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I. THE NOUN..............................................................................................................................................................................2 1.1. Kinds and function.............................................................................................................................................................2 1.2. Gender................................................................................................................................................................................2 1.3. Plurals............................................................................................................................................................................3 1.3.1.

Uncountable nouns (also known as non-count nouns or mass nouns)........................................................................7 1.4. The form of the possessive/genitive case...........................................................................................................................8 1.5. Use of the possessive/genitive case and of + noun...........................................................................................................8 1.6. SEMINAR - NOUN..........................................................................................................................................................9 1.7. SEIKAN TUNNEL .................................................................................................................................................................................................15 1.8. CHARLES RIVER BRIDGE...........................................................................................................................................16 II. ARTICLES.............................................................................................................................................................................18 2.1. The definite article...........................................................................................................................................................18 2.2. Omission of the................................................................................................................................................................20 2.3. The indefinite article........................................................................................................................................................23 2.4. The zero article.................................................................................................................................................................24 2.5. SEMINAR - ARTICLE....................................................................................................................................................24 2.6. CENTRAL ARTERY/ (Big Dig).....................................................................................................................................28 2.7. SUNSHINE SKYWAY BRIDGE .................................................................................................................................................................................................30 III. ADJECTIVES.......................................................................................................................................................................31 3.1. Kinds of adjectives...........................................................................................................................................................31 3.2. Order of adjectives of quality...........................................................................................................................................32 3.3. Comparison .....................................................................................................................................................................34 3.4. Constructions with comparisons .....................................................................................................................................35 3.5. Possessive adjectives .......................................................................................................................................................36 3.6. SEMINAR - ADJECTIVE...............................................................................................................................................37 3.7. GARABIT VIADUCT .................................................................................................................................................................................................41 3.8. ASWAN HIGH DAM......................................................................................................................................................42 IV. ADVERBS............................................................................................................................................................................44 4.1. Kinds of adverbs..............................................................................................................................................................44 4.2. Form and use....................................................................................................................................................................44 4.3. Comparative and superlative adverb forms......................................................................................................................46 4.4 Position of adverbs............................................................................................................................................................47 4.5. Inversion of the verb........................................................................................................................................................49 4.6. SEMINAR - ADVERB....................................................................................................................................................50 4.7. THREE GORGES DAM..................................................................................................................................................52 4.8. CITICORP CENTER.......................................................................................................................................................54 V. THE PRONOUN....................................................................................................................................................................55 5.1. Personal pronouns............................................................................................................................................................57 5.2. Uses of it..........................................................................................................................................................................58 5.3. Possessive pronouns.........................................................................................................................................................59 5.4. Demonstrative pronouns .................................................................................................................................................59 5.5. Reflexive pronouns .......................................................................................................................................................59 5.6. Interrogative pronouns.....................................................................................................................................................60 5.7. Relative pronouns ...........................................................................................................................................................60 5.8. Indefiite pronouns ...........................................................................................................................................................61 All Some None ................................................................................................................................................................61 5.9. SEMINAR PRONOUN...............................................................................................................................................61 5.9.1. SEARS TOWER...........................................................................................................................................................71 5.9.2. PETRONAS TOWERS.................................................................................................................................................73 VI. PREPOSITIONS...................................................................................................................................................................74 6.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................74 6.2. SEMIAR - PREPOSITION..............................................................................................................................................84

I. THE NOUN 1.1. Kinds and function A There are four kinds of noun in English:

Common nouns: dog, man, table Proper nouns: France, Madrid, Mrs Smith, Tom Abstract nouns: beauty, charity, courage, fear, joy Collective nouns: crowd, flock, group, swarm, team 1.2. Gender A Masculine: men, boys and male animals (pronoun he/they). Feminine: women, girls and female animals (pronoun she/they). Neuter: inanimate things, animals whose sex we don't know and sometimes babies whose sex we don't know (pronoun it/they). Exceptions: ships and sometimes cars and other vehicles when regarded with affection or respect are considered feminine. Countries when referred to by name are also normally considered feminine. The ship struck an iceberg, which tore a huge hole in her side. Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great rebellions. B 1 Masculine/feminine nouns denoting people Different forms: boy, girl gentleman, lady son, daughter bachelor, spinster husband, wife uncle, aunt bridegroom, bride man, woman widower, widow father, mother nephew, niece duke, duchess king, queen

prince, princess earl, countess 2

lord, lady

The majority of nouns indicating occupation have the same form: cook driver guide assistant dancer doctor etc.

artist

Main exceptions: actor, actress host, hostess conductor, conductress spokesperson. C Domestic animals and many of the larger wild animals have different forms: bull, cow duck, drake ram, ewe stallion, mare cock, hen 1.3. Plurals A The plural of a noun is usually made by adding s to the singular: house, houses gander, goose stag, doe tiger, tigress dog, bitch lion, lioness manager, manageress heir, heiress steward, stewardess

Sometimes -person is used instead of -man, -woman: salesperson,

day, days dog, dogs

- s is pronounced /s/ after p, k or f sound. Otherwise it is pronounced /z/. When s is placed after ce, ge, se or ze an extra syllable (/iz/) is added to the spoken word.

Other plural forms B Nouns ending in o or ch, sh, ss or x form their plural by adding es: tomato, tomatoes brush, brushes box, boxes church, churches kiss, kisses But words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in o add s only: dynamo, dynamos kimono, kimonos piano, pianos kilo, kilos C Nouns ending in y following a consonant form their plural by dropping baby, babies country, countries boy, boys day, days fly, flies lady, ladies donkey, donkeys guy, guys photo, photos soprano, sopranos

the y and adding ies:

Nouns ending in y following a vowel form their plural by adding s:

Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and add ves. These nouns are calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf: loaf, loaves wife, wives wolf, wolves

Nouns The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf take either s or ves in the plural: hoofs or hooves scarfs or scarves Other words ending in f or fe add s in the ordinary way: cliff, cliffs handkerchief, handkerchiefs A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change: foot, feet louse, lice mouse, mice woman, women goose, geese Names of certain creatures do not change in the plural. fish is normally unchanged, fishes exists but is uncommon. Some types of fish do not normally change in the plural: Carp pike salmon trout cod plaice squid turbot mackerel but if used in a plural sense they would take a plural verb. Others add s: crabs herrings sardines eels lobsters sharks Deer and sheep do not change: one sheep, two sheep. The word game, used by sportsmen to mean an animal/animals hunted, is always in the singular and takes a singular verb. Collective nouns, crew, family, team etc., can take a singular or plural verb; singular if we consider the word to mean a single group or unit: man, men tooth, teeth child children ox, oxen. safe, safes wharfs or wharves

Our team is the best or plural if we take it to mean a number of individuals. Our team are wearing their new jerseys.

Certain words are always plural and take a plural verb: Clothes, garments consisting of two parts breeches pyjamas two parts: Binoculars pliers shears etc. scissors spectacles glasses scales trousers pants etc. and tools and instruments consisting of

A number of words ending in ics, acoustics, athletics, ethics, hysterics, mathematics, physics, politics etc., which are plural in form, normally take a plural verb: His mathematics are weak. But names of sciences can sometimes be considered singular: Mathematics is an exact science. Words plural in form but singular in meaning include news: The news is good And certain diseases: mumps billiards er nouns + adverbs: hangers-on in-waiting lookers-on sisters-in-law runners-up and with wards of court compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun: ladiesrickets darts shingles draughts bowls dominoes and certain games: 2 The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb +

3 Initials can be made plural: MPs (Members of Parliament) VIPs (very important persons) OAPs (old age pensioners) UFOs (unidentified flying objects) 1.3.1. Uncountable nouns (also known as non-count nouns or mass nouns) 1 Names of substances considered generally: Bread, cream, gold, paper, cloth, gin, jam, 2 Abstract nouns: tea, beer, dust, ice, sand, water, soap, wine, coffee, glass, oil, stone, wood

advice, experience, work

horror, pity, beauty, fear, information ,

relief, courage, help, knowledge, suspicion, death, hope, mercy,

3 Also considered uncountable in English: baggage, damage, luggage, shopping, camping, furniture, parking weather

1.4. The form of the possessive/genitive case A 's is used with singular nouns and plural nouns not ending in s: a man's job men's work the people's choice the crew's quarters

a woman's intuition the horse's mouth the butcher's (shop) the bull's horns a child's voice women's clothes the children's room Russia's exports B A simple apostrophe (') is used with plural nouns ending in s: a girls' school the students' hostel the eagles' nest C the Smiths' car

Classical names ending in s usually add only the apostrophe: Pythagoras' Theorem Archimedes' Law Sophocles' plays

Other names ending in s can take 's or the apostrophe alone: Mr Jones's (or Mr Jones' house) Yeats's (or Yeats') poems

1.5. Use of the possessive/genitive case and of + noun A The possessive case is chiefly used of people, countries or animals as shown above. It can also be used:
1

Of ships and boats: the ship's bell, the yacht's mast

2 Of planes, trains, cars and other vehicles, though here the of construction is safer: a glider's wings or the wings of a glider the train's heating system or the heating system of the train 3 In time expressions: a week's holiday, today's pape, tomorrow's weathe, in two years' time,
4.

ten minutes' break, two hours' delay,

With for + noun + sake: for heaven's sake, for goodness' sake 5 In a few expressions such as: a stone's throw
6.

journey's end

the water's edge

Sometimes certain nouns can be used in the possessive case without the second noun, a/the baker's/butcher's/chemist's/florist's etc. can mean 'a/the baker's/butcher's etc. shop'. Similarly, a/the house agent's/travel agent's etc. (office) and the dentist's/doctor 'sivet's (surgery): You can buy it at the chemist's. He's going to the dentist's.

1.6. SEMINAR - NOUN


EXERCISE

1. Nouns ending in -f/-fe form their plural in -fs/-fes or -ves

or both. Give the plural form of the following nouns and noun groups into the respective three categories: Half, cuff, wolf, belief, leaf, scarf, chief, calf, cliff, shelf,.dwarf, self, thief, safe, gulf, proof, loaf, wife, roof, handkerchief, knife.
EXERCISE.

a) Write the singular of: countries skies taxes taxis doves halves shoes toes potatoes

allies

alleys enemies dresses

kangaroos

sizes pies valves

houses

skis

buzzes eyes

porches

b) Write the plural of: potato, radio, hero, cargo, echo, tango, buffalo, concerto,
EXERCISE

Negro, volcano.

. Turn into the plural:

1. Englishman 2. Spaniard 3. Chinese 4. Frenchman 5. Pole 6. Swede 7. Norwegian 8. German 9. Dutchman 10. Italian 11. Romanian 12. Russian 13. Greek 14. Australian 15. Japanese 16. Dane 17. Finn 18. Irishman 19. Scot 20. Pakistani.
EXERCISE

Choose the right form of the verb :

1.a) The committee (consist, consists) of 12 members. b) The committee (has, have) come to a common point of view. 2.a) My friend's family (is, are) small. b) The family (was, were) asleep when we arrived. 3. a) The press (is, are) kindly requested to leave the Conference Hall, b) The press (is, are) always present on such occasions. 4. a) The audience (was, were) taking their seats. b) The audience (was, were) applauding enthusiastically. 5. a) The mob (has, have) been fighting among themselves for some time, b) A mob (is, are) a disorderly crowd. 6. a) The Education Board (is, are) arguing about the cost of textbooks, b) The Selection Board (has, have) selected the best pupils from the candidates.

7. a) The government (has, have) announced further wage rises. b) The government (stand, stands) firm in refusing to make further concessions. 8.a) The new Cabinet (was, were) the result of his bargaining with the center-left parties, b) The new Cabinet (is, are) reluctant to look into it. 9.a) A flock of sheep (has, have) invaded my garden. b) Look out! Your flock (is, are) straying in all directions. 10. 11. a) The Army (has, have) seized power. a) Canada (is, are) bilingual. b) The invading Army (was, were) defeated. b) Canada (has, have) got into the semi-finals again.
EXERCISE

. Choose the singular or plural form. Translate into

Romanian: 1.colour a) I simply hate this .... b) You must stand still when the country's ... is being raised. c) My favourite . .. are blue and beige. 2.custom a) You have to declare everything at the ....

b) She was privileged to get acquainted with this ... of the Burundians. c) Hand shaking is one of the most frequent... in Europe. 3.damage a) I'll have to pay for the ... b) In case of fire the insurance company will pay the .... 4.ground divorce.
b)

a) You must have solid ... if you want to ask for a What was the ... of this quarrel?

c) Children have taken good care of their sports . . .

5.minute
b)

a) How many . . . does it take to get to the office? We wanted him to read the ... of the previous meeting.

c) Wait a . . . ! 6.pain a) She feels no . . . now. b) What do you recommend for stomach . . . ? c) You do take great. . . with your work. 7.scale a) My neighbour has been practising ... for hours. b) Did you know he could play with a fish . . . . ? c) The ... of this species of fish are phosphorescent. d) On top of the Court House one can notice a sculptured ... of Justice. 8.term a) When does . . . end? b) Are you on good . . . ?
c)

What are the . .. of the treaty?

9.spectacle a) It was a terrifying. . . b) Why not wear .. . ? 10. spirit a) That's the right. . . b) How can you believe in ... ? c) I shall never touch . . . again.
d)

Is there no ... in your lighter?

EXERCISE

. Form feminine nouns from the following masculine nouns

using the following suffixes: -ess, -ix, -a, -ine: Actor, host, shepherd, administrator, sultan, god, lion, prior, negro, hero, prince, tiger, heir, waiter.
EXERCISE

. a) Give the corresponding masculine nouns of the following

feminine nouns; b) then give the generic term, if any:


MODEL:

a) mother father

b) mother father parent Queen, woman, wife, daughter, nun, lady, sister, goose, bee, duck, granddaughter.
EXERCISE

. List the feminine nouns in the 2nd column and the generic

nouns in the 3rd column so as to correspond to the masculine nouns in the 1st column: hog cock hound buck bull drone stallion fox ram stag
EXERCISE

mare vixen hen ewe bee bitch hind cow doe sow

pig/swine deer dog ox horse fowl fox sheep deer cattle

. Give the masculine of: girl-friend, maidservant, female candidate, lady footballer, woman diplomat, lady speaker,

Bride,

policewoman,

spinster, lady, nurse, female student.


EXERCISE

. Arrange the following nouns into two columns according

to their usual gender when personified in poetry, etc. Remember that the masculine gender is usually ascribed to nouns denoting strength, harshness, cruelty, and negative features while those denoting delicacy, feebleness, tenderness and other positive features are feminine. On the other hand, the distinction sometimes depends on the author's imagination or intentions:

Friendship, anger, boat, fury, ship, terror, car, crime, moon, spring, storm, morning, thunder, evening, sleep, night, sun, pride, time, truth, fear, soul, death.
EXERCISE

39. Substitute synthetic genitive forms for the prepositional

genitive forms. The former are generally used with animate nouns, mainly with persons, with collective nouns (e.g. government, company), and with certain kinds of inanimate nouns denoting: a) geographical names (continents, countries, cities, towns); b) locative nouns denoting regions, heavenly bodies, institutions (e.g. the region's welfare, the earth's core, the sun's impact, the Club's band); c) temporal nouns (e.g. yesterday's reception, this year's anniversaries); d) nouns of the type: body, mind, science, life, treaty, play, book, car, ship etc. (e.g. the play's success, the ship's captain, science's progress):
1.

The new car of his friend is a Fiat 125. 2. What do you know about the climate of this country? 3. I admired the hats of the ladies. 4. He has been studying the folklore of WTales for three years. 5. What's the name of the new typist of the manager? 6. This is the most important museum of/in London. 7. The parents of all the other girls are present. 8. What are the first signs of spring? 9. These are the best paintings of Turner. 10. He won't say a word about the purpose of his life. 11. The interests of the Government lie elsewhere. 12. What do you know about the War of a Hundred Years? 13. The future of Africa is in the hand of its own peoples. 14. The blouses of the shop-girls are the best advertisment. 15. Bob doesn't even know the time-table of his child. 16. Is it possible to track the rays of the sun? 17. He is proud of the performance of his car on the road. 18. Do you doubt the good intentions of my relatives?

1.7. SEIKAN TUNNEL Vital Statistics: Location: Honshu and Hokkaido, Japan Completion Date: 1988 Cost: $7 billion Length: 174,240 feet (33 miles) Purpose: Railway Setting: Underwater Materials: Steel, concrete Engineer(s): Japan Railway Construction Corporation In 1954, a typhoon sank five ferry boats in Japan's Tsugaru Strait and killed 1,430 people. In response to public outrage, the Japanese government searched for a safer way to cross the dangerous strait. With such unpredictable weather conditions, engineers agreed that a bridge would be too risky to build. A tunnel seemed a perfect solution. Ten years later, work began on what would be the longest and hardest underwater dig ever attempted. Engineers couldn't use a tunnel boring machine to carve the Seikan Tunnel because the rock and soil beneath the Tsugaru Strait was random and unpredictable. Instead, tunnel workers painstakingly drilled and blasted 33 miles through a major earthquake zone to link the main Japanese island of Honshu with the northern island of Hokkaido. Today, the Seikan Tunnel is the longest railroad tunnel in the world at 33.4 miles in length, 14.3 miles of which lie under the Tsugaru Strait. Three stories high and 800 feet below the sea, the main tunnel was designed to serve the Shinkansen, Japan's high-speed bullet train.

Unfortunately, the cost of extending the Shinkansen service through the new tunnel proved to be too expensive. In fact, air travel limited use, the Seikan today between Honshu and Hokkaido is quicker and almost as cheap as rail travel through the tunnel. Despite its century. Fast Facts: More than 2,800 tons of explosives were used in the construction of the tunnel.

Tunnel remains one of the greatest engineering feats of the 20th

One hundred sixty-eight thousand tons of steel was used in the construction of the tunnel.

The railway track runs 787 feet below the surface of the sea, making it the deepest railway line in the world.

During construction in 1976, tunnel workers hit a patch of soft rock with disastrous results. Water gushed into the tunnel at a whopping rate of 80 tons per minute. It took more than two months to control the flood. Luckily, no lives were lost.

1.8. CHARLES RIVER BRIDGE Vital Statistics: Location: Boston, Massachusetts, USA Completion Date: 2001 Cost: $86.4 million Length: 1,457 feet Type: Suspension (cable-stayed) Purpose: Highway

Materials: Steel, concrete Longest Single Span: 745 feet In September 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, will unveil its crown jewel -- the Charles River Cable-Stayed Bridge. The bridge ever built -- a "hybrid" cableTwo planes will be the first of its kind

stayed bridge made of both steel and concrete.

of steel cables will support the 745-foot-long, 183-foot-wide main span, and the side spans will be constructed of posttensioned concrete.

The Charles River Bridge is being built within a congested transportation region in the city, an area that already houses Interstate 93 and the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Orange Line. In order architects Authority's (MBTA) Commuter Rail and

to squeeze the bridge into such tight quarters, be

came up with a brilliant solution. They designed the bridge to supported by two inverted Y-shaped towers. The legs of the concrete towers actually straddle the MBTA tracks at a 55degree angle, allowing plenty of room for the Orange Line and its ventilation buildings. When completed in 2001, the bridge will carry 10 lanes of traffic: eight through the legs of the two towers and two only is this design unique, cantilevered off the east side. Not

it's practical as well. The asymmetrical design gave engineers the freedom to construct such an enormous bridge within inches of a major elevated highway without interrupting the flow of traffic. Fast Facts:

Upon completion in 2001, the Charles River Cable-Stayed Bridge will be the widest cable-stayed bridge in the world. It will also be the only asymmetrical cable-stayed bridge in the United States. II. ARTICLES 2.1. The definite article A Form the is the same for singular and plural and for all genders: the boy the girl the day the boys the girls the days B Use The definite article is used: 1 When the object or group of objects is unique or considered to be unique: the earth the sea the sky the equator the stars

2 Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned a second time: His car struck a tree; you can still see the mark on the tree. 3 Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause: the girl in blue boy that I met the man with the banner the place where I met him the

4 Before superlatives and first, second etc. used as adjectives or pronouns, and only: the first (week) C the best day the only way

the + singular noun can represent a class of animals or things:

The whale is in danger of becoming extinct. The deep-freeze has made life easier for housewives. But man, used to represent the human race, has no article: If oil supplies run out, man may have to fall back on the horse. D the + adjective represents a class of persons: the old = old people in general

the is used before certain proper names of seas, rivers, groups of islands, chains of mountains, plural names of countries, deserts, regions: the Atlantic the Azores the Netherlands the Crimea the Alps the Thames the Sahara the Riviera the

and before certain other names: the City the Mall the Sudan the Hague the Strand Yemen F the is used before the adjectives east/west etc. + noun in the East/West End the North/South Pole but is normally omitted: South Africa G North America West Germany the East/West Indies certain names:

the with names of people has a very limited use. the + plural surname can be used to mean 'the . . . family': the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith (and children)

2.2. Omission of the A


1

The definite article is not used: Before names of places except as shown above, or before

names of people. 2 Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense: Men fear death but The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader. 3 After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective: the boy's uncle = the uncle of the boy

It is my (blue) book = The (blue) book is mine. 4 Before names of meals: The Scots have porridge for breakfast but The wedding breakfast was held in her father's house.
5 6

Before names of games: He plays golf. Before parts of the body and articles of clothing, as these Raise your right hand. He took off his coat.

normally prefer a possessive adjective: But notice that sentences of the type: She seized the child's collar. I patted his shoulder. The brick hit John's face. 7 Omission of the before home, before church, hospital, prison, school etc. and before work, sea and town A home When home is used alone, i.e. is not preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase, the is omitted: He is at home.home used alone can be placed directly after a verb of motion or verb of motion + object, i.e. it can be treated as an adverb: He went home. I arrived home after dark. I sent him home. But when home is preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase it is treated like any other noun: They went to their new home. We arrived at the bride's home. For some years this was the home of your queen. A mud hut was the only home he had ever known.

bed, church, court, hospital, prison,

school/college/university the is not used before the nouns listed above when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose. We go: to bed to sleep or as invalids to court as litigants etc. Similarly we can be: in bed, sleeping or resting in court as witnesses etc. We can be/get back (or be/get home) from school/college/university. We can leave school, leave hospital, be released from prison. When these places are visited or used for other reasons the is necessary: / went to the church to see the stained glass. He goes to the prison sometimes to give lectures. C sea We go to sea as sailors. To be at sea = to be on a voyage (as passengers or crew). But to go to or be at the sea = to go to or be at the seaside. We can also live by/near the sea. D work and office work (= place of work) is used without the: He's on his way to work. He is at work. He isn't back from work yet. Note that at work can also mean 'working'; hard at work = working hard: in hospital as patients at church as worshippers at school etc. as students to hospital as patients to church to pray to prison as prisoners to school/college/university to study

He's hard at work on a new picture, office (= place of work) needs the: He is at/in the office. To be in office (without the) means to hold an official (usually political) position. To be out of office = to be no longer in power. E town the can be omitted when speaking of the subject's or speaker's own town: We go to town sometimes to buy clothes. We were in town last Monday.

2.3. The indefinite article Its Romanian equivalent: un, o. A is used in front of consonants: e.g. a good man, a map, a window and an is used in front of vowels: an apple, an important issue. The indefinite functions as a numeral: one hundred a hundred Used to show the number of happenings during a given period of time: once a week, one apple a day

Used with nouns denoting jobs when after the verb to be: I am a lawyer. (eu sunt avocat)

When the noun is unique, then it doesnt need the indefinite article: He is chairman. Used as appositions: Irving, a prose writer, .. Used in expressions: for a time, lend me a hand, once upon a time, to set an example, to pay a call on, to have a mind to, once in a blue moon.

2.4. The zero article Zero article is used to express generalities, whole categories and not individual items. Children will be children Clothes do not make the man Barking dogs seldom bite.

Substance names: Oil is lighter than water; Blood is thicker than water. With abstract nouns: Love is a noble feeling; Before human names: Michael, George, Daisy Names of continents, countries, provinces, regions, counties, towns, cities, villages: Europe, Africa, Wallachia exceptions: the Ukraine, the United States, the Argentine, the Congo. Months of the year, days of the week Expressions: from time to time, by means of, at random, by sea, on sale, at dawn.

2.5. SEMINAR - ARTICLE


EXERCISE

1. Insert definite or indefinite articles.

1. I have ordered . . . washing machine and . . . washing machine has come. 2 . . . climate does not suit me. 3. How did . . . press receive it? 4. Since lunch was not ready yet, my husband read . . . paper for a while, then he rose from . . . armchair and turned on . . . television. 5. I mentioned bridge; he was very good at. . . game. 6. Give me . . . newspaper to clean the mirror with. 7. Give me . . . newspaper, I want to have a look at the ads. 8. . . . moon rose out of the sea. 9. Is there . . . moon tonight? 10. The

door opened and . . . teacher came in. 11. The door opened and . . . headmaster came in. 12. I heard on . . . radio that they have come to . . . truce. 13. . . . man has called and left. . . present for you. 14. . . . moon goes round . . . earth and . . . earth goes round . . . sun. 15. How have myths come into . . . world?
EXERCISE

2. Supply the necessary article(s): zero (0), the or alan,

used in their generic function. Make any necessary changes:


1.

. . . verdict has to be unanimous. 2. . . . tiger is larger than . .

. lynx. 3.. witness may tell only what he himself knows to be true. 4. . . . French have good wines. 5. . . . leopard is a cat. 6. . . . leopard is the fastest cat. 7. He's wasted his life in search of . . . unusual. 8. You're rather partial to . . . asparagus, and . . . trout. 9. They have a fine taste in . . . music and . . . literature. 10. The responsibility of. . . parents is stressed in the Declaration on the Rights of. . . Child. 11. . . . fellow does a lot of crazy things when he has been drinking. 12. . . . man has left his imprint here too. 13. What can . man do when he is cast on a far-off island? 14. . . . (rubber tyre, do, not, make a noise). 15. . . . (first offender) should be treated with sympathy. 16. . . . rich have always exploited . . . poor.

EXERCISE

3. Supply the necessary article: zero (0), ajan

1. He had served his country as . . . Minister of Finance and . . . Ambassador to Finland. 2. She was . . . typist by trade. 3. Can you act as . . . guide? 4. Who is going to hold the office of. . . secretary? 5. Be . . foster parent!

6.

He had the help of two deputies, the economist Mark Webster, .

. . Director of the U.N. Population Division and Roy Wilkins, . . . career U. N. officer.
7.

You can get a job as . ... waiter. 8. He'll be acting the part of . . .

solicitor next week. 9. The castle in which Mary . . . Queen of Scots was imprisoned is worth a visit. 10. He became . . . unwilling sailor. 11. He fully well deserved to be awarded the rank of. . . general. 12. He spent his adolescence as . . . seaman, . . . prospector and . . . fireman. 13. He was . . . firm believer in the triumph of good. 14. He has been elected . . . President of the Conference. 15. Now he's had a go at solving a difficult case, he might turn . . . detective. 16. I rather doubt he'll remain . . . content accountant all his life. 17. I won't have you take her for . . . fool. 18. What with everybody finding him ... indispensable person! It's gone to his head.
EXERCISE

4. Supply the necessary article: definite or zero:

1.

I hate . . . wet weather. 2. I spent four hours going from . . .

hotel to . . . hotel, trying to find a room. 3. . . . winter of last year was pretty mild. 4. . . . youth look down on oldtimers. 5. A humane leader is loved by . . . people. 6. That type of . . . skirt is no longer fashionable. 7. He doesn't go by . . . train because he can never find a seat. 8. Nobody liked . . . cheese but I; I thought it very tasty. 9. She has . . . youth and she has . . . taste. 10. Did you see . . . van Eyke at the National Gallery? 11. I decided to stay in . . . bed. 12. He hoped he would be inside the harbour before . . . sundown. 13. He looked forward to leaving . . . school and joining . . . army. 14. . . . dinner is being prepared by the children today. 15. The number of. . . smokers has dropped. 16. She is suffering from . . . loss of . . . memory. 17. They generally

have . . . breakfast out on the porch in . . . warm weather. 18. Don't drive. Take . . . train. 19. Everybody feels . . . spring is in . . . air. 20. There are no raspberries on . . . market. 21. Cover the roots of the plant with . . . earth. 22. . . . lunch was good but. . . breakfast was awful. 23. Granny went to . . . market to buy . . . fruit for the family. 24. One can get tired of. . . fish and chips. 25. . . . health is better than . . . wealth. 26. It is not visible at. . . night. 27. The party went on far into . . . night. 28. The party started in . . . evening and broke up after . . . midnight. 29. Around . . . noon he can be found in his office. 30. . . . atmospheric polluants turn . . . marble into . . . fine dust which is washed away by . . . rain.
EXERCISE

5. Insert definite or zero articles before the geographical

names used in the following sentences: 1. . . British Isles have a total area of about 121,600 square miles. The largest islands are . . . Great Britain proper (comprising the mainlands of. . , England,. . . Wales, and . . . Scotland) and . . . Ireland (comprising . . . Northern Ireland and ... Irish Republic). 2. ... Isle of Man in... Irish Sea and . . . Channel Islands between . . . Great Britain and . . . France have administrative autonomy. 3. The latitude of 50 North cuts across... Lizard Peninsula and latitude 60 North passes through... Shetland Islands. 4. The boundaries of this region run from the mouth of . . . Tyne to the mouth of. . . Exe. 5. . . . North Atlantic Current reaches the islands from across . .. Atlantic. 6. . .. Highland Britain comprises the whole of. . . Scotland (including the hills and moors of . . . southern Scotland as well as the mountains of. . . Scottish Highlands, which extend from . . . Forth-Clyde valley to the extreme north-west), . . . Lake District in . . . north-west England,

the broad central upland known as . . . Pennines. 7. The whole of. . . Britain north of a line joining... river Thames and . . . Bristol Channel was covered by ice caps. 8. The red sandstone on . . . Cumberland coast and the limestone masses and slates of . . . Pembrokeshire coast in . . . South Wales are notable features of the varied coastline. 9. Between 150 and 200 inches of rain fall on the summits of . . . Snowdon and .. . Ben Nevis during the average year. 10. The eastern coast of England between . . . Humber and . . . Thames estuary is for the most part low-lying. (Adapted from "Britain-An Official Handbook 1968") 2.6. CENTRAL ARTERY/ (Big Dig)

Vital Statistics: Location: Boston, Massachusetts, USA Completion Date: 2004 Cost: more than $10 billion Length: 18,480 feet (3.5 miles) Purpose: Roadway Setting: Soft ground Materials: Steel, concrete Engineer(s): Bechtel, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Quaide Douglas Some call the Central Artery/Tunnel Project in Boston, Massachusetts, the "largest, most complex and technologically challenging highway project in American history." Others consider it one of the most expensive engineering projects of all time. Locals simply call it the "Big Dig." By the time it's finished in 2004, the tunnel will be eight lanes wide, 3.5 miles long, and completely buried beneath a major highway and dozens of glass-

and-steel skyscrapers in Bostons bustling financial district. What does it take to dig a tunnel like this? A lot of hard work and a handful of engineering tricks. Today, engineers use special excavating equipment, called "clamshell excavators," that work well in confined spaces like downtown Boston. These special machines carve narrow trenches -- about three feet wide and up to 120 feet deep -down to bedrock. In Boston, engineers are pumping liquid slurry (clay mixed with water) into the trenches to keep the surrounding dirt from caving in. Huge reinforcing steel beams are lowered into the soupy trenches, and concrete is pumped into the mix. Concrete is heavier than slurry, so it displaces the clay-water mix. The side-by-side concrete-and-steel panels form the walls of the tunnel, which will allow workers to remove more than three miles of dirt beneath the city. As if tunneling beneath a city isnt hard enough, the soil beneath Boston is actually landfill -- its very loose and soggy. Engineers had to devise a few tricks to keep the soggy soil from collapsing. Their solution: freezing the soil! Engineers pump very cold saltwater through a web of pipes beneath the city streets. The cold pipes draw heat out of the soil little by little. Once frozen, the soil can be excavated without sinking. Engineers also inject glue, or grout, into pores in the ground to make the soil stronger and less spongy during tunnel construction. Fast Facts: The project will excavate a total of 15 million cubic yards of dirt.

Reinforcing steel used in the project would make a one-inch steel bar long enough to wrap once around the Earth at the equator. Moving all the dirt in the tunnel will take more than 541,000 truckloads.

2.7. SUNSHINE SKYWAY BRIDGE Vital Statistics: Location: St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida, USA Completion Date: 1987 Cost: $244 million Length: 29,040 feet Type: Cable-Stayed Purpose: Roadway Materials: Steel, concrete Longest Single Span: 1,200 feet Engineer(s): Figg & Muller Engineering Group Completed in 1987, the Sunshine Skyway is the world's longest cable-stayed concrete bridge. It is probably the best known of the several dozen cable-stayed bridges that have been built in the United States since the late 1970s. Its popularity may be due to its unique color its cables are painted a bright taxicab yellow but the bridge also boasts an interesting history. The Sunshine Skyway isn't the first bridge to span the broad mouth of the Tampa Bay. In fact, a four-mile steel cantilever bridge used to live where the new Sunshine Skyway now stands. But during a violent thunderstorm on the morning of May 9, 1980,

the freighter Summit Venture plowed into the cantilever bridge. More than 1,000 feet of the bridge fell into the bay, killing 35 motorists and bus passengers instantly. The Florida Department of Transportation began construction on a safer Sunshine Skyway Bridge only days later. more than 300 precast concrete segments were linked together with high-strength steel cables to form the roadway. Protecting the new bridge from ships was a big priority, so they installed large concrete islands, called dolphins, around each of the bridge's six piers to absorb unwanted impact. Since it opened to traffic in 1987, the sleek, new Sunshine Skyway has won dozens of engineering and design awards. Fast Facts: Twenty-one steel cables support the roadway. The cables are sheathed in steel pipes, nine inches in diameter. The pipes were painted a brilliant yellow to reflect its location: the Sunshine State. Forty-foot-wide roadways run on either side of the cables. This design allows drivers to have unobstructed views of the water. III. ADJECTIVES 3.1. Kinds of adjectives A The main kinds are:
(a)

Demonstrative: this, that, these, those each, every ; either, neither

(b) Distributive:

(c)

Quantitative: some, any, no ; little/few ; many, much ; one, which, what, whose

twenty
(d) Interrogative: (e) (f)

Possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their Of quality: clever, dry, fat, golden, good, heavy, square

Participles used as adjectives Both present participles (ing) and past participles (ed) can be used as adjectives. Present participle adjectives, amusing, boring, tiring etc., are active and mean 'having this effect'. Past participle adjectives, amused, horrified, tired etc., are passive and mean 'affected in this way'. The play was boring. (The audience was bored.) The work was tiring. (The workers were soon tired.) The scene was horrifying. (The spectators were horrified.) an infuriating woman (She made us furious.) an infuriated woman (Something had made her furious.)

Agreement Adjectives in English have the same form for singular and plural, masculine and feminine nouns: a good boy, good boys, a good girl, good girls The only exceptions are the demonstrative adjectives this and that, which change to these and those before plural nouns: this cat, these cats that man, those men

3.2. Order of adjectives of quality A Several variations are possible but a fairly usual order is: (a) size adjectives of

(b)

general description (excluding adjectives of personality, age shape

emotion)
(c)

(d)

(e)colour (f) material (g) origin nouns: walking stick, riding boots). a long sharp knife a small round bath new hexagonal coins blue velvet curtains an old plastic bucket an elegant French clock (h) purpose (these are really gerunds used to form compound

3.3. Comparison There are three degrees of comparison: Positive dark tall useful B Comparative darker taller more useful Superlative darkest tallest most useful

One-syllable adjectives form their comparative and superlative by adding er and est to the positive form: bright brave brighter braver brightest bravest Adjectives ending in e add r and st:

Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive:

interested frightening D

more interested more frightening

most interested most frightening

Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the above rules. Those ending in ful or-re usually take more and most: doubtful more doubtful most doubtful obscuremore obscure clever pretty silly cleverer prettier most obscure cleverest prettiest (note that the y becomes i)

Those ending in er, y or ly usually add er, est:

sillier silliest

Irregular comparisons:

bad far good little old

worse worst farther further better best less least more most farthest (of distance only) furthest (used more widely; see F, G)

many/much

elder eldest (of people only) older oldest (of people and things)

farther/farthest and further/furthest Both forms can be used of distances: York is farther/further than Lincoln or Selby. York is the farthest/furthest town Further can also be used, mainly with abstract nouns, to mean 'additional/extra': Further supplies will soon be available. Further discussion/debate would be pointless.

II

elder, eldest; older, oldest elder, eldest imply seniority rather than age. They are chiefly used for comparisons within a family: my elder brother, her eldest boy/girl; but elder is not used with than, so older is necessary here: He is older than I am. (elder would not be possible.)

3.4. Constructions with comparisons A With the positive form of the adjective, we use as ... as in the affirmative and not as/not so . . . as in the negative: A boy of sixteen is often as tall as his father. He was as white as a sheet. Manslaughter is not as/so bad as murder. Your coffee is not as/so good as the coffee my mother makes.

Parallel increase is expressed by the + comparative . . . the + comparative: HOUSE AGENT: Do you want a big house? ANN: Yes, the bigger the better. TOM: But the smaller it is, the less it will cost us to heat.

Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two comparatives joined by and: The weather is getting colder and colder. He became less and less interested.

the + adjective with a plural meaning A blind, deaf, disabled, healthy/sick, living/dead, rich/poor, unemployed and certain other adjectives describing the human character or condition can be preceded by the and used to represent a class of persons. These expressions have a plural meaning; they take a plural verb and the pronoun is they: The poor get poorer; the rich get richer. the can be used in the same way with national adjectives ending in ch or sh: the Dutch the Burmese singular meaning. 3.5. Possessive adjectives my your his/her/its our your the Spanish the Chinese the Welsh and can be used the Japanese the similarly with national adjectives ending in se or ss: Swiss though it is just possible for these to have a

their A Possessive adjectives in English refer to the possessor and not to the thing possessed. Everything that a man or boy possesses is his thing; everything that a woman or girl possesses is her thing: Tom's father is his father but Mary's father is her father. Everything that an animal or thing possesses is its thing: A tree drops its leaves in autumn. A happy dog wags its tail. But if the sex of the animal is known, his/her would often be used. If there is more than one possessor, their is used: The girls are with their brother. Trees drop their leaves in autumn. Note that the possessive adjective remains the same whether the thing possessed is singular or plural: my glove, my gloves C his foot, his feet

To add emphasis, own can be placed after my, your, his etc. and after one's: my own room her own idea own can be an adjective, as above, or a pronoun: a room of one's own

Note the expression: I'm on my own = I'm alone.

3.6. SEMINAR - ADJECTIVE


EXERCISE

1. Choose the appropriate adjective. Note that -ic

alternates with -ical with a difference of meaning:

1.

I am fond of classic / classical languages. 2. Caragiale's play "The Lost Letter" is a comic / comical masterpiece. 3. Everybody has realized that big cars are not economic / economical to run. 4. It has taken long years of I historic \ historical research to gather all the data about this historic / historical building. 5. The Royal Ballet's performance of "The Nut-cracker" was a classic! classical one. 6. Romania's economic \ economical performance is no longer considered a miracle. 7. She was quite a sight with that comic \ comical old hat on. 8. Many an innocent man has gone to the electric \ electrical chair. 9. He is quite an expert in electric / electrical engineering.

EXERCISE

2. Group the adjectives listed below under the three

heads of the table. Note that there are two regular ways of marking the category of comparison in English; a) by means of -er in the comparative and (the) -est in the superlative (the synthetic comparison) with monosyllabic adjectives; b) by means of the periphrastic forms with more and (the) most (the analytic comparison), incase of plurisyllabic adjectives. A series of monosyllabic adjectives, such as: calm, cross, fit, fond, frank, scarce, grave, prompt display both patterns. Many disyllabic adjectives display both patterns too. It is typically the case with adjectives ending in -y, -ow, -le, -er such as: clumsy, sallow, humble, clever, as well as the following adjectives: handsome, common, polite, quiet, pleasant, precise, sincere etc. sly, wicked, convenient, foolish, active, vague, afraid, common, red, wounded, thin, pretty, startling, stupid, big, healthy, correct, alive, fertile, worthy, pleasant, minute, eager, cruel, tiring,

remote, early, comic, simple, easy, tender, low, calm, sore, fast, just, docile, proper, distinct, high, sincere. a) -er (the) -est b) more+Adj. (the) most+Adj. ) a) -er; (the) -est / b) more + Adj. (the) most + Adj.
EXERCISE

3. Provide the irregular degrees of comparison of the

following adjectives. Remember that some of them have two forms of degrees of comparison : 1. good, 2. bad / ill, 3. little, 4. near, 5. much / many, 6. far, 7. late, 8. old.
EXERCISE

4. Use the correct form of the adjectives in brackets:

1.

What is the (late) information you've got? 2. Her (old)

brother is called Jim. 3. We were in a hurry to catch the (late) bus. 4. Which is (old) of the two ? 5. Who is the (old) member of the students' club? 6. They got down to business without (far) delay. 7. I've got a still (old) edition of the dictionary. 8. The (old) sister was twenty years (old) than the youngest. 9. The (late) half of May was quite rainy. 10. I was told to wait until (far) notice. 11. I wish I had bought it at the (near) shop. 12. He provided them with (far) information as agreed. 13. The (near) station is Calea Victoriei. 14. John's (late) novel was a (good) seller and for sure it won't be his (late) one. 15. He is the (little) writer of the two. 16. I saw him meet her at the (far) end of the street. 17. I shall need (far) help with this.
EXERCISE

5. Supply the appropriate form of the adjectives given in

brackets :

1. This is the . . . book I have read for a long time (good). 2. He has one of the . . . cars on the road (fast). 3. The work you are doing today is . . . than the work you did yesterday (easy). 4. Ann often wears . . . dresses than her mother (expensive). 5. Which is the . . . play you have lately read? (interesting). 6. The actress on the stage was the . . . girl I have ever seen (striking). 7. Tom is . . . than his friend (tall). 8. They have a. . . garden than ours (lovely). 9. He said this was the . . . day in his life (important). 10. He was . . . than his wife when the child broke the window (angry). 11. He was the . . . man in the world to do that (late). 12. A: 'Which was your . . . subject at school and which was your .. . (good, bad)?' B:'Physics was my . . . and history my.. .'(good, bad).' 13. Is Bucharest or Prague the . . . from London (far)? 14. Tom is 17 years old, his brother Jack is 19 and his sister Jane is 15. Therefore Jane is the . . . and Jack is the.. . (young, old).
EXERCISE

6. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives given in

brackets. Note that the meaning of the pattern the comparative of Adjective . . . , the comparative of Adjective is cu cit. . . cu atit: l. The (long) the speech is, the (tedious) it is. 2. The (weak) the patient, the (great) his dependence on the nurse. 3. The (stormy) the weather, the (dangerous) the trip. 4. The (humble) a man is, the (haughty) her manner becomes. 5. The (scarce) the food is getting, the (wild) the beasts become. 6. The (prompt) the answer, the (high) the grade. 7. The (proper) the word, the (exact) the translation is. 8. The (narrow) the path was getting, the (hostile) the horse was becoming. 9. The (eager) the child, the (intricate) the questions he asks. 10. The (fertile) the land, the (little) the amount of fertilizer given to it.

EXERCISE

7. Give the correct succession of the adjectives in the

following noun phrases: 1. a/an (blue, washable, good, cotton) skirt; 2. (blue, frightened, small) eyes; 3. a/an (Asiatic, large, striped) quadruped; 4. (cold, turbulent, greyish, de_ep) waters; 5. (volcanic, dark, tall) rocks; 6. a (Greek, young, bright) student; 7. a/an (fifteen-foot, palered, age-old) brickwall; 8. a/an (little, marble, Roman, brownish) statue; 9. a/an (intelligent, Polish, wiry, elderly) logician; 10 a/an (fluffy, orange, wide, wollen, Peruvian) shawl.

3.7. GARABIT VIADUCT Vital Statistics: Location: Massif Central, France Completion Date: 1884 Length: 1,853 feet Type: Arch Purpose: Railway Materials: Wrought iron Longest Single Span: 541 feet Engineer(s): Gustave Eiffel In the late 1800s, a mountainous barrier blocked the railways from reaching Southern France. For years, engineers tried to figure out a way to bridge the windy Garabit Valley in best France's Massif Central. Finally, one of the era's

engineers, Gustave Eiffel, came up with a brilliant solution. He built a huge wrought-iron arch in record time with just a minimal amount of material. How did he do it?

Rather than building his bridge with thick, solid beams, Eiffel used beams with lots of holes - holes in the shapes of triangles. Eiffel knew that if his bridge was made of thick, solid beams, it would be very heavy and the beams would rattle in the wind. But if he used a series of open triangles, called a truss, the gusty wind in the valley would blow right through them. Not only is the truss pattern lightweight; its very stable as well. Depending upon the position of a train on the bridge, the connecting vertical and diagonal segments are pulled into tension and pushed into compression - forces that resist one another. A push on one segment is resisted by an opposite pull from another, all along its length. So the bridge remains strong and rigid, despite its lightness. Fast Facts: It took 38 tons of red paint to coat the entire bridge. For many years, the Garabit Viaduct remained the tallest bridge in the world. The single railroad track crosses the Garabit Valley, 400 feet above the Truyere River. Gustave Eiffel's tremendous success with the Garabit Viaduct, and later with the framework of the Statue of Liberty and Paris' Eiffel Tower, earned him the nickname "magician of iron."

3.8. ASWAN HIGH DAM Vital Statistics: Location: Aswan, Egypt Completion Date: 1970

Cost: $1 billion Reservoir Capacity: 5.97 trillion cubic feet Type: Embankment Purpose: Flood control, hydroelectric power, irrigation Reservoir: Lake Nasser Materials: Rock, clay Engineer(s): planned by a team of British engineers; built by a team of Soviet engineers In the middle of the arid Egyptian desert lies one of the largest embankment dams in the world. It is called the Aswan High Dam, or Saad el Aali in Arabic, and it captures the mighty Nile River in the world's third largest reservoir, Lake Nasser. Before the dam was built, the Nile River overflowed its banks once a year and deposited four million tons of nutrient-rich silt on the valley floor, making Egypt's otherwise dry land productive and fertile. But there were some years when the river did not rise at all, causing widespread drought and famine. In 1952, Egyptian president Gamal Abdal-Nasser pledged to control his country's annual flood with a giant new dam across the Nile River. His plan worked. The Aswan High Dam captures floodwater during rainy seasons and releases the water during times of drought. The dam also generates enormous amounts of electric power - more than 10 billion kilowatt-hours every year. That's enough electricity to power one million color televisions for 20 years! Unfortunately, the dam has also produced several negative side effects. In order to build the dam, 90,000 Egyptian peasants had to move. To make matters worse, the rich silt that normally fertilized the dry desert land during annual floods is now stuck at

the bottom of Lake Nasser! Farmers have been forced to use about one million tons of artificial fertilizer as a substitute for natural nutrients that once fertilized the arid floodplain. IV. ADVERBS 4.1. Kinds of adverbs Manner: bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well Place: by, down, here, near, there, up Time: now, soon, still, then, today, yet Frequency: always, never, occasionally, often, twice Sentence: certainly, definitely, luckily, surely Degree: fairly, hardly, rather, quite, too, very Interrogative: when? where? why?Relative: when, where, why 4.2. Form and use The formation of adverbs with ly A Many adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives: final, finally Spelling notes
(a) (b)

immediate, immediately

slow, slowly

A final y changes to i: happy, happily. A final e is retained before ly: extreme, extremely. Adjectives ending in a consonant + le drop the e and add y: simple, simply

Exceptions: true, due, whole become truly, duly, wholly.


(c)

gentle, gently

Note that the adverb of good is well.

Adjectives ending in ly daily, weekly, monthly etc., kindly and sometimes leisurely can be adjectives or adverbs, but most other adjectives ending in ly, e.g. friendly, likely, lonely etc., cannot be used as adverbs and have no adverb form. To supply this deficiency we use a similar adverb or adverb phrase: likely (adjective) friendly (adjective) probably (adverb) in a friendly way (adverb phrase)

Some adverbs have a narrower meaning than their corresponding adjectives or differ from them. coldly, coolly, hotly, warmly are used mainly of feelings: We received them coldly, (in an unfriendly way) They denied the accusation hotly, (indignantly) She welcomed us warmly, (in a friendly way) But warmly dressed = wearing warm clothes. coolly = calmly/courageously or calmly/impudently: He behaved very coolly in this dangerous situation. presently = soon: He'll be here presently.

Adverbs and adjectives with the same form A back hard" little low right* short* still straight well

deep* high* long direct* ill early just*

much/more/most*

enoughkindly near*

far fast

late* left

pretty*

wrong*

Used as adverbs: Come back soon. The train went fast. an ill-made road Turn right here. He led us wrong. B

Used as adjectives: the back door the most direct route The work is hard a fast train You look ill/well the right answer a straight line This is the wrong way.

You can dial Rome direct.

They worked hard, (energetically)

She went straight home.

Starred words above also have ly forms. Note the meanings. deeply is used chiefly of feelings: He was deeply offended.

Directly can be used of time or connection: He '11 be here directly, (very soon) The new regulations will affect us directly/indirectly. Highly is used only in an abstract sense: He was a highly paid official. him. Justly corresponds to the adjective just (fair, right, lawful), but just can also be an adverb of degree. Lately = recently: Have you seen him lately? 4.3. Comparative and superlative adverb forms A With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive form: They spoke very highly of

Positive ComparativeSuperlative quickly more quickly most quickly more fortunately most fortunately

fortunately

Single-syllable adverbs, however, and early, add er, est: hard B harder hardest earliest (note the y becomes i) early earlier well badly little less much far better best worse least more most worst

Irregular comparisons:

farther farthest (of distance only) further furthest (used more widely)

4.4 Position of adverbs Adverbs of manner A Adverbs of manner come after the verb: She danced beautifully or after the object when there is one: He gave her the money reluctantly. well. Do not put an adverb between verb and object. B When we have verb + preposition + object, the adverb can be either before the preposition or after the object: He looked at me suspiciously or He looked suspiciously at me. But if the object contains a number of words we put the adverb before the preposition: They speak English

He looked suspiciously at everyone who got off the plane. Adverbs of time A afterwards, eventually, lately, now, recently, soon, then, today, tomorrow etc. and adverb phrases of time: at once, since then, till (6.00 etc.) These are usually placed at the very beginning or at the very end of the clause, i.e. in front position or end position. Eventually he came/He came eventually. Then we went home/We went home then. Write today. Adverbs of frequency
(a)

I'll wait till tomorrow.

always, continually, frequently, occasionally, often,

once, twice, periodically, repeatedly, sometimes, usually etc. (b) ever, hardly ever, never, rarely, scarcely ever, seldom A Adverbs in both the above groups are normally placed:

1 After the simple tenses of to be: He is always in time for meals. 2 Before the simple tenses of all other verbs: They sometimes stay up all night. 3 With compound tenses, they are placed after the first auxiliary, or, with interrogative verbs, after auxiliary + subject: He can never understand. You have often been told not to do that. Have you ever ridden a camel?

Order of adverbs and adverb phrases of manner, place and time when they occur in the same sentence Expressions of manner usually precede expressions of place: He climbed awkwardly out of the window. He 'd study happily anywhere. Time expressions can follow expressions of manner and place: They worked hard in the garden today. He lived there happily for a year. 4.5. Inversion of the verb Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs Certain adverbs and adverb phrases, mostly with a restrictive or negative sense, can for emphasis be placed first in a sentence or clause and are then followed by the inverted (i.e. interrogative) form of the verb. The most important of these are shown below. The numbers indicate paragraphs where an example will be found. hardly ever on no account only in this way hardly . . . when ) only by in no circumstances neither/nor never not only not till nowhere 1. Haven't got a ticket. Neither/Nor have I. 2. I had never before been asked to accept a bribe. Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe. only then/when scarcely ever scarcely . . . when seldom so

no sooner . . . than

3. They not only rob you, they smash everything too. Not only do they rob you, they smash everything too. 4. He didn 't realize that he had lost it till he got home. Not till he got home did he realize that he had lost it.
5.

This switch must not be touched on any account. On

no account must this switch be touched. 4.6. SEMINAR - ADVERB

EXERCISE

Form adverbs from the following adjectives and nouns by adding

the suffix -If or -ward(s), paying attention to their spelling. Remember that certain adverb coincide in form with the adjectives they derive from: Gay, extreme, back, sincere, true, sensible, east, whole, final, due, beautiful, good, sure, home, pleasant, hungry, wholehearted, deep, bad, thankful, late, devoted, striking, hard, west, unhappy, terrible, diligent, silent, fast, near.
EXERCISE

2. Choose the correct word:

1.

You are an excellent cook. The food tastes (good, well). 2. It was a lovely day with birds singing and the sun shining (bright, brightly) and girls wearing (bright, brightly)-coloured dresses. 3. I hate taking medicine. It tastes (bitter, bitterly). 4. I don't think he is ill. His voice sounds (merry, merrily). 5. It rains (heavy, heavily). 6. It is (near, nearly) five o'clock. 7. You must work (hard, hardly) for your exams. 8. He spoke so (quick, quickly) that we could (hard, hardly) follow him. 9. When did you (last, lastly) see him? 10. I am (direct, directly) interested in what you think. 11. He couldn't move as he was

(dead, deadly) tired. 12. His eyes hurt him (bad, badly). 13. Mr. Jones held it (tight, tightly). 14. It was six o'clock as (near, nearly) as he could guess. 15. (last, lastly) I must account for my sister's behaviour.

EXERCISE

3. Rewrite these sentences substituting -ly adverbs for

the italicized phrases:


MODEL:

'Who's afraid?' he said in an uneasy manner. 'Who's

afraid?' he said uneasily. 1. He smiled a contemptuous smile. 2. I pick my staff in a careful manner. 3.'Oh, John', she said in a hoarse voice. 4. He bade us farewell in a cold voice.5. She cried with bitter tears. 6. He came up to me at a slow pace. 7. He spoke about the trip in an excited voice. 8. They defended their friend in convincing words. 9. She stared at me with a fixed look. 10. The Indians lived a simple life, hunting and fishing.
EXERCISE

4. Give the degrees of comparison of the following

adverbs: Much, brightly, quietly, expressively, badly, quickly, late, fast, high, often, well, swiftly, far, little, slowly. EXERCiSE 5. Rewrite the following sentences using the adverbs in parantheses in the correct degree of comparison: 1. In a large city you must cross the street (carefully) than in a small one. 2. He walked (far) than I did. 3. Please speak (slowly), so that I can take notes. 4. She moved (awkwardly) an elephant. 5. He reviewed her work (unfavorably) than Dixon did. 6. Of the

three men, you behaved (disgracefully). 7. He's been sleeping (badly) than myself the last few months. 8. Of the ten students he has been working (hard). 9. I pick my staff (carefully) than you do; that's why our results are worse. 10. The answer came back (quickly) than I had expected.
EXERCISE

6 Fill in the blanks with rather or fairly:

Note that fairly implies the idea of something "favourable" while rather the idea of something "unfavourable". Rather can be used before alike, like, similar, different and before comparatives conveying the meaning of a little, slightly, (e.g. Your example is rather similar to mine. The suitcase was rather heavier than I expected). Fairly cannot be used before comparatives. Rather can be used before certain "favourable" words such as: good, well,pretty, clever, amusing, and the verbs to like, to enjoy, etc., its meaning becoming nearly equivalent to very. (e.g. The performance was rather good.) 1. This cake is . . . good, but the other is . . . sour. 2. They behaved . . . meanly. 3. You speak English . . . well. 4. It was . . . stupid of him to propose to Mary. 5. She looks . . . nice. 6. Lesson 25 is . .. difficult but Lesson 24 was . . . easy. 7. She was . . . kind to me. 8. The teacher was . . . angry with us. 9. She is . . . tall for her age. 10. It was . . . cruel of him to say that. 11. The lecture was . . . interesting but. . . long. 12.1 didn't want to make friends with them but now I . . . like them.

4.7. THREE GORGES DAM Vital Statistics:

Location: Three Gorges, China Completion Date: 2009 Cost: $17-$100 billion Reservoir Capacity: 1.39 trillion cubic feet Type: Gravity Purpose: Flood Control, hydroelectric power, irrigation, navigation Reservoir: not named Materials: Concrete Engineer(s): Zhongnan Changjiang & Water Resources Commission; Huadong Investment Design Institute;

Investment & Design Institute Construction is now under way in China on what will be the world's largest hydroelectric dam. When it is completed in 2009, Three Gorges Dam will stretch more than one mile across the Yangtze River and soar 600 feet above the valley floor. It will be the largest concrete dam in the world, and will produce 18,000 megawatts of electrical energy, nudging Brazil's Itaipu Dam to second place. China's Three Gorges Dam is years from completion, but environmentalists and human rights advocates are already concerned about the consequences of such a huge structure. To make way for the enormous project, more than one million people living on the banks of the Yangtze River will have to move to higher ground. The 350-mile-long reservoir will submerge villages, ancient temples, burial grounds, and the spectacular canyons that tourists from all over the world come to see. Environmentalists also argue that the dam will wipe out a number of rare species, including the Yangtze River dolphin, and that the reservoir will

trap millions of tons of raw pollutants spewing from China's largest industrialized city, Chongqing. When finished, Three Gorges Dam will generate one-ninth of China's power. Unfortunately, the dam may be remembered not for its hydroelectric power, but for its drastic social and environmental impact. Fast Facts: About 20,000 people are working nearly round the clock to complete the 1.24-mile-wide structure by 2009. The lake that will form behind Three Gorges Dam will stretch for about 350 miles - the distance from San Francisco to Los Angeles. When it is completed in 2009, the enormous Three Gorges Dam reservoir will actually be visible from the moon!

4.8. CITICORP CENTER Vital Statistics: Location: New York, New York, USA Completion Date: 1977 Cost: $175 million Height: 915 feet Stories: 59 Materials: Steel Facing Materials: Aluminum, reflective glass Engineer(s): William LeMessurier and Associates

From the very beginning, the Citicorp Center (today, the Citigroup Center) in New York City was an engineering challenge. When planning for the skyscraper began in the early 1970s, the northwest corner of the proposed building site was occupied by St. Peter's Lutheran Church. The church allowed Citicorp to build the skyscraper under one condition: a new church would have to be built on the same corner, with no connection to the Citicorp building and no columns passing through it. How did the engineers do it? They set the 59-story tower on four massive columns, positioned at the center of each side, rather than at the corners. This design allowed the northwest corner of the building to cantilever 72 feet over the new church. In 1978, the skyscraper's chief structural engineer, William LeMessurier, discovered a potentially fatal flaw in the building's design: the skyscraper's bolted joints were too weak to withstand 70-mile-per-hour wind gusts. With hurricane season fast approaching, LeMessurier took no chances. He convinced Citicorp officers to hire a crew of welders to repair the fragile building. For the next three months, a construction crew welded two-inch-thick steel plates over each of the skyscraper's 200 bolted joints, permanently correcting the problem. Fast Facts: The Citicorp crisis of 1978 was hidden from the public for almost 20 years. Citicorp Center was the first skyscraper in the United States to contain a tuned mass damper, a pendulum-like device that reduces the sway in tall buildings caused by the wind. V. THE PRONOUN

Pronoun is a word used to replace a noun. Pronouns identify persons, places, things, and ideas without renaming them. EXAMPLE: John broke Johns arm. ANSWER: John broke his arm. The noun that a pronoun replaces is the antecedent of the pronoun. EXAMPLE: Carmen and Joan walked into the theatre. It was so dark that they could barely see the floor. (Theatre is the antecedent of it. Carmen and Joan are the antecedents of they.) The antecedent usually appears before the pronoun. Pronouns may be the antecedents of other pronouns EXAMPLE: HE enjoys HIS free time. (He is the antecedent of his) A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. If the antecedent is singular, the pronoun must be singular. If the antecedent is plural, the pronoun must be plural There are seven kinds of pronouns: personal, demonstrative, reflexive, intensive, interrogative,

relative, and indefinite.

5.1. Personal pronouns Personal Pronouns are the largest group of pronouns. They have different form to express person, number, and gender. Expressing person When you write or speak about yourself, you use first-person pronouns: I, me, we, us. When you refer to an audience, you use the second person pronoun: you. When you refer to other people or things, you use thirdperson pronouns: he, she, they, it, and them. Expressing number (are they singular or plural) Personal pronouns also indicate whether the antecedent (the noun that the pronoun is replacing) is singular or plural. I , She, he, and it are SINGULAR pronouns. We, they and us are PLURAL pronouns. You can be EITHER singular or plural. Expressing gender Personal pronouns express gender. He and His indicate the masculine gender. She and Her indicate the feminine gender. It indicates the neuter gender, which you use to refer to things and ideas.

5.2. Uses of it A it is normally used of a thing or an animal whose sex we don't know, and sometimes of a baby or small child: Where's my map? I left it on the table. Look at that bird. It always comes to my window. Her new baby is tiny. It only weighs 2 kilos. it can be used of people in sentences such as: ANN (on phone): Who is that/Who is it? BILL: It's me. Is that Tom over there? ~ No, it's Peter. it is used in expressions of time, distance, weather, temperature, tide: What time is it? ~ It is six. What's the date? ~ It's the third of March How far is it to York? ~ It is 400 kilometres. How long does it take to get there? ~ It depends on how you go. It is raining/snowing/freezing. night. It's full moon tonight. In winter it's/it is dark at six o'clock. It is hot/cold/quiet/noisy in this room. It's high tide/low tide. Note also: It's/It is three years since I saw him = I haven't seen him for three years. E it/this can represent a previously mentioned phrase, clause or verb: He smokes in bed, though I don't like it. (it = his smoking in bed) He suggested flying, but I thought it would cost too much, {it = flying) F it also acts as a subject for impersonal verbs: it seems it appears it looks it happens It's frosty. It's a fine

5.3. Possessive pronouns Personal Pronouns have possessive forms to show ownership or belonging. EXAMPLE: The house is ours. The pen is mine.
The following chart contains the personal pronouns. The POSSESSIVE forms are in parentheses.

FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON

SINGULAR I, me (my, mine) you (your, yours) he, him (his) she, her (her, hers) it (its)

PLURAL we, us (our, ours) you (your, yours) them, they (their, theirs)

5.4. Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns tell which one or which group is referred to. A list of demonstrative pronouns follows: THAT THIS THESE THOSE THIS and THESE point to people or things that are near in space or time. THAT or THOSE point to people or things that are farther away in space or time. EXAMPLE 1: THIS is a new book.( the antecedent of THIS is book) EXAMPLE 2: THOSE are rare coins. (the antecedent of THOSE is rare coins) 5.5. Reflexive pronouns Reflexive Pronouns are used to indicate that people perform actions TO, FOR, or UPON themselves. You form reflexive pronouns with the suffixes -self, and -selves.

FIRST PERSON: myself, ourselves SECOND PERSON: yourself, yourselves THIRD PERSON: himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselves. EXAMPLE 1: Brad bumped himself on the knee. (Brad performed the action of bumping upon himself.) EXAMPLE 2: The Hanson CHILDREN built themselves a tree house. (The Hanson children built a tree house for themselves)

5.6. Interrogative pronouns Interrogative Pronouns introduce questions. A list of interrogative pronouns follows. Who which whose whom what EXAMPLE 1: WHO was at the door? EXAMPLE 2: WHICH do you prefer? EXAMPLE 3: WHOM did you elect?

5.7. Relative pronouns

Relative Pronouns introduce adjective clauses, which are word groups that modify a word or a phrase. A list of reflexive pronouns follows. Who Whose That Whom Which EXAMPLE 1: I know the PERSON who lives here. (PERSON is the antecedent of who) EXAMPLE 2: He planted FLOWERS that bloom every year. (FLOWERS is the antecedent of that) *Remember, that INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS introduce QUESTIONS only.

5.8. Indefiite pronouns Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to a definite person, place or thing; instead they refer to persons, places or things in general. The following indefinite pronouns are singular. They are used with the singular possessive pronouns HIS, HER, and ITS. Another anyone anything everybody either neither no one one someone anybody each everyone nobody everything somebody

EXAMPLE: Each of the jobs has ITS rewards. The following indefinite pronouns are plural. They are used with the plural possessive THEIR. Both many few several EXAMPLE: Many of the viewers expressed THEIR opinions. The following indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending on their meaning in the sentence. All Some None

5.9. SEMINAR PRONOUN


EXERCISE

1. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized

groups of words:
MODEL:

His results are more impressive than my results. His results are more impressive than mine.

1. Jim's sense of humour is as unusual as her sense of humour. 2. Grandmother's pears are very juicy; our pears are

not. 3. Our employers will be as surprised as their employers. 4. Tom boasted to his friend about his success and Bob boasted to his friend. 5. I'm glad I haven't a mind like your mind. 6. The circus. She and scratch your back.
EXERCISE

You have your own interests, and I have my interests. 7. Browns 8. is mad took He'll at I'll

their twins to the Zoo, and the Ashtons took their twins to the take my hand and I'll take her hand and we'll start dancing. 9. her daughter and I am mad at my daughter. 10. Scratch my back

2. Use the possessive pronoun instead of the possessive

adjective:
MODEL:

He is one of her fans. He is a fan of hers.

1. He is one of my friends. 2. Tom lent his friend one of his books. 3. I gave him one of our dictionaries. 4. She played one of her old records. 5. Some of their neighbours had come over to tea. 6. He took a fancy to one of my cousins. 7 Here, John, meet one of your well-known commentators. 8. Is this another of their little schemes? 9. Was it one of her favourite puns? 10. That's one of our favourite tunes. 3. Fill in the blanks with the suitable reflexive pronouns:

EXERCISE

1. If the child eats so little he'll make . . . ill. 2. Can a five-yearold boy wash . . ., dress . . . , feed . . . ? 3. We find it still difficult to express ... in English. 4. Alice hurt. . . when she fell down the

tree. 5. They are likely to have enjoyed ... at your party. 6. One has to serve ... in that restaurant.
7.

My cousin switched the light off and finding ... in the dark I was told you have devoted ... to science. 9. She cheers ... up

began to cry.
8.

by talking about her youth. 10. I bought a new watch for . . . yesterday. 11. One can lose . . .quite easily in London. 12. We forced ... to smile. 13. Do pull. . . together! 14. The ringleader shot . . . . 15. I chose to defend . . . against her. 16. The cat looked at... in the looking glass. 17. Make ... at home (pi). 18. They could only speak for .... 19. She cooked ... a good meal and went to bed. 4. Choose the necessary pronoun:

EXERCISE

Note that prepositions denoting concrete spatial relations are not followed by reflexive pronouns. With the following prepositions as, like, but, except personal and reflexive pronouns are used in variation:
1.

He began to imagine how he might rescue her in spite of (her/herself). 2. They tried to live up to a lot of people who were better off than (them/ themselves). 3. The car was heading straight towards (them/themselves). 4. Then he went crazy, screamed and threw (him/himself) about. 5. Look about (you/yourself)! 6. Somebody like (you/yourself) should set the fashion. 7. I winced inside (me/myself). 8. She was beside (her/herself) with rage. 9. My sister and (I/myself) went shopping. 10. Do they have any money on (them; themselves) ? 11. When he was (him/himself) again she was too happy to question him. 12. We'll place our paper in front of

(us/ourselves). 13. I am deeply touched to be offered help by so eminent a man as (you/yourself). 14. He takes too much upon (him/himself). 15. For somebody like (me/myself) this is no surprise. 16. I hope it'll remain between (us/ourselves). EXERCISE 5 Identify the two personal pronouns in each of the following sentences. Tell whether each pronoun is in the first person, the second person, or the third person. 1. I picked up Sams paycheck and sent it through the mail. 2. I would like to tell you about last summer. 3. It was a long winter, and to make the time pass more quickly, I took up painting. 4. He couldnt quite hear what you said. 5. We thought that the team was out of the running, but it came back to win the pennant. 6. Is the book Sandys, and does she want it? 7. Will you please try to write us more often? 8. We should not criticize other people too harshly, for those people may turn around and criticize us. 9. They saw the exhibit when it was at the art museum last year. 10. Brad looked at the painting, and knew it was his. EXERCISE 6 Underline the pronouns used in place of nouns. Identify their antecedents (the noun each pronoun stands for) 1. Carolyn and Katy waxed their skis. 2. Ms. Rodriguez played the guitar for her class. 3. Have you spoken to Jean? Sheila asked Rene.

4. The steam made a hissing sound as it escaped. 5. Dad and Marty finished their painting. 6. The Millers moved. Anthony helped them. 7. Are the gloves yours? the sales clerk asked Joe. 8. Kim won a trophy. She was excited. 9. I will write the invitations, said Kevin. 10. We met Jim at the movie, said Mike and Jan. 11. The test took half an hour. It was simple. 12. The results are in. They will be posted later. 13. Bob carried Sues picture with him. 14. Dolores deposited the money in her savings account.
15.

Al and Lee are here. Did Sarah find them?

EXERCISE 7 List the antecedents of the pronouns in CAPITAL letters. 1. Shelley, will YOU please answer the phone? IT has been ringing for five minutes. 2. Grandmother said that SHE would love to come for dinner today. 3. Larry will give you the information when you need IT. 4. Juan should go to the fair before IT closes on Friday. 5. Peter and I will practice our duet before WE come to band practice on Saturday morning. 6. The carpenter picked up HIS hammer. 7. You must wait YOUR turn. 8. The columnist wrote HER article. 9. Two members have not paid THEIR dues. 10. Nora has improved HER grades.

EXERCISE 8 Write a correct demonstrative pronoun for each sentence. 1._____________________ is the first Japanese restaurant Ive been in. 2._____________________ were my favorite stores. 3._____________________ dont taste as fresh as the others. 4._____________________ was a good idea. 5._____________________ are my sisters with me. 6._____________________ over there are yours. 7._____________________ is his house across the street. EXERCISE 9 Identifying DEMONSTRATIVE and INTERROGATIVE pronouns. Write whether each capitalized pronoun is DEMONSTRATIVE or INTERROGATIVE. 1. WHO was at the door? 2. Are THESE left over? 3. We chose THAT for our theme song. 4. WHICH of the jackets is yours? 5. Sara preferred THOSE. 6. WHOSE is the blue pen? 7. THIS is best for everyone. 8. WHAT was that noise? EXERCISE 10 Using Indefinite Pronouns Correctly. Underline the indefinite pronoun, then underline the correct possessive pronoun. 1. Nobody lost (his or her, their) place. 2. Everyone has paid (his or her, their) fee. 3. Many of the musicians brought (his or her, their) instruments.

4. Each of the type writers comes with (its, their) own carrying case. 5. All of the gymnasts practiced (his or her, their) routines. 6. Neither of the girls brought (her, their) swim suit. 7. If anyone is interested, have (him or her, them) see me. 8. Several of the containers were missing (its, their) labels. 9. Both of the stores raised (its, their) labels. 10. Neither of the scientists completed (his or her, their) experiment. 11. Everything was returned to (its, their) owner. 12. Some of the architects sent in (his or her, their) designs. 13. None of the sulphur is in (its, their) flask. 14. No one offered (his or her, their) help. 15. Either of the girls can explain (her, their) answer Ex. 11 Fill in the correct self pronoun (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) or each other into the gaps. 1. Bob cut .. while he was preparing supper. 2. The two climbers fell and hurt .. on the rocks. 3. Sandy and her friend Margie looked at . very surprised. 4. "Don't worry, Mandy. We can take care of . ." 5. Mr Smith is teaching Spanish but he thinks it's very difficult. 6. What a nice sweater! - Thank you, I've knitted it .. . 7. The clock came off the wall . . 8. Mrs Brown wallpapered the living room .. .

9. Both families haven't been talking to .. since the big quarrel last year. 10. Cathy and Ann are sewing fancy costumes for .. . Ex.12 Fill in with relative nouns 1. This is the boy . had an accident. 2. Yesterday I saw a car .. was really old. 3. Mandy is the girl . I met on Friday. 4. I haven't seen Peter, .. brother is five, for a long time now. 5. The robber stole the car. the lady parked in front of the supermarket. 6. This is the man . house is on fire. 7. Can I talk to the girl is sitting on the bench? 8. The book .. you gave me is great. Ex.13 Relative Clauses, Relative Pronouns 1. Where is the bottle of Coke . who which whose x I bought this morning? 2. I talked to the girl . who which whose x car had broken down in front of the shop. 3. Mr Jones, who which whose x is a taxi driver, lives on the corner. 4. There is the car . who which whose x I'd like to buy. 5. He cleaned the car . who which whose x had an accident. 6. This is the girl . who which whose x comes from Spain.

7. That's Peter, the boy . who which whose x has just arrived at the airport. 8. What did you do with the money .. who which whose x your mother lent you?

Ex. 14 Correct the pronoun errors. 1. Keats wrote that "a thing of beauty is a joy forever." He added that it's "loveliness increases." 2. At some schools, you have to take the courses they tell you to take. 3. Everyone at the game brought their Thermos filled with hot chocolate. 4. Marie and me will go with you and she to the craft fair. 5. You have a much higher GPA than me. 6. Make your reservations with either Dana or myself. 7. On the ten o'clock news, they announced that Pete and her will be the new delegates. 8. Unless you grasp the concept, it can be really frustrating. 9. My barber and his boss are always arguing; he told me they may never make peace. 10. The band played a fanfare for the President and I as we disembarked from the plane. 11. You and me are best buds. This makes me very happy. 12. When they drove to California, they were surprised at how fast it went.

13. The photograph certainly did justice to the scenery; it's quality was excellent. 14. Dad loves the wide open spaces. That is why he moved out of the city. 15. Sarah says she is going to graduate with honors or die trying. 16. Mike, Susan, and I washed the floor ourself this morning. 17. One of the plans were drawn by the architect who is more famous than me. 18. All of the lumber were warped by the heavy rain. 19. Joe is afraid of dogs, and he is allergic to cats. That is why he doesn't have a pet.

Ex. 15 "Who" and "Whom," "Whoever" and "Whomever" Exercises Fill in the correct form in the following sentences. 1. _____ kicked the field goal? 2. The governor appointed _____ for the position? 3. I will pick ______ needs the money. 4. Dan Baker is not only the man ______ wrote the best-selling novel but also the ex-convict about ______ everyone wonders. 5. Trudy and ______ will be co-chairs of the committee? 6. You and ______ bought the flowers for ______ ? 7. This is the woman for ______ the bell tolls.

8. The student ______ was wearing the blue shorts swore that he would punch out ______he could catch. 9. Jody went to the history class admiring ______ could write an "A" paper for that professor, ______ was noted for his tough grading policies and about ______ everyone was gossiping. 10. The corporation was facing bankruptcy; consequently, it could not advertise for the technicians ______ would be the most qualified, and they had to settle for ______ they could find that would be willing to work for low wages. 11. Martha is a very conscientious mother upon ______ the whole family depends. 12. This general, with ______ many soldiers fought and under ______ more soldiers were trained, ______ disciplined soldiers _______ disobeyed the slightest order, and ______ challenged ______ appeared to have the faintest spark of promise, died ingloriously yesterday while sitting in his easy chair in the nursing home, dreaming of the days when he could strike fear in the hearts of ______ he commanded.

5.9.1. SEARS TOWER Vital Statistics: Location: Chicago, Illinois, USA Completion Date: 1973 Cost: $150 million Height: 1,454 feet Stories: 110

Materials: Steel Facing Materials: Black aluminum Engineer(s): Skidmore, Owings & Merrill The Sears Tower is an example of the revolutionary bundledtube structural design. Tube buildings gain most of their network of beams like and the structural support from a rigid

columns in their outer walls. The rigid outer walls act

walls of a hollow tube. The Sears Tower is actually a bundle of nine tubes, and is considered one of the most efficient structures designed to withstand wind. This is a great design for a skyscraper in Chicago, the "Windy City," where the average wind speed is 16 miles per hour. As the building climbs upward, the tubes begin to drop off, reducing the wind forces on the building. The Tower's heavy weight more than 440 million pounds is also supported by 114 piles sunk deep into the earth so that they stand firmly on hard, solid bedrock. In 1974, the Sears Tower in Chicago assumed the coveted title of world's tallest building, at 1,454 feet. It held this title for 22 years until 1998, when the decorative spires atop the Petronas Towers in Malaysia surpassed the Sears Tower by 33 feet. Today, the Sears Tower still boasts the tallest occupiable floor and the tallest skyscraper roof in the world. Fast Facts: The Sears Tower contains enough concrete to build an eightlane, five-mile-long highway, enough steel to build 50,000 automobiles, and enough telephone wiring to wrap around the world 1.75 times.

On a clear day, you can see four states - Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Michigan - from the Sears Tower Visitor Skydeck. At the very top of the building, the maximum wind drift is just one foot. Six roof-mounted robotic window-washing machines clean all 16,100 windows on the Sears Tower. 5.9.2. PETRONAS TOWERS Vital Statistics: Location: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Completion Date: 1998 Cost: $1.6 billion Height: 1,483 feet Stories: 88 Materials: Concrete, Steel Facing Materials: Aluminum, Stainless Steel Engineer(s): Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Until 1998, the world's tallest skyscraper had always been in the United States. But that year, Malaysia's Petronas Towers laid claim to this distinction. Squeaking past the Chicago Sears Tower by 33 feet, the spires atop the Petronas Towers peak at an impressive 1,483 feet. Yet there's a controversy. The highest occupied floor in the Sears Tower is actually 200 feet higher than the top floor of the Petronas Towers, and its antennae stretch higher still. So why are the Petronas Towers considered the world's tallest buildings? According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban

Habitat, spires count, but antennae don't. Spires do not contain floors, but they are counted in the world's tallest building race for one architectural reason: they're nice to look at. Built over a former racetrack, the Petronas Towers reflect a unique blend of religion and economic prosperity. The $1.6 billion towers contain more than eight million square feet of shopping and entertainment facilities, underground parking for 4,500 cars, a petroleum museum, a symphony hall, a mosque, and a multimedia conference center. Each tower's floor plan forms an eight-pointed star, a design inspired by traditional Malaysian Islamic patterns. The 88-story towers, joined by a flexible skybridge on the 42nd floor, have been described as two "cosmic towards the heavens. Fast Facts: It takes 90 seconds to travel from the basement parking lot to the top of each tower. Together, the towers have 32,000 windows. It takes window washers an entire month to wash each tower just once! VI. PREPOSITIONS 6.1. Introduction Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns The student has two main problems with prepositions. He has to know (a) whether in any construction a preposition is required or not, and pillars" spiraling endlessly

(b)

which preposition to use when one is required.

The first problem can be especially troublesome to a European student, who may find that a certain construction in his own language requires a preposition, whereas a similar one in English does not, and vice versa: e.g. in most European languages purpose is expressed by a preposition + infinitive; in English it is expressed by the infinitive only: I came here to study Alternative position of prepositions A Prepositions normally precede nouns or pronouns. In two constructions, however, it is possible in informal English to move the preposition to the end of the sentence: 1 In questions beginning with a preposition + whom/which/what/ whose/where: To whom were you talking? (formal) Who were you talking to? (informal) In which drawer does he keep it? (formal) Which drawer does he keep it in? (informal) It used to be thought ungrammatical to end a sentence with a preposition, but it is now accepted as a colloquial form. 2 Similarly in relative clauses, a preposition placed before whom/which can be moved to the end of the clause. The relative pronoun is then often omitted: the people with whom I was travelling (formal) the people I was travelling with (informal) the company

from which I hire my TV set (formal) the company I hire my TV set from (informal) B But in phrasal verbs the preposition/adverb remains after its verb, so the formal type of construction is not possible, the children I was looking after could not be rewritten with after + whom and Which bridge did they blow up? could not be rewritten with up + which. Time and date: at, on, by, before, in at daw, at six, at midnight, at 4.30, at sixteen/at the age of sixteen, on Monday, on 4 June, on Christmas Day, by the end of July C on time, in time, in good time on time = at the time arranged, not before, not after: The 8.15 train started on time. (It started at 8.15.) in time/in time for + noun = not late; in good time (for) = with a comfortable margin: Passengers should be in time for their train. I arrived at the concert hall in good time (for the concert). (Perhaps the concert began at 7.30 and I arrived at 7.15.) I Time: from, since, for, during

from is normally used with to or till/until: Most people work from nine to five since is used for time, never for place, and means 'from that time to the time referred to'. He has been here since Monday, (from Monday till now) He wondered where Ann was. He had not seen her since their quarrel.

for is used of a period of time: for six years, for two months, for ever: Bake it for two hours. He travelled in the desert for six months. for + a period of time can be used with a present perfect tense or past perfect tense for an action which extends up to the time of speaking: He has worked here for a year. (He began working here a year ago and still works here.) during is used with known periods of time, i.e. periods known by name, such as Christmas, Easter or periods which have been already defined: during the Middle Ages during his childhood Time: to, till/until, after, A to and till/until to can be used of time and place; till/until of time only. We can use from ... to or from . . . till/until: They worked from five to ten/from five till ten. (at five to ten would mean 'at 9.55'.) But if we have no from we use till/until, after after (preposition) must be followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund: Don't bathe immediately after a meal/after eating. Don't have a meal and bathe immediately after it. during 1941 during the summer (of that year)

at, in; in, into; on, onto A at and in at We can be at home, at work, at the office, at school, at university, at an address, at a certain point e.g. at the bridge, at the crossroads, at the bus-stop. in We can be in a country, a town, a village, a square, a street, a room, a forest, a wood, a field, a desert or any place which has boundaries or is enclosed. But a small area such as a square, a street, a room, a field might be used with at when we mean 'at this point' rather than 'inside'. We can be in or at a building, in means inside only; at could mean inside or in the grounds or just outside. If someone is 'at the station' he could be in the street outside, or in the ticket office/waiting room/ restaurant or on the platform. We can be in or at the sea, a river, lake, swimming pool etc. in here means actually in the water: The children are swimming in the river. at the sea/river/lake etc. means 'near/beside the sea'. But at sea means 'on a ship'. B in and into in as shown above normally indicates position. into indicates movement, entrance:

They climbed into the lorry. tankard.

I poured the beer into a

Thieves broke into my house/My house was broken into. With the verb put, however, either in or into can be used: He put his hands in/into his pockets. in can also be an adverb: Come in = Enter. I' on and onto on can be used for both position and movement: He was sitting on his case. His name is on the door. Snow fell on the hills. He went on board ship. Get in (into the car).

onto can be used (chiefly of people and animals) when there is movement involving a change of level: People climbed onto their roofs. table. The cat jumped onto the mantelpiece. on can also be an adverb: Go on. Come on. We lifted him onto the

above, over, under, below, beneath etc. A above and over above (preposition and adverb) and over (preposition) can both mean 'higher than' and sometimes either can be used: The helicopter hovered above/over us. Flags waved above/over our heads. But over can also mean 'covering', 'on the other side of, 'across' and 'from one side to the other': put a rug over him. He lives over the mountains. There is a bridge over the river. over can mean 'more than' or 'higher than'.
We

above can mean 'higher than' only. Both can mean 'higher in rank'. But He is over me would normally mean 'He is my immediate superior', 'He supervises my work', above would not necessarily have this meaning. If we have a bridge over a river, above the bridge means 'upstream'. over can be used with meals/food/drink: below and under below (preposition) and under (preposition) can both mean 'lower than' and sometimes either can be used. But under can indicate contact: She put the letter under her pillow. The ice crackled under his feet. With below there is usually a space between the two surfaces: They live below us. (We live on the fourth floor and they live on the third.) Similarly: We live above them. (See A above.) beneath can sometimes be used instead of under, but it is safer to keep it for abstract meanings: He would think it beneath him to tell a lie. (unworthy of him) She married beneath her. (into a lower social class) beside, between, behind, in front of, opposite Imagine a theatre with rows of seats: A, B, C etc., Row A being nearest the stage._____ Stage

Row A Row B

Tom Mary

Ann Bob

Bill Jane

This means that: Tom is beside Ann; Mary is beside Bob etc. Ann is between Tom and Bill; Bob is between Mary and Jane. Mary is behind Tom; Tom is in front of Mary. But if Tom and Mary are having a meal and Tom is sitting at one side of j the table and Mary at the other, we do not use in front of, but say: Tom is sitting opposite Mary or Tom is facing Mary. But He stood in front of me could mean either 'He stood with his back toj me' or 'He faced me'. People living on one side of a street will talk of the houses on the other I side as the houses opposite (us) rather than the houses in front of us. Don't confuse beside with besides, beside = at the side of: We camped beside a lake. besides (preposition) = in addition to/as well as: I do all the cooking and besides that I help Tom. Besides doing the cooking I help Tom. besides (adverb) means (a) 'in addition to that/as well as that': I do the cooking and help Tom besides and (b) 'in any case/anyway': We can't afford oysters. Besides, Tom doesn't like them. between and among between normally relates a person/thing to two other people/things, but it can be used of more when we have a definite number in mind:

Luxembourg lies between Belgium, Germany and France. among relates a person/thing to more than two others; normally we have no definite number in mind: He was happy to be among friends again. a village among the hills Prepositions used with adjectives and participles Certain adjectives and past participles used as adjectives can be followed by a preposition + noun/gerund. Usually particular adjectives and participles require particular prepositions. Some of these are given below; others can be found by consulting a good dictionary, which after any adjective will give the prepositons that can be used with it.

absorbed in according to accustomed to afraid of ashamed of aware of bad at/for capable of confident of due to/for exposed to

involved in keen on liable for/to nervous of pleased with prepared for proud of ready for responsible for/to scared of sorry for/about

anxious for/about owing to

fit for fond of frightened of/at good at/for interested in

successful in suspicious of terrified of tired of used to

He was absorbed in his book. She is afraid/frightened/scared of the dark. According to Tom it's 2.30. (Tom says it's 2.30.) He is bad/good at chess, (a bad/good player) Running is bad/good for you. (unhealthy/healthy) They are very keen on golf. Drivers exceeding the speed limit are liable to a fine. The management is not responsible for articles left in customers' cars. I'm sorry for your husband. (I pity him.) I'm sorry for forgetting the tickets. I'm sorry about the tickets. Verbs and prepositions accuse sb of insist on

apologize (to sb) for live on (food/money) apply to sb/for sth long for ask for/about attend to beg for believe in beware of blame sb for object to occur to persist in prefer sb/sth to sb/sth prepare for punish sb for quarrel with sb about

charge sb with (an offence) compare sth with refer to

comply with conform to consist of deal in depend on dream of fight with sb for fine sb for hope for

rely on remind sb of resort to succeed in suspect sb of think of/about wait for warn sb of/about wish for

Do you believe in ghosts? They were charged with receiving stolen goods. You haven't complied with the regulations. For a week she lived on bananas and milk. It never occurred to me to insure the house. They persisted in defying the law. When arguments failed he resorted to threats.

6.2. SEMIAR - PREPOSITION 1. Choose the correct preposition in parentheses in the

EXERCISE

sentences below:
1.

Mary walked (in, into) the dining-room. 2. She put her packages (on, at) the table. 3. She is sitting (in, on) an armchair (into, in) the living-room. 4. Is her husband (at, in) home now? No, he is (on, at) the library. 5. He also spends many hours (in, on) his office (on, at) 50, Fleet Street. 6. I found a note pinned (in, on) my door which said: "Meet me (at, in) the corner of Oxford Street and Regent Street. 7. His family lives (at, on) Bridge Street (in, on) Edinburgh,

Scotland. 8. You must always write your return address (in, on) the envelope. 9. The team arrived (in, at) England last week.

EXERCISE

2. Will in each blank with to, into or from:

1. She learnt English . . . books. 2. Then she taught it . . . you. 3. A prisoner has escaped . . . prison. 4. He escaped . . . the woods. 5. He fell... a river and the police rescued him . . . it. 6. They saved him . . . drowning. 7. Her father has retired . . . bed. 8. He has retired . . . the army.
EXERCISE

3 Fill in each blank with onto or into whenever

possible; otherwise with on or in: a) 1) Take a seat... the car. 2. Don't take everything... the car. 3. Help me lift this suitcase . . . the seat. 4. They are arriving . . . Rome. 5. They are driving . . . the city. 6. Are they staying . . . the city tonight ?
b)

In which of the last 6 sentences could we use off, and in

which could we use out of?


EXERCISE

4. Fill in each blank with the suitable preposition. Use a

different preposition each time: 1. The Danube rises . . . the Black Forest and flows . . . the Black Sea. 2. The Isles of Scilly are a group of islands . . . the Atlantic, . . . Cornwall. Not many people live . . . them. 3. The train leaves . . . Paris early in the morning, and it gets . . . Gurtici by dinner-time. 4. Step . . . this ladder, but be careful you don't fall... it. 5. Wait . .. me round the corner, just . . . the baker's. 6.

You aren't permitted to smoke . . . the area of petrol tanks. 7. Look out, children! There's a car racing . . . you!
EXERCISE

5. Choose the correct preposition in parentheses in the

sentences below: 1. They stopped (in front of, below) the museum and sat

down (in, on) the steps. 2. Jim said, "I must go (to, towards) the library and take out some books. I'm living (to, in) our hostel this term". 3. Our house is number 40. Number 42 is (opposite, next to) ours. 4. Number 41 is (opposite, next to) ours. 5. We like to live (about, among) civilised people. 6. Something is hidden (at the back of, behind) this simple occurence. 7. I am (behind, at the back of) my work. 8. There is a beautiful park (behind, at the back of) my house.

UNIVERSITATEA TRANSILVANIA BRASOV FACULTATEA DE CONSTRUCTII

CURS DE LIMBA ENGLEZA


Anul I, Semestrul I