Lecture Objectives:
Students will be able to :
Represent a 3D vector in a Cartesian coordinate p
system.
Find the magnitude and coordinate angles of a 3D
t vector.
Add vectors (forces) in 3D space.
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
APPLICATIONS
Many structures and
machines involve 3
Dimensional Space.
I thi th l In this case, the power pole
has guy wires helping to
keep it upright in high winds. p p g g
How would you represent
the forces in the cables
using Cartesian vector form? using Cartesian vector form?
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
APPLICATIONS
In the case of this radio
tower, if you know the
forces in the three cables,
how would you determine
the resultant force acting at the resultant force acting at
D, the top of the tower?
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
CARTESIAN VECTORS
Cartesian Unit Vectors
For a vector , with a magnitude A
JG
, g
of A, a unit vector is defined as:
A
u A A =
JG
G
Characteristics of a unit vector :
a) Its magnitude is 1
A
a) Its magnitude is 1.
b) It is dimensionless (has no
units).
c) It points in the same direction as
the original vector . A
JG
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
CARTESIAN VECTORS
Cartesian Unit Vectors
Th i i h C i i d
G
G G
The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis system are and .
They are unit vectors along the positive x, y, and z axes
respectively.
, ,
G
i j k
p y
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
CARTESIAN VECTORS
Cartesian Vector Representation
Consider a box with sides and A A A Consider a box with sides and
meters long. The vector can be defined as A
JG
( )
JG G G G
A A i A j A k
, ,
x y
A A
z
A
The projection of vector in the xy plane is .
( )
= + +
x y z
A A i A j A k m
A
JG
'
G
A
'
G
A The magnitude of is found by using the same approach
as a 2D vector:
2 2
' = +
x y
A A A
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
CARTESIAN VECTORS
Cartesian Vector Representation
The magnitude of the position vector can nowbe A
JG
The magnitude of the position vector can now be
obtained as
A
2 2 2 2 2
' = + = + +
z x y z
A A A A A A
y
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
CARTESIAN VECTORS
Direction of a Cartesian Vector
The direction or orientation of vector is defined by the A
JG
The direction or orientation of vector is defined by the
angles o, , and .
A
These angles are measured between
the vector and the positive x, y and z
axes, respectively. Their range of
values are from 0 to 180.
Using trigonometry, direction cosines
are found using
cos cos cos o  = = =
y
x z
A
A A
A A A
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
CARTESIAN VECTORS
Direction of a Cartesian Vector
These angles are not independent They These angles are not independent. They
must satisfy the following equation:
2 2 2
cos cos cos 1 o  + + =
This result can be derived from the
definition of coordinate direction angles
d th it t R ll th f l

and the unit vector. Recall, the formula
for finding the unit vector of any
position vector: p
cos cos cos o  = = + + = + +
JG
G G G G G G
G y
x z
A
A
A A A
u i j k i j k
A A A A
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
ADDITION OF CARTESIAN
VECTORS
Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form it is Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is
easy to add or subtract them. The process is essentially
the same as when 2D vectors are added.
For example, if
= = + +
JG G G G G
R x y z
F F F i F j F k
= + + = + +
JG G G G JG G G G
x y z x y z
A A i A j A k and B B i B j B k
( ) ( ) ( ) + = + + + + +
JG JG G G G
x x y y z z
A B A B i A B j A B k ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + + + +
x x y y z z
A B A B i A B j A B k
( ) ( ) ( ) = + +
JG JG G G G
x x y y z z
A B A B i A B j A B k
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury
IMPORTANT NOTES
Sometimes 3D vector information is given as:
a) Magnitude and coordinate direction angles, or,
b) Magnitude and projection angles.
You should be able to use both these types of information
to change the representation of the vector into the to change the representation of the vector into the
Cartesian form, i.e.,
= + +
JG G G G
A A i A j A k = + +
x y z
A A i A j A k
EGE 2013 Dr. Giscard Kfoury