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1. Which of the following is the product of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in muscles? [K] Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration
A. Carbon dioxide and water Ethanol B. Carbon dioxide and water Lactic acid C. Lactic acid D. Lactic acid Ethanol Carbon dioxide and water
2. The figure 1 shows the changes in the amount of yeast cells, ethanol and glucose solution under anaerobic conditions. [K]
Figure 1 What are represented by curves P, Q and R? Curve P Ethanol Yeast Ethanol Yeast Curve Q Yeast Glucose Glucose Ethanol 1 Curve R Glucose Ethanol Yeast Glucose
A B C D
3. Table 1 shows the composition of four air samples. [U] Sample A B C D Oxygen 24 21 14 29 Carbon dioxide 0.3 0.03 7 3 Table 1 Water vapour Saturated Little Saturated Little
Which air sample is the composition of air exhaled during vigorous activities?
4. What will happen to the blood temperature and lactic acid content in the muscles, during extended periods of exercise? [U] Blood temperature Lactic acid A. Increase B. Increase C. Decrease D. Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase
5. To show that anaerobic respiration can occurs in yeast, a boiled glucose solution is added into yeast after the solution has cooled. The glucose is boiled to [U] i. ii. iii. iv. break it down into simple sugar remove oxygen from the solution kill the yeast kill the bacteria inn the glucose solution A. i and ii only B. ii and iii only C. i and iv only 2
D. ii and iv only
6. An athlete is running in a 100 meters race. The following changes take place in the athlete’s body during the race. [APP]
K – Oxygen level in the muscle increases L – Breathing rate increases M – Carbon dioxide concentration in the blood increases N – Muscle activity produces carbon dioxide
In which order do these changes occur? A. K, L, M and N B. L, N, M and K C. N, K, L and M D. N, M, L and K
7. Which differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration in humans are true? [U] Aerobic respiration Total energy produced per mole of glucose is 210 kJ Occurs in mitochondria The products of oxidation of glucose are carbon dioxide and energy Incomplete oxidation of glucose Anaerobic respiration Total energy produced per mole of glucose is 150 kJ Occurs in cytoplasm The products of oxidation of glucose are lactic acid and energy Complete oxidation of glucose
i ii iii iv
A. i and iv only B. ii and iii only 3
C. i, iii and iv only D. ii, iii and iv only
8. Figure 2 shows an experiment that is carried out to investigate yeast activity. [APP]
The yeast is suspended in a boiled and cooled glucose solution. Which of the following activities is being studied? A. Diffusion of gas B. Synthesis of fat C. Synthesis of protein 4
D. Anaerobic respiration
9. Which graph shows the changes in the concentration of lactic acid in the muscles of an athlete during and after a 5-minute run? [U]
10.The respiratory surfaces have the following characteristics: [K]
i. ii. iii. iv.
Large surface area Moist Thin Ciliated
A. i only B. i and ii only C. ii and iii only 6
D. i, ii, iii and iv
11.The figure 3 shows the relationship between an alveolus and a blood capillary. [K]
Figure 3 What occurs at X? i. ii. iii. iv. Gaseous exchange Carbonic acid is converted into carbon dioxide Oxyhaemoglobin is formed in the red blood cells. Oxygen dissolves in the moist surface of the alveolus.
A. i and ii only B. ii and iii only C. i, iii and iv only D. i, ii, iii and iv
12.Breathing through the lungs for frogs is not efficient because [U] 7
i. ii. iii. iv.
There is not much alveolus for gas exchange. There is no ribcage to expand and reduce its thoracic cavity. The mouth cavity is primarily used for breathing. There is no diaphragm to change the volume of the lungs.
A. i and iii only B. i, ii and iv only C. ii, iii and iv only D. i, ii, iii, and iv
13.Breathing through the lungs for humans is efficient because [U] i. ii. iii. iv. The lungs contain a large surface area of alveoli The lungs contain very thick walls of alveoli The lungs contain a moist respiratory surface of alveoli The lungs contain a rich supply of blood capillaries of alveoli
A. i and ii only B. ii,and iii only C. i, iii, and iv only D. i, ii, iii and iv
14.The figure 4 shows a part of the respiratory system of an insect. [U]
Which statement is correct? A. Q penetrates into S. B. P has valves which can open and close. C. S contains fluid for gases to dissolve in. D. R is lined with rings of chitin to prevent it from collapsing.
15.The figure 5 shows a model of the rib cage used to demonstrate the breathing mechanism in humans. [APP]
Which of the following takes place as the position of the ribs changes from X to Y? X to Y Volume of the thoracic cavity increases Volume of the thoracic cavity decreases Pressure in the lungs increases Pressure in the lungs decreases 9 Process Inhalation Exhalation Inhalation Exhalation
A B C D
16.The table shows the breathing rate and changes in the air volume during rest and exercise. [APP] Breathing rate (time/ minute) 12 24 Air volume for each inhalation (cm3) 500 1000
At rest After exercise
Calculate the increase in air volume per minute after the exercise. A. 6000 cm3 B. 12000 cm3 C. 15000 cm3 D. 18000 cm3
17.A J-tube is used to determine the oxygen content in a sample of exhaled air. [APP] Length of exhaled air column Length of air column upon adding potassium hydroxide solution Length of air column upon adding alkaline potassium pyrogallate solution = 10.0 cm = 9.6 cm = 8.0 cm
What is the percentage of oxygen content in exhaled air? A. 4% B. 8% C. 16% D. 17%
18.The following changes take place in an athlete’s body during a 100 m race. [APP]
P: increased availability of oxygen to muscles Q: increased breathing rate R: increased muscular activity, stimulating stretch receptors
What is the correct order for the above to occur? A. P→Q→R B. R→Q→P C. Q→P→R D. P→R→Q
19.Which of the following is not the form of carbon dioxide that is transportee from the blood to the lungs? [K] A. Carbaminohaemoglobin B. Carbonic acid C. Sodium bicarbonate D. Carboxyhaemoglobin
20.The figure 6 shows the transport of gases between the heart and blood capillaries of the lung. [K]
Which of the following is true about the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood vessels P and Q? Partial pressure of A B C D oxygen in P Low Low High High Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in P High High Low Low Partial pressure of oxygen in Q High Low High Low Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in Q Low High Low High
21.Figure 7 shows the exchange of gases at the alveolus. [U]
Figure 7 12
Which of the following conditions increase the rate of oxygen transfer from the alveolus into the blood capillary? Oxygen content in alveolus High High Low Low Oxygen content in blood Low Low High High Rate of blood-flow Fast Slow Fast Slow
A B C C
22.If both fish and humans are of the same size, why do you think the rate of oxygen supply to body cells in humans is faster than the rate of oxygen supply to the body cells in fish? [ANA] i. The human heart is more muscular and efficient in pumping blood throughout the body. ii. The gill system in fish is inefficient in gaseous exchange if the size of the fish is very large. iii. The gill system in fish requires a large volume of water for gaseous exchange if the size of the fish is very large.
A. i only B. i and ii only C. ii and iii only D. i, ii and iii
23.One of the factors which affect the breathing rate is the type of activities. Which of the following indicate the breathing rate between individual A who is in sleeping and individual B who is in the middle of swimming? [U] Rate of breathing A B C D Individual A High Low Low High Individual B High High Low Low
24.What happens when the amount of oxygen is insufficient to produce the amount of energy needed during exercise such as running? [APP] A. The person will run slower incase to reduce the consumption of his/her energy which still left behind. B. The heart beat become slower to make sure all the oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and leave efficiently into the working muscle cell. C. The breathing rate as well as the heart beat becomes increase to supply more oxygen and remove more carbon dioxide produce during exercising. D. The person still running without affecting by the lack of energy.
25.Which of the following chemical substances may harm your respiratory system? [K]
A. Magnesium B. Sodium C. Calcium D. Cyanide
26.Figure 6 shows an experiment to demonstrate the effects of cigarette smoke on lungs. [U]
Based on the experiment, which of the following is true? A. The bicarbonate indicator solution turns into blue color. B. The thermometer used to indicate room temperature. C. The solution of bicarbonate turns into chalky color which indicate presence of carbon dioxide D. Moist cotton represent of human lungs which are moisten.
27.The distribution of stomata in three varieties of plants is determined. The results are shown in table below. [ANA] Variety of plants K L M Number of stomata per mm2 of leaf Upper epidermis Lower epidermis 140 40 100 0 20 5
Based on the results, L is identified as an aquatic plant. Why do you think that the stomata of aquatic plants are more distributed on the upper epidermis of the leaves?
Pick a statement below which best describes why L is an aquatic plant. A. This adaptation enables plant L to exchange gases with the atmosphere efficiently. B. Plant L does not require stomata on the lower epidermis since there is no sunlight available under the water. C. Since there are more free oxygen molecules available at the surface of the water, no stomata are distributed on the lower epidermis. D. The guard cells of the stomata becomes turgid when they come in contact with water, hence, no stomata are distributed on the lower epidermis.
28.Which of the following are likely to take place in leaves when the intensity of light is low? [APP] i. ii. iii. iv. The rate of photosynthesis is the same as the rate of respiration. The glucose produced during photosynthesis is used for respiration. Carbon dioxide is absorbed through the stomata for photosynthesis There is a net gain of oxygen in the leaf.
A. i and ii only B. iii and iv only C. i, iii, and iv only D. ii, iii, and iv only
29.Table below shows the different respiratory organs between different organisms. [ANA] Protozoa None Insects Trachea Fish Gills Amphibians Skin and lungs Humans Lungs
Why do the protozoa have no respiratory organ? A. Oxygen is abundant in the normal habitat of the protozoa. B. The diffusion of gases occurs easily through the body of the protozoa. C. The protozoa have a small surface area to volume ratio. D. The protozoa do not need to exchange gases with their environment.
STRUCTURE QUESTIONS Answer all questions in this section. knowledge 1. Diagram below shows two different types of animals.
a) Name the respiratory structures of animal A and B and state one function for each structure. [4 marks] _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ understanding b) State three similar characteristics between the respiratory structures of animals A and B which are adapted to increase their efficiency in gaseous exchange. [3 marks] _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ana c) State the structure that surrounds the respiratory structure of animal B but is not found in animal A and explain why it does not need the structure. [3 marks] 19
_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ aplikasi d) Draw and label the respiratory structures of animal A. [5 marks]
know 2. Figure above show the cross section of a leaves. a) Label the structures A-E and state one function for each structure. [10 marks] A. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ B. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ C. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ D. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ E. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ know 21
b) What substances are transported by structure B and structure C? [2 marks] _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
under c) What will happen to structure A if the light intensity is high? Explain. [2 marks] _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ syn d) Describe the function of structure A, B and C during photosynthesis. [6 marks] _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
1. A 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. C 9. A 10.D 11.D 12.B 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.A 17.B 18.C 19.D 20.B 21.B 22.D 23.B 24.B 23
25.C 26.C 27.B 28.B 29.A 30.B
1. Diagram below shows two different types of animals. a) Name the respiratory structures of animals A and B. [2marks] A – tracheoles B – gills
b) State three similar characteristics between the respiratory structures of animals A and B which are adapted to increase their efficiency in gaseous exchange. [3marks] Both have thin walls, occurs in large number and are always moist.
c) State the structure that surrounds the respiratory structure of animal B but is not found in animal A. [1 mark] Blood capillaries
d) Explain why animal A does not need the structure as mentioned in (c). [1 mark] Because each cell in the insect’s body has a tracheole.
e) In the space below, draw and label the respiratory structures of animals A and B. [4 marks]
2. Figure 2 above scow the cross section of a leaves. a) Label the structures A-E. A. Guard cell B. phloem C. xylem D. stomata
b) What is the main function of structure B in the leaf? Transporting an organic matter produce during photosynthesis such as glucose from the leaf to all over part of the plants
c) What kind of substances transport in structure B and C during photosynthesis? • • Structure B transporting organic matter produce within photosynthesis in the leaf to the root While, structure C transporting water and mineral absorb by the root from soil to the leaf which required for photosynthesis to occur.
d) What will happen to the structure A if the intensity of a light becomes high? Explain. • • • When the intensity of light becomes high, the rates of photosynthesis gradually increase. The guards cell open widely to allow gaseous exchange to occur. As the guard cell open, uptake and release of carbon dioxide and oxygen from the leaf to the surrounding air occur, therefore gaseous exchanges will occur efficiently. The rate of photosynthesis becomes faster than of respiration, resulting in a net intake of carbon dioxide by the plants from the surrounding.
e) Describe the function of structure A, B and C during photosynthesis take place.
Guard cell functionally as a pathway of gaseous exchange from the plants to the surrounding. Guard cells allow intake of carbon dioxide which essential for photosynthesis and release oxygen which is the byproduct of photosynthesis to the surrounding. Other byproduct of photosynthesis is organic matter such as sugar in form of glucose, they were transported to all over the plants such a stem and roots towards the phloem. Xylem transported water and mineral from the root which absorbed from the soil used in the photosynthesis process.
JADUAL SPESIFIKASI UJIAN
Objective questions Knowled ge 7.1 The respiratory process in energy production. 7.2 The respiratory structures and breathing mechanisms in humans and animals. 7.3 Gaseous exchange across the respiratory surfaces and transport of gases in humans. 7.4 The regulatory mechanism in respiration. 7.5 The importance of maintaining a healthy respiratory system. 7.6 Respiratory in plants. Total Structured questions Knowled ge 7.1 The respiratory process in energy production. 7.2 The respiratory structures and breathing mechanisms in humans and animals. 7.3 Gaseous exchange across the respiratory surfaces and transport of gases in humans. 7.4 The regulatory mechanism in respiration. 7.5 The importance of maintaining a healthy respiratory system. 7.6 Respiratory in plants. Total Understan ding Applicat ion Analy ze 2(Q1, Q2) 2(Q10, Q11) 2(Q19, Q20) 1(Q26) 7 Understan ding 5(Q3-Q7) 3(Q12-Q14) Applicat ion 2(Q8, Q9) 4(Q1518) 1(Q22) 1(Q25) 1(Q29) 9 Analy ze 1(Q23 ) 1(Q28 ) 1(Q30 ) 3 Total 9 9
1(Q21) 1(Q24) 1(Q27) 11
5 2 3 2 30
2(a), 2(b), 2(c)
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