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to by Malcolm's place in history looms obscurelyahead of us. and I still can't quite himdead. Vol. the personalnarratives or of religiousleaderslike Jonathan Edwards.but does not share the Journal of Black Studies.predictable growth absentfromMalcolmX's book. [181 . be written historians. Inc. September 1974 ?1974 Sage Publications. It is about a spiritual experience. 5 No.The Autobiography does not involvethe further delineation such well-known of It pathsof development. It feelsto me as ifhe hasjustgoneintosome conceive nextchapter.THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF X MALCOLM A Mythic Paradigm NANCY CLASBY Department of English of University Miami Alex Haley's Epilogue to The Autobiography Malcolm of X concludes: I triedto be a dispassionate chronicler. sharesin the obscurity of Malcolm'sessentialbeing. pelling and extraordinary work. is not like Franklin's Autobiography because the staticconcept of the individual and his progresis sive.Efforts understand have been to it hamperedby comparisons withsuch standard literary works as Franklin'sAutobiography. he was the most But I electricpersonality have ever met. His while universallyacknowledgedas a comautobiography. 1.
which Malcolm in the end recognized and embodied. and. Fanon revealsa three-stage of in the psychology the emerging development people of Africaand Vietnam. whom Frantz Fanon called "the wretched of the earth. spiritually.Western valueswereonlyverycarelessly superimposed overtheruined native patterns.Today these people are emerging into history-politically. organic formation. They represent new a of expression humanconsciousness.The native'sidentityevolvesfromthe numbingviolence of the colonial situationinto a deadly imitationof Western values." If we can comprehendthe pattern changeexpressed theAutobiography willsee of in we thelineageof post-modern man. in a sense.thenpasses into a new. The great fact of the era.who have traced the pathwaysestablishedby the hero mythsof their society. based on his observations a psychiatristin the Algerianrevolution.These people. colonizedpeople haveformed littlemorethan a backdrop for the white settlers. whole public consciousness. . LeroiJones's "Malcolm has risenin a wide arc-circle embracea to words. of most importance." make up three-quarters the of world's population.Deprived of an effective national myth.Clasby /AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  essentiallyprivate nature of religious experience in the modern West. economically. Historically. of of The most sensitive analysis thedevelopment thisnew consciousnessis in Frantz Fanon's The Wretched the of as Earth.forthe most part. In this book. colonized man has had. since. was his task first discardthe developing and a of pattern the old personalhistory to fashion matrix of consciousnessin which what he was and what he might In become took on dignity and fresh meaning. Malcolm X was the Americanprototypeof this It to consciousness.no biography whichis not charteredand authorized by the oppressor. They have little to do with Western conceptsof the individual. is the emergence of a new paradigmof human awarenessamongthe nonwhite peoples of the world.
"or culture'scongenital "behind the veil. Those institutions (family. like the colonized natives." significance. These involve to make it his story. a child growing in the up Manichean world created by tightly compartmentalized." is linked to Western itself inability recognizethe mode of lifewhichexpresses to not in termsof society's"good and bad.forgesa Western "ego" as a weapon.segmented mechanicalworld for a vision of an organic. JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES / SEPTEMBER 1974 and literature.continuedfor a long time. One parentwas black and was of difference separation. "blots out one form life. of new and broaderviewof humanity. and so on) the whichordinarily mitigate society'sdrivetowardisolating His earliestawareness individualwere broken or corrupted.a worldcut in two by the dividing betweenwhite and black.through of the period of resistance and imitation the finaldevelopment the "new man" is of to in reflected the threemajorperiodsof MalcolmX's life. identity growsinto a is The shift accompanied highlydevelopedgroupawareness. thenative.under this fragile the pressuresof struggle. and . line racism.schools. transformative reality. 1963: 51). He began as Malcolm Little.certainpatterns the paradoxicalrejectionand imitation thesettler's of values and the resolution the paradox in the finaladoption of a of out That is. exists interminably an unchanging (1940: 360) pointed out.have endured injustice of such a magnitudethat it has radicallyaltered their development."The Black man's sense of being"invisible. view of the modern. Theirpath constitutes modemhistory modern "And all the while the native. aspirations. but in termsof its The Black has thus been locked outside own fulfillment. Fanon's analysis of the developmentfrom the dream-state the native.but of involving needs and anothergrows in its place with its own rights.bent double. alive. then.Oppression. "outsidehistory. more dead than in dream" (Fanon. seeksin fact emerge. his anger. millionsof people. As Richard Wright AmericanBlacks. by a rejectionof the static." Whenthe nativeson seeks a place in history.
dehumanizing natives and compelling them to cooperate in their own brutalization.she did not and when Malcolm recognizehim.and theirhome was burnedbecause of his father's allegiance to Marcus Garvey.into theNorthern had always lived in an atmosphere explicitviolence-his of fatherwas laid across the streetcartracks and killed by whites. which disease. the slowmotion violence of hunger. detached componentof a systembuilt to an unintelligible. upon rigid compartmentalization."or findsexpression reactive violence. man will firstmanifestthis aggressiveness which has been depositedin his bones againsthis own people.ninety of percent whomhad livedin the agrarian cities. The pattern from compartmentalization which cut him off.In this state of permanent "the colonized tension. the state welfare departmentto separate her from her children were scattered drove her to madness. in of everyone and everything value crystalized theloss of his and theunrelenting Her desperatepoverty efforts of mother.The children visitedher at the hospital.Clasby / AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X [211 The otherwas almostwhite favored himbecause he was light. of and beat him to exorcisethehatedwhiteness. of He took the name Detroit Red to markhis fullentry into ghettoexistenceand plungedinto an experienceof violence at and directed himself others. of In his earlyteens. "All the people have gone." the In the face of institutionalized violence.eventually. and Malcolm experiencedthe isolation preparedfor him by a to reduced societydetermined containhim.He was invisible." she said.Malcolm South." Drawn to Harlem where "everyone needed some kind of hustle to .he was drawnintothegreatmigration the 1930s whichtook a people. and helplessness had always been the underlying rhythm life accelerated. But in the cities.the psyche"shrinks in back and obliterates itself."The emotional sensitivity the nativeis kept on the surfaceof his of skinlike an open sorewhichflinches from causticagent. Fanon (1963: 56) describesthe violentrhythms ordering the the colonial world.
pimping.towardthe destruction the self."I simplydid not feel the problemcould be solved so I shutit out" (Malcolm X. I was going to become one of the most hustlers depravedparasitical amongNew York's eightmillion people. SometimesI would catch him watchingme.This is evident of his such details as Malcolm's efforts conking hair." The culminationof this period in Malcolm's life found him isolated fromhimself." Malcolm knew "this world was where I belonged.a vulture the ghetto.as I had become." Inevitably. and "Whenyou become an animal. literally burning my fleshto have it look like a whiteman'shair." He lived by exploitingthe community through robbery. but he to Further. Malcolm was "in his place." firmly entrenched himself see thisclearly.. was the "last experiencedvery deeply of reachedhimand refuge his humanity.you entera in worldof animalsand vultures." saved him with the formula. Eventually the compulsiveaggressionwhich isolated him fromhimself others and destroyed him.againstthe system.violence turnedinward. collapseof his old lifeand the depersonalof himof everything.Sophia."Even Shorty. had not permitted bolremained in an unconsciouslycultivateddream-state. dope-peddling.. violenceof thecolonialsituation directed the is in inward. "That at was my first reallybig-steptowardselfdegradation: when I enduredall that pain. steredby drugsand compulsiveviolence. relations withothers hopelessly distorted. 1964: 393).and the systemmore than ever. anger. This focusedthe angeroutward. his for starving self-realization. JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES /SEPTEMBER 1974 survive. His izingroutines prisonstripped for the firsttime.. The second phase of Malcolm's life began with his The imprisonment." Elijah Muhammed "The whiteman is the devil.wasn't preparedfor how I lived and thought-like a predatoryanimal. forthe white. whose apartmentI now again shared."This destructive introjection of white standardsexpresseditselfalso in such incidents his as rejectionof the black woman.Laura. and the .
the "self-control" (or in some cases.good and This is not to say that bad."His rhetoric was violentand the pressand police were quick to link him with the restlessupheavalsin the ghetto. But the principle repressive "segregation" of is based on differences the counterpart the exclusivity to white world's insistenceon a mechanical conformity norms."Because "it is a historicalfact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily" (King.he advocated and self-defense scoffedat "nonviolent protest. . all efforts institute to fundamental in changes the power structure eventually partakeof theviolenceat its core. his new synthesis." wantsto takethesettler's He place.. . In fact they introduce into citizens.WhiteAmerica.as Fanon said. violence permeatedMalcolm's old experience. .is modeled on the white man's way of perceiving reality.it envisions sharply a dividedworld. This period marks the firstpersonal orderingof Malcolm's vision. is also deeply affected.Fanon (1963: 68) pointsout that inevitably innocuous "nonviolent"leaders "make even the seemingly theirreaders'or hearers' consciousness terrible of the foment subversion..Both are based on prohibitions. and limitations.transformed.Clasby / AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  "True Knowledge" re-explained past. This new ordering.it was As in reflected.. the "separation" Malcolm envisionedwas the same as the of that he hated. perceived that any resistanceto the system would lead to violence. the people dream dreams.by a simpledesirethat "the last shall be first. in fact. Though not literallyresponsible for violent resistance.black and white.in fact. His priorviewwas so conditionedby society'slimitations it that was scarcelyhis own. 1963: 80)..It is Manichean. The nativeis an dreamis to become the oppressedpersonwhose permanent persecutor. while consciously his. givingMalcolm a the starting point for his own plunge into history. and. simply"control") of the This first stageof rebellionis marked. Only the racial roles are reversed.
breedsfurther ance breeds violence. watch. In to order to break the relationship and cleanse himself.who "glide throughour complex fromtheirorbits.violence and resistance. but of Decolonirefusalto accept the definitions slave-master. Carol Ohman (1970: 131) describes Malcolm as locked in a calculatingstance. It is refusalnot only to submit to flogging. first were eyeglasses. says Fanon. a purchases life and a briefcase.1963: 23)." His allegiancewas to Elijah Muhammed's and theory.." to resist. to Struggle "influences individuals and modifiesthem fundamentally. violentresistance.withthe grandiose glareof history's floodlights upon them" (Fanon. to shell of a person.[241 JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES/ SEPTEMBER 1974 Malcolm's efforts createhimself to anew necessitated the characbreakdownof the old master-slave relationship which terized the ties of the black minority white society. transforms It spectatorscrushedwith theirinessentiality into privileged actors. forhim. in a world"composed. overt resistancewas essential."He emergedas the cold. withinhave reacheda certainlevel..merelyof alliesand opponents.one of He enteredprison a motiveless those Wrightdescribes. . pay back in kindwhathe had suffered. 1963: 36). efficient builder His of a movement. was in theghetto.some when the tensions men. like Malcolm X. come to prefervictoryto survival of effects struggle (Sartre."In Islam we were taughtthatas long as one didn'tknow thetruth. he civilization like wailing ghosts . The evolutionary were fundamental Malcolm'sdevelopment. reflect rigiddivisions Malcolm's personalrelationships the whichgovernhis thinking his phase. though but he he wentback intoHarlem. symbolsof the rigidly apt patterned he would lead for twelve years.Angela Davis's (1973: 2) study of liberatedslavesindicates:"The first conditionof freedom is the open act of resistance-physical resistance. is alwaysa violentphenomenon. not of it.. Malcolm's emergenceinto the stage of history characterized a fierce is by determination to say "no. spin like fieryplanets lost ." Resistzation. . His brother at Reginald fell away fromIslam and was orderedostracized.
and formal."Nothing. "What can I do.he lived in light.Clasby / AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  lived in darkness. They may best be summedup in a minorincidentinvolving young a woman froma New Englandcollegewho had followedhim to Harlem after one of his speeches. and theirinitialrelationship was highlystructured. and recognized."This attitudecame undercontrol in Islam. X. 1964: 189). Reginald beganto go mad. In markedby greatrestraint." Beforehis conversion Malcolmastonished evenhimself by of as his deep distrust women. good whites. . She asked him." he replied.and whoeverwould then go againstit would be punishedby Allah" (MalcolmX.. I feeltheenvelope hercomfort."He "didn't want to hurt her feelings. . He had "never seen anyone.whom he regarded "nothing but anothercommodity. me waswith [Malcolm 1964: 305] .andI knewthatwhatever of she happened. as he accepted the "place" of women in the elaborately structuredMuslim division of the sexes. His attitudes towardwhites wereuncompromising.. reachedout forhiswife: I neverwould have dreamed thatI wouldeverdependso much as uponanywomanforstrength I nowleaneduponBetty."but when she asked. "I could see himon theway down. the last days beforehis break he withElijah Muhammed.But I would listen. In lateryears. more affected . There was no exchange between Bettysaid nothing but I could us.but the pain he feltwhen his own family totally rejectedhimforElijah Muhammed. His courtship SisterBettyoccurred of almostapologetically." She burstinto tearsand ran away from him. he could not believe that therewere some than this littlewhite collegegirl. He was my blood brother.But once the truthwas accepted."Malcolm'sself-control evidenced itselfas a capacity to dissociatehimselffromhis brother's agony. Whenhe spoke.knewthatshewas as faithful of a servant Allahas I was.I heardhimcoldly.he "came to believeit wasn't a divine chastisement upon Reginald. if emotionally. .
Malcolm's in responsewas to a visionof powerincarnated a vulnerable.. ."The small. little. children "ma'am" . "Sister". happiness to meet him again.. JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDI ES / SEPTEMBER 1974 of structure oppositesof Beneath the compartmentalized and bindingthe this period.sweet" but possessedof terrible Fruit strapping by Messenger strode.itsrituals. The quiet."Even speaking other of was centralto Malcolm's The figure Elijah Muhammed He himas "A lamb of a man .encircled the marching. forceswere at work unifying elementsof Malcolm's consciousness. a sense of identification for in new conceptsof theselfemerge thestruggle liberation. forms organization theresistance or afterhis into the Muslimhome-life Malcolm's introduction release fromprison began the healing process. . sensitivegentle brown face . our both and to grasp blackbrother's hands. "Sir. of demandcohesiveness. ... therespectof the upon him. of Islam guards. "had hammered into the native's The old power structure mind the idea of a societyof individuals whereeach person and whose only shuts himselfup in his own subjectivity.seemed fragile." The workingsof the old and isolating the divisions structure aimed at sharpening are But the very to person in his own bitterstruggle survive. Beautiful! .The Messenger. was fixed straightahead as the .. people of instead being to jealous blackpeople had learned loveother men both I thrilled howweMuslim used to hands andsuspicious. described powers. wealth is individual thought. "Brother" . impressed themselves Muslims one another for I had never of like among dreamed anything thatatmosphere who to whohadlearned be proud were black they black.almost tiny" (Malcolm X.. voicing smiling a these terms.The most important was the experience of workingwith a people who were The commonresistance. isolationand bound together their in of the driveforpersonalsurvival his earlyyearsgaveplace to Fanon notesthat withthe Muslims. . 1964: 146). imagination. comparedto them. gentle. . and prayerful orderof thehome. to children used .
the demonstrations sit-ins and By .He was ready to "convert eternityinto history.but the fearsuchas one has of thepowerof thesun. The Manicheandesign of good versusevilwas simpleand useful fora time. competition conceived The manyprohibitions sprangfroman artificially notion of discipline. so the identity was bound to the struggling withthe power of thepeople. transcendent wereranged.the hope. 1962-1963. the old patterns of jealousy. "We oftenignorethe fact of is thatKarl Marx also said thatreligion thewish-dream an of oppressed humanity" (Davis." Elijah Muhammed's Muslimpeople.invulnerable a face." the lie" of the colonialsituation and destroys "living (Fanon." For people whollycaughtin the repressive structure society.Clasby/ AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  accessiblehuman form."true. early this vision of power 'humanized was crucialto his development.power of presents blank. outside the Muslimmovement The "truth"was occurring in the streets." The truth in a situation of struggleis "that which promotes the of emergence the nation: it is all thatprotectsthe natives. so thathe could makeit real."He was the first man whom I had ever feared-notfear such as that of a man witha gun. Malcolm's energies in vision.againstthe deforming powersof the state.Because the structures Elijah for of Muhammed'smovement were simplyreversemodels of the old structures. occurredduring tripto Malcolm'sfinalmetamorphosis his of Mecca and his immersionin the ferment the African struggle independence. in practice.rather than from the necessitiesof successfulresistanceand were certainto be broken. 1973). 1963: 50). power of Allah was identified The creative. Malcolm needed the dream. in thelongrun.Although Malcolmwas laterto breakwithElijah Muhammed.The capacityto envision a is sustaining counter-force a religious capacityand is always subversive the state's power. did not.but it was not. and the urgeto controlwere bound to emerge.reflect creative and the energy of liberated men.
" has retained the power patternswhich presume some sort of master. liberation.the sons of fromhis slaves by the title. The as while breaking withthe concept of the old Muslimpattern. JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES / SEPTEMBER 1974 had become mass movements.Elijah Muhammedkept the restive Muslims separate. "white master. In thissociety. X. the fatherwere distinguished that they"owned themselves." The "liberi. connotation a divided of and the self-owner. I thought our privately we should that haveamended. unless but theynever anything. or generalnon-engagement policy." or sons. I feltthatwhereblack people and committed themselves. The Muslims were in the society situationof the "liberi. the "white" from their behavior and the "white" from their attitude [Malcolm 1964: 340]. militantly disciplined Muslimsshould also be there. withitsimplicit . The dramaticchangein attitudetowardwhiteswas symptoin matic of a profoundtransformation which he shook off and assumedhis the patternof "white" thoughtstructures finalidentity a black man: El Hajj Malik el Shabazz. in the primitive describedby Norman0. It couldbe heard increasingly theNegro in community: "Those Muslims talk tough. do somebody bothers Muslims" [Malcolm 1964: 289]."whichsignified liberated man is the one for whom the very genuinely The father-owner concept of being"owned" is unthinkable. 1967: 12-21). theLittleRocksandBirminghams in other places.. relaxed. paralleltrack. Elijah Muhammed's movement could not envision alonga but only coexistencewiththe old structures-escape.." from all in their We weretruly thesame(brothers)-because belief one God had removedthe "white"fromtheir minds. and Malcolm grew increasingly (Breitman. Jones. Malcolm astonishedthe worldin April 1964 by his letter Mecca asserting "the Onenessof Man.. X.
metamorphose into a quest fora totallynew and organic society. Fanon (1963: 197) says that "in the . 1963: 145).norsuffer of nor repression.By power. sustain warofliberation.must disappearbeforeliberation possible. anxieties are created" (MalcolmX. the nativeslook around them in the-course they also notice that the monolithicfagade of the white populace is crumbling. thatdetermias reply the characterizes native's for nationto fight one'slifewhich in good enoughreasonsforjoining to oppression obviously are brutal and on But the fight.Clasby/ AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  is self. structure is of thatthe truecriterion leadership spiritual.Love By by is engenderedby spirit.men are forced.become Negroesor Arabs.others condemn the repression. power." of the struggle. Such a suffering. a for desire revenge"-cannot that some The reason for this is the dawningrecognition and thatsomeprofiteer Blacks are "whiterthan theWhites. "The scandal of explodeswhen the prototypes thisdivisionof the species go over to the enemy." and that the systemmeant to replace exploit the struggle. Manicheism and Racial feeling. opposed to racialprejudice. you do not carry a war. As is oppression itself"yet anothersystemof exploitation. revoluFanon's (1963: 139) analysis of the third-world as insight theprimitive tionaries describesthe same emerging of adoptedat thebeginning thestruggle. look on whileall othermembers widespread or are yourfamily wiped out in orderto makeracialism hatred legitimate Racialismand hatredand resentment-"a triumph.and accept tortureand death" (Fanon. 1964: 368). the turnof eventswill eitherthwart revolutionary confusing it or struggle. era to another Men are attracted spirit.Some whites do not join in the hysteria.Previously to Malcolm had attemptedto bend the power-flow accoma and his people-to substitute morelikeable modate himself the power owner-but at this point he transcended western one has "Mankind'shistory provedfrom altogether.
 JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES / SEPTEMBER 1974 end. foractionwith the meansofviolence. The personal consequences of Malcolm's change were profound. This alterationin view did not result in an unqualified acceptance of white allies.thatis.whether theywishto be or not. mustclaimforswift and directaction. For the first timein his life he "stood beforethe Creatorof All and feltlike a completehumanbeing.radical goodness which "shares the elementary violence inherentin all strength. Cesairesaid. 1964: 429). His detachment had givenway to what Hannah Arendt(1963: 82) calls "compassion"-a fierce. it will be forthe case of brotherhood. "Political education means openingtheirminds. negotiationand compromise whichare the processesof law and politics." Such passion sweeps away the old forms and engenders new souls. as it is 'to invent souls. And if I'm to be one.allowingthe birthof theirintelligence.awakening them. in 1964: 371).and lend its voice to the suffering which itself.' " Malcolm'stripto Mecca brought himto theawareness that the enemy was an international power arrangement which grew out of a certainthoughtpattern:"It's the American political. everything depends on the education" of the people. productsof social patternswhich make an organicor "spiritual"awareness veryunlikely. since the fact remainedthatAmerican whitesare.economic and social atmosphere thatautomatically a nourishes racistpsychology thewhiteman" (MalcolmX. That's the only thingthatcan save thiscountry. Nor did Malcolm's change of view suggesta lessened expectationof violent struggle. In the political sphere."Cut off ."Malcolmforesaw thatviolencewould inevitably touch him: "It's a time formartyrs now. I've learnedit the hardway-but I've learnedit" (MalcolmX. Violence remained endemic to the situation and affected all of its creatures. compassion addressed to changing conditionsin order to ease human suffering "will shun the drawn out wearisome processes of persuasion.
. the women. "to us. humility and truebrotherhood wherever was almosta physicalfeeling I turned.alone in a throng identically his of dressed pilgrims of all races.reborn. "Malcolmwas our sun.." W..." who taughthis people to love. "the son who has come home.. him The Nigerians named him Omowale. to and theysustainedhim. American of The of of of has Negro no conception thehundreds millions other for of non-whites' concern him:he has no conception their of for feeling brotherhood andwith [1964:346].." He returned to America determinedto forge a new brotherhood thathe had experienced emerging like in Africa: acts of love recreatingthe powerful gods in us. I reflected many.Everywhere went the African he people embraced himand wept and cheered. the girl children. . Negro beenentirely as a partof thenon-white peoples theworld.the poor and the who are still ruled in dumb suffering.since(he) was a baby." He made himself vulnerable others." takeninto the Malcolm. "Wordsof love become underwent internal and internalized Black the the revolution the Revolution. he stood in the airportat Jedda and he had "neverfeltmore alone and helpless. worldrevolution. . and slept as One.. liberated from categories" (Ohman. KeorapetseKgositsile (1969: 44)." PatriciaRobinson's(1969: 29) articlespeaks of him in the broadest sense as the son who rejects his role as imitator and successor thegreatfather returns of and instead."Love. All ate as One. Everything about the pilgrimage atmosphereaccented the Oneness of Man underOne God. The otherswere"physically present his This specialgiftof unitylastedduring pilgrimage through a newly liberatedAfrica. many times myself howthe to upon American has brainwashed ever from seeing himself . was quicklyand completely human familyby the Orthodox Muslims. For have-nots. 1970: 137)..Clasby/ AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  from past.our son.. Malcolm for him.
the businessof the new He seemed to falterin conducting and falling more his oftenignoring lieutenants organization. namelesspeople who into the companyof the numberless.because of thepowerful as EldridgeCleaver's(1968: 54) testimony to themeaning held for him revealsthe effectson Malcolm's development men. a church. he in wherever sought him out on the streets. SisterBetty..in the senseof therevolutionary thattheworldof (1969: 69) who may not believe Elmessire yet "actuallyexists. the Malcolmwent back into theghettoto form Organization and a brotherhood Unity. believesin purity and spiritual simplicity over fact and the possibilityof vision and its superiority reality.to die for the "cause". Life is lived at an impossibly generosity. a mystical thesametime"[Fanon." of efficiency the old Malcolmwas gone.His ideal was new model for a humanand spiritual described A. of in outpouring all thevillages spectacular permanent whichcannotever be kindnessand willingness. of disarming doubted. M. leave I withme.1963: 133]." Though his forces appeared to be you unseenand unrecoghis scattered.132] JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES / SEPTEMBER 1974 There is a high temperature. was like watching a himself He tightrope. his lost along with"the sickness "nerveswhereshot."We'll telling went. nized.. manydesperate to frantically reorient We had watchedMalcolmX as he sought a It and establish new platform. I'll never all be together. wantmyfamily so long again. 1964: 426). ..his braintired"(MalcolmX. All this is evocativeof a at bodyofbelief one and and confraternity. The machinelike and madnessof thosedays". masterdo a dance with death on a highstrung in somersaults theair-buthe landed turned twirled.a revolutionary of Afro-American society.He drewcloserto his family. restaurants. of meaning his change. influencewas increasing. by pastoral. pirouetted. and on firmly hisfeetandwas off running.
New York: Grove.a "livingand splendiddeath. [ed. (1963) On Revolution. (1969) "Islam as a Pastoral in the Life of MalcolmX. H. New York: Schocken." Because MalcolmX had "turned about. of to He sought to educate by embodying the new myth. whose retreatfromthe precipice of madnesscreated new room for othersto turnabout in. It was. A. Clarke(ed. 1963: 205). of . A. "I have.) MalcolmX: The Man and His Times. washed my hands in the blood of the martyr. so to speak. FANON. M. E. Malcolm X. CLARKE. to the and to thecemetery hospital. But his significancewas just as beginning the Americanincarnation the desperatemen of who are plucking new humanity a from globalwhirlwind the of violence. (1973) "Lectureson liberation. (1968) Soul on Ice. F. New York: Macmillan.New York: Viking. createa prospect and that is human because conscious and sovereign men dwell therein"(Fanon. New York: Delta. in Aime Cesaire's words.] (1969) Malcolm X: The Man and His Times.he "invented souls" by drawing othersinto participation the in emerging blackidentity. H. ELMESSIRE. Such a dreamcould not survive in Americain 1965. (1963) The Wretched the Earth. Malcolm'sefforts pass on whathe to had experienced sprangfromhis hunger "fillmen'sminds to and feasttheireyeswithhumanthings." REFERENCES ARENDT. G. J.Clasby/ AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X  After the assassination. he knewit." beforehe can be truly His lifeended on the stageof the Audubon Ballroomin a hail of assassin's bullets. (1967) The Last Year of MalcolmX."Los Angeles:Peace. "Anyonewho wantsto followme and and my movement has got to be readyto go to jail. BREITMAN. Malcolmwas about to go fromhistory into myth. H. New York: Macmillan." in J.he wrote. CLEAVER." many otherswere able to accomplishthe difficult maneuver coming birth. DAVIS. free.
York:Signet. Franklin tradition. Clarke in (ed.H. of X: use OHMAN.(34] JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDI ES / SEPTEMBER 1974 the of KGOSITSILE.NewYork:Perennial. son in ROBINSON. P. . Jail. Malcolm (1964) TheAutobiographyMalcolm NewYork:Grove." J. (1969) "Malcolm andtheBlackrevolution: tragedy X X: a dream deferred. (1963) "Preface.W. L. Q. (1940) Native R. 22: 123-135." Amer. Son.K.J.P.) Malcolm The ManandHisTimes. X. Clarke X: NewYork:Macmillan. of X.TheWretched theEarth. (1963) "Letter from Birmingham inWhy Can'tWait." F. in of New SARTRE.H. WRIGHT." J. (ed." We New KING. Fanon. York:Grove. (1970) "TheautobiographyMalcolm a revolutionary ofthe C. NewYork:Macmillan. (1969) "Malcolm ourrevolutionary andbrother.) Malcolm HisLifeandTimes.M. X.
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