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Module 4: The Brain

Clinical Observation: -The oldest method for studying the brain is to observe the effects of brain injury and disease -Functional Impairment (loss of vision, speech) and location of injury can tell about the functions of the brain parts Manipulating and Recording the Brain: -Electrical stimulation and lesioning areas of the brain in animals can also show functioning -EEG is an amplified recording of brain wave activity -Microelectrodes are able to measure the electrical activity of a single neuron Lower-Level Brain Structures The Brainstem- The oldest and most primitive part of the brain and the control area for basic biological activity. This includes: Medulla- controls heartbeat and breathing Pons- above medulla, helps coordinate movement Reticular Formation- Nerve network in the brainstem that controls arousal (stimulate a cats and it stays awake forever, sever it and it goes into a coma forever) Thalamus- Brains sensory switchboard, on top of brainstem Cerebellum- known as the little brain, coordinates movement and balance The Limbic System- associated with emotions and drives -Hippocampus- processes memory (ability to form new memories) -Amygdala- influences aggression and fear -Hypothalamus- helps perform maintenance functions for the body, the 4 Fs (fighting, fleeing, feeding, fucking) -Pituitary Glands- this is the bodys master gland

Cerebral Cortex The Cerebral Cortex (85% of the brains mass)- brains control and information processing center. A wrinkled, 1/8-inch thick layer, 9 times as many glial cells. Frontal Lobes- involved in speaking, muscle movement and making plans and judgment (fully developed around 21 years of age) Parietal Lobes- includes the sensory cortex Occipital Lobes- includes the visual areas, which receives visual information form the opposite visual field Temporal Lobes- includes the auditory areas, each receive auditory information from the opposite ear Functions of the Cortex -Motor functions: localized in the motor cortex (back of frontal lobe bordering the central fissure) -Sensory functions: sensory information is sent to the sensory cortex (front of parietal lobe bordering the central fissure) -Association Functions: remaining 29%, it integrates, interpret and act on information processed by the sensory areas of the brain. Involved in learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking Case Study: Phineas Gage -Damage to frontal lobe -Change in personality -Moral judgment and control of inhibitions were compromised Association Areas

Other Association Areas -Areas in the parietal lobes enabled mathematical and spatial learning -Under the right temporal lobe that enable face recognition Prosopagnosis Other Sense Input Areas -Virtual Cortex: Where you receive visual information, located at the back of the brain -Auditory Cortex: Where sound is processed, located in temporal lobe

Aphasia- Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage -Comprehension and production seems to be separate Brocas Area- Damage here causes difficulty with speech but singing and comprehension intact Wernickes Area- Damage here causes nonsense speech (Brain plasticity notes on handout) (Divided Brain notes on handout)