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# PHY382M Assignment 1

Instructor: Prof. P. J. Morrison Spring 2013 Assigned January 31, 2013 Due Monday, February 17, 2013

1. A boat sinks to the bottom of a lake. Assuming continuity of ﬂuid elements, draw a curve that represents the unbroken surface after the boat has sunk. Can q(a, t) really be double valued? If a ﬂuid element attribute, such as the density, is initially nonuniform on the surface, what will the density be at points of double value? Explain what happens in reality? 2. In class we introduced the internal energy function U (ρ, s), which is the internal energy per unit mass in a ﬂuid, written as a function of the density ρ, the speciﬁc volume, and the entropy per unit mass, s. Find the expression for U for the following: (i) an ideal monotonic gas, (ii) a complicated ideal molecular substance (i.e., what determines the polytropic index), and (iii) an ideal isothermal medium. 3. Suppose f (r, t) is some speciﬁc ﬂuid property with F (t) :=

D(t)

d3 x ρ(r, t)f (r, t) ,

(1)

**where the volume D moves with the ﬂuid. Prove the transport theorem, dF = dt d3 x
**

D

∂(ρf ) + ∂t

d2 x · v ρf .

∂D

(2)

4. In class we discussed the determinant J := |∂q/∂a|. Show that this determinant satisﬁes Euler’s theorem ˙ J = J ·v, (3) where recall ‘·’ means derivative at ﬁxed label a and v = q ◦ q −1 (r, t). ˙ 5. What is the equation of motion for a ﬂuid in Lagrangian variables, i.e., ﬁnd the left hand side of the following: ρ0 q = ... . ¨ (4) Hint: One way to ﬁnd this is to write down the action S[q] = t01 dt D d3 a L where the Lagrangian density is L = ρ0 |q|2 /2 + ρ0 U , and then perform the variation δS = 0. ˙ 6. Suppose σ := ρs is the entropy per unit volume. What equation does σ satisfy? 1

t

7. Write out by hand, with an actual pen or pencil, the proof of conservation of energy; i.e., show all the steps leading to ∂(energy density) + · (energy ﬂux) = 0 , (5) ∂t as described in class. 8. Prove the conservation law for the Eulerian angular momentum density ∂(ρ r × v) + · JL = 0 . ∂t Find JL . What kind of object is JL ? Interpret its meaning in physical terms. 9. The usual divergence theorem has the form d3 x

D

(6)

·V =

∂D

d2 x · V ,

(7)

where V is a vector ﬁeld. Prove this theorem when · V is replace by the gradient of a scalar and the generalization of this theorem when the integrand of the volume integral is the divergence of a two-tensor. 10. In class we proved part of the Kelvin circulation theorem, valid for isentropic ﬂuids, where we rewrote the circulation Γ as 1 dq (8) dσ q · ˙ Γ = v · dr = dσ 0 γ

1 1 dq dq ˙ dΓ = dσ q · ¨ + dσ q · ˙ , (9) dt dσ dσ 0 0 where here σ ∈ [0, 1] parametrizes the closed space curve γ that moves with the ﬂuid. Recall the argument for why the second term of (9) vanishes. Use the result of Problem 5 to show why the ﬁrst term vanishes.

and then obtained

11. Rework §4 of Chap. 1 of Landau and Lifshitz, regarding the onset of convection, as an equilibrium stability problem. 12. Using the Levi-Civita symbol v·

ijk

and the ‘ ’ identity I presented in class, show that |v|2 /2 − v × ( × v) . (10)

v=

13. Derive Bernoulli’s theorem for a ﬂuid subject to a uniform external gravitation ﬁeld. Where is the ‘Bernoulli constant’ constant? 14. Consider a stationary velocity ﬁeld near a stagnation point located at r = 0. Taylor expand v(r) about such a point using index notation to discern the components. What constraints are place on the ﬁrst nonzero term of the expansion for v when · v = 0 and ζ = × v = 0. Make a sketch of possible streamlines near a stagnation point for such a ﬂow and obtain q(a, t). 2