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Research Proposal Of

A Study on Customer Awareness & Perception Towards private Label Brands

Submitted to:
Dr.Sheriff Memon

submitted by :
Chetan Sagar (Enroll.num. 117350592102) Chirag Vora (Enroll.num. 117350592161)

N.R. Institute of Business Management Ahmadabad

1.

INTRODUCTION
OF RETAIL INDUSTRY

1.1 ABOUT RETAIL INDUSTRY:

The origins for retail business in India can be traced with the emergence of Kirana stores and mom-and-pop stores. These stores used to cater to the local people. Gradually the government started supporting the rural retail and many indigenous franchise stores came up with the help of Khadi & Village Industries Commission. The economy began to open up in the 1980's resulting in the change of retailing. The first few companies to Dyeing, S Kumar's, Raymonds, etc. Later Titan launched retail showrooms in the organized retail sector. With the passage of time new entrants moved on from manufacturing to pure retailing. Retailing has been defined as business activities involved in selling goods and services to consumers for their personal, family or household use (Berman and Evans, 2001). Although retailing has been around for millennia, the 20th century witnessed a lot of change in the retail sector, especially in the developed countries. Modern formats such as department stores, discount stores, supermarkets, convenience stores, fast food outlets, specialty stores, warehouse retailers and hypermarkets have emerged. Retailing has become more organized and chain stores have been growing at the expense of independent shops. The organized retail sector is expected to see an investment of over $30 billion within the next 4-5 years, catapulting modern retail in the country to $175-200 billion by 2016, according to Technopak estimates.

1.2 RETAILING IN INDIA:

Retail is India's largest industry, accounting for over 10 per cent of the country's GDP and around eight per cent of the employment. Retail industry in India is at the crossroads. It has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market. But because of the heavy initial investments required, break even is difficult to achieve and many of these players have not tasted success so far. However, the future is promising; the market is growing, government policies are becoming more favorable and emerging technologies are facilitating operations. Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in sprawling shopping centre, multi-storeyed malls and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof. The Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by the Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory. The Indian population is witnessing a significant change in its demographics. A large young working population with median age of 24 years, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing working-women population and emerging opportunities in the services sector are going to be the key growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India.

1.3 DIVISION OF RETAIL INDUSTRY :


The retail industry is mainly divided into: 1) Organized and 2) Unorganized Retailing 1. Organized retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporatebacked hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail businesses. 2. Unorganized retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores, paan/beedi shops, convenience stores, hand cart and pavement vendors, etc. The Indian retail sector is highly fragmented with 97 per cent of its business being run by the unorganized retailers. The organized retail however is at a very nascent stage. The sector is the largest source of employment after agriculture, and has deep penetration into rural India generating more than 10 per cent of Indias GDP. Today India is the fifth largest in the world in terms of Retail Industry. Comprising of organized and unorganized sectors, Indian retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries, especially over the last few years. Though initially, the retail industry in India was mostly unorganized, with the change of tastes and preferences of the consumers, the industry is getting more popular these days and getting organized as well. With growing market demand, the industry is expected to grow at a pace of 25-30% annually. The India retail industry is expected to grow from Rs. 35,000 crore in 2004-05 to Rs. 109,000 crore shortly. Indian Retail Industry is the most promising emerging market for investment According to the 8th Annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) of AT Kearney, the retail trade in India had a share of 8-10% in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country in the year 2007. In 2009, it rose to 12% in the year 2008 and expected to reach 22% in the next few years. The Indian Retail Industry is expected to grow to US$ 700 billion in the year 2010 according to a report by Northbridge Capital. In the same year the organized sector will be 20% of the total

market share as compared to the share of organized sector in 2007 was 7.5% of the total retail market.

1.4 SOME LEADING PLAYERS IN ORGANISED RETAIL MARKET: 1. Pantaloon Retail :


The flagship company of Future Group, Pantaloons Retail operates over 16 million square feet of retail space, has over 1000 stores across 73 cities in India and employs over 30,000 people. It can boast of launching the first hypermarket Big Bazaar in India in 2001.

2. K Raheja Group :
They forayed into retail with Shoppers Stop, Indias first departmental store in 2001. It is the only retailer from India to become a member of the prestigious Intercontinental Group of Departmental Stores (IGDS).

3. Tata group :
Established in 1998, Trent - one of the subsidiaries of Tata Group - operates Westside, a lifestyle retail chain and Star India Bazaar - a hypermarket with a large assortment of products at the lowest prices. In 2005, it acquired Landmark, India's largest book and music retailer. Tatas has also formed a subsidiary named Infiniti retail which consists of Croma, a consumer electronics chain. Another subsidiary, Titan Industries, owns brands like Titan, the watch of India and Tanishq, the jewellery brand.

4. Viveks Ltd :
Vivek Limited is the largest consumer electronics and home appliances retail chain in India.

5. Landmark group :
Landmark Group was launched in 1998 in India. The retail ventures of Landmark Group includes - Home Centre, Centre point, Baby shop, Splash, Shoe Mart, Lifestyle, Max, Lifestyle Department Stores, SPAR hypermarkets, Food mark, Fun City, Fitness First, Citymax India etc.

6. Bharti-Walmart :
Bharti Walmart launched its operations in Andhra Pradesh. the store here, spread over 53,000-sq. ft area, would be a one-stop shop for vendors, restaurants, institutions and offices, providing over 500 products including a wide range of fresh, frozen and chilled foods and vegetables, dry groceries, personal and home care items, hotel and restaurant supplies, apparel, and general merchandise.

7. Reliance :
In 2006, Raghu Pillai, former head of Reliance Retail, had set a revenue target of $25 billion (Rs 112,500 crore) by 2010. What Reliance Retail has managed is Rs 7,600 crore in FY 12. The company had plans to set up 4,000 stores by 2010; five years later, it has been able to set up just 1,300 stores.

8. AV Birla Group's :
The Group's foray into the retail sector began in December 2006 when it acquired Trinethra, the chain of stores based in south India. May 2007 saw Aditya Birla Retail Limited (ABRL) launch their own brand of stores called 'More.' ABRL's vision is "to consistently provide the Indian consumer complete and differentiated shopping experiences and be amongst India's top retailers while delivering superior returns to all stakeholders. Currently, there are over 487 supermarkets and 14 hypermarkets. All the supermarkets are branded 'More.' and the hypermarkets are branded 'More Megastore'. The company has over 9,000 employees and has a pan-India presence.

2. PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS

2.1 ABOUT PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS :


Private Labels Brands (PLBs), also called store brands (SBs), are goods owned and merchandised by retailers. PLBs have long been considered as an important aspect of merchandising practice, both as a strategic tool for retailers and a unique source of competition for manufacturers. The market share for store brands across different food categories have increased in all Western countries within the last decade and retailers have a number of incentives to create store brand programs. Private label brands were first introduced over 100 years ago in a few product categories, such as tea and are now available in over 60 percent of all grocery categories in USA (Fitzell, 1982). The concept of private label brands was popularized by large corporate supermarket chains which expanded their private label business at the expense of some heavily advertised national brands and items (Stern, 1966). The experience of the post-war years has seen decline of weak manufacturers brands (also called national brands), especially when not in the top three of a product category, in market share and even sometimes disappearing completely. While the major brands have strengthened their position somewhat, increasing retail concentration has put the brands owned by the large retailers into a strong position in a number of product categories(Morris & Nightingale, 1980). By 1990, private label brands had become the dominant brand for nearly 20 percent of US supermarket product categories (Richardson, Jain, &Dick, 1996). Growth of organized retail chain in India has also led to growth of private label brands in India. Indian economy has seen average growth rate of more than seven percent since 1994, putting purchasing power in hands of customer. Though, initial growth of private label brands in India has been limited to certain categories like grocery and apparel, it is slowly expanding into other categories as well. The Indian retail market is the fifth largest retail destination globally and has been considered the most attractive emerging market for investment. Overall, the Indian retail market is growing at 30% annually, with the organized segment, which currently accounts for around 9% of the Indian retail market, registering above average growth of 30% (Report on Indian retail industry by Cygnus,2010). Thus, with growth of organized retail in India, the private label brands are also expected to grow.

Preference for Private Label Brands contributes to store loyalty, resulting in higher sales of both national and private label brands. This prevents the store from margin-killing price promotions and an ever escalating need to respond to competitive price pressures. However, in an increasingly competitive retail market, retailers have turn to focus on their brand image in an attempt to further differentiate themselves from competitors. In this respect, they try to create a distinctive retail offer, through manipulation of tangible and intangible assets. Private label products are viewed as differentiators. They are no longer simply me too products that offer the same thing for less money. More and more, they bring something new to the market. Private label products are strategic weapons. Increasingly, they are tools that separate a retailer from its competitors, hopefully in a way that helps to build loyalty and purchase behavior. They also offer better margins, thereby supporting bottom line growtha critical role to be played in an industry that has forever been marked by thin margins and today is feeling margins seemingly choked out of existence. For consumers, private label offers money-saving opportunities. Private label also offers value. New products, new attributes, new sizes private label products are opening doors to attributes which have historically been out of the reach of many consumers by bringing them into an affordable price range. And still, private label can beshould beeven more.

2.2 THE ORETICAL FRAMEWORK :


A private-label product is a manufactured good that a retailer purchases from a supplier, with the intention of renaming, repackaging and selling it under the distributors own brand name.

Depending on the agreement between a manufacturer and a retailer, the manufacturer sometimes handles the packaging and labeling for the retailer for an additional charge. Otherwise, the retailer is responsible for the process of dressing up the product as its own. Thus, it can be said that Brands owned not by a manufacturer or producer but by a retailer or supplier who gets its goods made by a contract manufacturer under its own label are called private label

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brands. Manufacturers use either their own name, that of a middleman, or a combination of both when they are marketing their products. Private labeling occurs when middlemen, usually large retailers or wholesalers, develop their own brand.

2.3 BENEFITS OF PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS :


Since manufacturers' (producers') brands have large advertising expenditures built into their cost, a private labeler is able to buy the same goods at a lower cost and thus sell them at a lower price and/or at a better profit margin. Private labelers have more control over pricing and are able to advantageously display their own brands for maximum impact. For example, a grocery store can quickly reduce the price of its own PLB in order to meet or beat a competitor's price. Or the grocery store can create a special point-of-purchase advertising display and/or give its brand predominant shelf space in order to boost sales. PLBs are usually priced lower than comparable manufacturers' brands and therefore appeal to bargain-conscious consumers. Retailers like PLBs because of their potential to increase store loyalty, chain profitability, control over shelf space, bargaining power over manufacturers, and so forth.

2.4 TYPES OF PRIVATE LABELS :


Store brands : Retailers name is very evident on the packaging. Store sub-brands : Products where the retailer's name is low-key on the packaging. Umbrella branding : A generic brand, independent from the name of the retailer. Individual brands name used in one category, this is only used to promote a "real" discount product line.

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Exclusive brands : Again a name used in one category, but to promote "added value" products within the category. Distributor brands : Large wholesale grocers and foodservice purveyors often have private labels, for example the Parade brand of Federated Foodservice and the wide array of private brands of the large food service supplier Sysco. These brands are typically seen in non-chain independent restaurants and stores that cannot afford their own private labeling. Copycat private labels : Brands owned by a retailer which use similar trade dress, i.e. packaging as a leading national brand.

2.5 THE PROCESS OF PRIVATE LABEL CREATION :


The process of private label creation is to a great extent, similar to the process involved in the sourcing of merchandise. The steps involved in the creation of the private label are listed below:

Stage 1: Defining the Objective:


The first step towards creating a private label is to start by defining the reason for which the retailer wishes to create the private label. Some common reasons for creating a private label are the need to create a competitive differentiation or to offer a wide & unique product range. The need to create private label may also be for enhancing the margin that he may be earning or to build customer loyalty.

Stage 2: Defining the GAPS in the Market :


Once the basic reason for creating the private label is identified, the retailer needs to understand the customer segment which is to be tapped. This enhances a further understanding of the target profile of the customer & also helps the retailer address issues with respect to the sensitivity of the price of the target audience, the level of experimentation within the segment & the level of brand loyalty, if any. After having determined the objective for creating the private label the gaps

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in the offering of the brands & products in the store & that of the competitors need to be done. A decision needs to be taken in terms of the product mix & the pricing strategy to be adopted. It is necessary to define the required product specifications, standards, quality estimated volumes.

Stage 3: Decision on Make or Buy & Sourcing :


After having determined the basic purpose for the creation of the private label, the method in which the sourcing of the product is to be done has to be decided upon. This will involve a decision on make or buy. In case the retailer decides to source the product decisions with respect to the vendor or supplier then need to be tackled. One needs to check the ability of the supplier to provide products within the given time frame, at the required quality & price levels, so as to necessary that the designs & styles of the products provided are different from those available with other retailers & brands.

Stage 4: determine the Marketing & Sales Strategy :


The product secured also has to be marketed within the store environment. This will involve communication within the store & at times, communication in vehicles of mass media. It is necessary to define the strategy for each brand, in line with the corporate strategy. This enables the creation of the marketing & sales plan to define product positioning & strategy. An advertising campaign can be created if required. This helps in creating a brand image in the minds if the consumer & in communicating with the consumer.

Stage 5: Determine the Measures of Performance :


While creating a private label, as with creating a brand, it is necessary to identify the measures of performance. It is necessary to develop a system to track & monitor private label program me performance & identify recommendations for programmed refinement & improvement.

Thus private label as a concept is poised for further expansion & their popularity is fast extending to many non food categories & formats. Retailers have realized that private labels have a huge impact on the bottom line & the margins of private labels are usually double than that of branded products. The power of private labels is being explored by most retailers today as

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they do not want to be at the mercy of the big manufacturers. At the same time, they also realize that its not going to be easy as it takes time & money to build private labels.

2.6 PRIVATE BRANDING STRATEGY :


Introduction of store brands is a strategy to enhance store image & profitability. Earlier consumer perceived store brands to be low priced alternatives to national brands, but it is seen that some private brands are positioned on par with national brands. However, consumers consider private brands as alternatives & inferior to national brands. Retailers use unique branding strategy to position private brands. It may be independent stand alone strategy for different categories known as a house of brand strategy or same across several categories known as brand house strategy. To quote the example of future group, different brand names are given for different category of products like knighthood, shyla, shatranj, for apparels, cube. Koeing, RIG, Lombard & UMM for lifestyle products, care mate for personal care & clean mate for health care. Retailers are coming up with innovative marketing techniques to position their brands on par with the national brands. The focus is to build favorable perception around the store brands. For example, private brands of shoppers, stop such as Vittorio Frattini, Kashish are positioned as premium apparels. It is observed that retailers give lot of shelf space in attractive places to store brands in order to create more visibility. Future groups Big Bazaars private brands viz tasty treat, premium harvest, tasty mate, pure & fresh are placed at the atrium to create more visibility.

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3. Introduction To Research
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1. Statement of the Problem :


A Study on Customer Awareness & Perception Towards private Label Brands The Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by the Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory. The Indian population is witnessing a significant change in its demographics. A large young working population with median age of 24 years, in urban areas, along with increasing working-women population and emerging opportunities in the services sector are going to be the key growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India. Private Labels Brands (PLBs), also called store brands (SBs), are goods owned and merchandised by retailers. Preference for Private Label Brands contributes to store loyalty, resulting in higher sales of both national and private label brands. This prevents the store from margin-killing price promotions and an ever escalating need to respond to competitive price pressures. The problem is that up to which level consumers are aware about PLBs and why they are move towards private label brands.

2. Research Objectives :
The objectives for this study are : To study customers awareness towards Private Label Brands. To study perception towards Private Label Brands. To analyze customers preference of purchase of Private Label Brands in various categories of products. To analyze various factors which attract the customers towards Private Label Brands

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3. Significance of the Study :


Contribution to the retail industry: Contribution to the knowledge / subject:

4. Research Methodology : A. Research Design :


The study will about to know the customer awareness and perception towards private label brands. This study will also help to know customers preference of purchase of Private Label Brands in various categories of products and will also help in to analyze various factors which attract the customers towards Private Label Brands. To know this detailed questionnaire will be filled up from customers of mega stores as well as from malls.

B. Sampling Plan : I. Sampling method :


We will use convenient customers to fill up questionnaire. So sampling method that will be a CONVINIENT SAMPLING METHOD

ii.Sampling unit/element :
We will take samples from different mega stores as well as malls of the Ahmadabad city.

iii.Sample size :
Our sample size will be 200 samples.

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4. LITERATURE REVIEW

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Researchers world.(July-2012)A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BIG BAZAAR, COIMBATORE, TAMIL NADU.Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce Vol. III, Issue 3(3),pg 79-85

The private label brand choice is depending on experience, value, time utility, possession utility, mechanism and place utility. Private labels are able to position themselves significantly in the mind of customers and are gaining acceptance. Growth in specific private label segments like food and apparel segments are growing at a faster rate. While, the future of private labels is dependent on the retailers ability to overcome key challenges such as adaptive supply chain practices, quality infrastructure, accelerated growth in new categories, blurring dividing lines between private label and national brands. From the study, it was found that good quality, price, trustworthy, large variety are the most influencing factor which drive the customer to buy the private label brand. Therefore, these are the factors which should be considered while coming with the future private brand. This in return it will help the retail stores to increase sales.

Symphony Information Resources Inc. group (sep-2011) Private Label: Brand positioning in the New World Order.

Manufacturers seeking to develop effective private label mitigation strategies should consider the following action items: Carefully monitor price gaps between own brands and private label alternatives to ensure that optimal price gap is maintained, Understand private label performance across your categories; leverage value-oriented pricing and promotion programs to protect and grow share, Explore partnerships with key retailers to create co-branded products and multi-tiered solutions that appeal to a broad consumer base.

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Continually refine competitive strategies vis--vis private label Maintain a solid understanding of price/value perceptions across key, consumer, segments, and ensure everyday pricing is in lock-step with consumer needs. Invest in innovation that will bring differentiation to the marketplace, and entice consumers to buy more to get more despite a difficult economic environment ,Leverage highly-targeted and affordability-oriented marketing campaigns, including feature ads and instore efforts, across categories with the highest store brands threat.

Measure and monitor actual versus planned impact of brand related initiatives Carefully test new product concepts before embarking on development plans; frequently solicit consumer feedback throughout the development process, Use market-level models to determine expected results of pricing and promotional efforts; frequently measure actual versus expected results upon and following rollout, Track and benchmark store-level shifts relative to private label among key retail partners.

Retailers seeking to grow private label share should consider the following action items: Continually identify and assess private label opportunities and threats Carefully monitor price gaps between your private label offerings and national brand alternatives to ensure that optimal price gap is maintained, Tailor private label offerings at the market level, Support private label lines with consumercentric and highly integrated marketing campaigns, including in-store display and feature ad support.

Continually refine private label development strategies maintain a solid understanding of price/value perceptions across key consumer segments, and use this knowledge to inform everyday and promotional pricing strategies, Invest in innovation that will bring differentiation to the marketplace, Evaluate feasibility of multi-tier offerings across key categories/product lines, either alone, or in partnership with brand manufacturer partners. Measure and monitor actual versus planned impact of private label-related initiatives Test market product, pricing and promotion changes prior to and immediately following roll out, Track and benchmark store-level private brand share shifts relative to national brands.

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Dr.Ranga Chimhundu(2011) Private Label Marketing Performance: An Analysis of Historical Trends Using Theories of Cumulative Change and Punctuated Equilibrium. Canadian Center of Science and Education.

The historical trends in the development of private label and national brands using cumulative (gradualist) and punctuated equilibrium (punctuated evolution) theories. Market share performance has been taken as a marketing performance measure in the balance and development of private label and national brands. If private label is, for instance, gaining share at the expense of national brands or vice-versa, this would be taken as an indicator of superior marketing performance on the part of one type of brand in relation to the other brand. It has been noted that periods of equilibrium represented by either slow, gradual change or no change at all are followed by punctuations. Business analysts get a true picture of aspects related to the development of private label in relation to national brands as private label has become and will continue to be a permanent feature of the FMCG sector.

Dr.Mark Glynn(2009)Attitudes to private labels: the role of store image.AUTEC Faculty Representative, Business management.

The literature suggests that retailer differentiation is one of the key motivations for private labels. The literature also indicates that store image and brand image are interdependent. This research confirms that store image plays an important role in attitudes to private labels. The results of the research are at odds with the differentiation motive for private labels, however, and suggest the need to examine the fit between store positioning and private label positioning. The research also suggests that the quality of the stores wider product assortment is an important extrinsic cue for consumer assessment of private label products.

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Richardson P.Jain,A.K.& Dick A.(1996).The influence of store aesthetics on evaluation of private label brands. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 5(1), 19-19.

Marketing studies have consistently shown in blind taste tests that consumers have difficulty distinguishing between private label and national brand grocery products. Yet consumers still prefer national brands by a large margin. There are clear strategic advantages for retailers to promote private brands. The margins on private brands are substantial (The Economist, 1995). Higher sales of higher margin private label brands increase profits and may enable supermarkets with unionized labor to compete with low cost operators like Wal-Mart. The major switch (along with the development of larger sites) was the emphasis placed by UK supermarket operators on fresh produce. They had always provided a variety of own-brand packaged goods mostly seen as cheaper, lower quality products compared with leading brands, but the market for fresh produce - meat, fish, fruit and vegetables - was largely unbranded and dominated by small, mostly owner-run, outlets. Supermarkets realized that providing a good range of these products and promoting freshness provided a superb branding opportunity. With fluctuating prices and no nationally branded providers the stores were also able to secure superior margins as there was little need to compete on price with existing retailers.

Deveny, K.(1994, Jul 07).Marketscan:Big firms come out fighting, slow sales of private-label rivals. Wall Street Journal.

After years of slowly losing market share to private-label rivals, some marketers are finding that defensive maneuvers are paying off. Such companies as Philip Morris Cos. and Procter & Gamble Co. have chopped prices of some of their flagship brands. Many other marketers, including Eastman Kodak Co. and Colgate-Palmolive Co., have responded to the private-label threat by spending more on advertising or by spinning out new products meant to help foster a perception of a clear quality advantage. Sales data gathered by supermalls shows that store brands are losing ground in many categories. Sales data gathered by Information Resources from supermarkets, drugstores and mass-merchandise outlets confirm that store brands are losing ground in many categories. Sales of store-brand films and flashbulbs, charcoal,

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microwave popcorn, suntan lotions and dish detergents also lost market share. "Some manufacturers have made great gains against private-label competitors," says Gary Stibel, a principal with New England Consulting Group in Westport, Conn. "But the bloom is far from off the rose with private label. Drugstores and mass merchandisers, Ground, decaffeinated coffee, antacid tablets, private-label soft drinks sale increase during the year.

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References:
Researchers world.(July-2012)A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS
PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BIG BAZAAR, COIMBATORE, TAMIL NADU. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce Vol. III, Issue 3(3),pg 79-85

Symphony Information Resources Inc. group (sep-2011) Private Label: Brand positioning in the New World Order.

Dr.Ranga Chimhundu (2011) Private Label Marketing Performance: An Analysis of Historical Trends Using Theories of Cumulative Change and Punctuated Equilibrium. Canadian Center of Science and Education.

Dr.Mark Glynn(2009)Attitudes to private labels: the role of store image.AUTEC Faculty Representative, Business management.

Richardson P.Jain,A.K.& Dick A.(1996).The influence of store aesthetics on evaluation of private label brands. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 5(1), 19-19.

Deveny, K.(1994, Jul 07).Marketscan:Big firms come out fighting, slow sales of private-label rivals. Wall Street Journal.

Magda Nenycz-Thiel, Jenni Romaniuk, (2009) "Perceptual categorization of private labels and national brands", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 18 Iss: 4, pp.251 261

Mark S. Glynn, Shaoshan Chen, (2009) "Consumer-factors moderating private label brand success: further empirical results", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 37 Iss: 11, pp.896 914

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Michael S. Pepe, Russell Abratt, Paul Dion, (2011) "The impact of private label brands on customer loyalty and product category profitability", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 1, pp.27 36

Katrina Ellis, Mark D. Uncles, (1991) "How Private Labels Affect Consumer Choice", British Food Journal, Vol. 93 Iss: 9, pp.41 49 Kyoung-Nan Kwon, Mi-Hee Lee, Yoo Jin Kwon, (2008) "The effect of perceived product characteristics on private brand purchases", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 25 Iss: 2, pp.105 114.

Rajiv Vaidyanathan, Praveen Aggarwal, (2000) "Strategic brand alliances: implications of ingredient branding for national and private label brands", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 9 Iss: 4, pp.214 228

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5. QUESTIONNAIRE

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Questionnaire:
We are student of N. R. INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT and we are doing project report on private label brands. So we are requesting you to fill this questionnaire by doing tick mark on appropriate answer which will helps us for this research. Personal detail: 1) Name 2) Gender 3) Age years : : : ________________________________________________ [ ] male [ ] 15-24 [ ] 35-44 4) Household size : [ ] Single person [ ] One-child household [ ] Three or more children 5) Education : [ ] under matriculation [ ] Graduate 6) Profession : [ ] Office worker [ ] Worker [ ] Entrepreneur [ ] Retired 7) Annual income : [ ] less than 20,000 [ ] More than 35,000 [ ] female [ ] 25-34 [ ] > 44 [ ] Young couple [ ] Two-child household [ ] no information [ ] matriculation [ ] post graduate [ ] Student [ ] Housewife [ ] Unemployed [ ] Others [ ] 20,000-35,000

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8) How many times you go to the supermarket? [ ] Once in a month [ ] Thrice in a month [ ] twice in a month [ ] more than Thrice in a month

9) Which types of product you purchase from the supermarket? [ ] Grocery [ ] Fruits and Vegetables [ ] Apparel [ ] Electronic Products [ ] Sports and Leisure [ ] Dairy Products [ ] Food and Beverages [ ] Home & Kitchen [ ] Body care products [ ] Other

10) Do you know about the private label brands? [ ] Yes [ ] no

11) Which Super Markets Private Label Brands do you know? [ ] Big Bazaar [ ] Shoppers Stop [ ] RCM [ ] National handloom [ ] Sahara Q-Shop [ ] Other

12) How do you come to know about the private label brands? [ ] Customer Sales Assistance [ ] Shelf Display [ ] Friends & Relatives [ ] Other

13) Do you purchase any product of private label brands? [ ] Yes [ ] no

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14) Do you purchase any specific private label brands at every purchase? [ ] Yes [ ] no

15) Which are the important factors while you purchase private label Brands? [ ] Quality [ ] Sales Promotion [ ] Product Display [ ] Other 16) Give rank to the factors given below from 1 to 5 about Private Label Brands. 1 = Very Poor, 2 = Poor, 3 = Average, 4 = Good, 5 = Very Good [ ] Packaging [ ] Price [ ] Variety

(Please Tick Mark On an appropriate one) 1 Quality Price Packaging Sales Promotion 2 3 4 5

17) Are you satisfied with the availability of private label brands? [ ] Poor [ ] Average [ ] Good

18) Do you satisfied with private label brands? [ ] Fully Satisfied [ ] Moderate [ ] Dissatisfied

19) Will you purchase private label brands next time? [ ] Yes [ ] no

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