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NACA TM 655

EXPERIMENTS WITH INTUBED PROPELLERS

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS WASHINGTON, DC

JAN 30

1.
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N O T I C E T H I S D O C U M E N T HAS BEEN R E P R O D U C E D F R O M T H E BEST COPY F U R N I S H E D US B Y T H E S P O N S O R I N G A G E N C Y , ALTHOUGH IT IS R B C O G N I Z E D THAT C E R T A I N P O R T I O N S A R E ILLEGIBLE, I T IS BEING R E -

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T ' h w r i t e r , f o l l o w i n g h i s a r t i c l ' e . pub'l.i.shed i n " t , h e : A z r i l ? 1 9 3 1 number: o f L t A e r o t e c n i c a , und,er t h e t i t l e o f " ' A l a a Turbinal1 ( . t u r b f n e wing), '-i'?.~lu.st.ra%~'s'.-resu.lts the of t k e e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h h i s new method o f - p r o p u l s i o n and e xp 1a i n s i t s ndv.ant ag e s In .' d e s c r i'b;i n &'. t h e -exp e ri ine nt s w i t h - p r o p e l l e r s dper.ated l a . ca,Gjunc.tXon w i t % a Vmturi t u b e formi-pg the n l y f u s e l ' i g e l . o f . ; . t h &" t u r b i n e w i t l g , 11 i t i s n e c e s s g r y . tie.' 'e. a .'. a i .f f e .r e..n . .t"Iiam'e .f\p,oii:.%>'e.-prerc'eding . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . .. . ........... one
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The above-mentioged q r t , i c l e e x p l a i n s how t h e i n s i d e . . shape 0:f. t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l .sect5-'o,fi:.';of' t h e , V e n t u r i - t u b e . ' f u s e l a g e i s of c a p i t a l . f n p ' o r t a n c e ' . f o r ' f B . e sli'ccess of *.he e x p e r i m e n t s . T h e e t y 2 e s of t u b e s w e r e d e s i g n e d ( f i g . $1) b y v s r g i 3 g tile i n s i d e shajje..and, i n t h e t k i r d t y p e , a l s o tLe o u t s - i d e s h a p e , whicll g a v e . d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l r e sults.
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. - T h e s e f u s e l a g e t u b e s were a a d q . an a 1:5 . s c a l e r T t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a d o p t ' s u c h a l a r g e : scale because t h e 'dim e n s i o n s o f the. t u b e Xad t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s i z e .of t h e E x p e r i m e n t e r s know t h a t : r e s u l t s . o b t a i n e d w i t h . :. propeller. . a p r o p e l l e r n o d e l h a v i n g a . d i a a e t e r of l e s s . t h a n 50 c m ( a b o u t 20 i ' n . ) : a r e n o t r e l i a b l e . . H e a c e , t h e . s c a l e of t h e p r o T e l l e r n o d e l .b . i n g .g i.v e n , t k e .s c a. l .e . of t h e - f u. s .e l a g e .e . . model f o l l o w e d .

'Eoreover; 'si.nce t h e . u s e l a g e h a d - t o b e - a t t a c h o d t ' o ' t h e a r m s . o f Ithe' w i n d - t u n n..: l : ' b a l a n c e , i f ha&.t. o b e very e. . .* ... . .. . . . . . . - - -. .'
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light. In f a c t , .it _yae ,;lade o f s b e e t - - a l y i n u m and d i d b) . (Zig.. 2.) The l a r g e n o t weigh over 10 k g ( 2 2 l . . s i z e of t h e f u s e l a g e model c r e a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e wind-tunnel t e s which w i l l be. c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r . . . Two p r o p e l l e r s were ch-osep f o r t h e w i n d - t u n n e l t e s t s : one from t h e s e a p l a n e C -R7-20,'t h e - o t l i e r l r o m t h e S 59. These t w o p r o p e l l e r s d i f f e r c h i e f l y i n p i t c h , t h e C R 20 p r o p e l l e r h a v i n g a p i t c h of 0.472 m (1.55 f t . ) and a d i a m e t e r o f 0.48 m (1.57 f t . ) , w h i l e t h e p r o p e l l e r o f t 9 e S 5 9 has a p i t c h o f 0.41 m (1.35 f t . ) and a d i a m e t e r o f 0,5205 m (1.71 f t , ) . The f o l l o w i n g t e s t s mere made with e a c h p r o p e l l o r : 1, P r o p e l l e r a l o n e : 11 i p p r e s e n c e of. V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e ; 2 . n integral w i t h ' I1 11II 3 . . . 4 Resistance .of Venturi-tube f u s e l a g e at d i I ' f o r e n t , revolution speeds of t h e p r o p e l l e r .

The f i r s t , t e s t mas made by a t , t a c h i n g t h e p r - o p e l l e r t o t h e a r m of the b a l a n c e o f t h e t u n n e l p r o p e l l e r s , ' m i t h t k c d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r u s t T.m. developed by t h e prop e l l c r and of t h e power I?. m. a b s o r b e d by t h e p r o p e l l e r at d i f f e r e n t r e v o l u t i o n speeds o f t h e p r o p e l l e r .

?he t h r u s t . was measured i n k ' i l o g r a n s " and t h e powor i n kilogram-meters. The r e s u l t s : f o r b o t h p r o p e l l e r s a r e g i v e p in Tabla I,
* .

TABLE 1
- - 1 _ _ - c - . -

P r o p e l l e r of C R 20

p e 11e r

ab

peller kgm 2600 3000 3400 3800 4200 24.67 32.61

peller kg 1.410 1.950

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0.05711 2600 0,05981 3000

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k g X 2.20462

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27,Ai C I A ; T e c h n i c a l . tdemoranc?ua 170.

655

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?be seconil t e s t w a s inade by a t t a c h i n g t h e p r o p e l l e r as above and p l a c i n g behind i t tile V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e ' ( f i g , 3). which w a s a t t a c h e d t o t h e w i n d - t u n n e l w a l l s . The s a i e d a t a were d e t e r m i n e d f o r b o t h p r o p e l l e r s as g i v c n i n T a b l e 11. These d a t a were o b t a i n o d w i t h t h e n o d i f i c d V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e (2d s e r i e s of t e s t s ) .

---%..E! W.m.

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Tom. Power Thrust abpror.p.m. s o r b e d duced of p r o - b y p r o - by p r o peller peller peller kgm kg


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r.p.m. o f propeller

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2200 2 600 3000 3400 3800 4200 460G 5000

9.29 16.69 27.0 40.26 56.36 76.85 100.86 128.87

0.775 1.225 1.700 2.250 2,815 3.550 4.265 5.025

I p; z
I0.0390

0.0834 0.0733 0.0530 0.0558

2200 2600 3000 3400 3800 4200 4600

9.54 21.45

1.100 1.875

b.1153 jo.0~4

92.63 15.100 121.67 ! 6 , 1 0 0

0,0550 0.0500

The t h i r d t e s t w a s made by a t t a c h i n g t h e p r o p e l l e r alone t o t h e b a l a n c e and s e c u r i n g f i r m l y t o t h e same arm t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , so a s t o m a s c r e on t h e b a l a n c e t h e t h r u s t r e g u l t i n g f r o m the t r a c t i o n of the p r o p e l l e r and f r o m t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e . (Fig. 4.)

Analogous d a t a were d e t e r m i n e d by v a r y i n g t h e r.p.m. The r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e I11 and of t h e p r o p e l l e r . r e f e r t o t h e m o d i f i e d V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , which w a s u s e d i n t h e second s e r i e s o f e x - - e r i m e n t s .

N.A.C.A.

T e c h n i c a l Memorandum 170. 655

TABLE: 1x1
C R 20 2.m. W .m. Thrust Power proabrep.m. of p r o - s o r b e d duced p e l l e r by p r o - by p r o peller peller kg kgm
o
I Z C -

-e l l o r

P r o p e l l e r of S 59

1800 2200 2600 3000 3400 3800 4200 4600

5.25 9.49 17.23 27 60 40.21 58.74 78.44 104.24


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0.825 1,250 1,750 2.350 3.075 3.850 4.712 5.650

30G0 3400 3800 4600

j1

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36.86 1 3.175 51.37 4.037 75.19 15.050 6,125 1125.49 7.437 1l;::o 18.150

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/0.0851 0.0786 0.070~


000644

3,0592 0.0557

I
1

The d a t a f o r t h e C R 20 p r o p e l l e r a r e p l o t t e d i n F i g I n o r d e r t o be b e t t e r u r e 5 and f o r t h e S 59 i q , - F i g u r e 6. a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e v a r i o u s t h r u s t s and pomersunder t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i t w a s t h o u g h t b e s t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a t i o between t h e t h r u s t and t h e power a t d i f f e r e n t r e v o l u t i o n speeds. This r a t i o i s g i v e n i n t h e f o u r t h colunn of Table I11 and p l o t t a d i n F i g u r e s 7 and 8 f o r p r o p e l l e r s C B 20 and S 5 9 , r e s p e c t i v e ly. The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e a d v a n t a g e of t h e p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r t r l w i t h t h e V e n t u r i - t u b o f u s e l a g o over t h e p r o p e l l e r a l o n e and in t h e p r e s e n c o of t h e V o n t u r i - t u b s fuselage.
s

A s t o what c a u s e d t h o g r e a t o r t r a c t i o n and t h e l e s s p o n e r a b s o r b e d by t h e p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e Tentu.ritube f u s e l a g e with respect t o t h e p r o p e l l e r alone, i t ' w a s obviously t h e r e a c t i o n (not r e s i s t a n c e ) o f t h e Venturit u b e f u s e l a g e , which w a s c o n f i r m e d by t h e f o u r t h t e s t . In t h i s t e s t t h e p r o p e l l e r a l o n e m a s a t t a c h e d t o t h e wind. tunnel balance. T h i s b a l a n c e w a s s e c u r e d , however, i n 2 p o s i t i o n of s t a b i l i t y i n such a way as n o t t o b e a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t . The f u s e l a g e m a s mounted n e a r t h o p r o p e l l e r , as a l r e a d y shown, b u t s u s p e n d e d from a d i f f e r e n t b a l a n c e , so as t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o v a r y i t s f o r e - a n d - a f t p o s i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e r e was a r e = sistance o r a reaction. (Fig. 9.)

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B . A . C .A. T e c h n i c a l Keiaorandun !To, 655
5

By v a r y i n g t h e p r o p e l l e r r.p.m, f r o m a uiniinum - t o 'a maxinuin, e r e a c t i o n w a s always o b t a i n e d , t h o v a l G c s o f which a r e g i v e n i n TPzble I V and ? l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 10.

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.

P r o p e i ? e r .r'.p:.rn,

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Re s i stcilce'. fn grams ( r e a ' c t i n a ) : : .

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VIND-T'flTiGTEL TESTS

Thoso t o s t s w o r e made w i t h tho same C Ii 20 ant? S 5 9 p r o g o l l e r s , as f o l l o w s :


1. P r o p e l l e r a l o n e w i t h wind v e l o c i t i e s o f 1 5 and 2 0 ' m (49,2 and 65.6 f t . ) p e r socoild;

2 , P r o p e l l o r i n p r e s e n c o of V o a t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e w i t h w i n d v e l o c i t i o s o f 15 and 20 ra p o r s e c o n d ;
3, P r o p o l l o r i n t e g r a l w i t h V e n t u r i - t u b e wind v e l o c i t i e s of 1 5 a i l d 2 0 m p o r second;

fuselage vith

..
N.A.C.A.

T e c h n i c a l ?demorand&m io.
t

655

4. R e s i s t a n c e o f - V e n t u r i - t u b e , f u s e l z g e f r o m v a r y i n g t h e wind v e l o c i t y ; -

5. R e s i s t a n c e of V e n t u r i - t u 3 e f u s e l E g e w i t h wind o f 20 m/s at d i f f e r e n t p r o p e l l e r r.p.n.;

6 C R 20 p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h C B 20 . f u s e l a g e . .

For b r e v i t y , o n l y t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d wit3 a wind v e l o c i t y of 20. m (65.6 f t , ) p e r s e c o n d a r e e i v e n , s i n c e t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n o d w i t h t h e mind v e l o c i t y of 1 5 m (49 f t . ) p e r second a r o a n a l o g o u s t o t h e f o r m e r .


T e s t s 2, 3, 4 a n d 5 were e a c h made t!areo t i m e s w i t h t h e u n n o d i f i e d V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e ( f i r s t s o r i o s or" cxp e r i m e n t s ) , with t h e modified fuselage (second s e r i e s ) , and w i t h t h e second m o d i f i c a t i o n ( t h i r d s e r i e s ) , as shonn i n F i g u r e 1. The p r o p e l l e r m a i n t a i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 11. Returning t o t h e experimentq w i t h t h e p r o p e l l e r r o t a t i n g at. a f i x e d p o i n t , t h e e x c e s s i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f ' t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e h a v e a l . r e a d y been i l o t e d . The v e l o c i t y o f t h e a i r i n t h e t u n n e l m a s measured at a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e u p s t r e a m 2 r o m t h e model (Zig. l l ) , a a d , i f t h o model m a s v e r y l a r g e , i t d i n i n i s h e d t h e f r e e s e c t i o n of t h e a i r p a s s a g o add c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e vc1ocit:i. I n o u r caso; t h e d i a b e t e r o f t h o t u n n e l at t h e model i s 2 m ( 6 . 5 6 f t , ) w i t h a s e c t i o n o f 3.1416 m2 (33.82 sq.ft3. The model of t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e ( s e c o n ? s e r i e s ) The wind h a s a g a r a s i t e s e c t i o n o f 0 . 2 8 m2 (3.01 sq,ft.). v e l o c i t y o f 20 m/s, measured u p s t r e a m i a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t 3 e model, i s 2 0 X 3.1416/2.8616 o r an in= 22, c r e a s e o f lo$. I t should be b o r n e i n mind t h a t t h e r e s i s t a n C e a l s o i n c r e a s e s w i t h the square o f t h e v e l o c i t y , but t h i s increase i s disregarded i n the following calculam d of t h o e f f i tions. Hence, the v a l u e s of 'Y = V/ND ciency Q = TY/X a r e both increased lo$ f o r .the propel' ler i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e . I n B i g u r e s 1 2 and 13, t h e r e a r e p l o t t e d t h e r e s u l t s of t o s t s 1, 2 and 3 w i t h p r o p e l l o r s C R 20 a n d S 5 9 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and rrith t h e m o d i f i e d V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a f ? e ( s e c o n d series). T h e s e c u r v e s show how t h c eff1ci'cnc:i of t h e p r o p e l l e r i s i a c r o a s e d bjr t b e 2 r e s e n c e of t h e V e l i t u r i t u b e f u s e l a g e i n b o t h t'nese c a s e s .

N.A.C.A.
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.. T e c h n i c a l iiemorandum' No.. 665, -

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The. e f f i c i e n c y o f ' 'the. p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r ' a l ' . W i t h . the . : f u s e l a g e a l s o i n c l u d e s tile t o t a l r k s i s t a n c e o f . : t h e f u s e - . lage. Moreover, t h e above-mentioned lo$ n u s t be:-added. . .. . . . . F i g h r e s 1.4 ..+rid .1..5.show. t h e e f f e c t 'of Xn'e i n s i d e s h a p e of:the f u s e l a g e .on t h e c h a r d c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e ' C R . 2 0 and' . S 59 . p r . o p e l l e r s ' i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e . iinmo'difi'ed f u ' s e l a g e : . (first series) 'The maximum , e f f i c i e n c i e s " a r e .much i n f e r i , o r :t.o t h o s e o b t a i n e d w i t h t h a m o d i f i e d . f u s ' e l a g e . . .

. . Iq,:..experirnent NO. 4 , f o r b o t h t h e m o d i f i e d and unnod: i f i s d ,f.uselago, tho r e s i s t a n c e s a r e P l o t t s d in';Figure 1 6 f o r . a n . i n c r e n s o i n t h o wind v e l o c i t y f r o m 1 0 t b ' . 3 0 : m .' . . (32.8 t o 9 8 , 4 ' \ f t . ) p e r second, Uoto t h e ,great ' r e d u c t i o n : . . ; '. i n t h q -resistance of t h e modi,fied f u s e l a g e as' comparod w i t h t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e unnod.ifiod f u s e l a g e .
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ID t e . s t . No.:.5.?e o b t a i n t h e r e s i s t a n c e s of t h e same . two. f u s e l a g e s w i t l i . , . a wind v e l o c i t y o f 20.'mIs a n d ' v a r y i n g p r . o p e I l e r , , r.p..m.' mote h e r e a 1 s o " t h o j great r e d u c t i o n i n '. t h e : r e s i , s t a n c e o f ' t h o m o d i f i e d fuse1,age. ( f i g . 1.7). n d . . t h o a .. . . . d i f f e . r . o n t ,course o f t h o curve. . ..
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. ..'
'

; .In:.',order t o make a p . r a c t i c a l " c o m p a r i s o r i of. . t h e chara c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p r o p e l l e r 'C R 2 0 i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e . V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , i t i s i n t e n d e d t o make t h e .same . . p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h the model o f t'ne f u s e l a g e o f t h e C R 2 0 - s e a p l a n e . The f u s e l a g e . .of t h e .C R 2 0 seap1an.e cons i s t e d . o f one . c e n t r . a l h u l l (fig.. 1 8 ) ,' t o w h i c h were. at- . t a c h e d a 2 . l .t h e . o t h b r p , a r t s ( s t r u t s , 1;anding g e a r , wings,.'e t c . ) c o v e r e d by t h e p r o p e l l e r . . ( F i g . 18.). .
'

. . I n .order t o o b t a i n .the most unfavorable c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e w a s p u r p o s e l y chosen t h e C 3'20p u r s u i t s e a p l d n e , t h e f f n e s t o b t a i n a b l e , w h i l e f o r comparison t h e r e w a s 6 8 lected another airplane'of l e s s favorable characteristics. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o p e l l e r . C R . Z O i n t e g r a l witk t h e f u s e l a g e o f t h e s e a p l a n e C R 2 0 ark p l o t $ e d i n . F i g u r e 20. I n t h i s f i g u r e and i n comparison w i t h tho'se. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e r e a r e p l o t t e d t h e curves foa'.the'saIde prop e l l e r i n t e g r a l W i . t h t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s .e l a g e . .

I f ,a,?, a l r e a d y m&ti,onea, t h e . 10s c o r r e c t i b n . i s made i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y c u r v e o f , the C . I?. 20,p r o p e l l e r t n t o g r a l . w i t h t n e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , t h e r e is fo.urid a d e c i s i v e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e l a t t e r , i n t h a t i t s e f f i c i e n c y i s greaAe r up t o Y L= 0.45. Above t h i s v a l u e o f Y , however, t h e maximum e f f i c i e n c y i s s l i g h t l y l e s s , b u t r e m a i n s near-

N,d.CiA.

T e c h n i c a l b4omorepdun.N~. 6 5 5 . :

l y c o n s t a n t over a l a r g e . r a n g e o f Y. This a l n a y s . w i t 5 o u t t e 2 i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e i n c r e a s e d r e s i s t a n c e due t o t h e i3c r e a s e d wind v e l o c i t y n e a r t h e model. The d i f f i c u l t t a k e - o f f o f t h e t r a n s a t l a n t i c s e a p l a n e s S 55 f r o m B o l a m a i s remembers3. D i f f i c u l t y i s s.ti11 exp e r i e n c e d i n t a k i n g o f f f r o m t h e L i b y a n D e s e r t . . The d i f - . ' f i c u l t y c a n be g r e a t l y red.uce3 by t h i s n e t k o d , b e c a a s e . t h e p r o p e l l e r t r a c t i o n or t h r u s t i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d a n d t h e a b s o r b e d power r e d u c e d at t h e v e l o c i t y of t h e t a k e - o f f ,
. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t m a y a l s o be a f f i r m e d that i t i.s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o r e d u c e t h e r e v o l u t i o n s of t h e v a r i a b l e p i t c h p r o p e l l e r , i f the p r o p e l l e r i s i n t u b e d , consoquentl y r e d u c i n g t h a s i z e o f t h e p a r t s and t h e w e i g h t of t h o e n g i n e sild i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f f u n c t i o n i n g .

I now take t h e l i b e r t y t o make an o b s e r v a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e system which y i e l d s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r v e s or' t h e C R 2 0 and S 5 9 p r o p e l l e r s i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e VenThis o b s e r v a t i o n r e g a r d s t h e method turi-tube fuselage. a r e obtained. D i s by n h i c h t h e v a l u e s o f T = V/ND constant, V i s f i x e d and r e - a a i n s c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t h e whole t e s t . . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , I? v a r i e s f r o m t h e n i n inum t o t h e maximum v a l u e p e r m i t t o ? by t h e w i n d - t u n n e l balance.

The Y , t h u s o b t a i n c d , i s v a l i d f o r . i s o l a t e d p r o p e l l e r s and f o r p r o p e l l e r s i n t h e s r e s e n c e o f o r i n t e g r a l w i t h a normal f u s e l a g e s n o p t b p t h e s l i p s t r e a n , b e c a u s e t h e e n t i r e f u s e l a g o - i s oxposed. t o t b e wind v e l o c i t y V i n c r e a s e d b y t h e v e l o c i t y of t h o s l i p s t r e a m .

In t h e c a s e o f t h e V e n t u r i - t u b o f u s e l a g e , o n l y t h e i n s i d e i s u n d e r t h e above c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e t h e o u t s i J e i s a l m s y s exposed t o a v e l o c i t y V o f t h e wfnd, which i s c o n s t a n t and f i x e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g 03 t h e e x p e r i m e n t . A s i s w e L l known, t h i s v e l o c i t y i n d u c e s on t h e f u s e l a g e a c e r t a i n r e s i s t a n c e o f c o n s t a n t v a l u e f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e experiment ,


F i g u r e 1 0 s h o w s t h a t t h e e T f e c t i v e t h r u s t due t o t h e f u s e l a g e i n c r e a s e s as t h e r e v o l u t i o n speed o f t h e p r o p e l l e r i n c r e a s e s . Hence t h e p r o p e l l e r must b e g i v e n a s u i t a S l o s p e e d b e c a u s e i t must overcome t h e d r a g o f t h e o u t side portion.

..

N.A.C.A.

T e c h n i c a l Hemorandurn No.

655

But such c o n d i t i o n s do n o t o c c u r i n p r a c t i c e . A3 a i r p l a n e s t a r t s f r o = a speed o f z e r o and i n c r e a s e s g r a d u The p r o p e l l e r r . p . n . a l s o a l l y up t o i t s maximum specd. i n c r e a s e s , b u t much moro s l o w l y t h a n t h e spoed o f t h e a i r p l a n e , b e c a u s o t h i s i n c r e a s e i s due s i m p l y t o t h o f a c t t h a t t h e p r o p o l l e r r o t a t i n g at a f i x e d p o i n t b r a k e s t h e e n g i n e and p r e v e n t s i t f r o m d e v e l o p i n g i t s f u l l p o n e r . The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r.p.m. c a n d o t amount t o more t h a n 100 o r p o s s i b l y 1 5 0 and i s t h e r e f o r e a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e .
However, Y ' s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d by v a r y i n g V and by s l i g h t l y v a r y i n g ( o r even k e e p i n g c o n s t a n t ) t h e p r o p e l l e r r.p.n,, f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s i m u l a t i n g , i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of t h e p r o p e l l e r . T e s t s were made w i t h t h e p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , w i t h c o n s t a n t N and v a r i a b l e V. The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2 1 ( t h i r d s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s ) , as compared w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g d a t a . o b t a i n e d by v a r y i n g t h e r.p,iP. The d i f f e r e n c e i s o b v i o u s a n d shows t h a t my o b s e r v a t i o n .mas c o r r e c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t no l o n g e r seems p o s d b l e , i n t h e s t u d y of t h e p r e s e n t c r a f t , t o a p p l y R e n a r d ' s l a w o f s i m i l i t u d e , o b t a i n e d by v a r y i n g t h e r.p.m. but i t nust be o b t a i n e d i n s t e a d by v a r y i n g t h e v e l o c i t y o f the a i r current. I n order t o determine t h e g r e a t e r e f f i c i o n c y of the p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h the . f u s e l a g e , i t i s w o l l t o consider the following points:

1 The e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h o r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e Von. t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e at d i f f e r e n t wind v e l o c i t i e s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e s i s t a n c e of 0.7 kg (1.54 l b . ) (second sor i e s ) ( f i g . 1 6 ) n t a v o l o c i t y of 20 m/s (65.5 ft./soc.).
2 From t h e e x p o r i m o n t s w e d e t e r m i n e t h e t h r u s t , t h o , power a b s o r b e d a n d t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f e a c h o f t h e t w o s r o p e l l e r s , t h o C R 20 and t h e S 5 9 , i n t o g r a l w i t h t h o n o d i f i e d Vonturi-tube fuselage. ( F i g s . 1 2 and 13.)
3. T h e ' e f f e c t i v o t h r u s t o f b o t h p r o p e l l e r s i n s a i d c o n d i t i o n i s t h e sum of t h e r e s u l t a n t t h r u s t , , m e a s u r e d by t h e t u n n e l b a l a n c e , and or' t h o r o s i s t a n c e o f t h e Vent u r i t u b e at t h o g i v o n wind v e l o c i t y .

This, because i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a p o s i t i v e p r o p o l l o r t h r u s t , i t must f i r s t overcome t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e

.
NIA;CIAb
i

Teciipical idemorandurn Bo.

655

10

V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e . !doreover, i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o keep t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e f u s e l e g e c o n s t a n t a t d i f f e r e n t p r o p e l l e r s p c e d s , b e c a u s e i t s i i l c r e a s o o r d e c r e a s e i s due t o t h e e f f e c t of t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e ;?repeller and t h e r e f o r e i s t h e e f f e c t of t h e p r o p e l l e r i t s e l f , I n a3 a i r p l n n o we (S = p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t a d R = a i r p l a n e r e have S = R sistznce o r drag).

In t h e e x p e r i m e n t s i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , we o b t o i n e d a t h r u s t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t o t a l p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t and t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e f u s e l a g e , i.e., P = S R (P = t h r u s t measured on t h e b a l s i l ~ e ) . Heace t h e t o t a l e f f e c t i v e th'rust o f t h e p r o p e l l e r i s S = P - - R, These c o r r e c t i o n s of t h e t h r u s t and he3ce of I t h e e f f i c i e n c y a r e g i v e n i n Tablo V. Apparently, t h e r e i s no v a r i a t i o n i n t h e powor a b s o r b e d .

TA3LE V

Prope1 e r 1 r.p.n.

3200 3600 4000 4400 4800 5200

0.700 16262 1.937 2,675 3.525 4.512

2.537
3.375

4,225

0.622 0.565 0-.518

0.0698 10.067 O h 0 9 4 5 IO.0699

0.0999 0.105

0,0717 0,0719

0.9168 0.8537 0,835 0.765 0.721 0.686

Propeller r.p.n.
I

3000 3400 3800 4200 4600 5000

Thrust on balance kg 0,625 1,325 2.150 3 4 037 4,025 5,062

Total thrust
. _ I

x
0.0465 0 0524 0 0559 0.057 0.0568 - 0.0577 -_-_

r,

1 325 2 025 0 , 6 1 1 0.0765 2.850 01553 0,0840 3.737 0.0869 0.505 4 725 0.464 *---7 / 0 * 0 8 9 -_ 5.752 ---: x 2.2( 1.52 = l b , g

. .
.

kg

_ I _ _ -

--

.-

-_

'

. .

0.952 0.882 0.537


0.8129
0.7726

0.721 . _-_

I C -

N.A.C.A.

T e c h n i c a l Zdenorandlrm Bo.

655

11

These d a t a , measured i n c u r v e s ani? s u p e r p o s e d i n 3 i g u r e s 1 2 and 13, a r e e l s o p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e s 2 2 and 2 3 , 0 3 which i s shown t h e i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p r o p e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e (by s u b t r a c t i a g t h e f u s e l a g e r e s i s t a n c e ) , as comcared. w i t h t h e same a l o n e ann i n t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e f u s e l a g e . The f u s e l a g e r e s i s t a n c e f o r m s p a r t o f t h e t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e ,and h e n c e o f tho tot,o.l e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e e n t i r e c r a f t . Eo T i l l t h e r e f o r e examine, i n a f u t u r e a r t i c l e , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f i c i o n c y Other r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e c o i a p l c t e t u r b i n e wing. v e r y u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n s can bc made of t h c p r i n c i p l e o f t h o t c r ' o i n c wing.

I C t h e r e a r e o p e n i n g s in t h e s i d e s o f t h o V s n t u r i t u b e f u s c l a g o ( f i g s . 2 4 and 25) e n d i n g n e a r t h o n a r r o w e s t s e c t i o n o f t h e t u b e , nhcro t h e n c g a t i v o p r e s s u r e i s t h o g r e a t e s t , a r c v c r s a l o f the air f l o w i s o b t a i n o d . If t h i s r c v c r s a l i s f o r w a r d , i t i n c r e a s e s t h o t h r u s t ( f i e ; . 24); i f upwzrd, i t i n c r e a s e s the l i f t . E x p e r i n o n t s w i l l soon be i n s t i t u t e d i n t h i s connection. A t p r e s o n t m e have t h o following conclusions:
1. The e f f i c i e n c y of a p r o p c l l e r i n t h e p r o s c n c e o f a V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f an i s o lated propeller;
2. The e f f i c i e n c y of a p r o s e l l e r i n t e g r a l w i t h a Tent u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of a n i s o l a t e d p r o p e l l e r o r of a p r o p e l l e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e sLme fuselage ;
3. The V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e , Fhen tho ' p r o 7 e l l e r i s running, o f f e r s no r e s i s t a n c e , b u t Froduccs a t h r u s t ( r e a c t i o n ) , which i n c r e a s e s t h e j 3 r o p e l l e r t n r u s t , as s'r;-onn by F i g u r e 1 0 ;

4 The f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h o p r o p e l l o r i s g r e a t l y af. f e c t e d by t h e i n s i d e shape o f t h e V e n t u r i - t u b e f u s e l a g e .


T r a n s l a t i o n by Dwight K. H i n c r , N a t i o n e l A d v i s o r y Committee f o r Aeronautics.

.
N.A.C.A.
Technical Memorandum No. 655

a= 37.50

Figs. 1 , 3

_c_

-_ - -- -._ _- ----_
_ _ __-_-

_---e=40.50 f =57.00
g46.00

b=l50.00 c= 22.50 d= c?o.oo

h=63 . GO i=60.00 j=51.00 lc=l9.00 15.15.00

Fig. 1 Tube having inside shape o f venturi tube and outside shape of wing p r o f i l e . Scale 1.5 of the model. Longitudinal section.

To the propeller balance

-. -.

Fig. 3

N.A.C.A.

1 3 ~
Technical Memorandum No.655 Fig. 5

-----150

Propeller integral with Venturi-tube fuselage 11 in presence of 1' I1 11 11 isolated

140
130
5

120 110
4

100
90

W.m.
3

7f

T.. m

(e)
2

60

50 40 30

1
20

10
0 0

Fig.5

4000 5000 Nom. r.p.m. "Stipa" intubed Tropeller (Series 11) Propeller of seaplane CR 20. Thrilst and power of 2ro9eller rotating a a fixed point. t

2000

3000

- . . .

. .. .

.P

N.A.C.A,

Technical Memorandum No, 655 Fig. 6 Propeller integral with Venturi-tube fuselage I1 in presence of If I1 11
- - - a _ -

.
5

.
0

4ooc 5000 N.n. r .p.m. Fig. 6 "Stipa" intubed propeller (Series 11) Propeller of seaplane S 59. Thrust and power of 3ropeller rotating at a fixed point.
2000
3000

1; 5
N.A.C.A.
Technical Ideaorandm No, 655
-rl.

21g.

4mc 5000 N.m. r.p.ol. F i g;. 7 I1Stipa1' intubed propeller (Series 11) Propeller of s e a p l h e CR 20. Thrust and power of propeller r o t a t i n g at a fixed point.

2000

3000

W.A.C,

FJgs. 8,lO-

r.p.n?. Stipa's experiments (Series 11). Negative resistaace (reaction) Fig. 10 of tube at differellt propeller r.p.m. V=O m/sec.

1%
E.A.C.A.

T e c h i c a l Menorandurn No. 655

Figs. 9,11

To the propellor balance.,


,

fl

%-Rear balance
Fig. 9

Fig. 1 1

U.A.C.A.

Technical Idonorandm Bo.655

18-=

Figs. 12,13

.18

.16

.14
.12
I -

Stipa" intubed propel1e r (Series 11) Propcllcr of scaplaao CII X v = 20 n/scc.


Fig. 1 2

.10
.08 tagral
.06

04

.02 0 0

. 1

.2

.3

.4 Y

.5

.6

. 7

.a

x.

1%

. 14,15

.16 .14
'

.8
.?

.12
.10
.08
7

. 4
r\

x. .06
04

-3
.2
.1
0

.02
0

03 .4 .5 . 6 .7 Y F i g . 15 Model S 59 integral with tube D=0.5205 m VZ%O mlsec.

. 1

.2

2oc
N.A.C.A.

Techiical iJenorandurn Bo. 655

Fig. 16

.
N.A.C.A.
T e c h i c a l Memorandum No. 655

Zlc
Fig. 17

2500

2000

1500
R, g
/

1000

590

moo

3000

4000

5000

rpm ... Fig. 17 Stipa's experiments. Resistance of tube ( i n grams) a t different propeller r.p.m. V=ZD rn/sec.

. ..

_. .- - .~. . .

__

-____

.
M.A.C.A.

Technical Memorandm

z3 No.
655

Figs.l8,19

To the p r o p e l l e r
I

.--

..-

./

F i g . 19

N.A. C .A. Techni .16

.20,21

I
44
.12

.10

.6 0
.04

.02

.
Fuselage CR 20

----

Tube

- - .__.--_.-__r c o r r e c t e d voloci t y Tube f o Fig. 20 Propeller of seaplane CR 26, i n t e g r a l with fuselage. 014 e 7
.12 . 6
.10
7

.5
.4
rl

.08
.06
.04

.3

.2

.c2

.1

.
---

0
Y

P r o p l l e r of seaplane C 20 intograi w i t h tube (V=20 m / s ~ ~ ) R


11

11

11

11

11

11

(N.m.=4600)

.
N.A.C.A.
1
I

2 4 ~
Technical MeEorandum N0.555 Fig022

22
020
.18
-16

1: . 1( .
0 .

o t

14
T

r
0 1

012
0

*t
F

10

* L

08 . 04
.O6

03
02

04
0

02

.1

a,Integral derived resistance,isolated tube. b,Inpresence. c,Integlal. d,Alone

Fig. 22

"Stipal' intubed propellor (Series 11). Propcllcr of seaplane CB 2ci ( v = ~ c m/sec.)

'.

2 5 ~
N.A.C.A.
Technical Memorandm No.655 Fig.23

.22

1
1

.a
.18

.16
7

.14

x
.12
.10
.08

rl

.06
.04

.02

a,Intogral derived resistance,isolated tube. b,In presence c,Integral. d,Alone.


Fig.23 "Stipafl intubed propeller (Series 11) .Propeller of seaplano s 59 ( v = ~ o m/accJ

N.A.C.A.

Technical Uemorandum Eo. 655

Figs. 24,25

Fig. 24

Fig. 25