'Apsirtos', considered in the Western world from the Greeks, the "father of Veterinary Medicine." Apsirtos was born in the year 300 AD in Clazômeras, the Aegean coastal city on the western coast of Asia Minor. He studied medicine in Alexandria, later becoming, chief veterinary officer of the army of Constantine the Great, during the war against the peoples Samart the Danube, between 332 and 334. After the war, he practiced the art of healing in animals and Peruza Nicomedia, the cities of Asia, creating a school hipiatras. Among the issues described by Apsirtos, deserve mention glanders, pulmonary emphysema, tetanus, cramps and fractures, and descriptions of bloodletting with its indications and modalities, potions and ointments. His work reveals, finally, the domain knowledge about the prevailing practice at the time hipiátrica.

2.-Bernhard Lauritz Frederik Bang
Bernhard Lauritz Frederik Bang (June 7, 1848 Sorø - June 22, 1932 Copenhagen), was a Danish veterinarian. Discovered Brucella abortus in 1897, which came to be known as Bang's bacillus. Bang's bacillus was the cause of the contagious Bang's disease (now known as Brucellosis) which can cause pregnant cattle to abort, and causes undulant fever in humans. Bang was awarded his M.D. in 1880 and began teaching at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Denmark in Copenhagen. He later became the director of the College. Bang was a veterinary adviser to the Danish government. For his contributions to veterinary medicine, he received an honorary doctorate from the Veterinary College of Utrecht in 1921. Bang is known for his work on:
• • •

development of a control for bovine tuberculosis research on smallpox vaccination research on animal bacillary disease

3.-Claude Bourgelat
Claude Bourgelat (March 27, 1712 – January 3, 1779) was a French veterinary surgeon. Bourgelat was born at Lyon. He was the founder of veterinary colleges at Lyon in 1762, as well as an authority on horse management, and often consulted on the matter. Other dates claimed for the establishment of the Lyon College, the first veterinary school in the world, are 1760 and 1761. "Bourgelat, a French barrister, observing that certain maladies were devastating the French herds, forsook the bar and devoted his time in seeking out a remedy for the then pest, which resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1760, from which establishment he despatched students, with weapons in their hands all-necessary for combating disease by science with practice; and in a short time from this period, the plague was stayed and the health of stock restored, through the assistance rendered to agriculture by veterinary science and art."[1] The plague to which Lupton referred was cattle plague, also commonly known by its German name, Rinderpest. He was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Bourgelat also contributed to Diderot and d'Alambert's Encyclopédie.


L'art vétérinaire (1761)

4.-Augustine Colombrita
Augustine Colombrita or Columbro (San Severo, around the middle of the fifteenth century - was one ...), Italian zoologist and veterinarian. Leaving San Severo at a young age, he moved to Venice, where he was a surgeon and taught human surgery. Charles V called him to him as court physician, but there was little Colombrita, before returning to Venice, then moving to Naples in the service of Ferdinand II of Aragon. The reputation of Colombrita depends principally on the work of manischalcia (Naples, 1490), an important book that came in a few years, six editions and was much appreciated throughout Europe, particularly Germany. Many were the scientific merits of Colombrita, which is one of the fathers of modern veterinary medicine, these include fundamental contributions to the anatomy animal (as the first real anatomical description of the ox and horse), the discovery of important disease and the equine and bovine innovative practice in some surgical procedures.

This. comprising four types of reactions[4]. In 1943 he went up to King's College. his first discovery is the test now referred to as the Coombs test. which he developed and published together with Dr Arthur Mourant and Dr Rob Race in 1945. and a founder of its Division of Immunology. Together with Professor Philip George Howthern Gell. • Biography He was born in London and studied veterinary medicine at Edinburgh University. he developed and published methods to detect antibodies with Dr Arthur Mourant and Dr Rob Race in 1945.-Ira James Cunningham . Canada. becoming a Fellow of Corpus Christi College. now known as the "Gell-Coombs classification".[2] Works The Coombs test. They had a son and a daughter. Wells he put forward an explanation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as an anaphylactic reaction to dairy proteins.5. Together with W. his first graduate student.[2] Coombs became a professor and researcher at the Department of Pathology of University of Cambridge. He was appointed the fourth Quick Professor of Biology in 1966 and continued to work at Cambridge University until 1988[2] He received honorary doctoral degrees by the University of Guelph. he developed a classification of immune mechanisms of tissue injury. such as Rh disease and blood transfusion. Scotland and was a Fellow of the Royal Society of the United Kingdom (1965).E. which according to the legend he first devised while travelling on the train. a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. He was married to Anne Blomfield. Cambridge where he commenced work on a doctorate.-Robin Coombs Robert Royston Amos ("Robin") Coombs. (9 January 1921 – 25 February 2006).[5] 6. Before finishing his doctorate. Parish and A.F.[1]. co-discoverer of the Coombs test (1945) used for detecting antibodies in various clinical scenarios. has formed the base of a large number of laboratory investigations in the fields of hematology and immunology[1][2][3]. was a British immunologist. which he gained in 1947. and the University of Edinburgh.

He is best remembered as a past president of the New Zealand Veterinary Association. He was in charge of Wallaceville from 1945 to 1958. He was dux of Dannevirke High School and later took a position as a cadet in the chemical laboratory of the Department of Agriculture in Wellington. and in 1929 with a Master's of Science with first-class honours in Chemistry. Cunningham attended the Rowett Research Institute at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland and this marked the beginning of his lifelong interest in trace element nutrition. In 1928. Among elected offices Cunningham held were those of chairman of the Veterinary Surgeons' Board. He returned to New Zealand with a PhD in copper metabolism to become a research officer in animal nutrition at Wallaceville Veterinary Laboratory in Upper Hutt. he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree. 1905. • Biography Early years Cunningham was born at Mangatainoka in the Wairarapa in New Zealand on August 16. Career Upon his return to Wallaceville. In 1962. The degree of DSc was conferred upon Cunningham the same year by Victoria University of Wellington for his research on copper metabolism. Cunningham studied part time at Victoria University College. Cunningham was appointed as foundation dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Science at Massey Agricultural College in Christchurch. While at the Department. Cunningham then attended the University of Sydney and gained a Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc). Cunningham was made a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1963 and was awarded the Society’s Hector Memorial Medal and Prize in 1971. Cunningham became superintendent of the Wallaceville station. and he received an honorary DVSc from the University of Melbourne in 1967. he was appointed chief biochemist and section leader and concentrated on his main work of improving livestock production. In 1929.Ira James Cunningham (1905–1971) was a New Zealand researcher in trace element nutrition and animal science. director of the Animal Research Division of the Department of Agriculture. with the support of John Filmer. Cunningham became Assistant Director General of Agriculure in 1958 and his services to agriculture were recognised in 1959 when he was made a CBE. . In 1945.

New Zealand on August 28. and president of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production.-Peter Charles Doherty .president of the New Zealand Veterinary Association. 7. 1971. Death Cunningham died at Palmerston North.

the corecipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. and his Nobel work described how the body's immune cells protect against viruses. After obtaining his PhD in 1970 from the University of Edinburgh. Killer T-cells destroy those infected cells so that the viruses cannot reproduce. discovered how T cells recognize their target antigens in combination with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. He received his bachelor's degree in veterinary science in 1962 and his master's degree in veterinary science in 1966 from the University of Queensland.Peter Charles Doherty. he returned to Australia to perform his Nobel Prize-winning research at the John Curtin School of Medical Research in Canberra. [3] His semi-autobiographical book. and was named Australian of the Year in 1997. Queensland. In the Australia Day Honours of 1997. was published by The Miegunyah Press. AC (born 15 October 1940) is an Australian Veterinary Surgeon and researcher in the field of medicine.[2] Doherty was born in Brisbane. an imprint of Melbourne University Publishing Ltd. where he is a faculty member at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis. Victoria. Doherty currently spends three months of the year conducting research at St. He received the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1995. The MHC was previously identified as being responsible for the rejection of incompatible tissues during transplantation. Zinkernagel and Doherty discovered that the MHC was responsible for the body fighting meningitis viruses too. Zinkernagel and Doherty discovered that. where he attended Indooroopilly State High School. Tennessee. Viruses infect host cells and reproduce inside them. he was named a Companion of the Order of Australia for his work with Zinkernagel.-Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben . the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Rolf M. but also a molecule of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). in order for killer T cells to recognize infected cells. they had to recognize two molecules on the surface of the cell – not only the virus antigen. 8. Melbourne in 2005. Doherty's research focuses on the immune system. The Beginner's Guide to Winning the Nobel Prize.[1] For the other 9 months of the year he works in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Melbourne.[1] Zinkernagel was named an honorary Companion. He and Rolf Zinkernagel. Scotland. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1987. Zinkernagel in 1996. He is also a National Trust Living Treasure. This recognition was done by a T-cell receptor on the surface of the T cell.

-Noel Fitzpatrick . He was Dorothea Christiane Erxleben's son.1 9.Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben (22 June 1744 – 19 August 1777) was a German naturalist from Quedlinburg. He wrote Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre and Systema regni animalis (1777). who was the first woman in Germany to be promoted to a medical doctor. He was founder of the first and oldest academic Veterinary School in Germany. Erxleben was Professor of physics and veterinary medicine at the University of Göttingen. in 1771. the Institute of Veterinary Medicine.

He claims to have got the idea of the bionic feet attached with steel rods through the original X Men film through the character of Wolverine. attaining certificates in small animal orthopaedics and radiology. The day that the family failed to save a baby lamb from death gave Fitzpatrick a purpose in life. the body would reject the steel and infection would almost certainly follow. England. specially designed to "sandwich" muscle with metal to restore full mobility. it mimics a natural process.[7] It is known as intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prosthetics (ITAPs) and were developed by the head of University College London's Centre for Biomedical Engineering.[1] Fitzpatrick qualified as a veterinary surgeon from University College Dublin in 1990.[3] This is unique in that if such rods were administered to a human.[6] Biotechnological pioneering Fitzpatrick is a pioneer in his field. in Eashing. named Fitzpatrick Referrals. a received scholarships at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Ghent. In 2008 Fitzpatrick was appointed the position of Assistant Professor at the University of Florida School of Veterinary Medicine and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Surrey for his contribution to medical science. Fitzpatrick bioengineered in collaboration with the University College London steel rods coated with hydroxyapatite which were attached to the ankle joints of the cat.[5]Although the operation carried out by Noel Fitzpatrick was a world first.[5] Fitzpatrick has stated that he would welcome a collaborative approach with other surgeons working on human amputations.[2][3][4]In 2009 he became the first surgeon in the world to bioengineer two bionic feet and successfully administer them to a cat named Oscar from Jersey who had lost both its feet in an accident with a combine harvester. Gordon Blunn and colleagues. Surrey. in the manner that the implants grow through the skin.[2] As in the case with Oscar the Cat. being similar to the way deer grow antler bones. He has developed many novel techniques and technologies to save his animal patients from being put to sleep.[5] Biography Fitzpatrick was born in Ireland in 1970.[1][5] He used this novel idea to provide a solution to a Labrador dog plagued with crippling arthritis.[3] They were administered in such a way that it encourages the bone cells and skin to grow onto the rods and then create a resilient seal to prevent it from any infection. He grew up on a farm and developed a love of animals from a young age. administering biotechnology to animals.[8] Fitzpatrick also treated an American bulldog named Roly from Hampshire who become the first dog in the world to be fitted with an artificial hip.aged 20!] [1])is an Irish neuro-orthopaedic veterinary surgeon and a pioneer of bionic development in animals. to become a veterinarian.Noel Fitzpatick (born 1970 [this can't be true if he graduated in 1990 . He currently operates a multi-million pound practice of some 65 employees.[6] He spent periods at several universities in the UK and USA.[4] He was also once hired by .[5] This ITAP technology is currently being tested on humans and a prosthetic has been made for a woman injured in the July 2005 London bombings.

10.000 procedure on the nine-year-old dog and inserted two bolts in the middle of his spine to fuse two vertebrae.[1] Fitzpatrick performed a £5. although the dog had to be put down the following year.[1] Fitzpatrick currently appears in the series The Bionic Vet.-Bruce Fogle . aired on BBC 1. as it was experiencing pain.Chris Evans to help his German Shepherd dog Enzo who had two herniated discs in his spine. leaving him paralysed and in pain.

he has lived and worked in London for many years. where he grew up and was educated. Fogle worked as a vet for the Zoological Society of London at London Zoo.-Camille Guérin . In 1973 Fogle set up his own practice. Fogle has also been Veterinary Consultant to Microsoft Encarta. University of Guelph in nearby Guelph. [1] 11. and Veterinary Advisor to the Encyclopædia Britannica. Fogle was born in Toronto. Fogle is the co-founder and vice-chairman of the charity Hearing Dogs for Deaf People. Ontario. In 2004. For many years Fogle appeared regularly on Jimmy Young's BBC Radio 2 show. He graduated in 1970 with a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from the Ontario Veterinary College. Canadian by birth. Outside his profession.Bruce Fogle (born 17 February 1944) is a veterinarian and prolific author. and the Delta Society in the United States. the Portman Veterinary Clinic. He continues the same role on Jeremy Vine's radio show. he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire. including encyclopedias of breeds and how to care for and live with these animals. He has written dozens of books about dogs and cats. a founding member of The Society for Companion Animal Studies in the United Kingdom. After graduation.

He started as a technician in charge of preparing Calmette's serum (antivenom against snake bites) and the vaccine against smallpox. French physician. he joined the Institut Pasteur de Lille (Lille. in close association with Calmette. In 1928 he moved to Paris to became the director of the Tuberculosis Service at the Pasteur Institute. in 1921. In 1955. together with Albert Calmette. he and Calmette developed ways of attenuate the pathogenic activity of Mycobacterium. In 1919 he was promoted again. He died aged 89. from 1905 to 1915.Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (22 December 1872. Henceforth. France) was a French veterinarian. Finally. the Mycobacterium bovis. developed the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). He discovered in 1905 that the bovine tuberculosis bacillum. Paris. and President of the Academy of Medicine (1951). His father died of tuberculosis in 1882 (as well as his wife. He studied veterinary medicine at the Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort from 1892 to 1896. he published with Calmette the results of what was named the BCG. after successfully obtaining an immunologically active preparation that could be use to produced a vaccine. and from 1918 to 1928 he devoted himself to the research on a vaccine against tuberculosis. the French Academy of Sciences awarded him the Scientific Grand Prix. 12. In 1897. after 230 passages of the BCG culture. He was also President of the Veterinary Academy of France (1949). At Lille. he was promoted to Head of Laboratory in 1900. a vaccine for immunization against tuberculosis. using successive transferrals of culture. bacteriologist and immunologist who. until his death in 1933. in the Hôpital Pasteur in Paris. In 1948 Guérin was chairman of the First International Congress on BCG. they obtained an effective vaccine that could be used in humans. while a student. In 1939 he became vice-president of the "Comité National de Défense contre la Tuberculose" (National Defense Committee against Tuberculosis). in 1918). bacteriologist and immunologist Albert Calmette (1863– 1933). Biography Camille Guérin was born in Poitiers to a family of modest means. as an assistant to pathologist Edmond Nocard (1850–1903). this time to Head of Services. working. Poitiers. In 1908. He improved considerably the production techniques of the later. and developed also a method to quantify the remaining virulence of these vaccines. France – 9 June 1961. France) and started to work with its director. Thereafter. by using rabbits as intermediate hosts.-Ernst Friedrich Gurlt . could immunize the animals without causing the disease.

3d edition1865) ''Chirurgische Anatomie und Operationslehre für Thierärzte (1847). 13. he taught classes at the Berlin Tierarzneischule (Veterinary School). and his research on animal deformities. Gurlt is remembered for pioneer work in the field of comparative veterinary anatomy. 1833) Lehrbuch der vergloichenden Physiologie der Haussaugetiere (1837. With Carl Heinrich Hertwig (1798-1881). Selected writings • • • • • Handbuch der vergleichendcn Anatomie der Haussaugetiere (1821.Ernst Friedrich Gurlt (October 13. Following graduation in 1819. Initially trained as a pharmacist. Silesia. with supplement. where from 1827 to 1870 he held the title of professor. 7th edition1890) Lehrbuch der pathologischen Anatomie der Haussaugetiere (with 35 plates.-James Herriot . Willimott. 35 plates. 1882) was a German veterinarian born in Drentkau near Grünberg. 1849) "Anatomy of the Horse" (English translation by J. 1831-32. he founded Magazin für die gesammte Thierheilkunde (Magazine for the Whole of Veterinary Science). During his career he amassed an impressive collection of anatomical malformations. He was the father of surgeon Ernst Julius Gurlt (1825-1899). he later studied medicine and worked as an assistant at the anatomical institute in Breslau. with Carl Heinrich Hertwig. 1794 – August 13. In 1849 he was appointed technical director of the school.

the Wights moved from Brandling Street. In 1939.James Herriot is the pen name of James Alfred Wight. while Hannah was a singer as well as a dressmaker. Thirsk. OBE. staying until 1953. in 1966 (at the age of 50). In January 1940. bringing him back to Glasgow when he was three weeks old. at which point they moved back to 23 Kirkgate. he took a pen name. but sales were slow until Thomas McCormack. received a copy and arranged to have the first two books published as a single volume in the United States. close to the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors. who became a physician in general practice. choosing "James Herriot" after seeing the Scottish goalkeeper Jim Herriot play for Birmingham City F. The couple had two children. and Rosemary (Rosie). James Alexander (Jim). • Biography James Alfred Wight was born on 3 October 1916. who also became a vet and was a partner in the practice.C. His wife moved to her parents' house during this time. "The World of James Herriot". where James took work as both a ship plater and pianist for a local cinema. Wight intended for years to write a book. in Sunderland. but with most of his time consumed by veterinary practice and family. he began writing. his mother returned to Sunderland. Owing in part to professional etiquette which at that time frowned on veterinary surgeons and other professionals from advertising their services. Yorkshire. about four miles from Thirsk. Wight joined her. Challenged by his wife. at the age of 23. but moved in July to work in a rural practice based in the town of Thirsk. also known as Alf Wight (3 October 1916 – 23 February 1995). opposite the secondary school. an English veterinary surgeon and writer. After several rejected stories on other subjects like football. England to James (1890–1960) and Hannah (1890–1980) Wight. he moved with his wife to a house on Topcliffe Road. and upon being discharged from the RAF as a Leading Aircraftman. while the Topcliffe Road house is in private ownership and not open to the public. of St. he took a brief job at a veterinary practice in Sunderland. where he was to remain for the rest of his life. where he lived until his death. In 1969 Wight wrote If Only They Could Talk. Martin's Press in New York City. the first of the now-famous series based on his life working as a vet and his training in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. a title used in some editions and in film and television adaptations. The original practice is now a museum. born 1947. On 5 November 1941.[1] For Alf's birth. often referred to collectively as All Creatures Great and Small. he married Joan Catherine Anderson Danbury. in a televised game against Manchester United. He attended Yoker Primary School and Hillhead High School. he qualified as a veterinary surgeon with Glasgow Veterinary College. Wight served in the Royal Air Force in 1942. They lived there until 1946. Sunderland[1] to Glasgow in Scotland. County Durham. Later. If Only They Could Talk was published in the United Kingdom in 1970 by Michael Joseph Ltd. Shortly after their wedding. . his writing ambition went nowhere. He later moved with his family to the village of Thirlby. born 1943. Wight is best known for his semi-autobiographical stories. he turned to what he knew best.

He died on 23 February 1995. Further. Wight (as Herriot) occasionally steps out of his narrative to comment. goats and pigs. and thus can be considered primarily fiction. UK-based open access rail operator Grand Central Railway. movies.The resulting book. Many of the stories are only loosely based on real events or people. The Herriot books are often described as "animal stories" (Wight himself was known to refer to them as his "little cat-and-dog stories"[5]). and a successful television adaptation. like increased affluence. 180112 James Herriot in his honour. and his first (almost disastrous) Caesarean section on a cow. the majority of vets practised mostly on dogs. animals certainly play a significant role in most of the stories. which he based largely on the towns of Thirsk[4] and Sowerby. spawning numerous sequels. and son. Wight calls the town where he lives and works Darrowby. prompted a large-scale shift in veterinary practice over the course of the 20th century: at its start. which give his writing much of its savour. animals. Yet animals play a lesser. with its people and their animals primary elements that provide its distinct character. and their close inter-relationship. to keep animals merely for pleasure. and his writing is. respectively. Jim. with the benefit of hindsight. and given that they are about the life of a country veterinarian. These and other sociological factors. describing his first hysterectomy on a cat.[2] On 29 July 2009.[3] Author In his books. Wight's books are only partially autobiographical. He also renamed Donald Sinclair and his brother Brian Sinclair as Siegfried and Tristan Farnon. who operate train services from Wight's birthplace of Sunderland to London King's Cross (calling at Thirsk). primarily the draught horse) to reliance upon the mechanical tractor. and had the leisure time. at root. The ceremony was carried out jointly by Alf Wight's daughter Rosie. the stories help document a transitional period in the veterinary industry: agriculture was moving from the traditional use of beasts of burden (in Britain. for example. and other companion animals belonging to a population having a larger disposable income. named a Class 180 DEMU No. From a historical standpoint. titled All Creatures Great and Small. The Yorkshire animals provide the element of pain and drama. cats. sheep. at home in Thirlby. cattle.[1] and underwent treatment in the Lambert Memorial Hospital in Thirsk. sometimes even a negligible role in many of Wight's tales: the overall theme of his stories is Yorkshire country life. on the primitive state of veterinary medicine at the time of the story he is telling. virtually all of a vet's time was spent working with large animals: horses (motive power in both town and country). an amiable but keen comment on the human condition. it is Wight's shrewd observations of persons. was an overnight success. By the year 2000. and medical science was just on the cusp of discovering the antibiotics and other drugs that eliminated many of the ancient remedies still in use. Wight was just as interested in their owners as he was in his patients. aged 78. people who could afford. Wight was found to have prostate cancer in 1991. the role of .

In July 2010 it was announced that Koco Drama. Their ill-health is real. and had an 865. Local businesses include the "World of James Herriot" museum (located in 23 Kirkgate. do not pretend to be ailing.[citation 14. Wight's stories of resolute grappling with mysterious bacterial foes or severe injuries have an almost heroic quality. Every Living Thing. right) are on display at the James Herriot museum in Thirsk. Many of the original contents of his surgery can be found at the Yorkshire Museum of Farming in Murton.[7] In September 2010. the original practice surgery). The books have been adapted for film and television.[6] a subsidiary of Shed Media would be producing a three part drama called Young James for the BBC inspired by the true story of James Herriot and how he learnt his trade in Scotland. He never feels superior to any living thing. sometimes triumph. the Gala Theatre in Durham presented the world premiere professional stage adaptation of All Creatures Great & Small. The animal characters also prevent Wight's stories from becoming twee or melodramatic . York. 1973 #5) was the most popular book in that series' history.animals. not the result of flaws in their character which they avoid mending. Best of all. which is also open to the public. even hope.000 copy first edition printing in the United States. This series will draw on archives and exclusive access to the diaries and case notes he kept during his student days in Glasgow. and about his fellow human creature. and is ever eager to learn . and a pub called the "Darrowby Inn". immediately went into the top 10 bestseller list in Britain. nor have they imaginary complaints and needless fears. Parts of the BBC TV series set including the living room and the dispensary (see picture. James Herriot has an abundant humour about himself and his difficulties.about animal doctoring. including a 1975 film titled All Creatures Great and Small and a long-running BBC television programme of the same title. At the time of his death.-Philippe-Etienne Lafosse .their owners is to feel and express joy. sadness. giving the reader a sense of assurance.[5] Herriot's fame has generated a thriving tourist economy in Thirsk. In an age of social uncertainties. as well as the biography written by his son. when there seem to be no remedies for anything. the Reader's Digest Condensed Book volume containing All Creatures Great And Small (Volume 96. unlike some humans.[5] His last book.

musaraneus. was a French veterinarian and the son of Etienne-Guillaume Lafosse. in French. and military success and as such many scientists devoted careers to the study of equine science. the scientific name for shrew. cavalry. a farrier. or complete treatise on equine medicine). He is famous for a series of books on horse care. France. Publications father of veterinary anatomy • Mémoire sur la morsure de la musaraigne (1763) (Memoire on the bite of the shrew) (It was still believed at this time that the bite of the shrew was venomous like the spider's. horses played an important role in French economic. • • • 15. Guide du Maréchal (1766) (Guide for shoeing horses). manège et maréchallerie (1775) (Dictionary of Veterinary studies.Philippe-Etienne Lafosse (born 1738 in Paris. His works can be found today at the Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort. horse tack and horse-shoeing). cavalerie. At the time of the school's founding 1766 and Lafosse's work. died June 1820 in Villeneuvesur-Yonne. France's oldest and most prestigious veterinary school and hospital on the outskirts of Paris. medicine and anatomy which feature elaborate and often highly abstracted illustrations. In fact. France).-Karl Friedrich Meyer . is formed from the Latin root for mouse "mus" and for spider "araneau"). Dictionnaire raisonné d'hippiatrique. ou traité complet de la médicine des chevaux (1772) (Veterinary studies. Cours d'hippiatrique.

1908-1910 Meyer found his first employment in South Africa. In this function he autopsied hundreds of animals and developed outstanding dexterity in doing this[1]. Karl Friedrich had two younger sisters. and many other viral and bacterial infections of livestock. body fluids. African horse sickness.Karl Friedrich Meyer (19 May 1884–27 April 1974) was an American scientist of Swiss origin. special Institute devoted to research in public health and farm animal diseases.D. Theiler employed Meyer as pathologist (i. Shortly after returning to Switzerland. and whole bodies). And he showed that cattle could be protected against the illness[3]. . he was able to answer one important question as to the lifecycle of the parasite causing African East Coast fever. née Lichtenhahn. Meyer began his studies in 1902 at the University of Basel and soon moved to the University of Zurich where he concentrated on biology. to study and diagnose diseases by examination of organs. teacher. and Sophie. another to protect cattle against pleuro-pneumonia. • Early Life. – Later. in Bacteriology from the University of Zurich. who sent him to work with leading scientists in Munich and Bern [2]. In addition. a disease with devastating economic consequences for the farmers. one against rabies. professor of comparative anatomy (and later the first professor of Medical Law in Zurich). The Transvaal Department of Agriculture in the (then) Union of South Africa had just established a large. Arnold Theiler (father of the Nobel prize winner Max Theiler). Meyer and Theiler both were strong personalities who did not get along too well. and laboratory techniques. Scientific career South Africa. Meyer was offered a position of an assistant professor at the Veterinary School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. the ecology of pathogens. He was greatly fostered by Heinrich Zangger. Meyer had to develop vaccines. Meyer was deeply impressed and influenced by Zangger's social consciousness. Education Meyer was born in Basel (Switzerland) to Theodor Meyer. international cigar merchant.e. in 1924. zoology. He received a doctorate of veterinary medicine in 1909 from the University of Zurich. tissues. epidemiology and public health[1-6]. Moreover. (a „Meyer zum Pfeil”). He was one of the most prodigious scientists in many areas of infectious diseases in man and animals. In these studies he discovered a hitherto unknown type of the germ (now known as a mycoplasma) causing the disease. 1857-1936. famous for having successfully combated the so-called rinderpest. histology. The first director of the institute was another Swiss veterinarian. the latter being important for the economy of the country. Meyer spent a sabbatical leave from the University of California in Zurich and obtained a Ph. 1852–1934. Some called him the “Pasteur of the 20th century”[1].

. which first affects the mucous membranes. a disease Meyer continued working on later. Pennsylvania Livestock Sanitary Board. infectiousness. Then. and (iv) education[4]. habitat. causing (possibly lethal) fever. As a member of the San Francisco State Milk Commission he helped to develop industrial food processing standards needed for upgrading the hygiene in the milk industries. – Meyer also worked on tests and treatments of the diseases. devoted to medical research (whose first director was George H. He wanted to put his expertise to practical use. however. transmission to man. treatment. and is also dangerous to humans. University of California. He suggested classing the various species of bacteria into one family (genus). California. 1855–1931).[1] Meyer’s personality. the faculty promoted Meyer to full professor. etc. the Nobelist). He contributed significantly to the understanding. ecological approach. a bacterial disease in horses.). He soon got into arguments with the Dean over his rough dealing with ill prepared students – criticism that was fell founded. Brucellosis Meyer contributed significantly to the understanding of the broad spectrum of the disease forms of Brucellosis. to honor the discoverer. . epidemiology). – Meyer never just stayed in the laboratory. 1914-1974 In 1914 Meyer changed to the University of California (San Francisco and Berkeley) where he stayed for the rest of his life. (ii) disease in man and animals (diagnosis. he always concurrently concentrated on the interactions and interdependencies of the factors involved. etc. – There. It may be lethal. pathology.Pennsylvania. mules. to the benefit of the people. his enormous knowledge combined with his energy and extraordinary drive were just what was needed to tackle the many pioneering tasks. their diagnoses and treatments. – He was appointed to Prof. This is the so-called brucellosis. Sir David Bruce (microbiologist and pathologist. He was a generalist. therapies.e. of Bacteriology and Protozoology and taught medical bacteriology at the Berkeley Medical School. hosts. His contributions and achievements were founded on his holistic. USA. and put him in charge of the diagnostic section of the Laboratory and Experimental Farm. Starting in 1915. and their prevention are presented below. Meyer was acting director. I. and prevention of many infectious (and other) diseases. Whipple. as they are: (i) the disease agents (biology. and soon succeeded Whipple as director of the Hooper. So he soon consulted with the Milk Commission working on regulation to secure milk quality. he worked at the George Williams Hooper Foundation Institute for Medical Research. Research. he worked on glanders. Achievements A selection of concise overviews of Meyer’s impacts on the understanding of the diseases he worked on. (iii) public health. formally named Brucella. At first. USA. 1910-1913 Meyer had to teach pathology and comparative pathology at the Veterinary School of Pennsylvania. – He also helped elucidating the transmission of the bacteria causing a contagious abortion disease of cattle and also infecting humans via unsterilized milk.

in fact. Meyer then convinced the National Canners Association to fund research and development of safe industrial processes. and sterilization techniques were not sufficient. Around 1920. he deserves the credit for developing safe canning procedures. hence the viruses carried by them are arthropod-borne. And it turned out that the isolation of the virus by Meyer led to the discovery of similar kinds causing other types of encephalitis in man. for realizing effective control over industrial hygiene. Here. Meyer stepped in. Yellow fever During the years of World War 2 a vaccine against yellow fever was used in the Armed Forces that produced (unexpectedly) adverse reactions such as jaundice. among them equine encephalitis. Meyer continued consulting with the industries until his death. a research institute was founded. It also became clear that the disease is common near irrigated fields where mosquitoes abound. A canning research laboratory existed in the Hooper until the 1980s. financed by the canning industries. Different arboviruses may cause diverse diseases. (Other microbiologists found related types of viruses in other animals than horses. Subsequently. Equine encephalitis Meyer also investigated what are called arbovirus diseases. Mosquitoes belong to the ‘animal family’ (technically a ‘phylum’) called arthropods. a vaccine for horses was developed. Owing to Meyer. – Meyer and his colleagues at the Hooper later demonstrated that mosquitoes pick up the virus from chicken and (migratory) birds and transfer it to man and to horses. This. Thus. and for the prevention of botulism. In the early 1930s. discovered mistakes in its production and helped producing a safe and effective vaccine[1]. thousands of horses in California suffered and died from a paralytic disease. Meyer therefore qualified encephalitis as a man-made disease. sometimes with deadly complications.Botulism Meyer started his work on botulism after 1913. we summarize examples of Meyer’s outstanding discoveries in this area. the epidemiology of the rodents (infested by fleas). Plague Meyer conducted a great many investigations on the nature of the bacillus causing plague.) – Effective mosquito control was the key to minimizing this problem. the influence of the location of their habitats. etc. Several diseases transmitted from animals to humans are due to a group of viruses carried by mosquitoes. the entire canning industry in California (whose business in canned food then amounted to almost a billion dollars) was in jeopardy because many deaths occurred throughout the country due to lack of proper sterilization in the canneries. and directed by him from 1926 to 1930. Later it became clear that the virus can also infect humans causing encephalitis. His extensive work finally led him to define general ecological conditions for outbreaks of plague epidemics. and its climate and vegetation. when home-canning became popular during the war. was one . on the important function of the different fleas (carrying the bacillus). later called western equine encephalitis. Meyer proved that it was of viral origin.

And the California State Department of Health decided (in 1929) to monitor the mussels closely.e. no epidemic was observed. effective therapies using antibiotics. – The fungal particles were isolated by Meyer who also thoroughly investigated and described the epidemiology of the disease. Meyer and his scientists at the Hooper developed an effective vaccine. – Meyer isolated the agent of psittacosis (i. and other wild animals). In addition. Leptospirosis The disease Leptospirosis may be transmitted to humans upon exposure to water contaminated with the urine of infected animals (such as cattle. Mussel Poison Under Meyer’s guidance. and to publicize a ban on harvesting of shellfish. Infection is caused – in about half of the people exposed – by inhalation of the fungal particles (known as arthroconidia. fungal particles dwelling in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. He developed a diagnostic test as well as methods of vaccination. Moreover. another of his contributions. in the early 1930s. i. when the annual appearance of the poison is detected. The results were excellent. coccidioidomycosis (or California Valley Fever) is caused by airborne. dogs. Psittacosis Psittacosis belongs to a group of infectious diseases transmitted from birds to man (socalled ornithoses). Among other things. were developed at the Hooper. It was actually manufactured at the Hooper when the Army needed vaccines to protect the troops in Vietnam (one endemic area where many plague cases were seen among soldiers). developed a system of quarantine and treatment for imported birds that was highly effective in minimizing psittacosis in imported pet birds. leading to the so-called paralytic shellfish poisoning. He also was responsible for California-wide actions to liberate the majority of aviaries of infested birds. pigs. methods of testing mussels for the presence of the poison. the Hooper became a center for testing thousands of birds and selecting the ones free of the bacteria. Meyer. the disease can be successfully treated. horses. with the result that germs and disease largely disappeared from local commerce. one of the Chlamydia bacteria) and later also defined antigens.of Meyer’s great contributions[5]. after Meyer’s interventions. Valley Fever Valley fever. Meyer’s many investigations contributed greatly to the understanding of the disease. rodents. The disease is not transmitted from person to person.e. – Meyer went on to develop optimal. To this goal. . With the advent of antibiotics. together with colleagues. the dog-epidemic disappeared. Meyer fought for interstate embargo on the export of parakeets to stop propagation of the disease. Meyer found about half of all dogs in San Francisco infected. Later. The incidence of psittacosis declined notably owing to the many discoveries in this area by Meyer. a form of spore).

also on the effects of air pollution and lead on farm animals. common cold. with his boundless zest for an active life. leaders in public health. His lectures. looked into malaria. history of biology. awards. fellowships. he kept in close contact and co-operated with many other leading medical microbiologists. And he deserves many credits for establishing training programs in Public Health in California (and the Western States of the US). captivating. and consulting activities are also listed in the literature[1]. Soon his lectures were famous and attracted great numbers of students (also from outside of medicine)[4]. were all brilliant. in addition to the many fields mentioned. dysentery. poliomyelitis. pseudotuberculosis. To boot. Epilogue It may well be repeated what many friends and colleagues concluded after his death: Meyer influenced more microbiological and epidemiological domains than any other scientist of his time.Meyer was of course active against the anti-vivisectionist movement. Equally. had widely ranging interests. chairs. he was famous being an excellent and inspiring though very demanding teacher[4]. tetanus. anthrax. He also .Additional Achievements Meyer worked. . when continuing his work as Honorary Director of the Hooper Institute and Honorary Professor). He was responsible. viral hepatitis. in particular. The many academic appointments. and he was driven by his deep-seated concern for the welfare of the people. and demanded a great deal from all students. A former student and friend once put it like this: “Meyer would have won a Nobel Prize if he hadn’t worked on so many areas of discovery that nobody could keep track of all that he was doing”[1]. He also explored influenza and its epidemiology. as well as on typhoid fever (– after a spaghetti casserole served at a church dinner poisoned about 100 people). He always went beyond the scientific research in order to implement practical measures of preventing and fighting the diseases. Meyer was honored for his outstanding work by many honorary degrees. medical doctors. too. To boot. medals. including history and. always most diligently prepared. was very important. honorary memberships or honorary chairmanships of scientific associations. Nine American and European universities bestowed honorary doctorates on him[6]. bearing many dangers to humans. Teaching In 1914. and agencies of public health[6]. dynamic. Meyer began teaching courses in medical bacteriology at Berkeley. It is of no surprise to hear that Meyer. among others. Thus. for improving laws regulating hygiene in the food industries and in public health. Meyer always served on editorial boards of several professional journals. Meyer’s extraordinary series of publications and papers presented at conferences (including talks on the radio) were important parts in promoting the state of the art. his conception of the (large) reservoir of microbes in the animal kingdom. He published more than 800 articles in books and scientific journals (of which about 200 were written after his official retirement. too. and dental bacteriology [1][3] [4] . many scientists thought that Meyer’s outlining and discussion of the concept of latent infections was a very significant and wide-ranging contribution.

his love of good company. good conversation. about which he brought out a book.-Edmond Nocard Edmond Isidore Etienne Nocard (29 January 1850 – 2 August 1903). was a French veterinarian and microbiologist. His lifelong devoted support was a priceless boon to those who had worked with him – the ‘hand on the shoulder’ for many years” [6]. 16.was an accomplished photographer and fascinated by radio in its early days. Nocard studied veterinary medicine from 1868 to 1871 and (after a brief service in the Army) from 1871 to 1873 in the École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort. his bonhommie. his directness. From 1873 to . born in Provins (Seine-et-Marne. and his graciousness. his genius. Those who knew him at close hand rejoiced his friendship. It is worthy to recall what was said in Meyer’s obituary published by the University of California: “Science and friends alike will miss his rugged personality. and good wine. France). Another specialty of his was philately where he concentrated on disinfected mail.

a disease which manifests itself mainly in animals of economic importance. In this journal. There. named by him initially as Streptothrix farcinica. surgery. He died on 2 August 1903 in Saint-Maurice (Marne) 17. Nocard will publish a great number of scientific papers.-Robert von Ostertag Robert von Ostertag (March 24. and chair of infectious diseases.1878 he was hired as Head of Clinical Service at the same school. He returned on the same year to Alfort. Nocard’s main contribution to medicine has been the discovery of the genre of bacteria which was named in his honor. and established a well-equipped research laboratory. Among his many pupils who became famous. 1864 . the Archives Vétérinaires. the introduction of anesthesia of large animals with intravenous chloral hydrate. Nocard demonstrated his great skills in laboratory work in the new science of bacteriology. he traveled to Egypt with Roux. he helped Pasteur and Emile Roux in their classic experiments of vaccination of animals against anthrax at Pouilly-le-Fort. such as bovine farcy. In 1878 he is approved in a public contest as Professor of Clinical and Surgical Veterinary of the École Veterinaire. but they were unable to isolate the germ responsible for the disease. In 1876 he is charged with the creation of a new journal. in 1888. hygiene and jurisprudence. In the next three years. in close liaison with Pasteur's. It causes nocardiosis. as well as for controlling tetanic convulsions. In 1880 Nocard entered the laboratory of Louis Pasteur in Paris as an assistant. Nocard also discovered the virus which causes bovine peripneumonia and studied psittacosis. and afterwards was a professor of hygiene at Tierärztliche Hochschule Stuttgart (1891-1892) and at the . co-discoverer of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). conferences.October 7. Nocardia. He published in the classic La Tuberculose Bovine : ses Dangers. Streptococcus agalactiae. in 1887. working with Dumesnil. particularly in immunocompromised patients. His scientific and academic victories were rewarded. for which he discovered the first Nocardia. he strived to convince the medical and general public. booklets and demonstrations. ses Rapports avec la Tuberculose Humaine (The Bovine Tuberculosis: Its Dangers and its Relationship with Human Tuberculosis). by developing a number of new techniques. such as those with AIDS. In the field of veterinary pathology he discovered the pathogen of endozootic mastitis. Straus and Thuiller. with an invitation to become a member to the first editorial board of the Annals of the Pasteur Institute. new culture media for the bacillus of tuberculosis. The Nocardia may also cause disease in humans. in a series of communications. He studied medicine in Berlin and veterinary medicine in Stuttgart. such as methods of harvesting blood serum. He became a full member of the Pasteur Institute in 1895. and. was Camille Guérin. In 1883. on medicine. that the use of the tuberculin of Robert Koch could provide the foundations for the prevention of bovine tuberculosis. From 1892 to 1896. in order to study an outbreak of cholera there. 1940) was a German veterinarian who was a native of Schwäbisch Gmünd. with the title of director of the School.

The disease associated with the organism is called ostertagiosis. Poels was born in Limburg and studied veterinary medicine at the Rijksveeartsenijschool Utrecht. which are found in cysts on the wall of the abomasum of cattle and other ruminants. which is a genus of attenuated nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae. Ostertag started a rigorous program of meat inspection in Berlin. His name is lent to Ostertagia. In the 1890s. Ostertag's meat inspection act of 1900 greatly reduced incidences of bovine tuberculosis in human beings. In 1920 he became head of veterinary services in Germany. In 1910 he travelled to German Southwest Africa to research diseases of sheep.College of Veterinary Medicine in Berlin (1892-1907). He was the author of numerous publications in veterinary science. . and is remembered for his influential Lehrbuch für Fleischbeschauer (Handbook of Meat Inspection). In 1907 he became head of the veterinary department in the Reich Health Office in Berlin. and was referred to as the "Father of Veterinary Meat Inspection" in Germany.-Jan Poels Prof. Dr. Jan Poels (1851-1927) was a Dutch veterinarian and professor. 18. which was later translated into English. and founder of the State Serum Institute in Rotterdam. He was interested in the fledgling science of bacteriology. and in 1913 he investigated rinderpest in German East Africa.

His investigations have led that fight this disease with some certainty and understanding could be performed. . Poels was from 1917 to 1924 also professor at the Rijksveeartsenijschool Utrecht. the first of its kind in Europe. In Poels Rotterdam to as district vet since 1893 using the facilities of the municipal laboratory for bacteriological and serological tests Coolsingel Hospital and local GPs was done and where you also could go for vaccinations. In 1917 he married Marthe Momont. Rotterdam and in 1911 he was in Leiden (special) was appointed professor of bacteriology. In 1904 the government declared its readiness to proceed to the establishment of the State Serum Institute in Rotterdam. The Dutch veterinary science of the time barely showed interest in the subject. France) and attended l'École vétérinaire d'Alfort from 1906 to 1910.in a study to design and instructions for the strategy to combat. He took into a comprehensive network of scientific contacts.which was then made thousands of victims . In Poels 1900 gave the government the task of vesicular disease . Late 19th century they felt regarding the control of many infectious diseases is still largely in the dark.Bacteriologist After he established himself as a veterinarian in Delfshaven Poels took a pioneering independent from its own resources and bacteriology in hand.June 8. In 1910 he became director of the Municipal Bacteriological Laboratory.-Gaston Ramon Gaston Ramon (September 30. He was born in Bellechaume (Yonne. Poels gave it a bacteriology course. 1886 . Poels was informed the Director. grandniece of Emile Roux. 1963) was a French veterinarian and biologist best known for his role in the treatment of diphtheria and tetanus. Rich Serum Institute The Dutch government was Poels an official commission to study the kalverziekte. 19.

is still used in vaccines manufactured today. Biography . 20.-Sebastiano Rivolta Sebastiano Rivolta (Casalbagliano. he developed a method for inactivating the diphtheria toxin and the tetanus toxin using formaldehyde which.During the 1920s. an essential element required for the reproducible production of these pharmaceuticals. August 14. in its essentials. He also developed a method for determining the potency of the vaccines. October 20. Ramon made major contributions to the development of effective vaccines for both diphtheria and tetanus. In particular.Turin. 1893) was an Italian veterinarian and bacteriologist. 1832 .

remained for years a point of reference of the matter. at first in the home and later at the grammar school of Alexandria.H.-Harry Rowsell Harry Cecil Rowsell.V. It is still buried in the cemetery monument in Alexandria. due to taeniasis sheep. pathologist. because of the equine farcino. winning a scholarship to study and graduating with honors four years later. bacteriology. Immediately set out for his intensive research in parasitology. the Moniezia expansa." The experience allowed him to teach six different subjects at the University of Turin. Scientific prolific author. because of the red dog mange. because of the equine botriomicosi. so-called "Revolt of the cells. Observed for the first cellular inclusions characteristic of avian pox. a D. trematodes cause dell'opistorchiasi feline. 's Opisthorchis felineus (1884). laying the groundwork for the study of this disease caused by virus. because of 'cystic echinococcosis. 's Avitellina centripunctata (1874). diphtheria. Upon his return. With his studies contributed to greater understanding of the role of many weed seeds and farm animals: the Demodex folliculorum. To him we owe the discovery of some particular cells in the retina of the horse. OC (29 May 1921 – 3 February 2006) was a Canadian veterinarian. he received a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the Ontario Veterinary College in 1949. . in a time when virology was yet to be born. pathology and clinical.P. He also composed a treatise on Plant parasitology. He became a full professor of General Pathology and Veterinary Pathology. Bacillus anthracis. animal welfare advocate and humanist. the cause of anthrax in cattle. from the University of Toronto in 1950.Born into a wealthy family. brought nearly two hundred original works in print. was persuaded by his father to join the Royal School of Veterinary Medicine of Turin in 1852. Ontario. which led to the discovery and observation of the causative agents of several veterinary. Born in Toronto. University of Pisa before moving to replace Peter Oreste professor of veterinary medical clinic. the Discomyces equestris (1884) [3]. due to a severe chronic heart disease who accompanied him from his youth. Among these we remember the Discomyces bovis (1868) [1] Case dell'actinomicosi bovine. 21. after having initially taken the humanities. cestodes parassitante the sheep. the Cryptococcus farciminosus (1873) [2]. practiced teaching in the Tuscan city for 22 years until his death occurred as a result of complications with his already precarious state of health. he served as a Lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Navy during World War II. the Taenia echinococcus [4].

medical. From 1970 to 1986. They had one daughter: Carole and three sons: Paul.. and was the first recipient of the CCAC Outstanding Service Award. He translated and commented on Dioscorides parishes of the Greek into Latin in 1516 (Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei . he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Bacteriology at the Ontario Veterinary College. Claire. In 1988. from the University of Minnesota in 1956.. and Graham From 1953 to 1956. he was a Professor and Head of Pathological Physiology. or botanical fitólogo. he established the Canadian Council on Animal Care. he was Head of the Department of Veterinarian Pathology. In 1968. He also has four grandchidren: Bronwyn. Latinized Ruellius Johannes (Soissons. He wanted to be a priest before doctor and became canon of Notre Dame de Paris. was its first Executive Director. 1474 .Paris. Craig and John.D. he was a Professor in the Department of Pathology in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa. He was also dean of the faculty of medicine at the Sorbonne (1508-1510) and one of the physicians of King Francis I. veterinary and French humanist.and a Ph. From 1965 to 1968. Philip. he was made an Honorary Associate of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. freedom quinque) and . he was the first veterinarian made an Officer of the Order of Canada for being "recognized and respected throughout the world for his outstanding contributions to the promotion of the responsible and humane treatment of animals in biomedical and scientific research". 1537). From 1958 to 1965. 22. West College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan. In 1987.-Jean de la Ruelle Jean de la Ruelle (or Ruel). In 1946. he married Anne Bradshaw.

C. also largely version of Dioscorides and Theophrastus. the son of a Brahmin sage. 2350 BCE?)[1]. Also printed in 1536 a great deal of Botany. He also became interested in veterinary medicine. Others say Shalihotra lived in Salatur. 1529. and did appear in 1530 a summary of symptoms of diseases of horses. Hayagosha. a place near Kandahar.published an adaptation of this in his De Materia Medica. with attempts to include French plants. At the end of his life he took holy orders and died shortly afterwards. the stirpium Natura libri III. 23.-Shalihotra Shalihotra (c. The genus Ruellia boánico been named in his honor. He is said to have lived in Sravasti (modern Sahet-Mahet on the borders of Gonda and Bahraich districts in Uttar Pradesh). a place associated with Buddha and Mahavira in the sixth century B. is considered the founder of veterinary sciences. .E.

degree awarded in the United States. 'Muni Palkapya' wrote 'Hasti Ayurveda' covering all aspects of elephant medicine.C.M. It has been translated into Persian. Horses and elephants were vital assets in the never ending warfare of the ancient world. In the year 1800 B. Subsequent generations copied. During Mahabharat period (1000-900 B. . surgery and diseases with their curative and preventive measures.E. This work described equine and elephant anatomy.C.-Daniel Elmer Salmon Daniel Elmer Salmon (July 23.Shalihotra and the sage Agnivesa may have been pupils of the same teacher. 1914) was a veterinary surgeon. the 'Shalihotra Samhita' (encyclopedia of the physician Shalihotra) having some 12. according to tradition. He earned the first D.S. revised and added to Shalihotra's text—one of these later texts is shown in the illustration above. It elaborated on the body structures of different races of horses. and identified the structural details by which one can determine the age of a horse. He gave his name to the Salmonella genus of bacteria. Shalihotra's principal work was a large treatise on the care and management of horses.?). and named in his honor. Tibetan and English languages. This book has four sections and 152 chapters including the anatomy of elephants. which were discovered by an assistant. was considered an equine expert while Sahdev was a specialist in cattle management. Sushruta and Harita contain chapters or references about the care of diseased as well as healthy animals. author of 'Sushruta Samhita' (encyclopedia of the physician Sushruta). Physicians treating human beings were also trained in the care of animals. may have been Shalihotra's pupil[2]. Ancient Indian medical treatises like those of Charaka. and spent his career studying animal diseases for the U.000 shlokas in Sanskrit. in his book the Agnivesh tantra and later by Charaka (Charaka Samhita.C. 1850 – August 30. Department of Agriculture. Arabic. encyclopedia of the physician Charaka). 24. the science of life. was first presented in text form by Agnivesa. Some of the later authors have named their veterinary works after Shalihotra and others have based their work on his Samhita. namely Asva-prashnsa and Asva-lakshana sastram are also attributed to Shalihotra. Bharadwaja's Ayurveda.) Nakul.V. Hence the term Shalihotra refers to similar texts in a tradition. Others assert the great surgeon Acharya Sushruta (c. 600 B. author of the Ashva-chikitsa. Two other works.E.E. physiology.

Eleanor Flock Salmon. who isolated the bacterium in 1885. In 1906 he established the veterinary department at the University of Montevideo. Dr. New Jersey.000 subtypes have been identified. leaving him an orphan at the age of 8. the first D.[5] Since that time. in veterinary health and science. Daniel L. died in 1859. studied and controlled Texas fever (Babesia). 1905. Montana and is buried in Washington.V. studying diseases in swine and for the United States Department of Agriculture studying animal diseases in the southern states. Under his leadership. Salmonella cholerae suis. Aaron Howell Salmon and spent time working both on Aaron's farm and as a clerk in a country store. His early education was at the Mount Olive District School. France. put in place the federal meat inspection program. Salmonella is a genus of microorganisms named after him. Salmon. and studied the effect of animal diseases on public health. After an additional four years of study.M. degree granted in the United States. He worked for the State of New York.[6] . Salmon's father. Uruguay and was its head for five years. was Theobald Smith. Salmon opened a veterinary practice in Newark. he studied at the Alfort Veterinary School in Paris. New Jersey in 1872 and subsequently moved to Asheville. In 1877 he gave a series of lectures at the University of Georgia on the topic of veterinary science. the Bureau eradicated contagious pleural-pneumonia of cattle in the United States. although the man who actually discovered the first strain.• Early life and education Salmon was born in Mount Olive. began inspecting and quarantining imported livestock. died in 1851 and his mother.[2] He then attended Cornell University and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine in 1872. he was awarded the professional degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from Cornell in 1876. Salmon's research assistant. Death He died of pneumonia August 30. Chester Institute. He was then raised by his second cousin. It became the Bureau of Animal Industry and he served as its chief from 1884 to December 1. began inspecting exported livestock and the ships carrying them. and Eastman Business College. 1914.[1] Dr. In 1883 he was asked to establish a veterinary division within the Department of Agriculture. He returned to the United States in 1911 and concentrated on veterinary work in the western region of the country.[3] Toward the end of his career at Cornell.[4] Career Dr. more than 2. in Butte. DC. North Carolina in 1875 due to his health.

1859 – December 10.25. 1934) was a pioneering epidemiologist and pathologist and is widely-considered to be America's first internationally-significant medical research scientist.-Theobald Smith Theobald Smith (July 31.[1][2] • Education .

D. This marked the first time that an arthropod had been definitively linked with the transmission of an infectious disease and presaged the eventual discovery of insects as important vectors in a number of diseases (see yellow fever.[3] Smith joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research as Director of the Department of Animal Pathology in 1915 and remained there until his retirement in 1929. D.[5] Smith turned his attention to Texas fever. Massachusetts to accept a dual appointment: serve as professor of comparative pathology at Harvard University. Smith was awarded the Royal Society's prestigious Copley Medal "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man. a debilitating cattle disease. malaria).Smith was born in Albany.[3] Research Smith became the Inspector of the newly created Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) in 1884. After two years of work studying the efficacy of bacterial vaccination in pigs Smith erroneously believed he had found the causative agent of hog cholera. he chafed under the federal government bureaucracy and the lack of leadership from his supervisor. a veterinarian and Chief of the BAI. After some prodding by his former professors. and received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from Cornell University in 1881. In 1895 Smith moved to Cambridge.C.. Kilbourne discovered Babesia bigemina.C.[4] Smith also discovered the bacterial species which would eventually form the genus Salmonella. Established by Congress to combat a wide range of animal diseases—from infectious disease of swine to bovine pneumonia. Other discoveries . New York.L.". beginning his position there in December 1883. Smith expanded his studies to include the Hudson river and its tributaries. Texas cattle fever to glanders—Smith worked under Daniel E. investigating the level of fecal coliform contamination in the Potomac river. In 1889. (now George Washington University) from 1886–1895. Salmon. Over the next five years.[6] While Smith's work at the BAI had been highly productive. Smith began research on water sanitation in his spare time. In 1933. he along with the veterinarian F. followed by an MD degree from Albany Medical College in 1883. the tick-borne protozoan parasite responsible for Texas fever.[1] After his graduation from medical school. In 1887. Smith also taught at Columbian University in Washington. as well as directing the pathology lab at the Massachusetts State Board of Health. Smith held a variety of temporary positions which might broadly be considered under the modern heading of "medical laboratory technician". Smith secured a new research lab assistant position with the Veterinary Division of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington. establishing the school's Department of Bacteriology.

• • • • • • • Observed differences between human and bovine tuberculosis (1895). but later that year started practising as a veterinarian.[7] 26. Brucellosis infections Smith used toxin/antitoxin as a vaccine for diphtheria (1909). Variation and bacterial pathogenesis (1900). . and later qualified as a veterinarian. He was born in Frick. Smith described the bacteria responsible for fetal membrane disease in cows now known as Campylobacter fetus. Canton Aargau. In 1891 Theiler travelled to South Africa and at first found employment as a farm worker on Irene Estates near Pretoria. In the process of investigating an epidemic of infectious abortions of cattle in 1919. Switzerland. in Zurich. Discovered anaphylaxis (1903). owned by Nellmapius. Discussed the possibility of mosquitos as a malaria transmission vector (1899).-Arnold Theiler Sir Arnold Theiler (26 March 1867 – 24 July 1936) is considered to be the father of veterinary science in South Africa. He received his higher education.

August 3. During this period his research team developed a vaccine against rinderpest. and biliary. The University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science was established there in 1920 which enabled veterinarians to train locally for the first time. This institute under his leadership carried out research on African horse sickness. pioneering spirit and professional integrity brought him international recognition. Theiler became the first dean of this faculty. department of Vosges. Theiler was the first Director of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute. In 1876 he was appointed professor of anatomy. a Nobel laureate in 1951 in Physiology and Medicine. a teacher. 1847 . 27. sleeping sickness. in which capacity he served during the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902.His success at producing a vaccine to combat an outbreak of smallpox among the miners of the Witwatersrand brought him an appointment as state veterinarian for the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. the younger two of whom worked at Onderstepoort: Hans (1894-1947). a veterinarian. and Max Theiler (1899-1972). outside Pretoria.-Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint Jean Joseph Henri Toussaint (April 30. a malignant and contagious disease of cattle. His tremendous energy. and tickborne diseases such as redwater. East Coast fever (Theileria parva). 1890) was a French veterinarian born in Rouvres-la-Chétive. In 1869 he received his diploma from the school of veterinary medicine in Lyon. Margaret (1896-1988). Gertrude (1897-1986). . malaria. heartwater. He married Emma Sophie Jegge (1861-1951) and had two sons and two daughters. physiology and zoology at the school of veterinary medicine in Toulouse.

-Erich Traub Erich Traub (1906–1985) was a German veterinarian and scientist/virologist who specialized in foot-and-mouth disease. head of the Schutzstaffel (SS). He is credited for the discovery of the bacillus that causes cholera in chickens. Traub was a member of the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK). Rinderpest and Newcastle disease.[1] Traub was rescued from the Soviet zone of Germany after World War II and brought to the United States in 1949 under the auspices of the United States government program . from 1938–1942. bacteriologist Adrien Loir.Toussaint is remembered for his contributions in bacteriology. as the lab chief of the Nazi's leading bio-weapons facility on Riems Island. He also performed important studies of septicemia and tuberculosis. 28. after his celebrated demonstration with the vaccine at Pouilly-le-Fort in 1881. However. the credit for this discovery went to Louis Pasteur. a Nazi motorist corps. as was Pasteur's nephew. His most important contribution was the creation of a vaccine against anthrax. He worked directly for Heinrich Himmler. Loir documented this information in his 1938 book A l'ombre de Pasteur (In the Shadow of Pasteur). Famed German bacteriologist Robert Koch was aware of Toussaint's work with the vaccine. Pasteur never gave proper credit to Toussaint and his discovery.

as did Traub. The NSKK was declared a condemned. Blome ordered Traub to pick up a strain of Rinderpest virus in Turkey. a pro-nazi German-American club just thirty miles west of Plum Island in Yaphank.[1] From 1942 to 1948. he studied on a fellowship at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in Princeton. conducted experiments there.[6] Traub worked at the University of Giessen. this strain proved inactive (nonvirulent) and therefore plans for a Rinderpest vaccine had to be shelved.[1] . who was also brought to the United States after the fall of the Nazi Regime. from 1934–1935. meant to exploit scientific knowledge gained during Nazi rule in Germany. and then Traub.[8] On orders from Himmler and Blome. to work with the Navy's biological warfare program. a German animal virus research institute in the Baltic sea. Otto Waldmann from 1909–48. Germany. The institute was headed by Prof. He was assisted by Anna Burger. from 1938 to 1942. performing research on vaccines and viruses.[7] Traub was a Nazi since he was a member of the NSKK.[7] Traub worked under Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. not a criminal organization at the Nuremberg trials.Operation Paperclip. and specialized in viral and bacterial diseases. Traub worked a lab-chief at the Reich Research Institute for Virus Diseases of Animals (German: Reichsforschungsanstalt für Viruskrankheiten der Tiere) on Riems Island (German: Insel Riems). Dr. New Jersey mentored by Richard Shope. Long Island. The chain of command was Himmler. a motorist corps and a subsidiary of the SA. including pseudorabies virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM). Kurt Blome. which was dispersed by aircraft onto cattle and reindeer in Russia. It had been founded originally in 1909-10 to study foot-and-mouth disease in animals and by World War II employed about 20 scientists and a staff of 70-120. who in 1943 took over the Innenministerium (Ministry of the Interior). from 1938–1942.[3][4][5] During his stay in the United States. [9] In 1944. Traub and his wife were listed as members of the German American Bund. Dr. while Traub was vice-president. Hanns-Christoph Nagel. Leonardo Conti (Reich Health Leader). Waldmann. the Deputy Reich Health Leader and head of the German biological warfare program. a veterinarian and biological warfare expert for the German Army. now named the Friedrich Loeffler Institute.[7] The Institute at Riems Island was a dual use facility during the Second World War where at least some biological warfare experiments were conducted. • Career Early career and war During the 1930s. upon his return. he had also worked on weaponizing foot-andmouth disease virus.

and headed it from 1953 to 1963.Post war Immediately after the war Traub was trapped in the Soviet zone of Allied occupied Germany.[15] In 1960. meant to exploit scientific knowledge gained during Nazi rule in Germany. This information provided the ground work for Fort Detrick's offshore germ warfare animal diseased lab on Plum Island. he published a report for the Naval Medical Research Institute on Newcastle Disease virus in chicken and mammalian blood. MD. he published a paper for the Navy on the mechanisms of immunity in chickens to Newcastle and the possible role of cellular factors. Traub was asked to meet with US scientists from Fort Detrick. on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich Traub received an . He was forced to work for the Soviets from his lab on Riems Island. and in Ankara. Traub discussed work done at the Reich Research Institute for Virus Diseases of Animals on Riems Island during World War II for the Nazis. He continued with limited lab research for three more years. Traub resigned as Tubingen’s director due to the scandal related to accusations of financial embezzlement. Traub denied this. from 1949–53. Traub also did a study for the Army Biological labs in Frederick. Germany.[6] In 1951. which had long been a research interest of his. from 1969-1971. Turkey. Colombia. In 1972.[10] In 1964. Traub’s detailed explanation of the secret operation at the Institute.[14] Traub served as an expert on Foot-and-mouth disease for the FAO of the UN in Bogota. claiming that his only interest was foot-and-mouth disease in animals.[10] In July 1948.[13] Also in 1953. in Frederick.[7] Just months into his Operation Paperclip contract. from 1963–1967.[2] From 1949 . cells[12] Two years later. and his activities there.[11] Traub was brought to the United States in 1949 under the auspices of the United States government program Operation Paperclip. Return to Germany After working on biological warfare for the Navy in the U. he published another paper for the Navy with Worth I.S. As a noted German authority on viruses he was asked to consult on their animal disease program from a Biological Warfare perspective.1953 he was associated with the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda. from 1951–1952. Maryland on Eastern Equine Encephalomyeltitis (EEE) immunity in white mice and its relationship to Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM). Traub founded and led a new branch of the Loeffler Institut in Tübingen. but then ended his career at Tubingen. however. however. in Tehran. Maryland. Iran. and work done after the war there for the Russians. the Army’s biological warfare headquarters.[16] He retired from the West German civil service in 1971. Capps on the foot-and-mouth disease virus and methods for rapid adaptation. the British evacuated Erich Traub from Riems Island as a "high priority Intelligence target" since it was now in the Soviet Zone and they feared that Traub was assisting in their biological warfare program.

development of adsorbate vaccines against fowl plague. and its entomological division had at least three insect-vectored weapons ready for use by 1950. and allegedly used during the Korean War as well. one of Traub's areas of expertise. all conducted experiments along these lines during the Second World War. At Fort Detrick in the late-1940s.S. After the war. Teschner disease of swine.honorary doctorate degree in Veterinary Medicine for his achievements in basic and applied Virology (basic research on LCM. Some of these were later tested at the Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah.[17] Traub visited the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) in New York on at least three occasions in the 1950s. while officially at least Plum Island was transferred to the U. the Army's 406th Medical General Laboratory in Japan cooperated with former scientists from Unit 731 in experimenting with many different insect vectors. particularly the biting and stinging kinds. Rinderpest. African swine fever and plague and malaria in birds. Department of Agriculture.S. He was seventy-eight years old. and the Japanese used such insect-borne diseases against both soldiers and civilians in China. definition and diagnosis of type strains of FMD and their variants. On May 18.[20] . lice and mosquitoes as disease vectors. operated by the Department of Agriculture. It has been alleged that the United States performed bioweapons research on Plum Island. from cholera to meningitis. fleas. research on biological weapons continued at Pine Bluff in Arkansas and Fort Detrick. ticks. Maryland. which was headquartered at Camp Detrick. and erysipelas of swine).[10] Bio-weapon research In theory. biological warfare program in 1944-46. After the war.[1][18] Fort Terry on Plum Island was part of the U. insects of all types. Traub died unexpectedly in his sleep in West Germany. Germany. Plum Island also conducted work on biological weapons against animals and livestock. Theodore Rosebury also rated insect vectors very highly. Britain. including a Entomological Weapons Department that mass produced flies. spiders and beetles to carry a wide variety of diseases. working on veterinary testing in connection with the weaponization of brucellosis. Maryland. mosquitoes. such as foot-and-mouth disease.S.[1] Traub was offered a leading position at Plum Island in 1958 which he declined. it also conducted experiments on insects as vectors. This eventually grew to a very large facility with 245 buildings and a $60 million budget. conducted research on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) of cattle. can be used as disease vectors in a biological warfare program. The Plum Island facility. flies. Newcastle disease. including lice. Russia and the U. 1985. This was one reason that President Franklin Roosevelt and Secretary of War Henry Stimson ordered the creation of an American biological warfare program in 1942. Although the British bio-weapon facility at Porton Down concentrated on the production of anthrax bombs. Japan. Traub's biological warfare work from the Second World War onward involved at least the first three of these.[19] From 1949.

2009) was an American veterinary scientist who co-created Idaho Gem.-Gordon Woods Gordon Woods (July 14. 1952 . 1952. Woods received a doctorate of . and was raised in northern Idaho.[1] Early life Woods was born on July 14.29.August 20.[1] He obtained his bachelor's degree from the University of Idaho. the world's first cloned mule.

the world's first cloned mule.[1] He later obtained a second doctorate in reproductive biology from the University of Wisconsin.[1] Horses and mules have less calcium in their cell walls than humans.[1] Career Woods first taught veterinary medicine at Cornell University. in Aljarefe. Shauna. six grandchildren and his mother.to use the horse as a model to try to understand age-onset diseases in people. Dirk Vanderwall.[1] Woods founded the Northwest Equine Reproduction Laboratory in Idaho in 1986. Ken White of Utah State University.[1] Woods. later explained Woods' goals during the Idaho Gem cloning.. on August 20.[1] He became a professor in the school's College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. A few years earlier. Gordon Woods died unexpectedly at the Medical Center of the Rockies in Loveland. which were operated under his direction. "That certainly was another primary focus of Gordon's. 2009. along with colleagues Dr. Colorado. four children. in 1864. Vanderwall. whom he had been married to for 37 years.[1] Horses."[1] Woods departed the University of Idaho in 2007 and joined the faculty of Colorado State University. at the age of 57.[1] Woods.[1] Woods' colleague. was .[1] He was survived by his wife. where he taught at the University of Washington until he joined the faculty of the University of Idaho in 1988 as an Animal and Veterinary Science Department professor. had extensive land holdings.[1] He moved to Washington state. Gordon's hypothesis was that excessive intracellular calcium in human cells could be an underlying factor in ageonset diseases.-Abu Zacaria Abu Zacaria (XII century). His full name in Arabic was Abuzacaria ben Yahia Ibn Mohammed Ibn Ahmed el-Awam. Dirk Vanderwall and Dr. mules and other equines have lower rates of cancer than humans. His book entitled Kitab al Felalhah (meaning Book of Agriculture) was translated into Spanish in 1802 by Father José Antonio Banqueri and subsequently published a new translation in 1878 by Claude Bentelón. White and their team hoped that the cloning of mules and other equines would provide an important scientific insight into the different cancer rates between humans and equines. having been born and lived in that city near which.[1] Woods was particularly interested in the role that calcium played in the development of cancer. led a team of scientists in 2003 that cloned Idaho Gem. briefly known among Muslims Benelaguam The "Seville"..veterinary medicine from Colorado State University.[1] 30.[1] The cloning of Idaho Gem was a part of a larger scientific study intended to understand human diseases.

describing techniques of ablations. grouped by region: head (eyes. " The book is divided into two books or parts. Deals also how Management drugs and nature of same in both vegetable field. defects. limbs and internal diseases. In them the author is concerned with the health. donkey. mule and camel. In the commentary says the historian: "The work shows great erudition Abuzacaría in the author. goat. and of course the castration. sheep. in his book quotes a hundred and twenty authors and summarizes all agricultural skills of the Nabataeans (Chaldeans. and even some minerals. Latino and Arabs. The therapeutic part is wide. neck. which devotes Chapter XXXIII. cauterization. including surgical techniques of cataract. A comprehensive study of it was made and published by Egaña Sanz in 1930. dressage. Surgery is treated quite widely. bone fractures. interventions in helmets. sutures.translated into French by Clement Mullet. Greek (Aristotle mainly. Persian). mouth and teeth). mainly the horse. as animal. aging. describing a total of 111. and Hippocrates). The next four deal exclusively with livestock issues. nose. the ox. highlighting she purgatives and indents. referrals. but also. . The first thirty chapters is devoted to agriculture. not only horse. etc and of course of the disease. which advised lance practice in different veins the body. trunk.

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