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Shi'ite Hadith Sources
Shiite Hadith Sources 1. Salim b. Qays al – Hilali, Kitabu salim b. Qays, 1st c. 2. Imam Zayn al – Abidin Al – Sahifa al – Sajjadiyya, 1st c. 3. Zayd b. Ali, Musnadu Zayd, 2nd c. 4. Imam Jafar al – Sadiq, Tashid al – Mufaddal, 2 nd c 5. (Ascribed to) Imam Jafar al – Sadiq, Misbah al Sharia 2nd c. 6. Jafar b. Muhammad al – Hadrami, Aslu Jafar b. Muhammad al – Hadrami, 2nd c. 7. Jafar b. Muhammad al – Qurashi, Aslu Jafar b. Muhammad al – Qurashi, 2nd c. 8. Husayn b. 'Uthman b. Sharik, Aslu Husayn b. 'Uthman b. Shrik, 2nd c. 9. Khallad al – Sindi, 'Aslu Khallad al – sindi, 2nd c. 10. Dursut b. Abi Mansur, Aslu Dursust b. 'Abi Mansur, 2nd c. 11. Zayd al – Zarrad, Aslu Zayd al – Zarrad, 2nd c. 12. Zayd al – Nirsi, 'Aslu Zayd al – Nirsi, 2nd c. 13. Zarif b. Nasih, 'Aslu 'Abd' Allah b. al – Jubar (Diyatu Zarif b. Nasih, 2nd c. 14. 'Asim b. Hamid al – Hannat, Aslu 'Asim b. Hamid al – Hannat, 2nd c. 15. 'Abd Allah b. Yahya al – Kahili, 'Aslu 'Abd Allah b. Yahya al – Kahili, 2nd c. 16. 'Abd al – Malik b. Hakim, 'Aslu 'Abd al – Malik b. Hakim, 2nd c. 17. 'Ala' b. Razin, Mukhtasar 'Aslu 'Ala b. Razin, 2nd c. 18. Muthanna b. al – walid al – Hannat, Aslu Muthanna b. al – Walid al – Hannat, 2nd c. 19. Muhammad b. al – Muthanna al – Hadrami, 'Aslu muhammda b. al – Muthanna – al – Hadrami, 2nd c. 20. Abu said 'Abbad al – 'Usfuri, 'Aslu abi said 'abbad al – Usfuri, 2nd c. 21. Salam b. 'Abi 'Umara, Aslu Salam b. 'Abi 'Umra, 2nd c. 22. 'Ali b. 'Asbat, Aslu 'Ali b. 'Asbat.
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3rd c. 56. Nawadir al – Hathar fi Ali Khayr al – Bashar. Al – Gharat. 4th c. 3rd c. 51. 4th c. Jafar. Ali al – Qummi. Said. 4th c. al – Hasan al – Saffar al – Qummi. 3rd c. Said al – Ahwazi. Al – Zuhd lil Husayn b. 52. 3rd c. Al – Mahasin. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. sulayman al – Zaydi. Al – Kafi. 42. Thawabu al-A'mal.Al – Qudi al – Numan b. Al-Tawhid. 4th c. Al – Husayn b. 48. 50.Ibn Khazzar al – Qummi. Al – Ghayat. Ali al – Qummi. Al – Husayn b.Al – Kulayni. 4th c. Bastan. 4th c. 4th c. Muhammad al – Ashath al – Kufi. Al . 25.Sheikh al-Saduq.Al-harrani. Basait al – Darajat.Jafar b.Ghaybatu Li al – Numani. 41. Fiqh al – Rida 'Alayhi al – Salam. 4th c.Jafar b. 3rd c. Tafsiru al – Ayyashi. Sahifatu al – Rida 'Alayhi al – Salam. Tibb al – Rida 'Alayhi al – Salam (Al – Risala al – Dhahabiyya). 3rd c. 31. Tafsiru Furat al – Kufi. 30. 29. 39.Sheikh al-Saduq. Ahmad b. Husayn and 'Abd Allah b.Al – Humayri al – Qummi. Jafar. 36. 54.Muhammad b. 27. Ali al – Qummi. Al-Amali Li al-Saduq. 4th c. Tibb al – Aimma Li Ibna Bastam. 45. Ahmad b. Tuhaf al-Uqul. 4th c. 46. Ahmad b. 35. 37. 55.Yahya b. Al – Nawadi. Muhammad b.Jafar b. 44. 3rd c. 43. Al – Amal al – Mania Min al – Janna. 3rd c. 4th c. Muhammad al – Thaqafi. 32. Al – Tamhis. Durar al – Hadith. 'Ibrahim b. Muhammad al – 'Hsh'ari al – Qummi. 3rd c. 28. Al – Musalsalat. Jami al – Ahadith gi al – Qummi. Ali b. Kamil al – Ziyarat. 3rd c. 4th c. Quluya al – Qummi. Ali al – Qummi. 38. Al – Imama Wa al – Tabsira.Sheikh al-Saduq.com . 3rd c. 58. Masailu 'Ali b. 33. 4th c. Ibrahim al – Qummi. Daaimu al – Islam. 4th c. 4th c. Ahmad b. Said al – Ahwazi.Jafar b. Tafsiru al – Qummi. 4th c.Jafar b. Kifayat al – Athar. Ali al – Qummi.23. 47. Tafsiru al – Imam al – Askari 'Alyahi al – Salam. Qurb al – Asnad.Ali b. Al – Jafariyyat (Al – Ashathiyyat).Al – Saduq I. 3rd c. 49. 4th c. 34. 3rd c.Muhammad b. 24. 3rd c. 3rd c. (Ascribed to) Imam 'Ali al – Rida. 57. Al – Arus. 40. Al – Mumin. 53. Ahmad b. (Ascribed to) Imam 'Ali al – Rida. al – Husayn. Ali al – Qummi. Muhammad. 4th c. 3rd c. (Ascribed to) Imam 'Ali al – Rida. 4th c. Ahmad b.Jafar b. 26.(Ascribed to) Imam Hasan al – 'Askari.Al Iskafi.Al-Numani. Manaqib al – Imam Amir al – Muminin. 4th c. Al – Burqi.Al – Ayyashi. Ahmad b.Muhammad b. Furat al – Kufi.

71. 4th c. Dalail al-Imama.58. 77. Al-Istibsar. 59. Madan al-Jawahir. AlIrshad. 5th c.Sayyid al-Murtada. 4th c. Nuzhat al-Nazir. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. 72. 81. 4th c. 85. 91. 4th c. Al-Mawa'iz li-alSaduq. 5th c. 5th c.Al-Halwani. 5th c. Ali al-Karajaki. Muhammad al-Mustaghfiri. 84. Nawadir al-Mujizat fi Manaqib al-Aimma alHuda. 4th c. 79. 83. 5th c.Sheikh al-Saduq. Ali al-Alousi al-Kufi. Al-Amali li al-Mufid. 80. 68. 87.Sheikh al-Mufid. Al-Amali Li al-Tusi.Sheikh al-Tusi. Al-Taazi. Sifatu al-Shi'a. Rustam alTabari. 90. 78.Husayn b. Ilalu al-Shariyi. Man la Yahdurulu al-Faqih. Tibb al-Nabi Sallahu Alaghi wa'Alihi Wa Sallam. Ikhtiyaru Marifat al-Rijal (Rijalu al-Zarkashi). 4th c. 63.Al-Karajaki.Sheikh al-Saduq. Rustam al-Tabari.Sheikh al-Saduq. 76.Sheikh al-Tusi. 4th c.Sheikh al-Mufid. 5th c.Sheikh al-Tusi.Sheikh al-Mufid. 5th c. Al-Ghayba li al-Tusi. Ma'ani al-Akhbar. Ahmad). 60. Nahj al-Balagha. Al-Istibsar fi al-Nass Ala al-Aimma.Sheikh al-Tusi. 92. 64. 67.Sheikh al-Saduq. Abd al-Wahhab. Tahdhib al-Akham. 61.Sheikh al-Saduq. Musadiqatu al-Ikhwan. 65. Jarir b. 5th c. 5th c. 66. 5th c. Jarir b. Al-Amali li al-Huda. Misbah al-Mutahijjid. Thawabu al-A'mal. 74. 75. Fada'ilu alShi'a.Sheikh al-Saduq. 5th c. 73.Sheikh al-Mufid.Al-Karajaki.Abu Muhammad Abd al-Rahman al-Khazai.Jafar b. 82. 4th c.Sheikh al-Saduq. 86.Al-Shajari al-Zaydi.Muhammad b. Al-Arabauna Hdithan fi Fadailu Ali Alayhi AlSalam. 5th c.Sheikh al-Saduq.Muhammad b. 5th c.Sheikh al-Saduq. 4th c. Me'atu Manqaba. Al-Khisal.Sheikh al-Saduq. 62. Kanz al-Fawaid. Al-Hamli li al-Murtada.Sheikh al-Saduq. 5th c. 88. 89.Sheikh al-Saduq. 5th c. Uyunu Akhbar al-Rdia Alayhi al-Salam. 5th c. Al-Mazar li al-Mufid. 4th c. 5th c.Muhammad b.Muhammad b. 4th c. 70. 5th c. Uyun al-Mujizat.Sheikh al-Tusi.Ibn Shadhan (Muhammad b. 69.com . Kamal al-Din. Fada'il al-Ashhur al-Thalatha. 5th c.Sheikh al-Tusi. 5th ed. 5th c. 4th c. 5th c.

Makarimu al-Akhlaq.Muhammad b. Al-Mujtana min al-Duau al-Mujtaba. 6th c.Al-Hasan b. 128.Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi. 121. Musa). 6th c.Sayyid b. 117.Sayyid b.Abu al-Hasan Ali al-Lithi al-Wasiti. Musa). Musa). Jamal al-Usbu. 108.Sayyid b. 95. Tawus (Ali b. 94. 101.Ali b. Tawus (Ali b.Abd al-Karim b. Farhatu al-Ghari. Abi Farras. Faraju al-Mahmum. 129.Sayyid b. Tanbihu al-Khawatir (Majmuatu Warram). Ghiyathu Sultanu al-Wara. 100. Musa). Tawus. Tawus (Ali b.Warram b. 131. 124. Al-Yaqin. 110. Tawus (Ali b. Tawus (Ali b. Musa). Fathual-Abwab. Mustatrafat al-Sara'ir (al-Nawadir). 7th c. 96. 120. Tawus (Ali b.93. Muhaj al-Daawat. Al-Luhuf (Al-Malhuf). Tawus (Ali b. 118. Musa).Al-Chaghmini. Ali al-Tabari. Musa).Al-Kaydari. 130. 105.Sayyid b.Sayyid b. Al-Tahisin li Ibn Tawus. Mishkati al-Anwar.Ibn Idris al-Hilli. Tawus (Ali b. 123. 127.Al-Amidi.Sayyid b. 102. 7th c. 7th c.Ibn Bitriq. 7th c. 7th c. 7th c. AlArbauna Hadithan An Arbaina Shaykhan. 104. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. 109. 7th c.Sayyid b. 7th c. Al-Aman. Tawus (Ali b. 7th c. Kashfu al-Ghumma. Tibb al-Nabi Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Alihi Wa Sallam (Qanunchal). Al-Fadail. Tawus (Ali b. Nawadiru al-Rawandi.com .Ibn Bitriq.Sayyid b. 113. Musa). Tawus (Ali b. 7th c. al-Fadl alTabarasi.Ibn Nama al-Hilli. Musa). Falahu al-Sail. Al-Ihtijaj.Sayyid Fadl Allah al-Rawandi. 103. Khasais al-Wahyu al-Mudin. 112. Al-Daawat. Tawus (Ali b. Tawus (Ali b. 126.Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi. 6th c. Al-Khara'ij wa al-Jara'ih. 6th c.Sayyid b. 6th c. Al-Malahim Wa al-Fitan (Al-Tashrifat bi'L-Munan). 6th c. 125. 7th c.Ahmad b. 107. Musa). Musa). Musa). 6th c. Ja'far al-Mashadi.Sayyid b. Al-Dawra al-Warqiya. 133. 7th c. 6th c. 6th c. Tawus (Ali b.Sayyid b. 106.Sheikh Muntajab al-Din. 7th c. 6th c. Jibrail. Muthur al-Ahzan.Al-Irbili. Musa). Tawus (Ali b. Al-Umda.Shadhan b. 6th c. Iqbal al-Amal. 119.Sayyid b. Tawus (Ali b.Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Tabarasi. 7th c. 7th c. 7th c.Sayyid b. 98.Muhammad b. 7th c. 114. 7th c. Ghuraru al-Hikam. 7th c. Musa).Sayyid b. Musa). Bisharatu al-Mustafa. 132. Al-Mazaru al-Kabir. 115. Abd Allah al-Husayni al-Halabi. 6th c. 122. Al-Thaqib fi al-Manaqib. Al-Arbauna Hadithan fi Huquq al-Ikhwan. 6th c. Ali al-Tabarsi. 7th c. 116. Musa).Sayyid b. Musa).Ibn Shahr Ashub. 6th c. 111. 7th c. 7th c. 99. Al-Manaqib li ibn Shahr Ashub. Diwan al-Imam Ali Alayhi al-Salam (Anwar al-Uqul).Ibn Hamza. Uyunu al-Hikam Wa al-Mawaiz. 7th c. 7th c. Muhasibatu al-Nafs Li Ibn Tawus. 7th c. 7th c. 97.Sayyid b. Misbaha al-Zair. Sad al-Suud. Tawus (Ali b. 7th c.

Ibn Fahd al-Hilli. 8th c.Al-Hurr al-Amili.Shahid I.Muhammad b.Shahid II. 137. 11th c.Al-Kafami. Khulasatu al-Adhkar. 158. Kalamatu Maknuna. Al-Jawahira al-Saniyya fi al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyya. Al-Baladu al-Amin. 153. 144.Shahid II. 149. 11th c.133. 11th c. 10th c. 10th c. 136. 8th c. 134. al-Fayd. 10th c. Maadinu al-Hikmati fi Makatib al-Aimma.Shahid I. Kashfu al-Ghumma.Ibn Fahd al-Hilli. AlWafi.Al-Hasan b. 140. 161. Uddatu al-Dai. Tawil al-Ayat al-Zahira. 8th c. 9th c. 152. 12th c.com . 164. 12th c.Yahya b. Irshadu al-Qulub. 8th c.Al-Hurr al-Amili.Al-Kafami. Husayn al-Bahrani. 156. Miftahu al-Falah. Awali al-Liali.Shahid II. 7th c. 165. Al-Durr alManthur Min al-Mathur Wa Ghayr al-Mathur. Al-Tahsin li Ibn Fahd. Jamiu al-Akhbar.Izz al-Din Husayn alAmili al-Harithi. 11th c.Sheikh al-Bahai. 138.Al-Faydh al-Kashani. 11th c. 12th c. Ithbata al-Hudat. 139.Shahid II. Mashariqu Anwar al-Yaqin. Al-Arbauna Hadithan.Al-Faydh al-Kashani. 155. 10th c. Al-Arbauna Hadithan. Al-Arbaun Hadithan. 9th c.Al-Hurr al-Amili. Nawadiru al-Akhbar fi Usul al-Din. Al-Durratu al-Bahira. 169.Al-Hasan b. Al-Arbain. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Sulayman al-Hilli. 170. Kashfu alYaqin fi Fadailu Amir al-Muminin.Al-Faydh al-Kashani. 166.Sharaf al-Din Ali al-Husayni. 10th c. 142.Al-Hurr al-Amili. 135. 148. 8th c. Al-Shihab fi al-Hukm Wa al-Adab. Al-Nawadir fi Jam al-Ahadith. Mukhtasaru Basairu al-Darajat. 146.Shahid I.Al-Hurr al-Amili. Al-Sahifa al-Thaniya al-Sajjadiyya. 159. 160. 10th c. 10th c. 147.Al-Faydh al-Kashani. Al-Arbauna Hadithan min Waiyyat al-Nabi.Sheikh al-Bahai. 157. 10th c. 9th c. Wasailu al-Shia. Al-Misbah Li al-Kafami.Sheikh Muhammad al-Shairi al-Sabziwari.Muhammad-Taqi al-Majlisi.Ibn Abi Jumhur. 12th c. 168. 11th c.Al-Faydh al-Kashani. 145. 154. Alam al-Din. Al-Ithna Ashariyya fi al-Mawaiz al-Adadiyya. 8th c.Al-Irbili. 7th c. 11th c. 10th c. 151. 11th c. 12th c. AlHaqqaiq fi Mahasinu al-Akhlaq. Al-Arbauna Hadithan. 8th c. Muhammad al-Daylami. Maskanu al-Fuad.Al-Faydh al-Kashani. 12th c. 143.Allama al-Hilli. 162. 163. Al-Mazar li Shahid al-Awwal. 150. 9th c. 8th c. 11th c. Muhammad al-Daylami. Muntaqa al-Jaman fi al-Ahadith al-Suhar. 141. 167.Hafiz Rajab al-Barsi.Al-Hasan b.Shahid I.

In this sense. 12th c. Al-Sahifatu al-Sadiqiyya. 'the prince of martyrs'. 14th c. 176. to appreciate the place of Husayn.Sulayman b. Al-Arbauna Hadithan fi Imamatu Amir al-Muminin. Bidayatu al-Hidaya.com . and how God dealt with them.Al-Arusi al-Huwayzi.S. 178. It is through this struggle that human beings can earn their eternal bliss in the Gardens of Paradise. 172.Sheikh Abu Allah al-Bahrani. 12th c. and between right guidance and manifest error. 12th c. Abd Allah alBahrani. was sent to earth to engage in this eternal battle. and the lives of the people of his House. good and evil. Bihar al-Anwar. This is because he has provided a model for all martyrs in the way of God. virtue and vice. The Excellences of the Imam Husayn(A. 12th c. 180.171. Madinatu al-Maajiz. a prophet or messenger of God was rejected by his people and killed or driven out. Thus the Qur'an urges us over and over again to ponder the end of those who were before us. 12th c. 12th c. 12th c. Taan al-Bahrini. Tafsiru Nur al-Thaqalayn.)in Sunni Hadith Tradition HUMAN history may be seen as a record of the eternal struggle between right and wrong.Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani. 177. 12th c. Al-Burhan fi Tafsiru al-Quran. This struggle was decreed by God when Adam. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the universal significance of the Imam in Muslim tradition. The life and witness of the Imam Husayn in particular. 174. between truth and falsehood. However. 12th c. Mustadraku al-Wasail.Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani.Husayn al-Nuri alTabarasi. But while in the Sunni community such traditions remain purely pietistic.Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani. 173. 183. 12th c. In every case. Al-Insaf fi al-Nass Ala al-Aimma. Awalimu al-Ulum Wa al-Maarif. Nowhere is this struggle placed in sharper relief than in the life of the Prophet Muhammad.Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani. Al-Fusulu al-Muhimma fi Usulu al-Aimma. 179. In the history of nations this struggle often attains universal significance as that moment of the struggle can speak to all subsequent times and situations. 185. therefore. 181.Al-Hurr al-Amili.Husayn al-Nuri al-Tabarasi.Muhammd Sadiq Khatun Abadi. 184.Al-Hurr al-Amili. and righteousness and wickedness. 14th c. a open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. has acquired special significance in Muslim piety.Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi. moreover. Kashfu al-Haqq (Arbain-I Khatun Abadi)13th c. or their eternal punishment in the Fire. 14th c. the struggle is in the end between God and humankind. It is important to observe that all the traditions cited in this essay are found in both Shi'i and Sunni hadith literature. 12th c. Al-Sahifatu al-Alawiyya al-Thaniya. an earthly creature. Yanabiu al-Maajiz Wa Usul al-Dalail. 182. Shi'i tradition has made them the basis of a complex theological system. in Muslim history. 175. Al-Sahifatu al-Alawiyya.Abd Allah b.Ahmad b. Salih al-Samahiji. for all time.

his affliction is made lighter. A man is afflicted according to his faith (din). He was followed by Noah. the father of prophets. one from the other'.com . Prophetic history begins. his descendants could not assume his prophetic role. With his son Ishmael he built the Ka'ba. martyrdom in the cause of God was often their lot. friends (awliya'). and the ancestor of the prophets Shu'ayb. At the same time the people of the House of the Prophet Muhammad are not unique in the prophetic history of human societies. the last messenger of God to humankind. The Muslim community did not. the first of the prophets of power or resolve (ulu al'azm). with Adam. infer the status of the family of Muhammad from that of earlier prophets and their families. the seal of the prophets. as well as other earlier prophets who were sent by God to the Children of Israel. and finally Muhammad. called safwat Allah (the elect of God). Salih. Noah. [3] open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Their task is to safeguard the message vouchsafed to Muhammad by God for humankind. however. and were thus destroyed by the flood. and if his faith is weak. purified and honoured over the rest of humankind.word must be said about the place of the Prophet's family (the ahl al-bayt) in Muslim piety. if we are to appreciate fully the devotion which Muslims throughout their long history have accorded the people of the House of Muhammad. the Imams had to endure rejection by their people and much suffering at their hands. Rather they too were chosen by God and purified from all evil and sin. Then came Abraham. Afflictions continue to oppress the worshipful servant until they leave him walking on the face of the earth without any sin cleaving to him. and righteous servants. if his faith is durable. then the pious. was also a prophet and the father of prophets. Thus the Prophet was asked: 'Who among men are those afflicted with the greatest calamity?' He replied: The prophets.[2] All the prophets and their families are therefore of one physical and spiritual lineage They and their households are the elect of God. A word is. Yet because Muhammad was the last prophet sent to guide humanity to God and the good. and Jesus. Hud. necessary concerning the families of other prophets. Like many prophets. Isaac. of the Muslim community. Yet the greater the suffering. according to the Qur'an. the first house for the worship of God. the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran. Among his descendants were the family of 'Imran. his affliction is accordingly increased. or guides.[1] Ishmael was also a prophet. The people of the House of the Prophet Muhammad were likewise chosen by God and purified from all evil and sin. the greater is the reward and honour which God promises His prophets. Abraham's second son. therefore. everyone according to the degree of his piety. The Qur'an declares that God has elected Adam. Their mission was to be the Imams. It further states that they were a single progeny. Noah was sent as a messenger by God to his people who rebelled against God's message. the father of Moses.

The kisa' finally sets apart the 'holy five' from the rest of the faithful. we read: As the Apostle of God saw mercy descending. The mantle is a symbol of divine mercy and blessing covering the Prophet and his holy family. and laying his hand over them. O People of the House. O God.Excellences of the Ahl al Bayt(A. It is. Jafar b. the Prophet's wife.' When they had all come together he spread over them a mantle. Hanbal relates on the authority of Umm Salama. as it is emphasized in almost every version of this tradition. This tradition has come down to us in a number of versions. and purify you with a thorough purification. classical open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. and their two sons Hasan and Husayn.' Umm Salama continued: 'I then lifted the mantle to enter in with them. Before the sectarian conflicts which split the Muslim community set in. a source or haven of consolation and serenity in the face of the great sufferings and martyrdom which the Prophet's family had to endure after him. these are the people of my House. one important event symbolizes the status of the ahl al-bayt and the human as well as spiritual dimensions of their relation to the Prophet. and distinguishes them from the rest of the Prophet's family. The event of the kisa' provides the occasion for the revelation of the verse of purification just cited. one of the most highly venerated of the Prophet's wives. then lifting his hands to heaven said: 'O God. that he said to Fatima one day: 'Bring me your husband and two sons. he spread a mantle over them. 'Ali. but he pulled it away from my hand saying. these are the people of the House of Muhammad! Let therefore your prayers and blessings descend upon Muhammad and the people of the House of Muhammad. and their two sons Hasan and Husayn.com . related on the authority of 'Abd Allah b. he demanded: 'Call them for me. In this infinite source of divine mercy. bless. Fatima. and Husayn.S. "You too shall come to a good end". Abi Talib. O Messenger of God?' He answered: 'Call the people of my household: 'Ali. [5] This version of the tradition provides the meaning of the kisa' and the basis of its significance. Fatima. moreover. We shall have more to say about this point. was denied this special status. each stressing one or another aspect of the excellences of the family of the Prophet and his love for them. 'Ali. Umm Salama. In another highly interesting version of the kisa' tradition. [4] The point which this version of the kisa' tradition emphasizes is that the ahl al-bayt are only the five: Muhammad. for you are worthy of all praise and glory. Hasan. Muhammad and the people of the House of Muhammad!' God then sent down the verse: Surely God wishes to remove all abomination from you.' When they were brought. Ahmad b. call them for me!' Safiyya asked: 'Who should we call. This is the tradition or episode of al-kisa' (the mantle. the pious also share in times of sufferings and afflictions. he said: 'O God.) In both Sunni and Shi'i Muslim tradition. or cloak) which the Prophet spread over himself and Fatima his daughter.

He then declared: 'O Muslims. Fatima. He said: I saw the Messenger of God pitch a tent in which he placed 'Ali. He is said to have often declared. to 'Ali. and I stood at the door of the house. and Husayn. therefore. and am at peace with those who show peace toward them. and Husayn. one of the wives of the Prophet. Fatima. am I not of the People of the House?' He said: 'You shall indeed come to a good end! You are.' Ali. God orders the Prophet and his opponents to 'Call together our sons and your sons. seven: Gabriel and Michael. al-Asqa'. and their two sons Hasan and Husayn. [6] In still another version of the kisa' tradition. the Prophet's famous Companion and the first caliph. Fatima. forgiveness. 'his women' refers to Fatima. her husband and cousin. so they ['Ali.' In the view of most Qur'an commentators and traditionists. mercy. for all Muslims. I am at war against anyone who wars against the people of this tent.just cited.' [8] The close friendship between the Prophet and the holy family. on whose authority this tradition in most of its variants is related. the Prophet's sons are Hasan and Husayn. mercy. the continuity of the Prophet's family with those of earlier prophets is clearly indicated. and pleasure upon Abraham and the family of Abraham. 'the household of prophethood and the frequenting place of angels'. as you have blessed Abraham and the people of the House of Abraham among all beings. forgiveness and pleasure upon me and them. reports the following prayer uttered by the Prophet: O God. and 'his self' refers. a relationship which went far beyond the bond of blood relation. apart from himself. however. Hasan. therefore. Hasan and Husayn] are of me and I am of them! Bestow. bless Muhammad and the people of the House of Muhammad. your blessings.. with which the Prophet challenged the Christians of Najran. his daughter Fatima al-Zahra' (the Radiant). Before the sectarian conflicts which split the Muslim community set in. Hasan. they recognized their high status with God. 'I am at war against him who fights against you. I am a open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. our women and your women. I asked: 'O Messenger of God..' [7] This prayer echoes a prayer which Muslims repeat daily: O God. or prayer ordeal. The famous Qur'an commentator al-Suyuti quotes a tradition attributed to Umm Salama in interpretation of the verse of purification: This verse was sent down in my house . Tradition asserts that the Prophet sensed the hostility which his community was to show to the People of his House after him. and with great trepidation they declined the mubahala and opted instead for peace. as you have bestowed your blessings. classical tradition was almost unanimous in interpreting this verse as referring to the Prophet.[9] In the mubahala verse of the Qur'an.com . and ourselves and yourselves.' This invective is strongly put in a tradition related on the authority of Abu Bakr. When the people of Najran saw them. may be seen in the incident of the mubahala. There were in the house then. Wathila b. and will show peace toward him who shows peace to you. The House of Muhammad is. and 'Ali.

open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. die my death and dwell in a garden of Eden which my Lord has planted. but projected back to the time of the Prophet and his Companions. for they are my progeny. Much of the literature reflecting this tension was most likely the product of a later age. the family fed the few morsels of dry bread and dates for which 'Ali had laboured so hard to the needy. After days of fasting and prayers for the health of the two sick children Hasan and Husayn. Thus God sent down the verse: They give food to eat. we are told. Let him also be a friend to his friends. steadfastness in the face of hardship. Furthermore. God sent down a celestial table to feed His friends. a beggar came.com . He who shows love toward them shall be one of a happy ancestry and good birth. the Prophet promises his intercession to those who honour his descendants. let him be a friend to 'Ali after me. it was an orphan. Woe to those of my community who deny their superiority. but is presented as a challenge. This is expressed in hagiographical language. Let him finally be guided by the Imams after me. provide them with whatever needs they may have. To each in turn. May God not grant them my intercession. [10] Love for the Prophet's family is enjoined by God in the Qur'an. [11] The People of the House of the Prophet Muhammad have been for the pious an example of generosity. to the needy. They share. [12] Yet. 'I ask no other reward of you save love of my next of kin' (42:23). and a source of solace in time of trials and afflictions. a language common to both Sunni and Shi'i tradition. They were created of my clay. One such common example may suffice to demonstrate the devotion in the piety of both traditions to the Prophet and the people of his household. with the Prophet Muhammad the prerogative of intercession. where He says: Say. and those who love them with their heart and profess this love with their tongues. On the first evening. and in a harsh reproaching tone. Here love for the Prophet's family is not simply recommended as a pious act.[13] Thus we are told that the Prophet said: He who desires the pleasure to live my life. but not the office of prophethood. moreover. the orphan and the captive. and those who violate the demands of kindness to my next of kin. and have been vouchsafed knowledge and understanding. it is on this love to the ahl al-bayt that rewards and punishments on the Last Day are predicated. in the end.friend to those who befriend them. Nor would anyone hate them except that he be of miserable ancestry and evil birth. [15] It has already been stressed that the ahl al-bayt share with the prophets of old and their descendants a high status and divine favour. a captive. and on the third. they gave the loaf of barley bread and few dates which Fatima had prepared for the family to break their fast.' [14] In another tradition. Early tradition shows a tension in the relationship of the Prophet to the community and in the relationship of the latter to the holy family. even though they cherish it. Qur'an commentators have generally agreed that 'the next of kin' here intended are the ahl al-bayt. On the second.

a tension which largely centered around Hasan and Husayn. and thus knew the Prophet only as children. Hasan and Husayn. Fatima. these family anecdotes also reflect clearly the theological and political tension within the community. Turn towards me for you are relenting. Hasan and Husayn were lost. the famous traditionist and authority on the Qur'an. asked the Prophet about the words which Adam received. and have wronged my soul. we are told. and their mother Fatima came to the Prophet greatly alarmed. did I not create you with my own hand? Did I not breathe into you of my spirit? Did I not command my angels to bow down before you? Did I not provide you with Eve my servant?' 'Yes'.S. The Prophet answered: 'He prayed saying. compassionate.com . The angel Gabriel. for He is relenting. came down and told the Prophet that the two youths were asleep in an animal fold some distance away. Suyuti reports that Ibn 'Abbas.traditions to the Prophet and the people of his household. we are told. Once more. for the sake of Muhammad. Finally. 'Why should I not weep when I have been expelled from the proximity of the All-Merciful?' The angel then said: 'You must pray fervently with these words. Gabriel came to him and spoke thus on God's behalf: O Adam. Adam wept bitterly over his sin for a hundred years. They were both born in Medina. Adam is taught the words as the only means by which God would accept his repentance and forgive him. The Qur'an tells us that Adam received certain words of God which earned him God's forgiveness and mercy: Adam received words from his Lord. One day. One such anecdote is the following. It is therefore with the intimacy and love of a grandfather that the early life of the two Imams is coloured. do turn toward me". nor is there any god but you. Say: "O God.' [16] In another highly dramatic version of this tradition.S. The Prophet told him that when Adam and his wife were expelled from Paradise. Gabriel asked: 'What then is the cause of this weeping?' Adam replied. 'Ali. and He turned toward him. The Prophet went to the spot and found the angel had spread his two wings: one under them and the other over them as cover. The Prophet stooped over the two children and began to kiss them until they awoke. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. "O God. compassionate (2:37). Adam answered. the angel reassured the anxious family. I beseech you for the sake of Muhammad and the people of the household of Muhammad. I have done evil. 'Ali.) Islamic tradition has preserved numerous anecdotes depicting the tender care and love which the Prophet showed Hasan and Husayn. had charged an angel to keep watch over them. He then carried them on his shoulders back to the city. A large crowd of Muslims followed the Prophet and his two grandsons to the mosque.) and Husayn(A. however." [17] Hasan(A. and He turned towards him. enquired of the Prophet concerning the verse under discussion. God. and God will accept your repentance and forgive your sin.

He said.The Prophet then addressed the assembled people and said: 'O Muslims. There is a unity between the Prophet and the ahl al-bayt. and to bring me the glad tidings that Fatima is the mistress of the women of Paradise. you know that Hasan and Husayn shall be in Paradise. the seal of the Messengers. steadfastness. a unity not simply of blood. and whomsoever God loves. mistress of the women of Paradise. their uncles and aunt shall be in Paradise. He sought permission from his Lord to come down and greet me. The Prophet concluded: 'O God. Their maternal uncle and aunt were likewise the best of all uncles and aunts: they were al-Qasim.' The Prophet then declared Hasan and Husayn to have the best maternal uncle and aunt: Jafar and Umm Hani'. O Apostle of God'.' [21] There is no doubt that the special status of the Imam Husayn in Muslim piety and devotion has in large measure been due to the Imam's great sacrifice of family.' Likewise he who hates Hasan and Husayn shall be consigned to the Fire. and life itself in the way of God. and true open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. however. dignity. but rather karamat (divine favours). because both God and his Messenger will hate him. but the Prophet wished them to stay. 'and a terrible punishment awaits him'. It is. reported that the Prophet said: 'An angel is here who never came down to earth before this night. and whomsoever I love. Thus Hudhayfa.com . but also of the spirit. a flash of lightning illuminated the sky. son and daughter of Abu Talib.his courage. therefore. and Zaynab. he would move them gently and place them beside him. as the following statement of the Prophet clearly indicates. Abu Hurayra offered to take the two youths home. son of the Messenger of God. and they thus walked in its light until they entered their home. daughter of the Apostle of God. after prayers. I love him. and those who love them shall be in Paradise. while those who hate them shall be in the Fire. The lightning incident was one such divine favour by means of which the Prophet wished to inform the community of the special status with which God had favoured the two Imams. These are not miracles proper (mu'jizat). and that Hasan and Husayn are the masters of the youths of Paradise. [20] Muslim hagiographical piety extended this unity and intimacy between the Prophet and his two grandchildren to include the angels of heaven. related that often when they prayed behind the Messenger of God Hasan and Husayn would jump on his back while he was prostrate in prayer. they all replied. 'Their grandfather is the Apostle of God. One evening. as related on the authority of Salman the Persian: 'Whoever loves Hasan and Husayn. and their grandmother is Khadija. the famous hadith transmitter. shall I inform you of those who have the best grandfather and grandmother of humankind?' 'Yes. wealth. Soon. He shall cause him to enter into the gardens of bliss. like the prophets. 'They are Hasan and Husayn'." [18] Abu Hurayra. [19] The friends (awliya') of God. When he lifted his head. are favoured with miracles. It is a unity symbolized by the kisa' event. a well known companion and traditionist. God also loves. a unity of love. he said. daughter of Khuwaylid. Husayn's martyrdom .

He has stood with every wronged man or woman before oppressive rulers. 'Ali was killed. Thus the famous traditionist al-Bayhaqi reported that when al-Husayn b.itself in the way of God. Arqam. according to the Qur'an. the Imam Husayn's martyrdom became a source of strength and endurance for Muslims in times of suffering. and say. Husayn's martyrdom . Thus al-Suyuti reports in his commentary on the verse describing God's compassion towards the ancient martyr John son of Zachariah that 'The heavens did not weep for the death of anyone except John son of Zachariah and al-Husayn b. tradition has extended the grief displayed by the pious for the tragedy of Karbala' to the cosmic order.. a woman who was contemporary with the Imam Husayn.'[25] open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. and in the human individual and his society. 'Ali was killed. I would have cut off your head. Ibn Ziyad reprimanded him. When the head of the Imam Husayn was brought before him. O Ibn Ziyad?' [22] Divine wisdom in creation can be best discerned. in the order of nature. Muslim hagiography has recorded the dramatic effect the death of Husayn had on nature. you are slaves after this day. saying: 'May God cause your eyes to weep! Had it not been that you are an old and senile man. persecution and oppression.his courage. By God. Its redness [at sunset] is the sign of its weeping. The following encounter between Zayd b. however. so that next morning we found our wells and water jugs filled with it. a venerable companion of the Prophet. he shall kill the best of you and enslave the most wicked among you. reproaching wrongdoers and encouraging the oppressed to persist in their struggle for freedom and dignity. the sun was so deeply eclipsed that stars were seen at midday. Husayn has inspired the best poetry in all Islamic languages.[23] Nadra alAzdiya. Ibn Ziyad]. Ziyad is a living testimony to the struggle between illegitimate authority and the power of right.' Zayd then said. People feared that it was the Day of Resurrection. Above all.have inspired Muslims of all walks of life. 'Ali. Zayd protested: 'Take away your stick! For. I saw the Apostle of God seating Hasan on his left leg and Husayn on his right. even non-Muslim poets celebrated his great virtue and valour.' Zayd then walked away. exclaiming: 'O men. Perish those who accept humiliation and shame." How have you dealt with the trust of the Prophet. and 'Ubayd Allah b. steadfastness.com .' [24] The memory of the martyred Imam has been kept alive and nourished by the tears of the faithful who vicariously share in the tragedy of the Imam Husayn and his loved ones and friends. 'O Ibn Ziyad. "O God.' Saying this. and true devotion in times of great crisis . I shall tell you something that will enrage you even more. by God. Ibn Ziyad began to poke its teeth and lips with a stick.e. is said to have reported: 'When al-Husayn b. the sky rained down blood. I commend them and the most righteous of the people of faith to your trust. dignity. Here again. For you have slain the son of Fatima and set as amir over you the son of Marjana [i. I saw the Apostle of God often kiss these lips. Zayd began to weep.

But above all. This unity makes it impossible to discuss one without discussing all the others. the Imam Husayn and his fellow martyrs accepted God's bargain with the people of faith to exchange their lives and wealth for the eternal bliss of Paradise. It is related that the father of the Imams. [1] See 2:127. It invites us still to 'a garden whose breadth is greater than the heavens and earth. that the Imam Husayn was especially close to the heart of his grandfather. is in turn a symbol of the unity of all Muslims. 3:96. Shi'i tradition has always insisted on the great merit the faithful earn in making pilgrimage (ziyara) to the tomb of the Imam Husayn and the tombs of the men who were martyred with him. wrongdoing and deviation from the ideals of Islamic leadership as exemplified by the Prophet and his own father 'Ali. and will enter Paradise without reckoning!' [29] The spiritual unity of the ahl al-bayt. Malik. May God love those who love Husayn. been concerned throughout this study with the Imam Husayn in the context of this essential unity. the Prophet announced this great favour to his close companion Anas b. the Prophet Muhammad. 25. her husband. ah. symbolized by the kisa'. We have. Yet Sunni tradition has likewise seen great merit in this pious act. on whose authority this tradition is reported.'[26] When sura 108 (alKawthar) was revealed. and their two sons. and see also pp.Conclusion It has already been argued that there is an existential and all-inclusive unity between the Prophet and his daughter Fatima. [2] See 3:33. [3] Musnad Ibn Hanbal. on this spot some men will be slain. He took a handful of its soil and exclaimed: 'Ah. however. p.[30] This divine challenge is no less relevant to the Muslim community today than it was fourteen hundred years ago. It is of Husayn alone that he declared: 'Husayn is of me and I am of Husayn. 25-6 open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. He refused a partisan Islam when he refused to legitimize Umayyad rule. Redemptive Suffering in Islam (The Hague. the Commander of the Faithful. passed by Karbala' after the battle of Siffin.' [27] Finally. prepared for those who fear God'. therefore. Because he refused humiliation.[28] The ziyara to the tomb of the martyred Imam has acquired this great significance in all Muslim tradition because the Imam and his fellow martyrs are seen as models of jihad in the way of God.com . Anas asked: 'What is alKawthar?' He answered: 'It is a river in Paradise. It must be added. quoted in M. 'Ali. but neither those who violate my covenant (dhimma). Ayoub. nor those who shall kill the people of my House will be allowed to drink of it. the Imam Husayn drew once and for all the distinction between a true khalifa (representative) of the Apostle of God and the kings of this world. It is for the sake of this unity in faith and commitment (islam) to God and the truth that the Imam Husayn sacrificed his life. 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. 1978).

VII. 25-6 [4] Ahmad b. II. [7] Ala al-Din Ali al-Muttaqi b. p. [5] Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. 151. [18] Al-Fayruzabadi. n. p. 1356). 1312). Hajar alHaytami al-Asqalani. 151. 252. I. 1313). p. See also Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. [25] See the commentary on 19:13 in al-Suyuti. 118. VIII. 25. Al-Riyad al-nadira (Cairo. for example. the commentary on this verse in al-Zamakhshari and al-Tabari. 1351). 187. p. IV. 513. See also 33:33. 217. Tahdhib al-tahdhib (Haydarabad [Deccan]. [10] Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Muhibb al-Tabari. II. [19] Ibn Hanbal. 307 [22] Ibn Hajar. p.sitta (Najaf. 1324). 150. 1384). al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. [15] Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi.1978). see M Ayoub. Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa (Cairo. 291. [8] See the commentary on 33: 33 in al-Suyuti. and see also pp. Fada'il al-khamsa fi sihah al. Musnad (Cairo. [23] Abu Bakr Ahmad b Husayn b. and Ibn Hanbal. p. II. p. p. [17] Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. [20] Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi. II. 185. see also Muhammad b. see Murtada al-Husayni al-Fayruzabadi. II. Ahmad b. I.p. Hanbal. and IV 217. [30] See 9:111. [12] 76:8. Note also the popularity of the Mosque of the Head of the Imam Husayn in Cairo as a place of pilgrimage. [28] Muhibb al-Din Ahmad b. 337.d. I. [13] For a detailed discussion of this tradition. [11] See the commentaries on this verse in al-Zamakhshari. [29] Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Abd Allah al-Tabari. II. III. 1344). 221 [21] Al-Tirmidhi. and al-Suyuti. 199 For other versions of this tradition. 147. Abd Allah al-Isbahani. 348. al-Tabari. [16] See the commentary on 2:37 in al-Suyuti. Husam al-Din al-Hindi. 1920). Dhakha'ir al. III. 1325). pp 43-5.. 234.com . [26] Al-Tirmidhi.). Hajar al-Haytami al-Asqalani. Hilyat al-awliya' (Cairo. [27] See the commentary on sura 108 in al-Suyuti. 86. III. [14] Abu Nu'aym. [9] See 3:61. 323. 'Isa al-Tirmidhi.'uqba (n. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. Al-Durr al-manthur. Al-Sunan al-Kubra (Haydarabad. 1312). [6] See. Kanz al-'ummal (Haydarabad [Deccan]. 109. Mustadrak al-sahihayn (Haydarabad [Deccan]. al-Bayhaqi. 306. 300. [24] Ibn Hajar. Sahih al-Tirmidhi (Cairo. Abd Allah al-Nisaburi.

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