4
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system. Sheet 7 of 10 Date:

Task Determine the working range and a suitable operating point for a proportional valve for commissioning of a pressure-controlled system. Enter the measured value for the mean operating pressure that can be controlled with the proportional valve into the worksheet. Preparation Set the proportional valve to minimum / maximum flow rate. (This is not a typographical error!). You will find instructions on adjustment in the data sheet for the proportional valve . Procedure 1. Switch the pump ON and activate the proportional valve (Workstation). For PCS stations/Compact Systems with Brkert or Siemens industrial controllers switch the PUMP and VALVE switches ON. What is the measured value for the minimum pressure through proportional valve V106? What signal does the pressure sensor deliver? Increase the output voltage for proportional valve V106 to maximum. Measure the sensor signal and the output signal of the transducer. What measurement is exactly midway between minimum and maximum flow rate? Set this as the operating point for the pump voltage. Measure the sensor signal and the output signal of the transducer. What is the pump voltage for system pressure at the operating point?

2. 3. 4.

5.

Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, IBN_P_AB04_3

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Worksheet 4.2.4
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, Controlling the pressure with a proportional valve as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system Sheet 8 of 10 Date:

Determining the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as final control element
Pressure control Pump operating range Pressure p [mbar] Signal U [V] Sensor Measuring range Pressure p [mbar] Output signal [V]

MAX

MIN

Mean value of the operating range of the pressure-controlled system with a proportional valve as the final control element
Mean measured value [l/min] Dimensionless value [ 0.0 1.0 ] Pump voltage [V]

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable pressure of 400 mbar would have the value 1.0.

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Exercise 4.3.5
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 9 of 10 Date:

Task Commission the pressure-controlled system with proportional valve with set values for the control parameters . Preparation Acquaint yourself with the operation and parameterization of your controller (industrial controller, PLC or FluidLab-PA). When preparing the controlled system, please observe the notes in Worksheet 4.3.1. Parameterization A functioning control system comprises a controlled system and a controlling unit (controller). This requires various parameters. Please set the following parameters for the controller:
Parameter KP TN [s] TV [s] Value 3.0 8.0 2.0

Open manual valve V109 (see flow diagram) between the pressure reservoir and the supply tank a minimum amount to achieve a constant system load and start the controller. How does the system respond? Describe your impressions in the worksheet provided. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a pressure-controlled system

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Worksheet 4.3.5
Commissioning a pressure-controlled system, Controlling the pressure with a proportional valve as final control element Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 10 of 10 Date:

Describe your impressions

104

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. Process Control System

Commissioning

4.4 Commissioning a temperature-controlled system

To complete the task you need either: Temperature-Control System, Compact System, Compact Workstation or Temperature Workstation.

Flow diagram for a temperature-controlled system for example, PCS Temperature Workstation

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.4.1
Commissioning a temperature-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Manual operation of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 6 Date:

Preparation Fill approx. 5l water into the (lower) container for temperature-controlled system. Note Please note that the entire system must not contain more medium than the capacity of one container! Settings Fill the lower container so that the heating element is completely submerged. The higher the level in the container, the longer it will take to heat the medium. Task Measure the current temperature of the medium. Add 5K. Attempt to reach and maintain this temperature by switching the heater ON and OFF. For safety reasons, the heater is limited to a maximum temperature of 60C. Are you using open-loop or closed-loop control? Give reasons for your answer. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a temperature-controlled system

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Worksheet 4.4.1
Commissioning a temperature-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Manual operation of a controlled system Sheet 2 of 6 Date:

Are you using open-loop or closed-loop control of temperature?

Is it possible to maintain a constant temperature manually?

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Exercise 4.4.2
Commissioning a temperature-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system Sheet 3 of 6 Date:

Purpose of the exercise The purpose of the exercise is to replace a person as a controller by an automatic controller. The actual value is to be measured by a sensor. The heater is to be switched ON and OFF by means of a controller. Task Determine the signal delivered by your temperature sensor when submerged in the heated medium (Worksheet 4.4.1). Measure the resistance of the temperature sensor. Calculate the temperature from this. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a temperature-controlled system

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Commissioning

Worksheet 4.4.2
Commissioning a temperature-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Determining the operating range and operating point of a controlled system Sheet 4 of 6 Date:

Determining the measuring chain of the temperature-controlled system with a heater as the final control element
Temperature control Heater operating range Temperature t [C] Resistance R [] Sensor Measuring range Temperature t [C] Resistance R [] Input resistance R []

Transducer Output signal U [V] Temperature t [C]

MAX

60

MIN

20

Mean value of the operating range of the temperature-controlled system with a heater as the final control element
Mean measured value t [C] Dimensionless value [0.0 - 1.0]

Convert the measured value into a dimensionless value in the range [0-0 1.0]. This means that the maximum measurable temperature of 100 C would have the value 1.0.

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Commissioning

Exercise 4.4.3
Commissioning a temperature-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 5 of 6 Date:

Task Commission the temperature-controlled system with heater. Parameterization Please parameterize your controller with the following values:
FluidLab-PA Parameter 2-point controller KP Switching hysteresis 0.05 TN TV Parameter Brkert industrial PID controller 4.0 2500 0.0 Sipart DR19 industrial PID controller

Use the pump to circulate the medium during normal operation. Start the controller. How does the system respond? Describe your impressions. Worksheets Worksheet Commissioning a temperature-controlled system, IBN_T_AB04_4

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Worksheet 4.4.3
Commissioning a temperature-controlled system Name: Project name: Task: Operating a controlled system with set values Sheet 6 of 6 Date:

Describe your impressions

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Commissioning

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Control engineering

Machines and systems often require variables such as pressure, temperature, flow rate or level to be controlled to a predetermined value. Also, these values should not change in the event of faults. This type of task is undertaken by a controller. Closed-loop control engineering covers all problems associated with this task. The variable to be controlled is measured, converted and supplied to the automatic controller as an electrical signal. The controller then compares this value (or value curve) with the preset value. The corrective action to be taken in the system is then derived. Finally, a suitable point for corrective action to influence the controlled variable must be determined, for example, the heaters regulator. Here, the response of the system is important. Closed-loop control Standard DIN 19226 applies: Closed-loop control is a process whereby one variable, namely the variable to be controlled (controlled variable) is continuously monitored, compared with another variable, namely the reference variable, and depending on the outcome of this comparison influenced in such a manner as to bring about adaptation to the reference variable despite any disturbance variables. This feedback results in a closed action loop.

The control technician is responsible for: Identification of the controlled system Definition of the controlled variable Determination of measuring point Determination of disturbance variables Selection of the final control elements Determining whether a controller will result in worthwhile benefit Selection of suitable controller(s) Installation of controller(s) in compliance with regulations Commissioning, parameterization and optimization

These topics are covered in greater detail in the following exercises, which are designed to give trainees an introduction to control engineering. Trainees should have a basic theoretical knowledge of control engineering.

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Control engineering

5.1 Identifying the controlled system

The time response of a controlled system must be known for optimum controller selection. This allows conclusions to be drawn regarding the dynamic response of the controlled system and the controller settings to be determined. The time response of a controlled system is determined by recording a transient response of the system. For systems with delay, such as where there is energy storage, the time constant of the controlled system is determined by applying a tangent or, in the case of multiple delays, an inflectional tangent.

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Exercise 5.1.1
Identification of a controlled system Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the time response of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Determine the transient response of the controlled system at the operating point. The operating point is determined in Chapter 4, Commissioning. What type of system is it or of which order is it? Sketch the curve in Worksheet 5.1.1. Determine the order by drawing a tangent to the curve and comparing the curve in Worksheet 5.1.1. Graphically determine the time constant of the controlled system in Worksheet 5.1.2.

Resources Work book, Control of Temperature, Flow rate and Level, 170677 Worksheets Worksheet 5.1.1 Determining the order Worksheet 5.1.2 Determining the time constant

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.1.1
Identification of a controlled system Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the order of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

What type of system is it or of which order is it? Sketch the curve: process value / actual value

time Determine the order by drawing a tangent to the curve and comparing the curve:

process value / actual value order

order

time Order:

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.1.2
Identification of a controlled system Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the time constant of a controlled system Sheet 1 of 1 Date:

Determine the time constant of the controlled system.

Procedure 1. Apply an (origin) tangent to the curve. 2. Draw the maximum value as a horizontal line at the maximum actual value. 3. Draw a perpendicular as a vertical line (90 to the maximum value) at the intersection of maximum value and tangent. 4. Draw a horizontal line at the intersection of the curve and the perpendicular. The actual value at this point should be 63% of the "maximum value". 5. Read off on the time scale how long the system needs to reach 63%. This is the time constant.

S = output variable when t = T, T = 63%

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Control engineering

5.2 Controller functions

The following theoretical exercises allow trainees to consolidate their knowledge of control engineering. The purpose of the exercise is to give the trainee the opportunity to see how a real controlled system responds to various controllers and why it is necessary to find a suitable controller and to parameterize it correctly. Target audience and required prior knowledge This exercise requires technical understanding. Basic knowledge of control engineering is absolutely essential. This exercise is for control technicians and trainees who have to make use of basic control engineering.

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.2.1
Mode of operation of a P controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with a P controller Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Try to control the controlled system with a P controller. Set each of the amplification factors given in the table in turn. Record the transient response. Describe your result. How does the system respond? Parameter list
Parameter KP KP KP Value 2 5 10

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.2.1
Mode of operation of a P controller Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with P controller Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

How does the system respond to control by a P controller?

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.2.2
Mode of operation of a I controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with an I controller Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Try to control the controlled system with an I controller. Set the parameters shown in the table. Describe your result. How does the system respond? Parameter list

Parameter TN TN TN

Value 10 5 2

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.2.2
Mode of operation of a I controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with I controller Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

How does the system respond to control by an I controller?

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.2.3
Mode of operation of a PI controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with a PI controller Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Try to control the controlled system with a PI controller. Set the parameters shown in the table. Describe your result. How does the system respond? Parameter list
Parameter KP KP KP KP Value 2 2 5 5 Parameter TN TN TN TN Value 10 5 10 5

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.2.3
Mode of operation of a PI controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with PI controller Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

How does the system respond to control by a PI controller?

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.2.4
Mode of operation of a PD controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with a PD controller Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Why does it not make sense to try a D controller here? Is a controller only equipped with a D part used in other systems? Try to control the controlled system with a PD controller. Set the parameters shown in the table. Describe your result. How does the system respond?

Parameter list
Parameter KP KP KP KP Value 2 2 5 5 Parameter TV TV TV TV Value 1 5 1 5

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.2.4
Mode of operation of a PD controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with PD controller Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

How does the system respond to control by a PD controller?

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.2.5
Mode of operation of a PID controller Name: Controlled system: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with a PID controller Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Try to control the controlled system with a PID controller. Set the parameters shown in the table. Describe your result. How does the system respond?

Parameter list
Parameter KP KP KP KP Value 1 1 1 1 Parameter TN TN TN TN Value 1 2 2 5 Parameter TV TV TV TV Value 1 1 5 1

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Control engineering

5.3 Worksheet 5.2.5


Mode of operation of a PID controller Name: Project name: Task: Determining the mode of operation of a controlled system with PID controller Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

How does the system respond to control by a PID controller?

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.2.6
Selection of controller functions Name: Controlled system: Task: Selection of suitable controller functions for a controlled system Sheet 1 of 2 Date:

Task Which controller is suitable for which controlled system? Assign the P, I , PI and PID controllers to the level-, flow-, pressure- and temperature-controlled systems with the aid of Worksheet 5.2.6.

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.2.6
Mode of operation of controllers Name: Project name: Task: Assignment of a controller to a controlled system Sheet 2 of 2 Date:

Which controller is suitable for which controlled system? Assign the P, I , PI and PID controllers to the level-, flow rate-, pressure- and temperature-controlled systems with the aid of worksheet 5.2.6.

Permanent control deviation P Level PD

No permanent control deviation PI PID

Flowrate

Pressure

Temperature

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Control engineering

5.4 Controller setting using the Ziegler-Nichols method

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.3.1
Controller setting using the Ziegler-Nichols method Name: Controlled system: Task: Describe the procedure used in the Ziegler-Nichols method Sheet 1 of 5 Date:

Task What procedure must you adopt when using the Ziegler-Nichols method? Name the sequence of steps. How must you configure the controller to use the Ziegler-Nichols method? Which values must you know in order to use the Ziegler-Nichols method?

Resources Worksheet

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.3.1
Ziegler- Nichols method Name: Project name: Task: Describe the procedure used in the Ziegler-Nichols method Sheet 2 of 5 Date:

Sequence of steps

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.3.2
Controller setting using the Ziegler-Nichols method Name: Controlled system: Task: Use the Ziegler-Nichols method Sheet 3 of 5 Date:

Task Calculate and parameterize a suitable controller for a controlled system using the Ziegler-Nichols method.

Resources Worksheet

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.3.3
Controller setting using the Ziegler-Nichols method Name: Controlled system: Task: Test and examine your results Sheet 4 of 5 Date:

Task Test the results you obtained in 5.3.2. Are your values correct? If necessary, locate the error and recalculate the values. Are you happy with the result achieved? Indicate briefly what could be better. Explain.

Resources Worksheet

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.3.2
Ziegler- Nichols method Name: Project name: Task: Test and examine your results Sheet 5 of 5 Date:

Are you happy with the result achieved with the Ziegler- Nichols method? Indicate briefly what could be better. Explain.

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Control engineering

5.5 Controller parameterization using the Chien-HronesReswick method

The following application task offers trainees the opportunity to observe a controlled system in operation. The procedure does not aim to provide trainees with a slow introduction to control engineering, but to present them with a finished controller and then to acquaint them with the individual components. This task standard controller parameterization procedure. The aim is to show trainees that control of a system can be achieved with simple standard methods. Target audience and required prior knowledge This task requires technical understanding. The task is designed to give the trainee an introduction to control engineering. Theoretical knowledge of control engineering is required.

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.4.1
Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Name: Controlled system: Task: Describe the procedure used in the Ziegler-Nichols method Sheet 1 of 6 Date:

Task What procedure must you adopt when using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method? Which values must you know in order to use the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method?

Resources Worksheet 5.4.1

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.4.1
Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Name: Project name: Task: Describe the procedure used in the Ziegler-Nichols method Sheet 2 of 6 Date:

Procedure

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.4.2
Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Name: Controlled system: Task: Use the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Sheet 3 of 6 Date:

Task Calculate and parameterize a suitable controller for a controlled system using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method.

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.4.3
Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Name: Controlled system: Task: Use the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Sheet 4 of 6 Date:

Task Calculate and parameterize a suitable controller for a controlled system using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method.

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Control engineering

Worksheet 5.4.3
Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Name: Project name: Task: Determine the controller parameters and test the controller Sheet 5 of 6 Date:

In what way could the results achieved with the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method be better? Describe briefly and explain.

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Control engineering

Exercise 5.4.3
Controller parameterization using the Chien-Hrones-Reswick method Name: Controlled system: Task: Test and examine your results. Sheet 6 of 6 Date:

Task Test the results you obtained in 5.4.1 Are your values correct? If necessary, locate the error and recalculate the values. Are you happy with the result achieved? Indicate briefly what could be better. Explain.

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