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Modal testing

Kenneth G. McConnell Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 2001 359, 11-28 doi: 10.1098/rsta.2000.0711

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where N points are used to describe the structure’s motion.2) Figure 1b shows a load distribution along the beam as described by the load vector {P }. instrumentation. Unique force and accelerometer behaviours are reviewed as sources of unwanted signal contamination.2000. 11–28
(1. A special case occurs when each force vector term has the same time history f (t).3)
c 2001 The Royal Society
11
. The choice of testing procedure and instrumentation requires an understanding of what information is needed and the consequences of using particular procedures in acquiring and processing that information. Lond. (1. [c] is usually assumed to be proportional to [m] and [k]. and the combining of two substructures. u ˙
inertia damping stiﬀness excitation
(1.1)
where [m] is the symmetrical inertia matrix.org on April 2. This review shall be done in the simplest of terms by examining the one-dimensional vibration of a uniform simply supported beam (ﬁgure 1a). cross-axis signal.
Keywords: modal. and the excitation vector terms Pi (t) are assumed to be independent loading functions. IA 50011. 1200 Howe Hall. force models. A (2001) 359.1) becomes [m]{¨} + [c]{u} + [k]{u} = {P }f (t). It is necessary to brieﬂy review the theoretical foundation behind modal testing in order to have a road map to deﬁne our testing requirements. 2012
10. Trans. Introduction
Experimental modal testing is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of a structure. Piezoelectric accelerometer and force transducer characteristics are reviewed in order to show their basic electrical and mechanical response characteristics. [k] is the symmetrical stiﬀness matrix. u ˙
Phil. M c C o n n e l l Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. Rao (1995) shows that the governing diﬀerential equation of motion is given by [m]{¨} + [c]{u} + [k]{u} = {P (t)}. future needs
1. Then equation (1. The consequences of having 36 input/output frequency-response function relationships between any two points in a structure are reviewed in terms of ﬁnite-element program model validation.0711
Modal testing
By K e n n e t h G. When all of the forces are added according to Newton’s second law. Iowa State University.royalsocietypublishing.Downloaded from rsta. Soc.1098/rsta. The motion of the pth point is shown as up (t) while the force acting on the ith point is given by Pi (t). input. Ames. R. USA The basic theory of modal analysis is developed in order to evaluate the consequences of using diﬀerent test procedures. so the excitation vector can be written as {P (t)} = {P }f (t). structural modiﬁcation.

McConnell
(b) uN (t) Pi
Figure 1. The same limitation holds when using N experimental points and leads to spatial aliasing. This model uses a subset of N points to describe the behaviour of all possible points. (a) A simply supported beam showing coordinates up (t) and time-independent loading Pi (t). but is not particularly well suited for modal testing unless the results are handled carefully. Soc. stiﬀness (or spring restoring force) and excitation forces.royalsocietypublishing.Downloaded from rsta. It is common to assume that the damping matrix [c] is proportional to the mass matrix [m] and the stiﬀness matrix [k]. Lond. (2. . . . (b) Distributed loading vector {P } with the same time history f (t) at each point. Note that all oﬀ-diagonal terms are zero for [m]diag and [k]diag .2) where mq is the qth modal mass on the diagonal of matrix [m]diag and kq is the modal stiﬀness on the diagonal of the stiﬀness matrix [k]diag .3) represent a dynamic force balance at each point in the structure that involves inertia. {φ}q . N that are related to the eigenvalues λq with a real mode shape vector {φ}q for the qth natural frequency {ω}q . damping. R.org on April 2. since the excitation is a distributed loading on the structure. It is clear that (1.1) where the individual matrix element φrq corresponds to the rth point’s modal motion corresponding to the qth natural frequency.
2. These mode shapes have orthogonality properties with respect to the structure’s physical properties such that [φ]T [m][φ] = [m]diag and [φ]T [k][φ] = [k]diag . The linear modal model
(a) Natural frequencies. . This solution gives a set of undamped natural frequencies ωq (rad s−1 ) for q = 1. This equation is typical of all linear mechanical systems in that this dynamic force balance must be satisﬁed at each coordinate point in the structure for each time instant. This means that the damping matrix is also orthogonal and is given by [φ]T [c][φ] = [c]diag . . .
This second type of loading occurs when the entire structure is mounted on a vibration exciter. (2. . A (2001)
. Thus. G. 2012
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(a) up(t) xp xi Pi (t)
K. mode shapes and orthogonality The natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained by solving the well-known eigenvalue problem (Wiley 1951) for the case when [c] = 0 and {P } = 0. (2. 2. so [φ] = {φ}1 . Trans.
Phil.3) where modal damping cq is the qth modal damping on the diagonal of matrix [c]diag . . The mode shape vector {φ}q is the qth column of the N × N modal matrix [φ]. it is limited in the amount of information that it can account for.1) and (1. {φ}N .

5) This matrix transformation and the orthogonality characteristics allow us to transform from the physical space as given by either (1. It is clear from (2. the values of kq and mq depend on mode shape scaling.1). (2. However. (2.
Phil. The corresponding dimensionless modal damping ratio ζq is given by cq .8) that the qth mode is not excited when the ith point is a node point.7) that the orthogonality properties allow us to decouple the multipledegree-of-freedom system into N -single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems in modal space that can be worked with one at a time. so φiq = 0.Downloaded from rsta. the choice of excitation is important in understanding the resulting motions.7) becomes ¨ ˙ mq ηq + cq ηq + kq ηq = φiq Pi (t). (c) Single-point excitation The most common modal testing arrangement excites the structure one point at a time in order to obtain the required modal data.4)
This natural frequency expression is independent of how the qth mode shape is scaled since the scale factor is squared in both kq and mq and cancels in (2. then premultiply the result by [φ]T and apply the orthogonality conditions of (2. A (2001)
.1) or (1. Soc.3) into modal space. Now substitute (2. Lond. Trans. It is assumed that the forced response vector {u} can be written in terms of a matrix transformation that uses the mode shapes and an unknown time function vector {η(t)}: {u} = [φ]{η}. When the excitation force is at the ith point and all other forces are zero.7)
for the case where each point has an independent excitation force.3). 2012
Modal testing
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The qth natural frequency is related to the qth modal stiﬀness and qth modal mass by
2 ωq = kq /mq .royalsocietypublishing.2) and (2. R.6) and (2. (2. (2. (b) Expansion into modal space The modal model is generated by making use of the orthogonality properties of a linear system as given by (2.2) and (2.4). where one mode of vibration at a time is used to understand the basic elements that control the resulting motion. Hence it is common practice in both theoretical and experimental work to scale the mode shape so that the modal mass is unity.org on April 2.6)
mq ηq + cq ηq + kq ηq = ¨ ˙
r=1
φrq Pr (t)
(2. Thus.3). The result is η ˙ [m]diag {¨} + [C]diag {η} + [k]diag {η} = [φ]T {P }.9) ζq = 2 kq mq where again the modal scaling cancels out.8) It is clear from (2. which contains N second-order diﬀerential equations of motion described by
N
(2.
(2.5) into (1.

which relates output velocity frequency spectrum Vp (ω) for location p due to input force frequency spectrum Pi (ω) for location i. Note that the units of Hpi (ω) are length per unit force.14)
.13)
where Up (ω) is the frequency spectrum of the response up (t) at location p and Pi (ω) is the frequency spectrum of the input time history Pi (t). R. A separate paper will discuss the type of processing that is used to generate these frequency spectra for various types of time history.org on April 2. When p = i. then the modal model for the displacement at location p becomes
N
up (t) =
q=1
φpq φiq Pi ejωt = Hpi (ω)Pi ejωt . forced vibration response of Bq = φiq Pi . 2 + jc ω kq − mq ω Pi (ω) q
(2. 2012
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K.11) is substituted into (2. A (2001)
Vp (ω) .royalsocietypublishing. which relates output acceleration frequency spectrum ap (ω) at location p to input excitation frequency spectrum Pi (ω) at location i. kq − mq ω 2 + jcq ω
(2. kq − mq ω 2 + jcq ω (2. (e) Mobility and accelerance Instead of measuring displacement. G.10) and (2.11) Pi (t) = Pi ejωt
If (2. Hpi (ω) is a transfer receptance. It is clear in (2.12)
where Hpi (ω) is the receptance frequency-response function (FRF) given by
N
Hpi (ω) =
q=1
Up (ω) φpq φiq = . This is accomplished by assuming that Pi (t) and ηq (t) are phasors given by and ηq (t) = Bq ejωt . and accelerance Api (ω).10) √ where ω is the excitation frequency. Soc. the Hpp (ω) is a driving-point receptance. Substitution of (2.10) into (2. The steady-state solution can be easily obtained by using phasors to convert from a diﬀerential equation in the time domain to an algebraic equation in the frequency domain.13) that natural frequencies. Pi (ω)
(2. McConnell (d ) Solution in modal space
Equation (2.10) is substituted into (2. Hpi (ω) is the response at location p due to a unit excitation force at the ith location which has frequency ω. (2.Downloaded from rsta.8) yields a standard single degree of freedom. The mobility Ypi (ω) is related to the receptance Hpi (ω) by Ypi (ω) = jωHpi (ω) =
Phil. j = −1 and Bq is a complex quantity containing both magnitude and phase information. When p and i are diﬀerent. Lond. experimental modal analysis prefers to measure either velocity (primarily from laser-based sensors) or acceleration (from accelerometers). The corresponding frequency domain FRF functions are called mobility Ypi (ω).6). modal damping and mode shape information are contained in the receptance function. Trans.8) is a second-order linear diﬀerential equation that is identical in form to that for an SDOF system.

(f ) The test procedure implications of Hpi (ω) The required modal test procedure is contained in the receptance FRF Hpi (ω). The second mode shape term φiq corresponds to the ith force input location. For the roving accelerometer. the corresponding modal information is lost. the same problem occurs when the excitation mode shape term φiq = 0 for one or more natural frequencies so that the excitation is at a node point. For the roving hammer. It is clear that all the mode shape information is contained in the φiq term.15)
It is clear from (2. However. but the choice of test procedure can signiﬁcantly inﬂuence the measured results. Hence this mode shape term is associated with where the measurement transducer is located.13)–(2. Lond.org on April 2. these responses can be summed together to obtain the acceleration frequency spectrum as
N
ap (ω) =
i=1
Api (ω)Pi (ω). Then (2. Consequently. The problem is that one or more of the φpq = 0 for particular values of q.16)
Phil. This missing modal information presents a real problem when dealing with an unknown structure. this contains the product of two mode shape terms φpq and φiq and is a part of both the mobility and accelerance FRFs. Trans. This generates a family of FRFs with the same value of p. damping and corresponding mode shape gives us insight into the importance of each mode of vibration in complicated vibratory motion. Pi (ω) (2. since the positions of the node points for each natural frequency are also unknown. Hence knowledge of the natural frequency.Downloaded from rsta. These two test procedures are called the roving hammer and the roving accelerometer. there is no information about the corresponding modes in the measured data since there is no motion at that frequency at the pth location. Again. R. A (2001)
.
(2. 2012
Modal testing
15
and the accelerance Api (ω) is related to the mobility Ypi (ω) and the receptance Hpi (ω) by Api (ω) = jωYpi (ω) = −ω 2 Hpi (ω) = ap (ω) . let the motion transducer be attached at the pth location while the ith excitation point changes from 1 to N as the tests are run. let the excitation point be ﬁxed at the ith location while the motion-measuring transducer at location p is moved from 1 to N over the structure.royalsocietypublishing. a set of preliminary tests is required in order to determine what natural frequencies are present and to select one or more excitation or response locations that can be used to obtain all relevant modal data. The ﬁrst mode shape term φpq corresponds to the response at the pth location for the qth natural frequency. When this happens. (g) Multiple-point excitation with a common time history Consider the case where multiple independent excitations occur. Since this is a linear system.15) that the pth mode shape φqp is the dominant term in these FRFs near the qth natural frequency ωq .15) gives the frequency domain response for each input. All modal information is contained in the φpq term. Both of these mode shape terms have the potential to describe the modal matrix [φ]. Soc. one mode of vibration at a time.

royalsocietypublishing. McConnell
It is clear from (2. The ﬁrst four modal FRFs are shown in ﬁgure 2b. The nine positions on the beam are used to describe its 2 motion (ﬁgure 2a) so that the discrete mode shapes {φ}q are the discrete amplitudes from each location for the qth mode. 82.1) is 0. The fourth resonance occurs oﬀ the scale. R.16) that it is diﬃcult to extract modal information since all accelerance and force spectrum information is mixed together. if the conditions of (1. Then the accelerance modal FRF. (2. The simply supported beam mode shapes are given by φp (x) = sin(pπx/l) (3. etc. and a length and cross-section so that the fundamental natural frequency is 20. Soc.3)
which is the response in acceleration per unit force (m s−2 N−1 ). 512.5.0. Each mode is assumed to be lightly damped and to have the same damping ratio ζ of 0. Hp (ω). Trans. in (2. For nine node points.4).0 kg.60%.18) it is clear that certain load distributions and mode shapes do not correlate with one another. 328. is calculated from (2.1) from the continuous model for the pth mode.5.5. damping and inertial properties for a given frequency ω and is given by Hp (ω) = −ω 2 .20 kg.
(2. the ﬁrst mode shape is a half-sine wave. G. Lond. From (2.16) and (2.
3.2) so the beam’s natural frequencies in hertz are 20. A (2001)
. and so forth. then (2. The modal spring constant. Note that each
Phil. However. kp − mp ω 2 + jcp ω (3. It is assumed the beam has a mass of 2.17) depends only on the modal stiﬀness. The pth natural frequency is related to the ﬁrst natural frequency by fp = p2 f1 . Example of two test types
These ideas are illustrated using the simply supported beam in ﬁgure 1a. 2012
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K. kq . this mode has signiﬁcant values in the upper frequency range of interest. so Qq = 0. 184.17)
where Qq is the qth mode’s excitation term that is given by
N
Qq =
i=1
φiq Pi . the second is a full sine wave and the third is a 1 1 -sine wave.15). where the ﬁrst peak corresponds to the ﬁrst natural frequency. Hence it is possible to have an excitation condition where certain modes are not excited and therefore cannot be measured in that testing arrangement.org on April 2. However. the mass entry at each diagonal position in the mass matrix [m] in (1. The maximum value is ±1. kq − mq ω 2 + jcq ω
(2. since the frequency range of the proposed test covers only the frequency range 0–300 Hz. (3.2) hold.18)
and F (ω) is the frequency spectrum of the common time history f (t).Downloaded from rsta. as shown.5 Hz.16) reduces to
N
ap (ω) =
q=1
−ω 2 φpq Qq F (ω).

7 (ω) have been calculated and are shown in ﬁgure 3a. (a) Single input force: output acceleration test arrangement In this demonstration case. including the fourth mode that is slightly out of the test frequency range.royalsocietypublishing.01 0 100 200 frequency (Hz) (b)
17
0
−1 0 2 4 6 beam position 8 10
300
Figure 2. let p = 4 and i = 7 in (3.15) and (3.17) and (2. out of the test range. A separate paper will address these issues in detail. the transfer accelerance becomes
N1
Api (ω) =
q=1
Hq (ω)φpq φiq . The test structure has a high value of N1 since it uses all modes. see equation (2.Downloaded from rsta. In this example 1/mp = 1. see equations (2. A (2001)
.18). (a) Plot of the ﬁrst three mode shapes and (b) the ﬁrst four modal FRFs for a simply supported beam.
modal accelerance FRF approaches a value of 1/mp at frequencies considerably above that mode’s natural frequency. The original experimental data are usually in analogue form. (2.org on April 2. Trans.0. The second test is one where the beam is mounted on a vibration exciter so that an inertial distributed excitation force excites the structure while responses are measured at each position p. Lond. The mode shape information from ﬁgure 2a and the modal FRFs from ﬁgure 2b are used to calculate the beam’s modal responses under two types of common tests. It is clear from ﬁgure 3a that any attempt to represent the actual accelerance FRF can be in considerable error unless the analysis includes a residual mode.4).
(3. (m s−2 N−1) magnitude 100 10 1 0.1 0. The solid curve uses all nine modes and represents a good estimate of the actual accelerance. The ﬁrst test is one where a concentrated excitation force is applied at position i and the response is measured at position p. To illustrate this.13). The chain-dotted curve uses the ﬁrst four modal terms. 2012
Modal testing
(a) 1 mag. as shown here.15). three diﬀerent accelerance plots A4.3). the input force is applied at location i and the output acceleration is measured at location p. R. This out-of-range mode usually has the greatest eﬀect on the valleys and the least eﬀect on the peaks. it is converted to digital form by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) and processed in a digital
Phil. However.4)
where the resultant FRF curve is dependent on the value of N1 . By combining (2. any model that is used to ﬁt this response is limited by the number of modes that are used to describe the phenomenon as well as the frequency range used in the measurements. The dotted curve uses only the ﬁrst three modal terms. Soc.

(c) The second resonant peak when one of the frequency components corresponds to the resonant peak.org on April 2.
frequency analyser. the true peak at 20. G. (m s−2 N−1) 10 1 0. respectively. 4 and 9 modes. R. Lond. signal noise can contribute to peak uncertainty. the frequency spacing is ∆f = 1 Hz. Thus.2 times too small. In addition.1. (m s−2 N−1) 100 (c) 10
200
250
300
mag.1 0. the 20. Trans.5 Hz in ﬁgure 3b is 64.5)
. while the two peaks at 20 and 21 Hz are 14.7 and 15. In this example. It is evident that using a simple peak reading can lead to considerable measurement error in determining mode shapes and modal damping values through a lack of resolution in the frequency domain. McConnell
100
150 frequency (Hz) mag. When these data are presented as an accelerance plot.royalsocietypublishing. ¨
Phil.0 Hz peak of the second mode corresponds to one of the digital frequency components (ﬁgure 3c). A separate paper will address the modal parameter extraction issues in detail. (a) Comparison of transfer accelerance A4. This resolution problem is more serious at the lower frequencies than at high frequencies. For example. 2012
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100 (a) mag. (b) The ﬁrst resonant peak showing the eﬀect of digital representation of the FRF when the peak occurs between two frequency components. the absolute beam motion up (t) at point p is related to the exciter motion and the relative motion vp (t) between the beam and its corresponding rigid body position by ¨ ¨ up (t) = vp (t) + y (t). this peak can be easily interpreted about 4. Soc.01 0 50
K.7 (ω) calculated using 3. (m s−2 N−1)
100 (b) 10 20.Downloaded from rsta. Thus. it is done in terms of discrete. equally spaced frequencies.5 Hz peak of the ﬁrst mode lies between two discrete frequency components of 20 and 21 Hz (ﬁgure 3b) while the 82.5
1 16
18
20 22 frequency (Hz)
24
1
78
80
82 84 frequency (Hz)
86
Figure 3. A (2001)
(3.9. (b) Distributed excitation source: the vibration exciter test If the simply supported beam is mounted on a vibration exciter and driven with a base motion y(t).

(3.7)
where mii = 0. It shows only the eﬀects of the two even modes since the odd modes are not excited in this case. This transmissibility ratio is calculated from (3.
(3. Soc. and the
Phil. 2012
Modal testing
Table 1.344
19
The corresponding acceleration transmissibility ratio becomes
N1
Ap (ω) = 1 +
q=1
ω 2 Hq (ω)φpq Qq . for the triangular load distribution. the inertial excitation is a linear function with a triangular shape. it is also clear that the unity value is contaminating the mode shape information.263 0 0. Thus. However.7) becomes
9
Qtq =
i=1
φiq mii [1 − 0. there is no fourth-mode residual term in this case. the modal excitation force Quq becomes
9
Quq =
i=1
φiq mii . while the triangular loading distribution does not excite the odd modes.org on April 2.6)
where Qq is the modal loading coeﬃcient. Note that in real life the exciter table may produce a frequency-dependent combination of linear and rocking motion that depends on the system’s mass distribution and the exciter’s armature suspension system.25(i − 1)]. for a uniform load distribution.royalsocietypublishing. The mode shape is available if the accelerometer is moved from point to point in this case. The plot shows only the two odd modes of vibration since both the second and fourth modes are not present. A4 (ω). Table 1 clearly shows that the uniform excitation loading does not excite the even modes of vibration. subtracting unity from the measured FRF leaves only the summation term. Modal loading coeﬃcient Qq mode 1 2 3 4 uniform load 1.8)
The resulting modal excitation for these two cases is given in table 1. However. due to the corresponding zero modal loading coeﬃcient. there is a strong residual term from the fourth mode that signiﬁcantly inﬂuences the higher-frequency part of the curve and helps to give a nearly perfect ﬁt with the nine-term model. Consequently. if the exciter table has a pure rocking motion.2 kg for each point in this case. Lond.769 0 0. Figure 4a shows the acceleration transmissibility ratio at the fourth point. Figure 4b shows the acceleration transmissibility ratio at the fourth point. A (2001)
. so (3. A4 (ω). From (3. When the base acceleration motion is uniform along the length of the beam.
(3. four and nine modes.6) using three.Downloaded from rsta. Trans.393 0 triangular load 0 0. Consequently. R.6) it is evident that the mode shape information is contained in the summation term that represents the relative motion.

R.1
mag. The two measured quantities used in most modal studies are acceleration for the output motion and force for the excitation input. (m s−2 N−1)
0
100 200 frequency (Hz)
300
Figure 4. Regardless of the test method. McConnell
100 (b) 10 1 0. (m s−2 N−1) 100 (a) 10 1 0. Trans. 2012
20
mag.01 0 100 200 frequency (Hz)
K. Clearly. Soc.
4.1 0. the fourth mode has signiﬁcant eﬀects on the relative acceleration transmissibility results as well. Then the FRFs. A (2001)
(4. A4 (ω).1)
. Lond. Acceleration transmissibility ratio A4 (ω) for (a) uniform inertial loading and (b) triangular inertial loading.org on April 2. z ˙ x
Phil. Basic instrument characteristics
An important consideration in experimental modal analysis is the quality of data that are used to extract the natural frequency. d. The single-input single-output method will have a missing mode if the stationary transducer has a node point for that particular mode of vibration. The most common sensor uses the piezoelectric phenomenon. (c) Summary This example has shown that the results depend on the test method employed. Greater detail is available in Dally et al .
corresponding mode shape information is not contaminated by this oﬀset. In the distributed excitation case. G. b take on the relative FRF form of A4 (ω)rel and are shown in ﬁgure 4c. Relative acceleration transmissibility ratio A4 (ω)rel for (c) uniform inertial loading and (d) triangular inertial loading. The main mechanical and electrical transducer characteristics are summarized here. and mode shape modal parameters. the potential exists to completely miss a given natural frequency and mode shape. The diﬀerential equation governing this model is m¨ + cz + kz = f (t) − m¨. a mode is missing if the load’s spatial distribution has zero correlation with that mode shape.1 100 (c) 10 1 0.1 0. from ﬁgure 4a. (1993) and McConnell (1995). modal damping.01 100 (d) 10 1 300 0.royalsocietypublishing.Downloaded from rsta. (a) The mechanical mode The simplest mechanical model for both the force transducer and an accelerometer is shown in ﬁgure 5a.

c is the damping of the sensing crystal. so x z≈ 1 [f (t) − m¨]. z = y − x is the relative motion between the seismic mass and the base. Lond. (b) built-in voltage follower model of a piezoelectric sensor. A (2001)
. k is the spring rate of the sensing crystal. f (t) is an external load to be sensed.org on April 2. k − mω 2 + jcω k(1 − r2 + j2ζr) (4.1 0. Hence it is evident from (4. Soc.0
0
0.royalsocietypublishing.6 0.1) that the transducer’s relative motion is directly proportional to external force f (t) and inertial force m¨.3) shows that force and pressure transducers are also sensitive to base acceleration. Since these instruments are designed with high natural frequencies and light damping. 2012
Modal testing
(a) F(t) y seismic mass m C c k x q R E R1 E0 (b) 1 C1
21
base 100 (c) HmHe 10 1 0.2 while creating a 5% magnitude error.
where m is the seismic mass. and x is the base motion.Downloaded from rsta.2
1. The charge generated is q.2
0. they are usable up to a frequency ratio of 0.20 1. (b) Charge sensitivity model The piezoelectric crystal generates an electric charge that depends upon its crystal orientation and size.3)
Equation (4.4
Figure 5.4
0. (c) typical electromechanical instrument FRF showing AC coupling at low frequencies and mechanical resonance at high frequencies. Trans. R. The corresponding mechanical FRF is given by Hm (ω) = 1 1 = .0
1. x k (4.2)
where r = ω/ωn = f /fn is the dimensionless frequency ratio and ζ is the dimensionless damping ratio. (a) Basic seismic mechanical model. it is directly proportional to the
Phil.8 frequency ratio
1.

5) = RC C where a is the time derivative of either the force or the acceleration that is being ˙ measured. The FRF for the electrical circuit in ﬁgure 5b is given by He (ω) = jRCω 1 + jRCω
manufacturer
jR1 C1 ω Sv . G. These considerations are usually important for frequencies below 10 Hz. Thus. (d ) The overall transducer mode When equations (4. and (c) a much wider dynamic range. so q = Sz z =
K. 2012
22 relative motion. Figure 5b shows a simple model of the built-in voltage follower type. ¨ ¨ k k
(4. the output voltage–frequency spectrum E(ω) is related to the input frequency spectrum a(ω) by E(ω) = He (ω)Hm (ω)Sv a(ω).6).
Phil. SF is the force charge sensitivity in picocoulombs per unit of force. 1 + jR1 C1 ω
user
(4. and Sv is the voltage sensitivity in volts per unit of acceleration or unit of force (e. At low frequencies it is important to match time constants so the He (ω) terms in both the force and acceleration measurements cancel out in the FRF measurements. ˙ E+ ˙ (4. If the time constants are not matched.7) A plot of E(ω)/Sv a(ω) is given in ﬁgure 5c.royalsocietypublishing. The voltage follower output is ACcoupled through capacitor C1 to the recording instrument with an input resistance R1 .6)
where it is seen that the manufacturer controls the internal time constant RC and the user controls the external time constant R1 C1 by the resistance R1 that the output circuit is connected to. This model has the charge generator q connected to a capacitor C and resistor R. where it is clear there is a useful working frequency range. Soc. 10. (c) Basic piezoelectric electrical circuit Two basic types of piezoelectric circuits are used today.org on April 2. the charge ampliﬁer has (a) a single internal time constant so that (4.4) and (4. and Sa is the acceleration charge sensitivity in picocoulombs per unit of acceleration.0 mV g−1 or 7.4)
where Sz is the displacement charge sensitivity. R. (4. McConnell Sz m Sz f (t) − x = SF f (t) − Sa x. A (2001)
. E is the circuit’s output voltage. Lond. (4. The output voltage E of this circuit is the input to a voltage follower ampliﬁer that has unity gain.6) are combined. the usable frequency range is bounded by the RC time constant eﬀect at the lower end and by 20% of the transducer’s resonant frequency at the upper end. then the user must make appropriate corrections to the low-frequency end of the measured FRF using (4. The governing diﬀerential equation for the transducer side of the voltage follower is given by E Sq ˙ a = Sv a.6) has a single time constant. One is the built-in voltage follower and the other is the charge ampliﬁer. In contrast.g. (b) a standardized voltage sensitivity due to the variable gain capability.Downloaded from rsta.50 mV N−1 ) that depends on Sq and capacitance C. Trans.2).

(b) impact directions Y and S.6 mm. Accelerometer cross-axis sensitivity
Han (1988) and McConnell (1995) studied the eﬀects of accelerometer cross-axis sensitivity on the coupled modes of a structure and how these coupled modes can lead to erroneous results.
23
S-input
side view
Y-input y node 24 end view
5. (5. The triaxial accelerometer was mounted on the left-hand end at node 1 and inputs were applied to the beam at all 24 equally spaced node points as shown. A (2001)
. Free–free beam used for cross-axis signal contamination study: (a) coordinate locations and transducer locations.4 mm × 28. as shown in ﬁgure 6. By letting εpq = (Spq /Spp ) be the cross-axis sensitivity coeﬃcient and bp = Ep /Spp be the apparent acceleration in the pth direction.1) Szx ax + Szy ay + Szz az = Ez . then for εpq bounded by approximately ±5% so that second-order eﬀects can be neglected. 2012
Modal testing
//// / ///// z z x node 1 triaxial accelerometer
Figure 6. This cross-axis sensitivity is generally the result of manufacturing imperfections. the Y -direction inputs should excite only
Phil. the actual acceleration can be estimated by ax = bx − εxy by − εxz bz . R. Syx ax + Syy ay + Syz az = Ey . Trans.royalsocietypublishing. The downside to this correction scheme is that the cross-axis sensitivity tends to change with transducer use over time due to the nature of the mechanisms that cause cross-axis sensitivity. Equation (5. Lond. so Sxx ax + Sxy ay + Sxz az = Ex . (a) Example of cross-axis signal contamination Han (1988) ran modal experiments on a free–free steel beam that was 2337 mm long with a cross-section of 25. ay = −εyx bx + by − εyz bz .2) az = −εzx bx − εzy by + bz . The basic idea is that the output acceleration signal Ep for the pth direction is contaminated by the acceleration in orthogonal directions.Downloaded from rsta. Soc.2) shows that triaxial acceleration measurements are required for this correction. (5.org on April 2. These inputs were directed either in the Y -direction or the S-direction. where Spq is the acceleration voltage sensitivity for the pth direction due to acceleration in the qth direction and aq is the acceleration in the qth direction.

58 75. Force transducer considerations
McConnell (1993) has shown that force transducers can be used in three basically different ways and that the transducer exhibits diﬀerent characteristics for each type of use.86 148.001 31 0. the transducer base is attached to a rigid foundation (ﬁgure 7a).001 42 0.55 75.000 38 0. (b) Force transducer attached to a hammer This case is shown in ﬁgure 7b.Downloaded from rsta.5 218. R.000 70 S-input fn (Hz) 27.91 148.org on April 2. Natural frequencies and modal damping values extracted from three diﬀerent FRF sets for the same structure mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Y -input fn (Hz) 27. damping ratios and mode shapes resulted from the S-input/y-output dataset.001 43 0. It is clear that such signal contamination can cause signiﬁcant errors and it is clear that the data can be easily misinterpreted when dealing with an unknown structure. The corrected results gave the same four natural frequencies and mode shapes.royalsocietypublishing.9 y-output ζ (%) 0.001 22 0. In this case the transducer’s voltage sensitivity Sf is altered
Phil. and the S-direction inputs should excite vibrations in the y. The S-input data are corrected using (5.000 68 0.005 60 0.4 244. where mh is the eﬀective hammer mass and m is the eﬀective seismic mass that includes the transducer’s seismic mass and any impact tips that are attached. G. Soc.005 01 0. where the base motion x in (4.and z-directions.000 73 0.3 148.59 67. damping ratios and mode shapes in the test frequency range for the Y -input/y-output dataset. Lond. A (2001)
. This simple behaviour gives us false conﬁdence about the transducer’s behaviour in other applications. Trans. and essentially the same damping values as shown in table 1.91 132.9 y-output ζ (%) 0.000 60
vibrations in the y-direction.000 56 S-input fn (Hz) 27. A modal analysis based on standard analysis software was performed on each set of original data as well as the corrected S-direction data. In the second way.
6.58 75. the transducer is mounted on a hammer for impact testing (ﬁgure 7b). In the ﬁrst way.1) is essentially zero ¨ and the transducer appears to behave as an SDOF system as it measures force F (t).1 244. (a) Attached to rigid foundation This case is shown in ﬁgure 7a.000 08 0.001 54 0. the transducer is attached directly to the structure under test with a stinger between the load cell and the exciter so that the bending moments on the load cell are minimized (ﬁgure 7c). the results are given in table 2.2). McConnell
Table 2. where the εpq were obtained from careful calibration of the triaxial accelerometer. whereas seven natural frequencies.9 y-output ζ (%) 0. In the third way.004 01 0. 2012
24
K. It is clear from this table that there are only four natural frequencies.5 244.

where it is assumed that the structure under test (SUT) has a receptance FRF of Hs (ω). jT ω 1 + jT ω
electrical
(6. R. mh + m
(6. k + jcω
mechanical seismic mass
(6.1) can be reduced to Ef (ω) = Sf k [1 − mHs (ω)ω 2 ]F.2)
The seismic mass acceleration in ﬁgure 7c is [−ω 2 Yp (ω)] and (4.
∗ by the eﬀective hammer and seismic masses. He found that the force measurement errors due to [mHs (ω)ω 2 ] in (6. the second bracketed term is the mechanical eﬀect when all inertia terms are combined with the SUT’s motion Yp (ω). Note that the user’s hand mass can alter the impact hammer mass mh when using very light hammers. Soc.Downloaded from rsta. Three general load cell environments: (a) mounted on a rigid foundation. (c) Attaching the force transducer directly to the structure under test This case is shown in ﬁgure 7c. and (c) attached to a structure under test (SUT).1)
This is why impact hammer manufacturers provide several voltage sensitivities for diﬀerent combinations of hammer mass and impact tip masses. 2012
Modal testing
(a)
F(t )
25
(c)
(b) sensor hammer mh
m F(t ) load cell
load cell ///////////
SUT handle
exciter
stinger
Figure 7.royalsocietypublishing. the ﬁrst bracketed term is the piezoelectric time constant eﬀect. In this case seismic mass m includes all attachment hardware as well as any accelerometer mass when measuring driving-point accelerance.3) can be corrected for in the frequency domain by using App (ω) =
Phil. Trans. Lond. Then the structure’s driving point displacement motion Yp (ω) at location p is given by Yp (ω) = Hs (ω)Fp (ω). These seismic mass eﬀects show that the maximum measurement error occurs in the vicinity of the SUT’s natural frequencies. Hu (1991) studied the eﬀect of stingers and seismic mass on measured accelerance FRFs. and the eﬀective seismic mass is multiplied by the SUTS’s driving-point accelerance [−Hs (ω)ω 2 ]. (b) mounted on an impact hammer.org on April 2.4)
. A (2001)
Hm pp (ω) 1 − mHm pp (ω)
(6.3)
where Sf is the transducer’s voltage sensitivity. so the eﬀective voltage sensitivity Sf becomes ∗ Sf =
mh Sf . the very region where the best data are desired.

Dong et al . McConnell
F. Lond. (d ) Base strain eﬀects Cappa & McConnell (1994) have shown how base strain can alter the measured forces due to base strain sensitivity of a compression design type of force transducer.4) and (6. McConnell & Hu (1993) found experimentally that such a technique works well except near resonance.5) are used. Some of these uses have given less than satisfactory results.royalsocietypublishing. 2012
26
a. R. The ability to remove contaminated information from data due to transducer cross-axis sensitivity requires a complete set of information in order to correct the original data.
for the driving-point accelerance App (ω). G. where Hm pp (ω) is the directly measured driving-point accelerance. M q p
Figure 8. these large errors become apparent to the user. (1998) have shown that cross-axis sensitivity between forces and moments can be removed from a single transducer that measures force and two moments. (6. Future needs in experimental modal analysis
There are several potential uses for experimentally determined modal parameters and/or FRFs. Soc. when (6. Similar eﬀects are observed for compression design accelerometers when compared to shear design accelerometers. These eﬀects were found to depend on the test structure as well as the orientation of the transducer relative to the base strain.
Phil. However.
7.org on April 2. when the transducer is carefully calibrated for this cross-axis sensitivity. Trans. There is no way to remove this type of contamination with a single transducer. Ewins (1986) has suggested that the base acceleration term can be compensated for in the time domain by subtracting an acceleration signal. the transfer accelerance Apq (ω) can be corrected for by using Apq (ω) = [1 + mApp (ω)]Hm pq (ω). However. A (2001)
. when certain relative phase shift errors occur between data channels. very large errors occurred which remain undetected. Structure with two input excitation vectors at q and two output motion vectors at p. α
K.Downloaded from rsta.5)
where Hm pq (ω) is the measured transfer accelerance. Similarly. In these cases. How is the modal information to be used in ﬁnite-element model veriﬁcation? How should these data be used in predicting structural modiﬁcations or other substructuring applications? What factors contribute to conceptual as well as measurement errors? A fundamental contributor to these problems is our concept of what constitutes a complete input/output model for a structure. (e) Bending moment eﬀects McConnell & Varoto (1993) have shown how bending moment sensitivity of a force transducer can contaminate the measured forces.

In reality.1) to give ap = Ap1 F1 + Ap2 F2 + Ap3 F3 + Bp1 M1 + Bp2 M2 + Bp3 M3 ∼ A∗ F1 . The eﬀects of unmeasured inputs can be seen by expanding the pth row of (7. This experience illustrates several valuable lessons. since a signiﬁcant shear force as well as two orthogonal moment terms were involved at each interface point. R. Soc. and linear acceleration a and angular acceleration α are outputs at location p. there are in total six inputs and six outputs. Trans. A is a 3 × 3 submatrix that is the linear accelerance between acceleration a and force F . Reciprocity holds between B and C. where force F and moment M are the inputs at location q. Lond. Consequently.royalsocietypublishing. Hence this physical situation required more like 25 input/output relationships for each interface point instead of only three. methods and criteria are needed to judge the importance of a given FRF in a given application.
(7. B is a 3 × 3 submatrix that is the linear accelerance between acceleration a and moment M . D is a 3 × 3 submatrix that is the angular accelerance between angular acceleration α and moment M . so B = C T or C = B T . there were three output linear accelerations and at least two output angular accelerations along with three input force components and two input moment components. Consequently. 2012
Modal testing
27
Consider the situation shown in ﬁgure 8.1).org on April 2. It became abundantly clear that this discrepancy involved most of the terms in (7. Recently Varoto (1996) developed a theoretical model called READI (rules for the exchange and analysis of dynamic information). Current practice is usually limited to measuring the three linear acceleration components of a while using a triaxial accelerometer and typically measuring a single component of the input force F .
Phil. These relationships can be written as follows: a α
p
=
A B C D
pq
F M
q
. complex relationships with real and imaginary parts. Second. (7. where four interface connections occurred. First. the angular motions and stiﬀness played a signiﬁcant role. This test procedure gives the ﬁrst column of submatrix A and ignores the remaining 33 potential input/output relationships.1)
In equation (7. In attempting to apply this theoretical model in the automotive industry. experimental methodologies and instruments are needed so that the 36 input/output FRF relationships can be eﬃciently measured when required by the problem at hand. A second measurement problem is that boundary conditions in the test can be subtly diﬀerent from those used in the ﬁnite-element model. C is a 3 × 3 submatrix that is the angular accelerance between angular acceleration α and force F .Downloaded from rsta. This model uses substructuring concepts to describe the processes and information that are required to perform adequate laboratory tests based on ﬁeld vibration measurements when the test item is attached to its host vehicle at multiple points. the use of data based on one input force and three output linear accelerations was inadequate. Since each input and each output is a vector with three orthogonal components. a comparison of experimental modal results and ﬁnite-element modal results can have signiﬁcant discrepancies. and at each frequency ω this leads to 36 complex input/output relationships between these two points. the predicted combined behaviour from measurements on the two substructures was poor at certain frequencies. In addition.1). A (2001)
A∗ p1
.2) =
p1
can contain signiﬁcant contamination from unmeasured where it is clear that forces and moments.

& McConnell. 520–530. pp. 3rd edn. UK: Research Studies Press. Dong. D. 1996 Rules for the exchange and analysis of dynamic information. W. This is particularly true when moments and shear forces are important in the combined structure at the interface points but may not appear to be important while testing the substructures before assembly.. IA. C. In Proc. S.. pp. K. J. Lond. McConnell. K. & Hu. FL. F. S. Alfonzo. Ames. K. Modal Analysis Conf. & Varoto. A (2001)
. G. S. G. G.Downloaded from rsta. K. 11th Int. Soc. 137–150. Kissimmee. McConnell. In Proc. & McConnell. 1993 Instrumentation for engineering measurements. MA: Addison-Wesley. McConnell. Santa Barbara. PhD thesis. Iowa State University. R.. R. Ames. K. Rao. 1099–1105. McConnell
Third. 1993 The interaction of force transducers with their test environment. 1988 Eﬀects of transducer cross-axis sensitivity on modal analysis. 516–521. M. Iowa State University. 1998 Error reduction of measured impact forces and their lines of action via cross-axis sensitivity studies. Hu. G. In Proc. 1986 Modal testing: theory and practice. McConnell. 1995 Vibration testing: theory and practice. Modal Analysis Conf. Han. Trans. G. McGraw-Hill. J. 1951 Advanced engineering mathematics. Spring Society for Experimental Mechanics. Iowa State University. Fourth. G. Dally. 1993 Why do large FRF errors result from small relative phase shifts when using force transducer mass compensation methods? In Proc. Modal Analysis Conf. 11th Int.
References
Cappa.. Kissimee. P. Reading. G. CA. there is a need to learn the consequences of these linear and angular mode shapes when attempting to do structural modiﬁcations. IA. & Golovanova. G. pp. Wiley. 1995 Mechanical vibrations. K. 845–859. PhD thesis. J. S. Baltimore. W.
Phil. X. Modal Analysis 8. PhD thesis. IA. Wiley.royalsocietypublishing. Ames. 1991 Eﬀects of stinger axial dynamics and mass compensation methods on experimental modal analysis.org on April 2. 16th Int. McConnell. P. 2nd edn. pp. Wiley. Ewins. 2012
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K. Letchworth. K. 1994 Base strain eﬀects on force transducer measurements. Riley. L. Varoto. FL. S.. P.. MD. 1993 A model for force transducer bending moment sensitivity and response during calibration. X. there is a need to grasp the meaning and implications of linear and angular mode shapes in describing a structure’s dynamics.