Marketing Strategies Of Coca Cola PRESENETED TO: MR. SUFIAN AHMAD PRESENTED BY: Sami Ullah Khan 27s-640 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. Acknowledgement. Mission statement Introd uction. Coca Cola. a. Coca Cola International. b. History. 5. Management. 6. Mar ket share. 7. Financial report. 8. Dividends and Cash Plan. 9. Products. 10. Str ategic planning. 11. Bottlers owned by Coca cola 12. Coca Cola Pakistan. 13. Maj or Competitors a. Pepsi b. History. c. Financial assets. • Market share. • Financial report. • Products. • Methodology 14. Some basic information regarding marketing of coke a. Target market: b. Major segments: c. Factors effecting sales: d. Major competitors: e. Strategies of quality: f. Threats from competitors: g. Targets t hat would like to attain: h. Expanding target market i. Threats and opportunitie s for price: j. Strategies of getting goals i.e. “high profits”: k. Marketing strate gy: l. Expectations for the coming year: m. How coke determine the yearly budget : 15. Marketing strategies 16. Pest analysis . 3

DEDICATION This report is dedicated to my beloved parents, Who educated me and enabled me t o reach at this level. 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We think if any of us honestly reflects on who we are. we discover a debt to others that spans wr itten history. but it is also necessary to acknowledge those people we know have directly shaped our l ives and our work. and so forth. Then we would like to than k our friend and brother Mr. First of all we would like to thank our teacher Mr. what we think we might do well. Zeeshan Anjum for providing us the information that was required for completion of this project. Muhammad Shafique for their guidance through out the semester. how we got here. 5 . We believe it's appropriate to acknowledge all of these unknown persons. The work of some unknown person makes our lives easier everyday.

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4. 2. We achieve this when we place the right products in the right markets at the right time. We strive to understand each customer’s b usiness and needs. we must create value for all the constraints we serve. includ ing our consumers. 7 . In order to ach ieve this mission. We will serve consumers a broad selection of the nonalcoholic ready-to–drink beverages they want to drink through out the day. and our communities. 5. our bottlers. o ur success in achieving our mission depends on our ability to satisfy more of th eir beverage consumption demands and our ability to add value for customers. Brand Coca Cola is the core of our business 3. The Coca Cola system has more tha n 16 million customers around the world that sells or serves our products direct ly to consumers. W e will be the best marketers in the world. We keenly focus on enhancing value for these customers and help ing them grow their beverage businesses. The Coca Co la Company creates value by executing comprehensive business strategy guided by six key beliefs: 1. whether that customer is a sophisticated retailer in a develo ped market a kiosk owner in an emerging market. 6. Ultimately. maximize our longterm cash flows. and create econ omic value added by improving economic profit. We will think and act locally. our customers. expand our share of worldwide nonalcoholic r eady to drink beverages sales.The Mission Statement of the Coca Cola Company Our mission statement is to maximize shareowner value over time. The ultimate objectives of our busine ss strategy are to increase volume. There are nearly 6 million peopl e in the world who are potential consumers of our company’s product. Consumer demand drives everything we do. We will lead as a model corporate citizen.

total unit case sales were 880. (Johnston) created a larger. Lupton franchises and BCI Holding Corpora tion's bottling holdings. the senior management team of Johnston assumed responsibility for managing the Company. to form Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc. when an Atlanta pharmacist. In 1986. began to produce Coca-Cola syrup for sale in fountain drinks. The Coca-Co la Company merged some of its company-owned operations with two large ownership groups that were for sale. established in 1986.COCA COLA INTERNATIONAL HISTORY: Coca-Cola Enterprises. again helping accelerate bottler consolidation. stronger Company. John Pember ton . secured the exclusive rights to bottle and sell C oca-Cola for most of the United States from The Coca-Cola Company. Th omas and Joseph B.4 bill ion. local businesses until the early 1980s when bottling franchises began to consolidate. The Company offered its stock to the public on November 21. is a young company by the standards of the Coca-Cola system. and began a dr amatic.000 in 1986. The Coca-Cola bottling system continued to operate as independent.5 0 a share. However the bottling business began in 1899 when two Chattanooga businessmen. the John T. In De cember 1991. As part of the merger. a merger between Coca-Cola Enterprises and the Johnston Coca-Cola B ottling Group. Inc. and total revenues were $5 billion 8 .Unit case sales had climbed to 1. The Coca-Cola Company traces it’s beginning to 1886. On an annual basis. Whitehead . 1986. at a split-adjusted price of $5. Benjamin F. Yet each of its franchises has a strong heritage in the traditions of Coca-Cola that is the foundation for this Company. successful restructuring in 1992. Dr.

Chairman Board of governors Vice Chairman and chief operating officer Executive Vice Presidents Senior Vice Presidents Vice Presidents MARKET SHARE: SHARE Being the biggest company in the soft drink industry.MANAGEMENT: The hierarchy of Coca Cola Company is as follows. (Table) Unit case growth 10 year compound annual growth Compan y Industry 5-year compound annual growth Compan y Industry 2001 annual growth Compan y Industry Nonalcoholic drink 2002 Company share All commercial Beverages 2002 Compan y share Compan y per capita Income 6% 5% 5% 5% 4% 4% 18% 9% 70 9 . Coca Cola enjoys the large st market share. This company controls about 59% of the world market. GLOBAL MARKET SHARE: The following table can show the worldwide operating segments.

The data of the global unit sale of the Coca Cola Com pany can be represented by following chart. (Figure) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1971 1981 1991 2002 unit sale in billions So there is positive growth in the market of the Coca Cola Company. In 2002. that is why they are focu sing more on this and they are continually increasing the pace because they know that accelerating this pace is crucial to their future success. The global unit sale of the Coca Cola Company is increasin g from the last ten years. The operation income earned by Coca Cola Comp any can be illustrated by the following pie chart. Beca use carbonated soft drinks are the largest growth segment within the nonalcoholi c ready-to-drink beverage category measured by volume. There is a w orldwide volume increase by 4% with strong international growth of 5%. which has deepened the relation ship of the customers and Coca Cola. 10 . (Figure) This strategy has worked a lot and it has helped them to become the World’s leadin g Soft Drink Company. The financial health and success of their b ottling partners is a critical component of The Coca-Cola Company's ability to b uild and deliver leading brands. This is o nly due to the innovative marketing programmers. Thus they are i ncreasing their market day by day.This shows that the market of the company is geographically vast and it is contr olling it with great success. the company grew their carbonated soft-dr ink business by nearly 250 million unit cases and generated record volumes.

logistics and production. the company had worked with their bottlers to turn good intentions into reality by improving the system economics. The results in 2002 reflect this ste adily improving and mutually constructive relationship between the Company and t heir bottling partners. which shows the non-alcoholic beverages consist of commercially . with closer coordination of operation s including customer relationships. sold beverages. MARKET SHARE BY AREA: Coca Cola is the world-renowned soft drink and the company is currently operatin g through out the world. Operation Review (2002 worldw ide unit case volume by operating segment) NORTH AMERICA 30% LATIN AMERICA 25% E UROPE & MIDDLE EAST 22% ASIA 17% AFRICA 6% NORTH AMERICA LATIN AMERICA EUROPE & MIDDLE EAST ASIA AFRICA So the volume is least in the Africa and most in the North America. Unit case equals 24 eight-ounce servi ngs.In 2002.8 billion. The operati on review according to the segments is as follows. T he above table shows the geographical earning of the Coca Cola Company and from this data. The main reason behind this relationship is to continue realizing shared opportunities for growth. The country column is derived from 11 . The world wide total is about 17. The data abo ut the market share of this company area wise is given in the following table. The column. as estimated by the Company based on available industry source s. we can find out that the customers of Coca Cola are increasing which is shown by the company’s per capita income.

as estimated by the Company based on available indu stry sources.The Company's unit case volume while the industry column includes nonalcoholic r eady-todrink beverages only. (Table) Country Unit case growth Nonalcoholi c Drinks 2002 Compan y share All commercial Beverages 10 year 5-year compound compound annual annual growth growth Compan y Industry Compan y Industry 2002 annual growth Compan y Industry 2002 Compan y share Company per capita Income North America United States Latin America Argentin a Brazil Chile Mexico Europe & Middle East Eurasia France German y Great Britain Italy Middle East Spain Asia Africa 4 4 6 7 5 9 7 6 5 5 7 4 5 6 10 3 3 3 6 6 3 5 8 5 3 3 6 2 6 3 9 3 2 2 3 7 3 (2) 2 2 2 2 4 2 5 3 5 4 22 23 24 20 23 56 22 12 15 16 15 10 13 23 18 6 398 419 205 236 144 336 462 72 17 8 1 8 1 12 6 7 7 8 3 2 2 3 12 4 6 6 6 9 (1) 11 4 7 8 6 8 5 3 1 2 3 5 5 7 3 (14) 7 (6) 8 2 4 4 10 10 1 3 1 3 2 8 4 7 6 14 9 14 17 9 8 17 14 34 5 5 7 6 6 3 12 5 11 39 110 193 193 104 17 264 23 34 12 .

which can increase the growth of the consumption of Coca Cola by the people of Asia. for exampl e. With develo ping economies and populations. led by Coca-Cola. Among the countries of Asia. this region has strong long-term potential. which i s about 29%. innovation and new beve rages. Japan has the highest percentage. and the company is building an exciting family of beverage brands in addition to exp anding the popularity of our core brands.In Asian population. is approximat ely 3. 13 . The total unit case sale of Coca Cola in Asia can be shown by the following pie chart.2 billion and the average consumer enjoys close to two servings of our pro ducts each month. India and Bangladesh are those countries wh ere the average consumption is increasing day by day. Pakistan. the company has achieved volume growth of 10 percent in 2002. Among others. (Figure) So the company is emphasizing more in this area and is trying to develop a strat egy. which is the satisfied customer of Coca Cola. Through an intense focus on Coca-Cola. sales of Coca-Cola increased 6 percent. In China.

969 1.585 (779) (1.882 0. (In millions except per sh are data.601 1.110 (963) (1.2 17. It is due to the strong finances.791) (277) 3.16 per share after income taxes related to the impairment of cer tain bottling.9 5. The financial report of Coca Cola Company of the year 2001 and 2000 along with the percentage change is as follows. (Table) Year Ended December 31.01 per shar e after income taxes related to incremental marketing expenses in Central Europe .19 per share after incom e taxes related to the Company's portion of charges recorded by the investors of the company.8 2001 19. 14 . which was recognized on the issuance of stock by Coca-Cola E nterprises Inc. • $.1 Percentage change 1% 45% 82% 82% 82% 15% 24% 6% 108% 1 2% 5% 2% 4% 2002 basic and diluted net income per share includes a non-cash gain of $.601 4.889 3.2% 23.147 26. • $.5 5. manufacturing and intangible assets.092 5. ratios and growth rates) 2002 Net operating revenues Operating income Net income Net income per share (basic) Net income per share (diluted) Net cash provided by operating activities Business reinvestment Dividends paid Share repu rchase activity Free cash flow Return on capital Return on common equity Unit ca se sales (in billions) International operations North America operations Worldwi de 20. • $.FINANCIAL REPORT: This company is financially very strong.177 0.6% 38.691 2.24 per share after i ncome taxes related to an organizational Realignment.. 2002 basic and dil uted net income per share includes the following charges: • $.685) (133) 2.882 3.3 17.806 16. the c ompany is still surviving the ups and down of the business world.352 3. • $. one of the equity investors of this company.5% 12 .1% 11.02 per share after taxes.05 per share after income taxes related to the settlement terms of a discrimination lawsuit.

and $. DIVIDEND AND CASH INVESTMENT PLAN: The Dividend and Cash Investment Plan permits shareowners of record to reinvest dividends from Company stock in shares of The Coca-Cola Company.000 per year. The Plan provid es a convenient. 15 .05 per share after income taxe s related to the merger of Coca-Cola Beverages plc and Hellenic Bottling Company S.A.04 per share after income taxes related to benefits from a tax rate reduction in Germany and from favorable tax planning strategies. All shareowners of record are eligible to participate. shareowners invested $36 million in dividends and $31 million in cash in the Plan. 76 percent of the Company's shareowners of record were participants in the Plan. In 2002.These charges are partially offset by a gain of $. Sha reowners also may purchase Company stock through voluntary cash investments of u p to $125. At year-end. economical and systematic method of acquiring additional shares of our common stock.

000 2. which shows the success of Coca Cola brands.4 mill ion 25 385 53 463 80% 46 44% 52% 4% 63% 3 6.COMPANY STATISTICS: The statistics of this company is impressive.000 2. There is a constant increase in every a spect when we compare the statistics of 2001 and the statistics of 2002.3 million 25 361 50 436 72% 46 45% 51 % 4% 59% 3 6. results in the perc entage change in the statistics of the two years.000 52.000 54. This is because.3% 3% Flat 1 $1.97 6% 83 % 2001 3.2 billion 87% 13% 72.95 (18)% $0.8% ½% 2% ½% $2. Since it is operating through out the world that is why the number of employees and the bottling equipments is hig hest among the other bottling companies. (Table) 2002 Equivalent cases Bottle and cans Fountain Employees Vehicles Cold dr ink equipments Facilities Production only Distribution Combination Total Percent of North America population coverage Number of States of Operation Bottle and c an equivalent case package distribution Cans Non-refillable bottles Refillable b ottles Capital structure Net debt to total capital ratio EBITDA interest coverag e Weighted average cost of debt Key Statistics Constant territory bottle and can volume growth Bottle and can net revenues per case change Bottle and can cost o f sales per physical case change Reported EBITDA (in billions) Reported EBITDA c hange Capital expenditures( in billions) %-age of net operating revenues Coverag e of North American Can/bottle volume 4. Coca Cola Company is increasing its volume day by day.8 billion 87% 13% 67. The expansion o f this company.39 9% $1.18 8% 74% 16   . The statistics is as follows.

depreciation. This company not only deals in the carbonated drinks but also other drinks. taxes. PRODUCTS: There are different brands of the Coca Cola Company. Equivalent Case or Unit Case is the physical case and fountain gallons converted to a standard unit of measure defined as 24 eight-ounce servings or 192 ounces per equivalent case sol d by Coca-Cola Enterprises. and amortization. the marketing team considers the culture of the country. a nd other non-operating items.EBITDA is the Earnings before interest. While launching its product. Major brands of coca cola • • • • • Coke Sprite Fanta Diet coke Coke classic 17 . which are currently in use through out the world. • • Net Debt is the Long-term debt plus current portio n of long-term debt less cash and marketable securities.

Bonaqua in Russia and Kinley in In dia. the company has also made good progress in coffees and teas. This strategy has paid dividends. the enti re Turkuaz brand team worked together to launch Turkey's first purified water br and. Ci el and Bonaqua each achieved sales of over 100 million unit cases for the year. Also in Japan—where The CocaCola Company is the leader i n the total tea category. Three of the water brands. In 2001and 2002. Dasani became the nation's fastest-growing water brand. Be verage Partners Worldwide.. the second-largest category in the non-alcoholic ready -to-drink segment—it launched Marocha Green Tea. Marocha Green Tea is the fastest-growing product in the fastest -growing category: green tea. Mori No Mizudayori in Japan. Coca-Cola Company also successfully energized a major piece of i ts beverage strategy—water. In Eurasia. making it the second biggest contributor to the growth of the company after carbonated soft drinks. including Ciel in Mexico.A. the renewed and strengthened marketing partnership wi th Nestlé S. began operations in 2001. With sales of 46 million unit cas es for the year. This partnership combines Nestlé's knowled ge in life science.The over all volume of this company is as follows. (Figure) The commitment of the company is to devote resources to water only in markets wh ere it expects profitable growth. By the end of 2001. it’s bottled water volume exceeded 5 70 million unit cases. Dasani. The popularity of Marocha is also recognized by th e industry with a leading trade journal naming Marocha the most popular new food and beverage product of the year. 18 . The company has successfully applied it’s approach to brands in several key markets. Backed by a strong network of bottling partners through out the United Stat es. the company grew Geor gia coffee in Japan by 3 percent through awardwinning marketing in a category th at was flat for the year. research and development with the expertise of Coca Cola Com pany in brand building and distribution. This year. At the same time.

Know the most recognized word on the planet after “OK”! 19 .

including Great Britain. the company introduced Powerade in nearly every m ajor Western European market. the company developed Fountain. With bran ds such as Minute Maid. Germany and Spain. grew by 13 percent in 2002. This year. the company has created new packagi ng sizes to satisfy consumer demands. nearly double the growth rate of the worldwide sports-drink category. The average Mexican household drinks two-and-a-half liters or more of soft drinks during that break. In China. Through an intense focus on Coca -Cola. investing in ne w products. sales of CocaCola increased by 6 percent. Kapo in Latin America and Bibo in Africa. contributing to the sale of nearly 1. led by Powerade and Aquarius. Mexican families have lunch together at home. The company has also responded to consumers' changing fashion styles with new bottles. 20 . Rev italized in the United States.5 billion unit cases of CocaCola in Mexico this year. innovation and new beverages. easy t o upgrade technology. In the United States. recognizing that consumers often enjoy their diet Coke with a slice of lemon . The commitment of the company to packaging innovation also resulted in new initiativ es for our fountain business. The result—diet Coke with lemon—contributed to volume growth of 4 percent for the number-one diet. Coca-Cola is an integral part of holiday celebrations and the f amily get-togethers that accompany such events. In key markets. The packaging innovations do not just involve resizing. The company launched 27 products in 2001. and festival packaging helped drive a 6 percent volume increase for Coc a-Cola. Simply Orange and Disney juices and juice drinks i n the United States. a total beverage dis pensing system that is more flexible and more reliable. Soft drink in North America: diet Coke. In the United Stat es. packaging. as wel l as in Mexico and Latin America. So the company introduced a convenient 2-½ liter bottle to selec t regions. the company re-launched its global sports-drink business. Hi-C. The results speak for themselv es: it’s global sports drinks. while a twoliter bottle was the largest a vailable package. brand and graphic customization and improved reliability. In China. positioning and marketing. a channel through which many consumers enjoy CocaCola.Among the soft drinks Fanta and Sprite become successful along with the major br and Coca Cola and Diet Coke. Two years of research re sulted in a dispensing system that provides exceptional beverage quality. it has achieved volume growth of 10 percent in 2001. the company "bottled" the concept. This larger bottle will complete its nationwide rollout in 2002. The company increased its two largest bottle sizes during the 2001 h olidays. Qoo in Asia. Increasingly.

• • • • • • Accelerate carbonated soft-drink growth. the company had a great success. as the strategy worked which resulted in making Coca Cola Company the world’s leading company. The company has generated free cash flow of $3. a clear indication of its underlying financial strength. up from $2.STRATEGIC PLANNING In the year 2002. Selectively broaden the family of beverage brands to drive profitable growth.8 billion in 2000. led by C oca-Cola.1 billion. In 2001. Return on capital increased from 16 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2001 . as we delivered on our commitment to create volume growth while aggr essively Return on common equity grew from 23 percent in 2000 to 38 percent this year. Driv e efficiency and cost-effectiveness everywhere. Serve customers with creativity and consistency to generate growth across all channels. MAJOR COMPETITOR 21 . Grow system profitability and capability together with our bottling part ners. • • • • Earnings per share grew by 82 percent. The strategy for the future of the company is very straightforward. The marketing strategy fo r the year 2002 is as follows. Direct investments to highest potential areas across markets. company accomplished the crust of it’s strategy as • Worldwide volume increased by 4 percen t with strong international growth of 5 percent and clear signs that our North A merican business is growing solidly and predictable.

“You got the right one baby. As in Pakistan. In Asia. The company consists of the snack bu sinesses of Frito-Lay North America and Frito-Lay International. They have four filling l ines in the plant operating on the three shift bases.PEPSI INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PepsiCo is a world leader in convenient foods and beverages. in 20 01.000 cases per day. It was first used on the August 28. Uh-Huh!”. Many of PepsiCo's brand names are ov er 100-years-old. Pepsi-Cola Company's soft drink operations include the business of Seven-Up International. “Pepsi Cola”. they only entered beverage i ndustry. Lipton Co. PepsiCo was founded i n 1965 through the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay. They have eleven bottlers covering whole Pakistan. and Quaker Foods North America. Each shift is of eight hou rs. 1990-2002 The advertisement of the Pepsi changes to. Outside th e United States. The plant operating here is Riaz Bottlers (Pvt) LTD. Pepsin and Kola Nuts.would entertain the listener with the latest musical selections rendered by v iolin or piano or both.000 employees. but the corporation is relatively young. Gatorade/Tropicana North America and PepsiC o Beverages International. Today Lipton is the biggest selling ready-to-drink tea brand in the United States. This was done in 1970. T he total capacity of the plant is 30. invigorating . the popularity of Pepsi increase . the beverage bu sinesses of PepsiCola North America. This regional office is monitoring all the operati ons carried out in South West Asia. aids digestion”. This plant was established at Lahore in 1974. they selected Lahore to make their regional o ffice. including Gatorade. The new name. PepsiCola beverages are available in more than 190 c ountries and territories. They have permanent work force of 750 people and they employee approximately 1000 people more on temporary basis during summer season. In 1992 PepsiCola formed a partnership with Thomas J. with revenues of ab out $27 billion and over 143. Bradham’s advertising praises his drink as “Exhilarating. At that time. is derived from the two of the p rinciple ingredients. Tropicana was acquired in 1998 and PepsiCo merged with The Quaker Oats Company. PepsiCo brands are availab le in nearly 200 countries and territories.Wit h the extensive usage of the stars in the adds. manufacturer and mark eter of ready-to-eat cereals and other food products. 22 .

Pepsi’s Products • • • • • • • • Pepsi Teem Mirinda Pepsi Max Pepsi Lemon Pepsi Blue Mountain Dew 7up 23 .

Gujr anwala.800 people. The Coca-Cola System in Pakistan operates thr ough eight bottlers. The Coca-Cola System in Pak istan serves 70. Sialkot. independently owned.S.000 customers/retail outlets. The Coca-Cola System in Pakistan has invested over $130 million (U. Hyderabad. Multan and Lahore.) 49 years of refreshment in Pakistan Coca-Cola introduced in Pakistan 1953 Fanta introduced in Pakistan Sprite was in troduced Diet Coke & Fanta Lemon 1965 1972 2001 24 . Rahimyar Khan. During the last two years.COCA COLA PAKISTAN The Coca-Cola Company began operating in Pakistan in 1953. Fanta and Sprite are the brands in Pakistan. The CCBPL plants are in Karachi. Coca-Cola. are in Rawalpindi and Peshawar. The Coca-Cola System in Pakistan e mploys 1. The remaining two plants. four of which are majority-owned by Coca-Cola Beverages Pak istan Limited (CCBPL). Faisalabad.

joy and fun to our stakeholders. This is major factor that affects the sale of this soft drink. So. So the disposable incomes of the people are coming down.PROMISE OF COKE The basic proposition of our business is simple. 25 . FACTORS EFFECTING SALES There are so many factors.So the decreasing per capita income effects badly in selli ng and production of this soft drink. and educa tion and basic necessities and after that when they get extra money they think a bout this soft drink . solid and timeless. There are so many people w ho take this drink daily and those people who take weekly and those who take les s often are always there as well. They spend heavily on rents. That is the key to fulfilli ng our ultimate obligation to provide consistently attractive returns to the own ers of our business. the young generation is the target market of Coke because they want to represent Coke with the youth and energy but they also consider about the old people they take then as a co-ta rget market. Because which every passing year budgets are becomi ng very strict and tight in order to purchase things. value. TARGET MARKET Coke’s commercials basically based on young generations. then we successfully nur ture and protect our brands. their basic segments are those people who take this drink regularly. Here we are discussin g three major factors which effects coke. which affects the sale of coke. utilities. When we bri ng refreshment. particularly Coca-Cola. So. MAJOR SEGMENTS Major segments are basically those people who take this drink daily and those ar eas where the demands is higher then the other areas. • • • Per capita income Competitors Weather Per Capita Income First we will discuss about “ Per capita income”.

they don’t care before drinking that whether it is “Pepsi” or “coke”. They don’t actual ly differentiate between these two brands in order to their tastes. For this reason Coca-Cola have provided their coolers and freezers in the market . This is underde veloped market so the coke’s consumption in summers is 60% and in winters is 40%. They have maximum number of coolers and freezers in the market. Competitors Coke’s major competitor is “PEPSI” and there is no hesitation to say this because ever y one knows that and all the other cold drinks and water. They provide t his infrastructure free of cost just to provide child coke to their customer. Weather Weather is the third major factor in effecting the Coke’s selling. Consumers ba sically drink what they get. wh ich they want to be purchase.And to get through with this difficulty there is need to increase the level of p er capita income of Pakistan because it is much lesser than the rest of the coun tries. coffee. They believe on “WHAT COLD THEY SOLD” Consumer’s availabi lity in brands is basically works like: Push availability Pull consumer’s demand. Their salesman and mechanics regularly visit all t he shops where coke has its infrastructure to check that either it is in proper condition or not. tea are the co mpetitors. 26 . MAJOR CUSTOMERS NEED First of all the majority don’t care that what they are going to have. In other wo rds. if not then they immediately change or repair it.

So the major competitor of Coke is Pepsi. Price is the major threat. Pepsi.MAJOR COMPETITORS Consumers firstly decide that they are going to have a soft drink. new coming AMRAT Cola. Like they compete Coke with Pepsi and Sprite with 7 up and team . Because when the price go higher people go for the substitute of “co ke” i. And when price goes down they think that there is must be some thi ng wrong in it. THREATS FROM COMPETITORS Threats are well planned. even they take water and tea as thei r competitors. Enhance competition moments 2. In short it all depends on customer’s perception. There are three major ways of making money • • • Over ni ght profit Windfall profit Ethical and un-ethical ways 27 . Through commercialization 4. STRATEGIES OF QUALITY After Micro and macro analysis Brand “coke” is primarily role 1.e. When people watch cricket 3. TARGETS THAT WOULD LIKE TO ATTAIN Every organization runs on the bases of profit maximization so Coke is also look ing for a high profit margin. Fun time T hough these strategies there could be better understanding and better connection with the public. These are the “key consumption”. and all juices. When they motivate to any other brand or on Coke it’s in instinct basically that based on messages derive c ertain feelings. Then they com pete brands with each other. When price goes certain bey ond the exact price whether come down or go higher its effects the consumption o f soft drink. But Coca Cola thinks in a different way. they believe that RC C ola.

So. When the consumption the con sumption is on boom. So. EXPANDING TARGET MARKET In last 2 years Coke has come back in aggressive manner. They believe on this quo te “ Every thing is fare in love and war”. Some profits stays for some time like “over night profits” and some just come and go like “wind fall profits”. which is the most popular after the word “ok”. They are the extras profit.Over Night Profits They could be over night profit that is for the number 1 brand for the year. Ethical And Unethical Ways Profit can also get through ethical and unethical ways. Because now they know the name of another big b rand. Brand Differentiation Now different companies have got different brand names. there is different kind of profits. Two major brands “coke” and “Pepsi” also have brand names. though coke is the 2nd best name but it can get a better position after so me time Attractive Brand Name Now the consumers know the Name of Coke. because Coke is the name. • • • Consumer has choice Att ractive brand name Brand differentiating Consumer Has Got Choice Now the consumer has got choice. So people can better differentiate brands with eac h other. And they can also get profit through different approaches. Thi s could be got my increasing sales volume Windfall Profit Can be windfall profit. 28 . people can distingui sh between brands.

Coke will lose the margin of its profit and can f ace loss. Then there is the tax rate system 15% sales tax 20% .excise duty 27% . THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PRICE Opportunities If Coke is considered a luxury product. Because same problem of substi tute. Coca Cola strongly believes that Pakistani temperament is “US” not “ME” Pepsi’s Brand Pepsi’s brand is basically is basically “ME” branded. They use the temperament of “ME”. These are the opportunities through whic h we can increase the price and can get profits. We have to spend o n distributions.Coca Cola’s Brand Coca cola is “US” brand. In contrast to Coke they believe on individual struggle. being people toge ther and friends are being together.goes to government 03% . 29 . They have the best substitute of Coke that is Pepsi. After paying all these expenses Coke’s margin squeezed and consum ers have to pay for increasing tariffs. Threats There are much more threats in increasing prices. So these are the threats in increasing prices. If Coke increase the price lets say 1 rupee.In making Budget Afte r paying all these taxes coke has to pay electricity charges. Then people definitely won’t go for coke. Because they believe in the togetherness.

wellness. How to increase the interest level of consumers? Coke is increasing the interest level of consumers by offering different flavors . or a couple in Korea buying bottled water after a run together. MARKETING STRATEGY Our local marketing strategy enables Coke to listen to all the voices around the world asking for beverages that span the entire spectrum of tastes and occasion s.E. • • • Volume can be increased Interest level of consumers To take part in energeti c festivals How to increase the volume of consumers? Coke can increase the volume by expanding the industry of coke. offering different interesting things to attract people towards this pro duct. Through offering different flavors Coke can increase the Leve l of consumers and through this profits can be gained. a woman in Italy tak ing a tea break. we're there for you. health. which Coke can adopt. Through advertis ements. where they li ve. We are determine d not only to make great drinks. how they work and play. How to take part in energetic festivals? Coke is already taking part in the festival like “Basant” since last 3 years. For example Coke is increasing the number of flavors in “Fanta”.STRATEGIES OF GETTING GOALS I. Coke o ffers different attractive things in their festival and through this Coke gained high profit and consumption of coke increased on these occasions. What people want in a beverage is a reflection of who they are. And this year in this year 2002 people were anxiously waiting that what interesting thing cok e is going to offer. Whether you're a st udent in the United States enjoying a refreshing Coca-Cola. a child in Peru asking for a juice drink. 3 0 . but also to contribute to communities around th e world through our commitments to education. “HIGH PROFITS” To increase the price is the least thing. this is one of th e product of coke. There are so man y ways through which Coke can increase the profits. and diversity. Some major ways are as follo ws. and how they relax and recharge.

It's a special thing to have billions of friends around the world.Coke strives to be a good neighbor. consistently shaping our business decisions to improve the quality of life in the communities in which we do business. and we never forge t it. 31 .

Diet Coke. And company offers their products in different bottle sizes these includes: • • • • • SSRB LRB NRB PET 1.5 litter plastic bottle) (tin pack 330 ml) Packing Coca cola products are available in different packing • • • • 24 regular bottle shell 6 bottle pack for 1.5 pets 12 bottles in a pack for disposable bottle 24 cans in o ne pack. 32 .5 CANS (standers size returnable bottle) (litter returnable bottl e) (no return bottle) or disposable bottle (1. Sprite.MARKET POSITIONING Product Range The total range of Coca Cola company in Pakistan includes: • • • • Coke. Fanta.

And that’s why coca cola seen more in th e market. Different Price In Different Seasons Some times Coca Cola Company change their product prices according to the season .PRICE STRATEGY Trade Promotion Coca cola company gives incentives to middle men or retailers in way a that they offer them free samples and free empty bottles. And they have a good sale in the market because according to the exper t which product seen more in the market that sells more. by this these retailers and mid dle man push their product in the market. And coke also invest he avy budget on these stores and offers them free samples and free bottles and som e time cash incentives. These st ores are called as KEY accounts in their local language. 33 . “Seen as sold” They do agre ements with a shop keepers and stores to exclusive sale in that stores. Summer is supposed to be a good season for beverage industry in Pakistan. But normal ly they reduce the prices of their pet bottles or 1 litter glass bottle. So i n winter they reduce their prices to maintain their sales and profit.

caps. 34 . coca cola often do this type of scheme and they offer very handy prizes in it. In this type of sell ing company have more profit margin. UTC Scheme UTC mean under the crown scheme.PROMOTION STRATEGIES Getting shelves They gets or purchase shelves in big departmental stores and display their produ cts in that shelves in that style which show their product more clear and more a ttractive for the consumers. Eye Catching Position Salesman of the coca cola company positions their freezers and their products in eyecatching positions. This scheme is very much popular among children. tv sets. DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS Coca Cola Company makes two types of selling Direct selling Indirect selling Direct Selling In direct selling they supply their products in shops by using their own transpo rts. They have almost 450 vehicles to supply their bottles. Normally they keep their freezers near the entrance of t he stores. Like once they offer bicycles. Sale Promotion Company also do sponsorships with different college and school’s cafes and sponsor s their sports events and other extra curriculum activities for getting market s hare. ca sh prizes etc.

FACILITATING THE PRODUCT BY INFRASTRUCTURE For providing their product in good manner company has provided infrastructure t hese includes: • • • • Vizi cooler Freezers Display racks Free empty bottles and shells for bottles ADVERTISEMENT Coca cola company use different mediums • • • • Print media Pos material Tv commercial B illboards and holdings Print Media They often use print media for advertisement. Because it is very difficult for them to cover all area of Pakistan by their own so they have so m any whole sellers and agencies to assure their customers for availability of coc a cola products. 35 . They have a separate department fo r print media. POS Material Pos material mean point of sale material this includes: posters and stickers dis play in the stores and in different areas.Indirect Selling They have their whole sellers and agencies to cover all area.

2. So Coca Cola Company does regular TV commercials on different channels. 4. They should also know that how much to do with the promotion activities for brand.TV Commercials As everybody know that TV is a most common entertaining medium so TV commercials is one of the most attractive way of doing advertisement. For gaining success in com ing year they have to have some important things like: 1. They have so many sites in different locations for their billboards. Coming year is the challenging year for the industry of Coke. 3. which they used to have Coke wants to advertise their products heav ily in the coming year. Billboards And Holdings Coca cola is very much conscious about their billboards and holdings. And it will take the 10% of their profits. Loyal consumers are im portant for company’s success. EXPECTATIONS FOR THE COMING YEAR Every thing starts from the attitude of consumer’s behavior. They have to take lots of decisions that how to increa se the production and where they have to spend money. And the basic key to attract the consumers is to throw the “money away”. HOW COKE DETERMINE THE YEARLY BUDGET Coke determines its yearly budget by the • • • Sales volume Profitability Target volum e 36 . And when we t ake it as a global level it is $ I billion. Workers should be the brand centric not the prom otion centric. They should know how much to for the brand activities. And positive feeling felling wit h the brand.

To get profi t is the first priority of the Coke. then they definitely want to increase their p rofits in the next coming year. which they want to achieve in a specific time period. 37 . They first concentra te on the thing is “what is the condition of their sales?” if the condition is good of their sales then they definitely increase their production and sales volume.if they r get ting profits with the high margin. Target Volume: To run the business every industry has some targets.Sales Volume Coke determines its yearly budget through the sales volume. If industry achieves those goals in that period then for the coming year it increases the volume of the target. Every organization runs on the basis of getting high profits. When they succeed to achieve that target then they increase their target volume in the next year. So Coke Follow the sa me thing it has also some goals and targets to achieve in the given time period. Otherwise they concentrate on their old strategies. No organization wants to face Loss in their business. Profitability: The second thing through which they determines budget is the “profit” .

lyrics & songs have made him an instant hit among t he masses in Pakistan. The Coca-Cola Company developed three TV commercials & four testimonial ads with the player & ran them on the national net work during vario us cricket matches. s pread out all over the bustling city’s map. It has ranged from tobacco to lubricants to co mmunication companies to banks to airlines & lately to the beverage industry. Coca-Cola Food Mela With a splash of food. Coca-Cola’s brand positioning of providing deep down refreshment for the body. the Coca-Cola food mela treated t he people of Karachi. Coca-Cola realizing the fact that cricket is a very strong element by which it can reach it consumers & masses invested in the opportunity and launched a massi ve campaign on mass media showing all these cricket stars endorsing & compliment ing CocaCola brand. The TVC campaign focused on the hectic lifestyle of a pop star who f ound respite & relief through Coca-Cola in short moments that he had to himself during a concert. all resiliently upholding th e Coca-Cola identity. Coca-Cola brought Abrar to his fans through holding concerts & featuring Abrar in a much-appreciated TVC & MMT featured throughout t he country. Th e competition has become tougher & tougher as the time has progressed. 38 . These bold steps taken by the Coca-Cola marketing unit accla imed them many acknowledgements across the board. to a festive food festival comprising of 50 restaurants. Coca-Cola signed a sponsorship agreement with eight of Pakistan’s National cricket players. This campaign helped Coca-Cola to establish its association with the game & the player. watched & played game in Pakistan . soul & mind were captured accurately in the TVC & depicted aptly how the drink completes the moment for Abrar.SALES PROMOTION ACTIVITIES Coca-Cola Cricket Cricket the most sought after. His enormous popularity in the country & abroad is suppor ted by Coca-Cola’s commitment towards providing healthy & fun-filled entertainment for the youth of Pakistan. The promotion saw the avid families & friends enjoying the delicacies at the restaurants. Coca-Cola Concerts Abrar-ul-haq’s distinct style.the game of cr icket has been owned by various brands in the industry for the promotion of thei r products over a period of time. fun & prizes to be won.

Coca-Cola also hosted a concert of p op idol Abrar-ul-haq. served well to promote the Coca -Cola industry. Coca-Cola give the more refreshing flavor to the colors of basant by adding more life to the festiv al. Liberty marketing Gulberg was a hive of activity during the weeklong shoppin g extravaganza. it has been impossible to envisage basant without Coca-Cola. great prizes & fire wor ks.Coca-Cola Basant Festival In February the month of basant the parks & horticulture authority in Lahore nom inated Coca-Cola the official sponsor of the basant festival . where Junoon performed. Coca-Cola’s “GO-RED” teams went out into the cities main quadrants to “ser ve & refresh” on the spot with ice-cold Coca-Colas at discounted prices backed by a heavy FM announcement campaign the “GO-RED” stall. Targeting house wives & family home.10 million households saw Coca-Cola ‘Party in a Park’ while 10 t housand people attended the event.5 liter Pet bottle.Coca-Cola added to the carnival atmosphere by making the festival free to enter & decorating all m ain roads in Lahore with illuminated kites. live music.A treat for the family.Go out & get some 39 . Coca-Cola launched 1. Coca-Cola created an experiential musical evening in Lahore.5 liter Pet contour bottle for the first time in P akistan. Coca-Cola’s 1. Now “where there is basant there is Coca-Cola”. The in augural event proved so popular that it is now set to bec ome an annual fixture. Coca-Cola Pet Promotion In 1996. to ok the limelight & gained momentum with a campaign promoting the unique packagin g and its numerous consumer benefits . Coca-Cola’s PET was offered through a “price-off” promotion that said………. Coca-Cola GO-RED Quenching the thirst of motorist. Coca-Cola Party in a Park In June 2000. giving the consumer a unique experience which they had never tasted before. Coca-Cola Shopping Festival Coca-Cola hosted “The Coca-Cola Shopping Festival” Lahore’s first shopping festival. a resounding success with tempting discounts. had children’s parade & held the Coca-Cola kite flying champ ionship during the basant festival. pedestrians & passerby’s during Lahore’s hottest s ummer season. This program was recorded and one-hour program shown in the n ational TV for free.

marketing the popular 1. both shares glo bally. Cau ght red handed become a huge success among the masses as it was one to one inter action between the Coca-Cola brand & the consumers. This activity helped billed confidence and brand loyalty among core consumers. The emphasis on enjoying Coca-Cola at “If tar” with friends & family. NEWYORK. Coca-Cola went ahead with the idea of giving consumer chances to win fabulous. Coca-Cola & Mc Donald’s Coca-Cola & key account of MC Donald’s launched the “we go together” joint promotion t o reinstate amongst consumers a real sense of the affinity that. rendering an outstanding testimonial campaign in the second phase. Branded Coca-Cola with ‘caught red hande d’ team in them went to Lahore & Karachi for three days. hig hlighting the winners over whelmed in the magical delight of their favorite beve rage Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola & Nokia In August 2001. Coca Cola TV Mazza The coca cola new campaign is coca cola tv mazza. magical “dream va cation” to numerous “wonder destination” throughout the world on every purchase of a 2 50 ml RGB bottle of Coca-Cola.The promotion gave consumer a chan ce to win thousand’s of Coca-Cola branded Nokia 3310 cellular phones on every purc hase of 750ml RGB bottle of Coca-Cola . it is a utc scheme in which pe ople are getting television sets of different sizes.Coca-Cola Ramzan Campaign A very special occasion for the people of Pakistan Ramzan saw another very speci al CocaCola’s promotion.Sprite. Bunting etc) displa yed at all MC Donald’s restaurants along with a special offer for coke & fries. Coca-Cola Wonder of the World Promotion In July 2000.5 liter PET bottle & the 1 liter bottle with a super price-off promotion. & Fanta. The promotion sa w avid consumer collecting Coca-Cola ‘Crown caps’ & sparked a keen response from the public . 40 . These days this scheme is v ery popular among the people. & Fanta. with target that anyone b eing caught drinking Coca-Cola will be awarded a nokia 3310 mobile phone & if so meone is caught talking on a nokia mobile will win free supply of Coca-Cola. Sprite. HOLLYWOOD. The promotion kicked off with pos material (Danglers. the new under-the-crown promotion “Nikla Kiya?”(What have u won) was launched in collaboration with Chimera Nokia. SINGAPORE & CAIRO a long with airfare & four nights free stay in these dream lands. a trip to PARIS.The other highlight of pr omotion was the “Caught Red Handed” campaign. Coca-Cola set the stage of the grand UTC promotion.The promotion gave consumers a ch ance to win free drink.

the company has successfully launched its first new product. but the major hit was thematic fashion shows in restaurants. On the Go Packs” flaunting the innov Fanta & Sprite are sure to enjoy considerable succe Diet Coke After the acquisition of the individual local franchise bottling facilities in 1 996. the Sprite & Fanta brands. The Coca-Cola Company declared the new “NonR & Fanta as the “New. 41 . ss in Pakistan. The was linked with three fashion shows as Di et Coke is related to fashion & fitness. which are the key accounts of the company as this has been never done before in Pakistan. for the first time in almost 3 years. the consumers in Pakista essence. diet coke.Fanta & Sprite Launched In November 2000moving on to n witnessed a soft launch in eturnable” bottles of Sprite ative packaging convenience.

42 . we come to the conclusion that the marketing strategy o f Coca Cola is working for them and the product is gaining popularity among yout h day by day. • They should also focus the old people . so providing more satisfaction to them company should introduce ½ liter disposa ble bottle. RECOMMENDATIONS After completing our project we have concluded some recommendation for the coca cola company. conducted by the international firm Pakistani people li ke little bit sweeter cola drink. • According to the survey.CONCLUSION After thorough research. • Now young generation has a trend to drink a coke 2 regular bottles at same tim e. which are following. • Coca Cola Company should try to emphasis more on providing their infrastructure in the market to facilitate their customers. • Marketing team should try to increas e the availability of Coke in rural areas. So for this coca cola company should produce t heir product according to the local demand.

And t here are some exceptional things like: “environmental protection laws” they some wha t effect the industry of Coke. So. military take over. And the second thing in political variables which effects Coke is “elec tions & military take over” Because in the days of elections and marshal law’s condi tion the countries production in any field is declined.PEST ANALYSIS OF COCA-COLA There are four variables. So it impact good for the Coke’s r eputation. But after making the adjustments in plants and applying the proper way of wastage the chances of being affected b y the “protection laws” are going to be diminished. they are: POLITICAL VARIABLES Political variables Effects of government regulations & deregulations Effect of environmental protection laws if any Import and export regulations Effect of pol itical conditions in certain countries of Coke Any effect of election. 43 . So “political conditions” are over all leave neutral effects on coke’s industry. So it affects slightly t he revolution of Coke. Revolution at Coke Strongly Effected ++ Some what Effected + No Effec t +− NE Some what Effected − Strongly Effected −− YES NE NE YES Conclusion Of Political Analysis: As far as the above table is concerned it could be seen that there are very litt le chances of “political variables” to effect the coke’s production and selling behavi or. From last two years Government is going to be rea lly very much conscious about the environment. which we will discuss in our report. In the “political variables” most of the things are related to Governmental acti vities. they don’t leave any good or bad impact in the Industry of coke.

When we draw the conclusion of “economic variables”. Eco nomic factors are those actors who effect the production of any industry.800 people. And inflation is also not a good position for any country’s prod uction point of view. It also impacts highly negative in the Coke’s production.S). If the economic conditions of the country is not that strong and Coke increases its Price in this situation. During the last 2 yea rs. the Coca-Cola system in Pakistan has involved over $130 million (U. An d as a country concerned like “Pakistan” where the unemployment rate is very much hi gh. The Coca-Cola system in Pakistan employs 1. Co ke is not the out of question. 44 .ECONOMICAL VARIABLES Economical Variables Do soaring interest rates make business task any harder Any effect due to inflation Anything done to reduce unemployment Any effect of 11th September 2001. Then we come to know that if economi c variables are in the favorable position of country then they impact good other wise the impact highly bad. incident at Coke in Pakistan Strongly Effected ++ Some what Eff ected + No Effect + − Some what Effected − Strongly Effected −− YES YES YES NE Conclusion Of Economical Analysis It could be seen that “economical variables” highly affects the Coke’s resolution. So. Then it would impact highly negative.

While we have always sought to be sensitive to the enviro nment. From youth in Brazil to first generation scholars. and environment Management initiatives. We’re committed to preserving our environment. The Coca-Cola Company is committed to helping people make their dreams come true. Knowledgehungry students books. 45 . waste environment education. from use of more than $ 2 billion (U. educa tional programs in local communities are our priority. we must use our significant resources and capabilities to provide active leadership on environmental issues. We want the world we share to be clean and beautiful. Strongly Effected ++ YES YES YES Some what Effected + No Effect + − Some what Effe cted − Strongly Effected −− CONCLUSION OF SOCIAL ANALYSIS EDUCATION The Coca-Cola Company has always believed that education is a powerful force in improving the quality of life and creating opportunity for people and their fami lies around the world. Here’s a sample of what we’re doing in different communities around the world regarding the conservation of water and natural res ources. This same spirit of innovation comes alive in our environment programs. supplies. All over the world. We are always innovating to bring you different delicious beverages. down to very local neighborhood coll ection and beautification efforts. ENVIRONMENT A large part or our relationship with the world around us is our relationship wi th the physical world. places to study and scholarships. climate changes.S) a year in recycling content and supplie rs. we are involved in innovative progr ams that give hard-working. particularly those relevant to our business.SOCIAL VARIABLES Social variables Effects of advertisement of Coke on Public popularity How will do Coke’s contribution affect charity organizations of Pakistan Has rising conscio usness of natural resources in people effected your “save environment activities.

And it is giving the way of other industries to c ome to new technologies and into a new world of business. because computers are the basic need of any person now a days. As coke use more advance technology in its production process. when eastern Pakistan suffered its worst droughts. This approac h of government decreases the profit margin of Coke. selected through a draw. Four of which are majority-owned by Coca-Cola Beverages Pakistan Limited (CCBPL). As the coke helping in prom oting “paperless environment” . As far as the “governm ental hindrances” are concerned the impacts highly bad on coke’s production.The Coca-Cola system in Pakistan operates through eight bottlers. Through computers coke can increase the efficiency of its business and can have up –to-date data about t heir productions. Ever ye ar when budget in announced government taxes rates always shoot up. The Coca-Cola system in Pakistan initiated a voluntary Ha jj program that allows one employee from each plant. TECHNOLOGICAL VARIABLES Technological variables Have business innovations effectively promoted your busi ness Has the government’s regulations ever hindered in importing technical equipme nt Does Coke help in promoting paperless environment Strongly Effected ++ YES So me what Effected + No Effect + − Some what Effected − Strongly Effected −− YES YES Conclusion Of Technological Analysis Of course business innovation leaves highly good impacts in the business of Coke . COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT: In 2000. to be sent on the Holy Pilgrimage to Mecca at the Company’s expense.it impacts good. And though it’s a big industry so it is promoting the t rend of paperless environment. It will resulte d in increment of their production through out the country. 46 . The Coca-Cola system initiated a famine-relief program to help victims and was the first private-sec tor company to assist.

Situated on Raiw and Road. Coca-Cola is a close competitor of Pepsi an d it certainly gives its rival a tough time. Pakistani rock stars. L ahore plant of Coca-Cola is one of the beautiful plant in Asia. w e came up with the very interesting report of facts and figures. Coca-Cola has always had a close consumer and supplier relationship wi th its customers. p romotions and recreational campaign. Its entertaining and colorful advertisements have always and w ill always rock the media. Coca-Cola has about 2000 employees at Pakistani plants.OVER ALL RESULTS OF PEST ANANYSIS After our studies and analysis of CCBPL (Coca-Cola Beverages Private Limited). CocaCola is a 27% shareholder in th e Pakistan market and they don’t want to stop here!! Its target market is to achie ve a much higher %age. Coca-Cola is no doubt one of the most popular beverage company and its product COKE is one of m ost consumed cola drink. sportmen and actors have played a very vital role in making CocaCola such a popular beverage. 47 . They spend billion of dollars on their advertisement.

Coca-Cola is one of the le aders in sponsoring the most important.CONCLUSION: Coca-Cola no doubt come the heart beat of Pakistanis. Cricket matches. So… “ Jo chaho ho jaye cocacola enjoy ” 48 . Event at the present they are organizi ng a Basant festival for which they busily organizing stuff. E. thrilling events.g. concerts and many other social occasions.

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