Thin plate buckling

By Dr. Jawad Khawar

Plate subjected to pure bending

(a) Direct stress on lamina of plate element; (b) radii of  curvature of neutral plane.

Plate subjected to pure bending

D is known as the flexural rigidity of the plate

Plate subjected to bending and  twisting (a) Plate subjected to bending and twisting. (b) tangential and normal moments on an arbitrary plane. .

Plate subjected to bending and  twisting Complementary shear stresses due to twisting moments Mxy. .

.Plate subjected to bending and  twisting Determination of shear strain γxy.

Plate Subjected to distributed  transverse load Plate element subjected to bending. twisting and transverse  loads .

Plate Subjected to distributed  transverse load Taking moment about x-axis Taking moment about y-axis .

Plate Subjected to distributed  transverse load or or .

Boundary Conditions • Simply supported edge at x=0 .

Boundary Conditions • Built‐in edge (Fixed or Clamped) at x=0 • Free Edge at x=0 Equivalent vertical force system .

Solution of Thin plate Bending  Equation Thin plate bending equation Rectangular Thin plate simply supported at four edges  BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Assumed solution as a double  trigonometric Fourier series The applied transverse loading  in terms of Fourier Series .

Solution of Thin plate Bending  Equation .

Solution of Thin plate Bending  Equation Substituting w and q in terms of their Fourier series in the thin plate bending  equation we have .

Combined bending and in‐plane loading of  a thin rectangular plate .

Combined bending and in‐plane loading of  a thin rectangular plate .

Combined bending and in‐plane loading of  a thin rectangular plate .

Thin Plate Buckling Simply supported Loaded Edges unloaded edges and Free .

Thin Plate Buckling .

Different loading and edge boundary conditions  for thin plate buckling Buckling coefficients for flat plates in compression .

Different loading and edge boundary conditions  for thin plate buckling Buckling coefficients for flat plates in bending .

Different loading and edge boundary conditions  for thin plate buckling Shear buckling coefficients for flat plates .

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Local instability Secondary Instability or Local  buckling Primary instability or column buckling .

. (d) formed ‘top hat’. (c) extruded Z. (b) formed channel.Local instability (a) Extruded angle.

Local instability .

Local instability .

Instability of stiffened panels .

Instability of stiffened panels Initial buckling of skin stringer panel Panel instability Inter‐rivet buckling .

Instability of stiffened panels Torsional buckling of  skin‐stringer panel Flexural and torsional buckling of skin‐ stringer panel .

Instability of stiffened panels Inter‐rivet buckling or wrinkling of  skin‐stringer panel Wrinkling of skin‐stringer panel .

Instability of stiffened panels or Primary instability Simply supported on all four sides Secondary instability Stiffeners may buckle as long plates simply supported on three  sides with one edge free Applied load where .

Failure stress in plates and stiffened  panels Average compressive stress Unloaded edge stress Stowell.  Mayers and  Budiansky failure criteria σcy=σe .

Failure stress in plates and stiffened  panels
Gerard  Method

Failure stress in plates and stiffened  panels

Shear Panels (Tension Field Beams)
• Diagonal tension webs are one of the most outstanding examples of methods used in airframe stress analysis and structural sizing. Standard structural practice has been to assume that the load carrying capacity of a shear web terminates when the web buckles and stiffeners are used merely to raise the buckling stress of the web. Airframe design assumes that a thin web with transverse stiffeners does not fail when it buckles. The web forms diagonal folds and functions as a series of tension straps while the stiffeners act as compression posts. The web‐stiffener thus acts as a truss and may be capable of carrying loads far greater than those producing the buckling of the web.

Typical Shear Panel Composition Typical Spar construction of wing .

Shear Panels • Shear Resistant Webs • Pure Diagonal Tension Webs • Incomplete diagonal Tension Webs .

Shear Resistant Web • Shear resistant web are those that do not buckle  under ultimated shear stress. However there are  quite ubiquitous in other structures such as  bridges and buildings • In Shear resistant web the allowable web stresses  can only be increased by – Increasing web thickness – Decreasing spacing between the stringers in shear  resistant web . • Shear resistant web are not very common in  aircraft structural design.

Shear Resistant Web .

Pure or Complete Diagonal Tension  Webs .

Derivation of Stresses in Complete  Tension Field webs .

 moments about  the bottom flange Resolving forces horizontally . and ext.Determination of flange forces Balancing Int.

Vertical Loading on stiffeners due to  web stresses Balancing vertical forces on the web Compressive load on  the vertical stiffeners Experimentally  determined  empirical relation Effective length of the  stringers .

Vertical loading on the flanges due to  web stresses Derived using the principal of  minimum strain energy Alternate expression AF is the crosssectional area of the flange AS is the crosssectional area of the stiffeners .

Incomplete Complete Diagonal Tension  Webs Diagonal tension factor .

Incomplete Complete Diagonal Tension  Webs Empirical factor Modified flange stress is given by Modified stiffener stress is given by σ2 σ1 .

Incomplete Complete Diagonal Tension  Webs Effective length of stiffeners .

Effect of Taper on Diagonal Tension  Beam Calculations Resolving forces vertically Resolving forces horizontally Taking moment about lower  Flange Solving above three equations simultaneously  .

Effect of Taper on Diagonal Tension  Beam Calculations Compressive force acting on the vertical stiffeners/stringers is given by: Shear force S acting on any section of the beam is given by: .

Buckling of curved plates Compression Loading .

Buckling of curved plates (Shear Loading) .

Buckling of curved plates (Shear Loading) .

Buckling of curved plates (Shear Loading) .

Buckling of curved plates (Shear Loading) .

Buckling of curved plates (Shear Loading) .

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