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) IN CONCRETE PONDS
IBRAHIM MOHAMED SHAKER ABD EL FATTAH 1; MONA HAMED AHMED 1 AND MOHAMED ABDEL AAL 2
Limnology department 1and Aquaculture department 2 Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research (CLAR), Abbassa, Sharkia, Egypt.
Many fish and crustacean larvae and fingerlings require live food at the onset of exogenous feeding. It is generally difficult to include chemical or isotopic markers in live food for nutrient studies. The experiment was conducted to evaluate of zooplankton as live food for fry and fingerlings Nile Tilapia
Oreochromis niloticus and Catfish Clarias gariepinus. Food affects both survival and reproductive output,
which together are the main components of individual fitness. 24 concrete ponds were carried out at Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research (CLAR) Abbassa- Sharkia Governorate- Egypt. The experimental period was about 140 days. The results indicated that the using of zooplankton as live food for fry fish species was significantly increase in growth performance than fingerlings. Also, the growth performance of catfish was significantly increased than Nile tilapia. The pH, nitrogen compound, SD, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were significantly increased in artificial feed than zooplankton live food. The temperature did not differ significantly between different food types in all ponds. The using of zooplankton as live food for fish improved the quality of fish. The diets contain zooplankton improved significantly growth performance of different fresh water fish species. Also, the fed by zooplankton was more to be enough for fry and fingerlings metabolic and suitable growth more than artificial feed. The detritus increased significantly in different fish species in artificial feed treatments, while, zooplankton increased significantly in zooplankton live food treatments. Key words: zooplankton, live food, artificial food, tilapia, catfish and concrete ponds Corresponding author: email@example.com
Many fish and crustacean larvae require live food at the onset of exogenous feeding. It is generally difficult to include chemical or isotopic markers in live food for nutrient studies. The soil nematode Panagrellus redivivus, a potential live food for fish and crustacean larvae, can be mass cultured on a wide range of media, which offers the opportunity to produce isotopically distinct live food. Nutrient assimilation studies in fish larvae at the onset of exogenous feeding are limited by a number of factors. The composition of artificial diets can be modified easily but their acceptance by the larvae is often low. The development of live food containing tracers suitable for assimilation studies would be an important step towards understanding trophic relationships and processing of nutrients in first feeding fish larvae, Schlechtriem, et al ., 2004. When O.
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Abou-Hammad. especially first-feeding larvae. While live food is difficult to sustain and requires considerable space and expense. ciliates. chemical composition and stomach index data were therefore used in the present study to evaluate the effects of live food and formulated diets on first-feeding larvae and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish. Jha. larval insects. A variety of environmental factors are known to affect zooplankton production. The possibility of replacing live feed with manufactured diets from the onset of exogenous feeding has been investigated in several studies (Jones et al . 1993). rotifers.. cyclopoid copepods are important because many of them are voracious predators. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out at the Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research. 1993. The protein content of natural food ranges between 550 and 700 g /kg on a dry matter basis (Hepher 1988). Person-Le Ruyet et al .. 2007. This is well above the range (270–350 g/ kg) recommended for intensive culture of Nile tilapia (El-Sayed 1998). Introduction of live zooplankton is therefore being investigated as an alternate to pond fertilization for increasing fish yields while avoiding water quality deterioration. Abou-Hammad. (1990) reported that natural food contributed between 300 and 500 g/ kg of growth when tilapia was supplemented with artificial feeds in fertilized ponds.. Phytoplankton genera such as Pediastrum. Several copepods. 2005 found that the survival was significantly higher in larvae fed live food than in larvae fed the three formulated diets. particularly cyclopoids. For many fish species. Hepher (1988) and Schroeder et al . Abbassa. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Catfish Clarias gariepinus were obtained from private hatchery.niloticus in semi-intensive ponds are supplemented with low-protein feeds. Limited success has been achieved in first-feeding larvae with the complete replacement of live feeds. are facultative predators and grow better on animal diets (Williamson and Reid 2001). Scenedesmus and Chlamydomonas (Downing and Rigler 1984). generally depend on live food. Wang et al . 1993.. dietary protein is largely provided by the natural food. Sharkia Governorate. et al . the larval period is considered critical in their life history. Person-Le Ruyet et al . and small cladocerans (Monakov 2003).asmkmasr. et al . efficiently digested and that provide the required nutrients to support good growth and health (Giri. Success of larval rearing depends mainly on the availability of suitable diets that are readily consumed. 1993).. et al . feeding on algae. thereby structuring plankton communities. survival. Egypt. Eudorina and Ceratium are difficult for zooplankton to digest compared with Chlorella...com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . Growth. Recent research has focused on the relative importance of food quantity and quality (Cole. at Abbassa. Sharkia 2 http://www. The development of formulated diets allows for production of valuable fish larvae without using live prey. Larvae. In freshwater zooplankton. 2002). 2002). micro diets are easier to maintain and usually have lower production costs (Jones et al .
A750 the absorbance at 750. Differentiation of plankton and detritus was based on subjective indicators such as physical integrity. shape and cell structure. experimental fish were stocked at the rate of 10 fish/ m2. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were determined directly by a portable digital oxygen meter (YSI model 58. phytoplankton. where Wt1 is the initial weight in grams. higher plant. kept for 24h at 5°C. Plant fragments were differentiated from detritus on the basis of color. Stomach contents analysis At the end of the experiment. The growth parameters were calculated as follows: Daily gain (DG) = (Wt2 – Wt1)/ T.0g for catfish. 2000) 100ml water sample was filtered through 0.5m wide x 1. enumerated under light microscope and weighed (Meschiatti & Arcifa 2002).the sample were then centrifuged and measured the absorbance of acetone. Physicochemical parameters were monitored monthly. The stomachs were weighed. The fish were dissected and stomachs removed and stored in 10% formalin solution. USA) while chlorophyll "a" were determined according to standard methods (APHA. a sample of thirty fish was taken from each treatment. The experimental study expanded 140 days during the period from May to September 2007. Wt2 is the second weight in grams. Qualitative and quantitative estimates of phytoplankton and zooplankton were also recorded monthly according to APHA (2000).) and transparency by a Sechhi disc. zooplankton (Brummett 2000).0 g for tilapia and 1. Water sampling was carried out for several parameters of concern to aquaculture.5m long x 1. Specific growth rate (SGR) = (Ln Wt2 – LnWt1) x 100/ T.Governorate as a fry and fingerlings.45 M Millipore filter and chlorophyll a was extracted in 5 ml of 90% acetone and grinded by tissue grinder.asmkmasr. Each size of fishes was randomly distributed into two group's concrete ponds (2. S= the volume in ml of sample filtered. USA). and T is the period in days. L= the length path in the spectrophotometer in cm. V= the acetone extract in ml. fish were harvested. dissected and the constituent food items separated. counted and weighed. Salinity were determined by conductivity meter (Orion 630). chlorophyll a concentration was calculated using the equation: Chlorophyll a in µg/l= 11.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . pH was measured using a digital pH meter (Accumet 340. ammonia were determined using a HACH water analysis kits (DR 2000.0 and 50. insects and ‘others’ categories that could not be well identified. The stomach contents were grouped as detritus.25m depth) ( first group fed by zooplankton and second group fed by artificial feed 25%protein). The numerical percentages of the total particles in the stomach content were calculated based on weight (Bubinas & Lozys 2000).9(A665-A750) V/Lx1000/s Where: A665= the absorbance at 665A. The average weight was 1.0 and 20. At the end of the experiment. Chemical composition of fish:- 3 http://www.
10. 2002. Each tank was inoculated with 2 million organisms obtained from pure stock of Brachionus maintained in the laboratory.05) differences were found in the ANOVA test. 1999). then grounded before being assayed for moisture.6 to 8. crude protein. If significant (P<0. Fry and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish were fed live organisms daily at a range of 1001/pond throughout the experiment.6 mg/l in all fish ponds fed by 4 http://www. This result is in agreement with Shaker et al . 2008. B. Fish were weighed and dried. Feeds were introduced 1 day before the start of the experiment in order to ensure food availability as soon as the fry and fingerlings started to eat in concrete ponds. The data was then subjected to analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA). The data are presented as mean SE or otherwise stated. This variation could be explained by the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 and bicarbonate that substituted hydroxyl ions. Every week transfer 2 tanks from lab to outdoor concrete ponds using as live food weekly. Duncan’s multiple range test (Duncan1955) was used to rank the groups.4.2 to 4. Shaker and Abdel Aal. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS program. 2006 and Shaker. and ash using standard methods (AOAC 1990). Dissolved oxygen (DO mg/l) concentration ranged from 4.05). of three replicate groups.0 (SPSS. The artificial diet 25% protein was given daily at 5% of the fish biomass. These results indicate that the feeding type.asmkmasr. and an artificial diet containing 25% protein were provided as fry and fingerlings feed. The pH values in pond water of the treatments ranged from 7.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . crude fat. The pH values in tilapia and catfish fed by artificial feed and zooplankton ponds were not significantly different. All diets provided twice daily/ 5 days/week. There are two feeding treatments with three replicates each for each fish size in a completely randomized design. calyciflorus. Batch cultures of Brachionus were fed Chlorella sp. (10–50 x 106 cells ml/1) which was mass-produced using a commercial grade complete fertilizer (18–18–18) at 100 g/ton (tank). RESULTS AND DISSCSTIONS The measurements of some physico-chemical parameters in water under different experimental treatments are shown in Tables (1). Statistical analysis The data was first checked for assumptions for analysis of variance. Mass production of live food organisms The freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was mass produced in lab until transfer to fiberglass tank 1-tonne (t) filled with filtered tap water. fish size and fish species did not affect on pH values (P>0.A random sample of 10 fish for each fish species fry and fingerlings from different feeding types was taken at the end of the experiment. Brachionus (150–250 µm) were harvested with a plankton net after 1–2 weeks of culture.
survival and well being of the tested fish species. Fish production and growth performance parameters are illustrated in Tables (2).12. 38. tilapia 20g fed by artificial feed. The NO2 and NO3 concentrations in water followed the same trend of ammonia-nitrogen. catfish 50g fed by zooplankton.76µg/l for tilapia 1g feed by zooplankton. 40. These results may be due to the consumption of nitrate (which is an essential nutrient) by phytoplankton communities. 350. The increase of NH3-N in artificial fish feed ponds compared to zooplankton as live food for fish could be explained by the decomposition of organic matter (waste of feed) and via the direct excretion of ammonia by the large biomass of fish.6 to 2. temperature and dissolved oxygen were the most influencing parameters in fish ponds. The concentrations of NO2 and NO3 were also higher in artificial feed treatments. Mousa. where their values in all ponds although fluctuated from time to time they stayed within the acceptable and favorable levels required for growth.0 and 28°C.2mg/l. while in artificial feed ranged from 1. 120 g for tilapia 1 and 20g fed by zooplankton and by artificial feed respectively. The average values of chlorophyll a were 14.28. Significantly higher amounts of chlorophyll a were recorded in all ponds fed by artificial feed indicating that there was a higher level of phytoplankton production. tilapia 1g fed by artificial feed. (2006) with higher inputs of artificial feed in semi-intensive earthen ponds at Manzala fish farm. while the difference was significant between tilapia and catfish ponds under different feeding types. 175.2 to 6.66.38. 15. The average final weights of Nile tilapia were 125. (2002) and Mousa (2004).05) increase than in tilapia and catfish fed by zooplankton. The dissolved oxygen concentration in artificial ponds in tilapia and catfish significantly (p<0. This is consistent with the work reported by Shaker and Abdel-Aal.2mg/l. 39.zooplankton and ranged from 6. 15. 2008.8 to 1. These results indicated that the DO affected by fish species and feed types.12 and 40. 200 and 300g for catfish 1 and 50 g fed by 5 http://www. 15. catfish 1g fed by artificial feed and catfish 50g fed by artificial feed respectively (Table 1).88. DO concentrations in tilapia ponds and catfish ponds did not vary significantly under the same feed. These results may be due to the waste of artificial feed using as organic matter as a source of nutrient in these ponds led to increase in phytoplankton and then increased photosynthetic led to increase of dissolved oxygen production. and catfish were 275. catfish 1g fed by zooplankton. tilapia 20g fed by zooplankton. It is of particular interest to notice a negative correlation between nitrate content and total phytoplankton which may be attributed to high consumption rate of NO3-N by the dense vegetation. These results are in harmony with those obtained by Shaker et al . Results of table (1) reveled that differences among the applied treatments in averages of water temperature were insignificant and ranged between 27.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . The average level of ammonia nitrogen in tilapia and catfish fed by zooplankton ranged from 0. 2004 and Shaker. 95 and.asmkmasr. The pH. were lower than in fertilizer fish ponds.42.5 mg/l in fish ponds fed by artificial feed.
95.0 and 50.0g fed by artificial feed and catfish 50. catfish 1..05) tilapia and catfish. The highest values of moisture content recorded in catfish and in tilapia with initial weight 20. 200and 300g for tilapia 1g feed by zooplankton. catfish 50. net gain. net gain and daily gain.0 g) and catfish were (1. fat.). and protein were significantly (P<0. It show that the significantly effect of initial weight of fish on final weight.2006 and Macleod et al.asmkmasr.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . 350. Brachionus rotundiformis or artemia improved significantly growth performance of different marine fish species.0 and 20. The initial mean weights of experimental tilapia were (1. ash. (2001) tested the effectiveness of mono specific diets of copepods or rotifers versus simultaneous mixtures of copepods and rotifers or brine shrimp on larval survival and growth.0g. net gain and total production regardless initial weight than in Nile tilapia as shown in table (3). et al . Significant differences among the treatments continued to the end of the experiment. 2006 who suggested that the effect of stocking density on growth performance of fish decreased with increasing initial weight of fish and Shaker. the incidence of variable mortality and developmental abnormalities in early life stages has hindered attempts to produce southern flounder juveniles in large numbers. tilapia 20.05) difference in final weight. where fish in the all treatment were 125.0g fed by zooplankton.0g fed by artificial feed respectively.0g fed by artificial feed.0g) (Table 2) these variation in initial weight led to significant (P<0. Generally. Although larvae of this species have been reared successfully to juveniles using rotifers and brine shrimp. 275. 175. 120. all fish species fed by zooplankton had significant higher than all fish species fed by artificial feed. Moisture levels varied significantly (P<0.zooplankton and artificial feed respectively. (2006) who found that the production of marine fish species increased with increasing natural feeds such as rotifers (Brachionus sp. tilapia 20g fed by artificial feed.05) different between fish species (Table 4). the final weight. while the lowest 6 http://www. The growth performance of catfish had significantly higher final weight. These results may be due to the zooplankton diets are more digested than artificial feed. Fish body composition Moisture. Because copepod nauplii have been shown to improve larval fish performance in other species and rotifers are an established first food for larval southern flounder. 2008 who reported that the final weight depending on initial weight and pond management. daily gain. tilapia 1. They added that the development of intensive culture methods for the southern flounder is of great interest because of its status as a highly desirable food fish and its potential for commercial production. They found that the diets contain rotifers. catfish 1g fed by zooplankton. These results are in agreement with these obtained by Shaker and Abdel-Aal . Also. These results are good in agreement with those obtained by Wilcox. daily gain increased significantly with the increasing initial weight of fish in all fish species under different feeding types.) or brine shrimp (Artemia sp. Payne et al .0g fed by zooplankton.
These results are in agreement with those obtained by Shaker and Mahmoud. 2008. From the data presented in table 7 show the effect of food types on stomach content of fry and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish. These finding indicated that the use of zooplankton as live food for fish improved the quality of fish. Also. depending on the type of feed used. The tilapia and catfish fry and fingerlings fed by artificial feed had higher significantly (P<0. and in fed by zooplankton ranged from 6-8%. catfish fed by zooplankton had significantly content of protein than catfish fed by artificial feed. show that the chemical composition of tilapia and catfish fed by zooplankton and artificial feed under different initial weight and regardless initial weight. The highest values of phytoplankton and insects recorded in fry and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish fed by artificial feed. The detritus values in tilapia and catfish fry and fingerlings fed by artificial feed ranged from 40-45. zooplanktons. These results indicated that the fed by zooplankton it's more to be enough for fry and fingerlings metabolic and suitable growth more than artificial feed.8%. Also.asmkmasr. tilapia and catfish fed by zooplankton had significantly (P<0. the lowest values recorded in fry and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish fed by zooplankton. These finding indicated that the effect of initial weight on moisture content. phytoplankton to insects. (2007) who found same results in cages silver carp in River Nile.values recorded in tilapia with initial weight 1.05) higher content of protein than tilapia and catfish fed by artificial fed. The same trend was observed by phytoplankton and insects.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . These results indicated that the use of zooplankton as live food for tilapia and catfish increased protein and fat content.05). The stomach contents of fish in this experiment ranged from detritus. Fish in above of 100g consumed high amounts of detritus and was similar to that reported by Brummett. while decreased ash content. These results indicated that the highly content of protein in zooplankton live food than artificial feed diets. Shaker (2008) found the same categories of stomach contents in tilapia. Fish in the artificial 7 http://www. Generally. higher plants.0g. We noted that fish cultured in artificial feed treatments consumed significantly higher amounts of detritus followed by phytoplankton and insects.05) detritus than tilapia and catfish fry and fingerlings fed by zooplankton. Stomach contents The stomach contents of fish came variable and varied significantly (P<0. Tilapia fed by zooplankton had significant (P<0. The same trend was observed by fat content. (2000) and Shaker.05) higher content of protein than tilapia fed by artificial feed and all experiment catfish. Insects were not consumed in large amounts but detritus was highly consumed across treatments. carp and catfish in earthen ponds under different fertilization types. From the data presented in tables (4&5). while. The using of zooplankton as live food for tilapia and catfish led to sharply decrease the ash percentage about 40-50% and to compensate these decrease as increase the protein and fat content.
1-40. S. G. Hepher. R. Detritus was one of the important stomach contents encountered during the analysis in artificial feed treatments. 2113–2122. 15th edn.asmkmasr. Washington. & Sarig. B. 21th edn. 183.B.. Aquac. which make up about 26% of their stomach contents in the wild (Meschiatti & Arcifa 2002).. American Public Health Association. A. Luecke.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . 29. S. Problems & Trends (Shilo. Sahu. A. (2000). (1988).Gwak. Food organism availability and resource partitioning in organically or inorganically fertilized Tilapia rendalli ponds. Methods of Analysis. M. In: Fish Culture in Warm water systems. W. Sahoo. 121–142. 10. 5-12.F.. S. pp. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990). Bubinas. L. Growth and survival of Daphnia in epilimnetic and metalimnetic water from oligotrophic lakes: the effects of food and temperature. aquatic insects and detritus. P C. Shaker. A. Principles of fish nutrition. Sci. 4. although those fish in the feed only treatment had significantly higher amounts of insects in their stomachs.feed ponds preferred higher plants. Fish. Changes in RNA. Blackwell Scientific Publications. DNA and protein contents of laboratory-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys ollivaceus during metamorphosis and settlement. 3. 2. 57-71. B. 2nd edn.. 6. Biometrics11. They turn herbivorous as they grow (Brummett 2000). K. DC. Wayne A. New York. phytoplankton and detritus and reduced their intake of zooplankton. While. CRC Press. D. Downing J. and Burkart. S. Wurtsbaugh. and Tanaka. (1955). Giri. REFERENCES 1. B. London 7. AOAC. C.M. phytoplankton and detritus. USA. S. M. Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Washington. 47. USA. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and WasteWater. S. (2000). American Public Health Association (APHA) (2000). N. Res... 8 http://www.. Sahu. 9... Also. The nutrition of fish in the Curonian lagoon and the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. Duncan.H (eds) (1984).E. Cole. USA. Aquacu.. Mohanty. Acta Zoologica10. Brummett. zooplankton was one of the important stomach contents encountered during the analysis. 27–33. (2002). 5. A. 2008 found that insects were found least in stomachs of the fish. (2002). A manual for the methods of assessment of secondary productivity in fresh waters. 1268pp. and Lozys. K. Freshwater Biology. DC. Tilapia is believed to change feeding habits as they grow. 68. fish in zooplankton feed preferred zooplankton and small amount of insects. Total replacement of fish meal with animal protein sources in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L) feeds. eds). 8. 275–280. They change from carnivorous when young (7-33mm) and consume lots of zooplankton. El-Sayed. IBP Handbook 17. (1998).A and Rigler F.
C.A.4:109-127. 19. I. Ph... (2001). A. G. and Becker. A. J. M.asmkmasr. and Cleary J.. Jha.L.S. (2006). J.. A. 14. C. Growth performance of fish reared under different densities in semi-intensive and extensive earthen ponds. Appl. K. The 6th Vet. 20. 18. Alkon. 2002. No. Shaker. Ain hams Univ. Kenobi Productions. L. M. Soc. M. Marine fish larvae feeding: formulated diets or live prey. J. D. and Arcifa. and Sarkar. Cyprinus carpio var. Cultured copepods as food for West Australian dhufish (Glaucosoma hebraicum) and pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) larvae..N.. Thebaud. K. Aquaculture 194(1–2): 137–150. of Environment Stud. and Krueger. 17. A. Halevy. H. and Abdel-Aal. Evaluation of short-term fallowing as a strategy for the management of recurring organic enrichment under salmon cages.. and Le Vay. (2006).(2002). Vol. 13. A.11. World Aquacult. 86. D.. 7-9 Sep.W. Inst. (2003). M. Biol. M. Schroeder. S. S. Karnarudin.. Payne. 9 http://www.M. M. monsoon and post-monsoon grow out experiments in concrete tanks. K. J. Barat. J.M. Alexandre. S.V. and Zakar. Dawa. Aquatic Ecology 38: 93–100. Soc. Shaker. Focken. Moltschaniwskyj. Impact of inorganic pollutants on aquatic environment and fish performance in Lake Borollus. 199–207. summer. Aquaculture. Ichthyol. Marine Pollution Bulletin.. (2007).pp. (1993). Egypt. Effect of stocking density on water quality and mullet growth in earthen ponds at Sahl El-Teena-Senai.. I. Biol. & Fish. Stable isotopes as a tool for nutrient assimilation studies in larval fish feeding on live food. M. J. Macleod. Aquat. 21. 15. & Phys. Zagazig. N. during winter. Feeding of freshwater invertebrates. Early life stages of fish and the relationships with zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoir: Lake Monte Allegro. A. Med. Egypt.. Belgium Moussa.. and Mugnier. H. Brazilian Journal of Biology 62. A. C. (1993). (1990).. 22. U. (2002). H. A. Person-Le Ruyet. Ghent. M. L. Wohlfarth. 16. (2004). World Aqua. The potential for replacement of live feeds in larval culture. Egypt. 219–229.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . A. G. Monakov A. J. C. 23: 87–92 12. Thesis. J. koi L. Jones. Hurghada. 10. Meschiatti. 24.Egypt. (2004). Ibrahim.. Schlechtriem. Conference..J. and Res. 211–224. Comparative effect of live food and manured treatments on water quality and production of ornamental carp. F. C. . Dep. P.24. The dominance of algal-based food webs in fish ponds receiving chemical fertilizers plus organic manures. Rippingale..ISSN 1110-6131. and Crawford. 41-50. R.
04± 1±0a 1g 1.5a 0. 21 : 210–214 28.01a 0. A.5b 4a 1b 0.. P. growth and protein content of first-feeding larvae of Plelteobagrus fulvidraco.W.5a 0.5a 3b 1a 0. (2006). Wilcox. The biological load of silver carp cages in the River Nile and their effects on water quality and growth performance. Biol. Covich A (eds) Ecology and classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates.01b 3 Tilapia Artificial 27. I. 37. and Marcus.2a 0a 0.N.5± 7. SPSS.5a 2b 1a 0. Xie. Y. & Fish.8± 0.5± 0. J. Vol.5± 8.1± 1±0a 1g 1. USA. Ichthyol.2b 0b 0.5b 2a 1b 0.2± 2± 0.5a 3b 1a 0.2± 0. Appl. (1A): 203-227.2b 15. Penaeus japonicus Bate. 1 29. 2nd edn. Effect of using different types of organic manure (Compost.asmkmasr.66 ±3.A. and Sasada.12 ±2. (1983). Improving Live Feeds: Effect of a Mixed Diet of Copepod Nauplii (Acartia tonsa) and Rotifers on the Survival and Growth of First-Feeding Larvae of the Southern Flounder. Shaker. Mycelium) and mineral fertilizer on water quality. C. Zheng.04± 1±0 1g 1. pH SD DO NH4 NO2 NO3 Salinity species types ºC cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l g/l Zooplankton 1 Tilapia 27. S. Kanazawa. 24.4± 15± 6. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Abbassa.5± 8.6± 12± 6.38 ±6.. Copepoda.8a 10 http://www.. H.4a 15.1b 0b 0.8± 25± 4.01b Zooplankton 2 Tilapia 28± 7. Nutritional value of dietary cholesterol 26. In: Thorp JH.1± 1±0a 1g 1a 0.02a 4 Tilapia Artificial 27.2:119-143.6± 23± 4.01± 0.M.02± 0. Yang.1b 0b 0. J.2a 0a 0.02± 0.A.2b 0b 0. SPSS (1999) SPSS.8b 40.4b 38.5± 7. Teshima.01± 0.5b 3a 1b 0.02a Chlorophyll a µg/l 14.01b 7 catfish Artificial 28± 8.12 ±5.5± 1.01± 0.6± 25± 4. Zhu. Aquat. Liu (2005). 11. No. Egypt.02± 0.5a 0. I. 27. and other sterols to larval prawn. IL.01± 0... X. No. Vol. (2007). H. M. San Diego.(2008).4± 12± 6.4± 1.8± 0. K. S. Paralichthys lethostigma.1± 1±0a 1g 1. Int. Williamson. Lei.01a Zooplankton 5 catfish 27. Fish Feed Temp.2b 15. 25.3a 0.A. A.E.23.. Chicago. and Reid. J.6± 1± 0.88 ±1. and Mahmoud.6a 39. qua. W..5b 4a 1b 0. 159–167. Wang. Shaker.42 ±6. (2001).2± 1± 0. plankton abundance and on growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus in earthen ponds.A.6± 0.5a 0.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر .8± 30± 4. Academic Press.05± 1±0a 50g 2a 0. J. C. S. Chicken. and J. I. J. Tracy.28 ±3.6± 1. pp 787–822 Table (1): Average means of water quality parameters in concrete ponds under different food types of fry and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish during experiment period. Effects of live food and formulated diets on survival.01b Zooplankton 6 catfish 27± 7. Aquaculture 31.05± 1±0a 20g 1a 0.
24±1.8±2.13 3072 ±1.3b ±75b SGR 2. g/m3 1225±50cd 1750±65c 950±35d 1180±±42c 2703±75b 3441±75a 1934±70c 2901±82b SGR 3.25±0.6a catfish 1g Zooplankton 78.2±2.4c Tilapia 20g Zooplankton 77.2a 350±20a catfish 1g Artificial 96. Table (4): chemical composition of tilapia and catfish under different feed types zooplankton as live food and artificial food in concrete ponds Fish Feed types moisture protein fat ash species Tilapia 1g Zooplankton 77.2± 0.11±0.2a 13.48 ±1.8a Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P<0.75±1.8 catfish 50g Artificial 28± 1a 8.05).5b 3.1a 8.5b 79.2± 1a 2.2 Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P<0.5c Tilapia 20g Zooplankton 100±0a 175±15b Tilapia 1g Artificial 100±0a 95±8d Tilapia 20g Artificial 98.5a ±15a ±10b ±0.4c 11.27 ±1.1c 1.6a 1.22±0.14 ±0.2a 1.6c 11.05).6±2.7 250 234.02± 0.8a 76.5a 1.3b 11.98±0.71±0.88±0.7±1.3 312.69 1065 ±1a ±5d ±4d ±0.25 150 139.39±0.5a 125±10.3a 0.42±2.92±1.7±2.29±0.32±0.18±3.42±0.93±0.1a 7±0.3±1.5b 11 http://www.4ab 77.5 297 2.2b 4.2a 275±20a catfish 50g Zooplankton 98.3±3.5 97 0.12± 0.1c 0.2b 1.1d ±32d Catfish Zooplankton 98.2b 2.96±0.5±2. Table (2): growth performance of Nile tilapia and catfish artificial food in concrete pond Fish species Feed types Survival Final % weight g Tilapia 1g Zooplankton 98.25±2.99±0.5b Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P<0.05).25 107.76 ±6.1a 2.03a 1±0a 40.7±0.7 ±1.01±0.6b catfish 50g Zooplankton 78.4b 12.75±4.86±2.28±0.5 1.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر .8b 14.2b Total prod.2a 120±10c catfish 1g Zooplankton 98.2a 200±15b catfish 50g Artificial 96.55±0.1a 2.1a 8.2a 300±16a feed by zooplankton as live food and Net gain g 124±10c 155±8b 94±8d 100±8c 174±14b 320±24a 199±18b 270±22a Daily gain g 0.4± 0.29±0.4a 76.5b 13.5b 79.4±1a 1.3±1.asmkmasr.01a 0.44±2.4ab 77.28±3.55±1.2a 6.4bc Tilapia 1g Artificial 79.g/m3 Tilapia Zooplankton 99.5a 10± 3b 6.5±1.3±1.67±0.3±1.3±0.3b 0. Table (3): growth performance of Nile tilapia and catfish regardless initial weight feed by zooplankton as live food and artificial food in concrete pond Fish species Feed types Survival Final Net gain Daily Total % weight g g gain g prod.7±2.5 1±0c 1488 ±1a ±5c ±5c ±50c Tilapia Artificial 99.2a 1.1c 1.4a ±103a Catfish Artificial 96.5a Tilapia 20g Artificial 79.68 2418 ±2a ±15b ±15a ±0.4a 13.1c 1.1c 0.
8a 77.4a Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P<0.6a 8.27±0. Table (6): Average of counting and identification of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the experimental ponds.05).2c 76. I Phytoplankton (org ×10/L) Zooplankton (org/L) tem s Blue.7±3.78±3.6±1.5±4.4b 11.4±1.3±2.6a 76.23±2.4a 11.88±1.2b Catfish Zooplankton 78.1b 11.6a Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P<0.08±2.95±0.6±1.09±0.8b 14. Table (5): Chemical composition of Nile tilapia and catfish regardless initial weight zooplankton as live food and artificial food in concrete ponds Fish species Feed types moisture protein fat Tilapia Zooplankton 77. Cladocer Rotife Ostraco Gree n .75±3.4a Tilapia Artificial 79.asmkmasr.4b 12.5b 79.9±0.2a 79.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر .8a 76.85±0.12±3.4b 11.2a 76.catfish 1g catfish 50g Artificial Artificial 79.4±4.7±3.2b feed by ash 6. Total Copep.42±3.3b 12±0.65±1. a ra da n Trea t.68±3.65±2.05).1c 11.2a 13.Gree Bacillar Cyanoph.1a Catfish Artificial 79.6b 11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total 102± 20b 86±1 1b 336± 16a 328± 26a 88±9 b 71±9 b 288± 24a 246± 32a 92± 8b 72± 8b 250 ±11 a 216 ±21 a 75± 9b 75± 7b 186 ±13 a 154 ±17 38±4b 35±6b 66±5a 78±5a 23±3b 26±3b 55±7a 57±7a 12±2b 10±2b 18±3a 16±2a 10±2b 10±2b 14±2ab 17±3a 244±13 b 203±17 b 670±19 a 638±23 a 196±21 b 182±16 b 543±32 a 474±33 a 6±1b 2±1b 10±1a 11±2a 4±1b 1±0b 9±1a 11±2a 7±1ab 4±1b 9±2a 11±2a 2±1b 2±1b 6±1ab 6±2ab 19±3a 11±2a 5±1b 4±1b 19±2a 11±2a 3±1b 2±1b 3±1a 2±1a 1±0a 4±1a 1±0a 3±1a 3±1a 2±1a 35±3 a 19±3 b 25±3 a 30±4 a 26±3 a 17±2 b 21±3 b 21±2 b 12 http://www.
B e-G lu reen 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 G reen B acillaroph ta y C an y y oph ta T otal 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fig (1): Effect of different feeding types of fry and fingerlings tilapia and catfish on phytoplankton abundance in concrete ponds.a Bacillaroph. Cyanoph = Cyanophyta. Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P<0.05).=Bacillarophyta .com/ منتدى اسماك مصر . Copepoda 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 Cladocera Rotifera Ostracoda Total 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fig (2): Effect of different feeding types of fry and fingerlings tilapia and catfish on zooplankton community in concrete ponds. g/m otal 3 13 zooplankton zooplankton zooplankton zooplankton Tilapia 20g catfish 50g Tilapia 1g catfish 50g Tilapia 1g Tilapia 1g catfish 1g artificial artificial catfish 1g artificial artificial http://www.=Copepoda.asmkmasr.Copep. 2000 1500 1000 500 0 T prod.
1 ±1b ±0.2 3.2a catfish 1g Artificial 44.4a ±2.4a ±1.1 76.2a ±1b ±0.5 2.5a ±7.2 12.3b ±4.5 5 5.7 10.4 5.1 10 28.2 74.7 73.5a ±2.8 3.5 26.5b ±0.8 2.4a catfish 1g Zooplankton 7.Fig (3): Effect of different feeding types on tilapia and catfish production per m3.8 3.asmkmasr.5 ±5a ±0.5b ±0.5 27.5 10.1 5.1 ±2b ±0.com/ منتدى اسماك مصر artificial .1 2.3 76.5a ±0.1 14 http://www.8 3.4a ±1.5a ±1.5 6.8 2.3a ±8.5b ±1.3a ±8.9 ±2b ±0.4a ±6.2a catfish 50g Zooplankton 8 3.3a ±1.5 11. detritus 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 H igher plant Z ooplan kton Phytoplankton insects others zooplankton zooplankton zooplankton zooplankton Tilapia 20g catfish 50g Tilapia 1g catfish 50g Tilapia 1g Tilapia 1g catfish 1g artificial artificial catfish 1g artificial Fig (4): Effect of different feeding types of fry and fingerlings tilapia and catfish on stomach analysis of fish in concrete ponds.5a Tilapia 1g Artificial 40 3.2a ±0.2b ±4.8a ±0. Table (7): Effect of different food types on stomach index of fry and fingerlings of tilapia and catfish Fish species Feed types detritus Higher Zooplank Phytopl insects others plant ton ankton Tilapia 1g Zooplankton 6 2.4a Tilapia 20g Artificial 44.5 2.5 ±1b ±0.5a Tilapia 20g Zooplankton 7.5b ±0.1 7 5.5 15.5 ±4.5 3.1b ±0.1b ±0.3b ±0.8a ±1.8 8.3 1.
منى حامد احمد 1 .2 ×5.asmkmasr.وكانت اهم انتائج المتحصل عليها: جودة المياة فى معاملت التغذية بالزوبلنكتون افضل من العلف الصناعى زيادة نمو السماك بالتغذية بالزوبلنكتون عن العلف الصناعى زيادة معدلت نمو اسماك القرموط عن البلطى فى كل الحالت التغذية بالزوبلنكتون تحسن من جودة المنتج السمكى زيادة محتوى المعاء من البقايا والحشرات والفيتو فى التغذية الصناعية عنها فى الطبيعية فى 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- زريعة واصباعيات البلطى والقراميط معا 51 منتدى اسماك مصر /http://www. تم استخدام عدد 003 سمكة بلطى زريعة واصبعية وكذلك القرموط باجمالى عدد 006 من كل صنف ووزعت عشوائيا بمعدل 01سمكات/متر اى 05 سمكة لكل حوض ولكل معاملة ثلث مكررات واستخدم علف صناعى 52% بروتين بمعدل تغذية 5% على مرتين يوميا /5 ايام/اسبوع ويتم التغذية بالزوبلنكتون بمعدل 001 لتر/ حوض/يوميا على مرتين وجميع الحواض مزودة بالتهوية.0<Means in the column followed by different letters are significantly different (Duncan s Multiple Range Test P الملخص العربى الزوبلنكتون كغذاء حي لزريعة واصباعيات البلطى النيلى والقرموط فى الحواض الخرسانية ّ 2 ابراهيم محمد شاكر عبد الفتاج 1 .2a .1a 2.6a ±2.2 قسم نظم الستزراع المعمل المركزى لبحوث الثروة السمكية. استخدم فى الدراسة عدد 42 حوض خرسانى 5.)50.2b ±5.2 × 016 /لتر.catfish 50g Artificial ±7a 8.محمد محمد عبد العال 1 قسم الليمنولوجى.2b 01 ±2.3a ±0.شرقية فى تجربة لدراسة تأثير التغذية بالزوبلنكتون على زريعة واصباعيات اسماك البلطى النيلى والقرموط الفريقى مقارنة بالعلف الصناعية وتأثير ذلك على جودة المياة واداء السماك وجودة المنتج السمكى وتحليل أمعاء السماك.31 ±2.62 ±4.3a ±2.com . تم تنمية الزوبلنكتون معمليا داخل كاسات زجاجية ثم فى احواض زجاجية ثم فى عدد 2 فيبر جلس تنك داخل المعمل ثم النقل من المعمل الى عدد 2 حوض خرسانى بنفس البعاد واستخدمت المخصبات الكيماوية )نتروجين- فوسفور.2 متر بعمق عامود مياة 521 سم وبدأت الدراسة فى مايو 7002 واستمرت لمدة 041 يوم .2 ±0.54 ±6a ±0.3a 9.بوتاسيوم( حتى وصلت العداد من الزوبلنكتون الى 3.2a 2 ±0.2a 1.العباسة.
asmkmasr.لم تكن هناك فروق واضحة فى معدل النمو اليومى بين الزريعة والصباعيات فى حالة التغذية زيادة محتوى السماك من البروتين والدهن على حساب نسبة الرماد فى حالة التغذية الطبيعية نظرا لستخدام التغذية الطبيعية فى انتاج اسماك البلطى والقراميط لذا تعتبر السماك المنتجة منها لبد من اجراء المزيد من الدراسات فى هذا المجال حت يتم استخدامة على نطاق تجارى 6- 7- 8- 9- بالزوبلنكتون فى البلطى بينما كانت هناك فروق فى حالة التغذية الصناعية بالزوبلنكتون فى كل النواع والحجام من السماك اعلى جودة واكثر امان من الخرى 61 منتدى اسماك مصر /http://www.com .