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# INTERNATIONAL AMMUNITION TECHNICAL GUIDELINE

IATG 01.80

First edition 2011-10-01

Formulae for ammunition management

IATG 01.80:2011[E]

© UN ODA 2011

IATG 01.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01)

Warning

The International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG) are subject to regular review and revision. This document is current with effect from the date shown on the cover page. To verify its status, users should consult the UN SaferGuard IATG project through the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) website at www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition.

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This document is an International Ammunition Technical Guideline and is copyright protected by the United Nations. Neither this document, nor any extract from it, may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, for any other purpose without prior written permission from UNODA, acting on behalf of the United Nations. This document is not to be sold. United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY 10017, USA

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..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11 Air blast ......................................................................................................................................1 Background......................................................1................. 4 Reflected pressure..................................................................... v Formulae for ammunition management...............2.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Basic equations........ Sachs scaling law .....................................4.............. 4 6........ 3 Shock front velocity......................................... Scope.....2..................1..............................1 8....................................................................... 6.......................................5..................3................................4 Simple range safety distances................................................2..................................................................................................................2 Effects on structures................................... 4 Incident Pressure ................................................2 Ballistics.................................................................1.......................... 6.......... 6..................................................................................................................................1 6........2 9................................................................ 7 General impulse......................................... 3 Air density behind the shock front .................... 6 Reflection coefficient..........2..3 9............................................................................................................1 7....................................................2.........................................................................................................4............................................................................................................. 6..................3.................. 7 Scaled impulse ............1 10........2 Explosive parameters .......... Kingery and Bulmash...........8 Gurney ........................................................ 3 Particle velocity.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 10 10.................................... 5 Reflected Pressure ........................1 Terms and definitions ..................1 9.....................................................................................2....................................................................... iv Introduction .......... 12 ii .......1..................................................... 6............................... 5 Reflected Impulse ......................................2 Hopkinson-Cranz scaling law ............1..............3 Rankine-Hugoniot (shock front parameters) ................................80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Contents Contents.....................................................................................................................2 6................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9 Basic equations (alternative)...7 Detonation pressure........................................... 8 Simple fragment range estimation ..........................................................................1........................................................................................................................................................................ 6............................................2............................................................ 7 7 7............................................................................................................. 6............... 6 6............................................................................................... ii Foreword .............................................................................2 Air blast..................................... 7 8 8........................................................ 10 Simple noise prediction ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Impulse ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Normative references .................................................1.... 7 TNT equivalence...................................................................1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6...........................1........ 11 Fragmentation....................................................................5................................... 9 9 9..................5......................................................................................4 6............................................................... 6.......3 6.....................................................................................................................................................................................IATG 01............................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Dynamic pressure ................................... 10 Vertical danger areas ...................................... 5 Incident Impulse....................................5 6.....................................

......................................16 Annex B (informative) References ....17 iii .............................................................80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 10..............................................................................................13 Individual risk ................................................................................................. 14 Secondary blast injury levels....................................................................15 Annex A (normative) References.......................................................................... 14 12 Underground storage.......................................................................................3 Ground shock...........................................................................................................................................................................3 Effects on people ..................................IATG 01........................ 13 Primary blast injury levels ....................................................................................................................................2 11.......................1 11. 12 11 11................................................................

ranging from categorisation and accounting systems – essential for ensuring safe handling and storage and for identifying surplus – to physical security systems. 28 July 2008. The latest version of each guideline. The Group was mandated by A/RES/61/72. the General Assembly welcomed the report of the group and strongly encouraged 2 States to implement its recommendations.IATG 01. reviewing and revising these guidelines was conducted under the United Nations SaferGuard Programme by a technical review panel consisting of experts from Member States. 2 1 UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution A/RES/63/61. and to incorporate changes due to amendments to appropriate international regulations and requirements. governmental and non-governmental organisations. together with information on the work of the technical review panel. A central recommendation made by the group was for technical guidelines for the stockpile management of ammunition to be developed within the United Nations. 6 December 2006.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition. These IATG will be regularly reviewed to reflect developing ammunition stockpile management norms and practices. with the support of international. Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus. Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus.un. now commonly known as International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG). UN General Assembly A/63/182.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Foreword In 2008. (Report of the Group of Governmental Experts). This provided the mandate to the United Nations for developing ‘technical guidelines for the stockpile management of conventional ammunition’. The group noted that cooperation with regard to effective stockpile management needs to endorse a ‘whole life management’ approach. Subsequently. iv . The work of preparing. Problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus. and including surveillance and testing procedures to assess the stability and reliability of ammunition. 2 December 2008. can be found at www. a United Nations group of governmental experts reported to the General Assembly on 1 problems arising from the accumulation of conventional ammunition stockpiles in surplus.

This requires. v . a risk-based approach .80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Introduction The nature of ammunition and explosives with their potential for unplanned. This IATG summarise the scientific formulae that are either useful or essential to safe. which should be based on sound explosive engineering and science. effective and efficient stockpile management. Risk management decisions based on more complete knowledge can be made if the likelihood of an explosives accident can be taken into account as well as the consequences.10 Introduction to Risk Management Principles and Processes contains further information on risk-based approaches to conventional ammunition stockpile management. Their detailed use is explained in the other topic-specific IATG in the remainder of the guidelines or in the accompanying IATG software. by necessity.IATG 01. 3 IATG 02. This requires knowledge of the range of scientifically accepted formulae that can be used to support decisionmaking and risk management during conventional ammunition stockpile management. violent reaction makes it necessary to develop recommendations and guidelines for safe conventional ammunition 3 management stockpile management.

The term ‘brisance’ refers to the shattering effect or power of an explosion or explosive. as well as the more comprehensive list given in IATG 01. For dated references. 'should'. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. definitions and abbreviations. The term ‘quantity distance’ refers to the designated safe distance between a potential explosion site and an exposed site. 'may' and 'can' are used to express provisions in accordance with their usage in ISO standards. A further list of informative references is given at Annex B in the form of a bibliography.IATG 01.40:2011(E) Terms. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this guide the following terms and definitions. The term ‘risk management’ refers to the complete risk-based decision-making process. 1 . 'may' indicates permission: It is used to indicate a course of action permissible within the limits of the document. or that a certain course of action is preferred but not necessarily required. 'should not') a certain possibility or course of action is deprecated but not prohibited.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Formulae for ammunition management 1 Scope This IATG introduces and summarises scientifically proven and sound formulae that may be used to support the decision-making and risk management processes essential for the safe and effective 4 stockpile management of conventional ammunition. They are summarised here for ease of reference in their use later. The term ‘risk’ refers to a combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. only the edition cited applies. c) 4 The detailed use of the formulae is explained in the other topic specific IATG in the remainder of the guidelines. which lists additional documents that contain other useful information on formulae for the stockpile management of conventional ammunition. the complementary IATG software or in other more specific technical IATG. A list of normative references is given in Annex A. 'should' indicates a recommendation: It is used to indicate that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly suitable. without mentioning or excluding others. Normative references are important documents to which reference is made in this guide and which form part of the provisions of this guide. the words 'shall'. In all modules of the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines. a) b) 'shall' indicates a requirement: It is used to indicate requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to the document and from which no deviation is permitted. The term ‘hazard’ refers to a potential source of harm. Guidance on their appropriate use is either contained within this IATG. For undated references. shall apply. or that (in the negative form.

4 Background Ammunition and explosives. although the software does allow the user to input alternative ‘Z’ values. their quantity. This IATG contains formulae that should be used to support risk management processes within conventional ammunition stockpile management and summarises their potential use. (See IATG 02. UK Ordnance Board Minutes 13565. which are worst case. which differs for each ‘Z’ function.20 Quantity and separation distances for detailed information). physical or casual. if not managed correctly. a latent hazard to local communities in their vicinity.8 Hopkinson B. The Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law is also referred to as the Cube Root Scaling Law: (R1/R2) = (W1/W2) R = Z. yet much of the resultant negative impact on local communities would have been preventable if effective risk management systems had been developed and implemented. Cranz C. Remarks Additionally minimum safe distances further apply if R is below a certain level. It is the basis of much of the work on the estimation of appropriate quantity and separation distances. Springer-Verlag. Undesirable explosive events regularly occur in ammunition storage areas globally. Berlin. whether material. Lehrbuch der Ballistik. Used to predict separation distances between an explosive storehouse (ESH) and a public traffic route with civilian access.W 1/3 1/3 R = Range (m) Z = Constant of Proportionality (dependent on acceptable blast overpressure) W = Explosive Weight (kg) Table 1: Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law Examples of the constant ‘Z’ used in explosive storage safety are shown in Table 2: Z 8. More detailed information on the use of each formula is contained within the topic specific IATG in the remainder of the guidelines. 1915. The use of proven and sound explosive science and engineering is therefore essential in supporting the risk management processes necessary to achieve safe and efficient conventional ammunition stockpile management. present an inherent risk during storage and. by their very nature.IATG 01. 5 Hopkinson-Cranz scaling law Many States use rules based upon the explosives. 7 These are the default ‘Z’ settings in the IATG Software. NOTE 1 It is not always possible to provide the separation distances called for by Q-D. 1916. 6 5 2 . and the distance from the explosive to where people are at risk. These rules are known as Quantity-Distance (Q-D) criteria.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) d) ‘can’ indicates possibility and capability: It is used for statements of possibility and capability. which is further amended by a range of coefficients. 5 6 and are based on the approach derived from the Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law . 14. and an alternative risk analysis system of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) may be used.0 7 Purpose Used to predict separation distances between ammunition process buildings (APB) within an explosive storage area (ESA).

The Rankine-Hugoniot equations are only applicable under the condition that the particle velocity ahead of the shock front is zero and that the air behaves as an ideal gas (with a specific heat ratio of 1. (c/(1 + (6 Ps . reflected pressure.20 Quantity and separation distances.4) 3 . Rankine-Hugoniot (shock front parameters)9 Shock front velocity Vsf = Shock Front Velocity (m/s) c = Speed of Sound (m/s) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Vsf = c .1.4 Further details on the practical use of this formula are contained within IATG 02. and particle velocity. Table 2: Examples of Constant ‘Z’ Remarks 44. shock front velocity. 8 These parameters can be derived using the Rankine-Hugoniot equations. a school).2 Purpose Used to predict separation distances between an explosive storehouse (ESH) and a building inhabited by civilians. Elsevier.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Z 22.g. density. dynamic pressure.1. 1979.1. The Dynamics of Explosion and its Use. 6. Particle velocity Vp = Particle Velocity (m/s) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) c = Speed of Sound (m/s) Vp = (5Ps/7P0). 7P0)) ) 1/2 Table 4: Particle velocity 8 9 Rankine W J H.2. Amsterdam. 6 Air blast The characteristic parameters of a blast wave with a sudden pressure discontinuity at the shock front are as follows: a) b) c) d) e) f) over-pressure.1 6. Used to predict separation distances between an explosive storehouse (ESH) and a vulnerable building inhabited by civilians (e. (1 + (6Ps/7P0)) 1/2 Table 3: Shock front velocity 6.IATG 01.

Airblast Parameters from TNT Spherical Air Burst and Hemispherical Surface Burst. April 1984.1. Their report contains a compilation of data from explosive tests using charge weights from less than 1kg to over 400.1. which are included in the accompanying software to the IATG for ease of application. Ballistics Research Laboratory. 10 11 Normally reflected pressure.2 Kingery and Bulmash Equations to estimate blast over-pressure at range have been developed by Charles Kingery and Gerald Bulmash. 4 . The equations are summarised in Tables 8 – 13 for information. US Technical Report ARBRL-TR-02555. The authors used curve-fitting techniques to represent the data with high-order polynomial equations. Reflected pressure 10 Pr = 2Ps . Aberdeen Proving Ground. as opposed to quasi-static blast loading at a given moment of time: Pd = 5Ps + 2(Ps + 7P0) 2 Pd = Peak Dynamic Pressure (kPa) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Table 6: Dynamic pressure 6. 3) Reflected Pressure. These equations are widely accepted as engineering predictions for determining free-field pressures and loads on structures and form the basis of the US Conventional Weapons 11 Effects Programme (CONWEP) software.10 Introduction to risk management processes and the accompanying IATG software.2). 2) Incident Impulse. ((7P0 + 4Ps)/(7P0 = Ps)) Pr = Peak Reflected Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) Table 7: Reflected pressure Further details on the practical use of these formulae are contained within IATG 02. Charles N Kingery and Gerald Bulmash. Maryland. and 4) Reflected Impulse.4.20 Quantity and separation distances or the Explosion Consequence Analysis concept in IATG 02.3. The numerical values for the constants ‘C’ and ‘K’ are those for a 1kg TNT equivalent charge. Air density behind the shock front Dsf = Air Density behind Shock Front (kg/m3) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) Dair = Air Density Dsf = (7 + (6 Ps /7P0)/( 7 + Ps/7P0)) . where functions to represent the air blast parameters versus distance in metres for a 1kg TNT spherical free-air burst are shown for: 1) Incident Pressure. Predictions for other explosives will require that the TNT equivalence be first estimated (Clause 7.000kg.IATG 01. Dynamic pressure The dynamic pressure during blast loading of a structure is a function of the pressure over time.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 6.5. USA. Dair Table 5: Air density behind the shock front 6.1. 6.

35034249993T Then substitute U into Y = 2.0.00152044783382U7 0.30629231803T Then substitute U into Y = 1.443749377691U + 0.. 5 .34723921354 + 3.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Y = C0 + C1U + C2U + C3U ..05 – 40m.3.2 etc = Constant U = K0 + K1T K0.00793030472242U7 + 0. U = -1.0m). in other words immediately next to the explosive charge.55197227115 .0006750681404U4 .. U = 2..611368669 .24299066475T Then substitute U into Y = 2.168825414684U2 + 0.00478507266747U6 + 0.05 – 40m.1 .0007684469735UR U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 9: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Incident Pressure 6...0.0.IATG 01.. Incident Pressure This equation has a range of applicability from 0.0531m.2.1.0080086371B901U5 = 0.08092286198R8U5 0.75305660315 + 0.69012801396U + 0.CnU Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) C0.792 – 40. 1 etc = Constant T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Table 8: Kingery and Bulmash general polynomial form 6.2..38830516757 .0142721946082U2 + 0.1.0007470265899U8 U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 11: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Incident Impulse 6.0.2.40463292088U 0.00912366316617U3 0....2.0348138030308U3 0.336743114941U3 0.010435192824U4 U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 10: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Incident Impulse (very near field) The equation at Table 11 is applicable for ranges as the blast wave moves away from the explosive charge (0.00314819515931U6 + 0.00516226351334U4 .00804973591951U2 + 0.214362789151 + 1. Incident Impulse The equation at Table 10 is only applicable for the near field range of 0. U = -0. Reflected Pressure This equation has a range of applicability from 0.

35034249993T Then substitute U into Y = 3. where ambient conditions can be 12 very different from those at sea level. (T0/Tz) Scaled Impulse at Altitude ‘z’ 1/3 1/2 St = (P0/Pz) .80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) U = -0.0242139751146U3 Table 13: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Reflected Impulse Further details on the practical use of these formulae are contained within the Explosion Consequence Analysis concept in IATG 02.0. The dependence of Blast on Ambient Pressure and Temperature.3 Sachs scaling law In the case of blast waves from explosions produced at altitude.00397126276058U9 U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Table 12: Kingery and Bulmash polynomial for Reflected Pressure 6.33kPa) Pz = Pressure at Altitude ‘z’ (kPa) Spz = Scaled Pressure at Altitude ‘z’ (kPa) Siz = Scaled Impulse at Altitude ‘z’ (kg. Ballistics Research Laboratory.0.657599992109U3 + 0. Aberdeen Proving Ground.05 – 40m.160K) Tz = Temperature at Altitude ‘z’ (K) St = Scaled Times at Altitude ‘z’ (s) 6.101771877942U2 .903118886091U + 0.4. Reflected Impulse This equation has a range of applicability from 0. Maryland.4 Reflection coefficient The Reflection Coefficient is used during explosion consequence analysis (ECA) to compare Peak Reflected Pressure against Peak Side-On Pressure: Sachs R G. 12 6 . the most commonly used scaling law is that due to Sachs.10 Introduction to risk management processes and the accompanying IATG software.55875660396 .IATG 01.0158699803158U6 + 0.0. U = 0.035119031446U2 + 0.243076636231U5 0.2.204004553231 + 1.m/s) T0 = Ambient Temperature (K) (288.21400538997U + 0. 6. Technical Report 466.0. USA.2. May 1944.0492741184234U7 + 0.00227639644004U8 .214362789151 + 1. (T0/Tz) Table 14: Sachs scaling factors Sdz = Scaled Distance at Altitude ‘z’ (m) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) (101.0141818951887U4 . The application of the Sachs scaling law leads to the formulation of altitude scaling factors. Scaled Distance at Altitude ‘z’ 1/3 Sdz = (P0/Pz) Scaled Pressure at Altitude ‘z’ Spz = (Pz/P0) Scaled Impulse at Altitude ‘z’ 2/3 1/2 Siz = (Pz/P0) .22958031387 .37882996018T Then substitute U into U = K0 + K1T T = Common Logarithm of the Distance (m) Y = Common Logarithm of the Air Blast Parameter (metric) (Pressure or Impulse) Y = 2.

5 6. Is = ʃ Ps .e. (i.5 .0000001) Pdet = Detonation Pressure (GPa) Vd = Velocity of Detonation of Explosive (m/s) D = Density (g/cm3) Table 18: Detonation Pressure 7.m/s) P0 = Ambient Pressure (kPa) M = Mass of Individual (kg) Isi = Is / 1/2 P0 .1. Scaled impulse The scaled impulse is often used to predict the effects of blast on humans: Isi = Scaled Impulse (kg.1 Explosive parameters Detonation pressure The Detonation Pressure of an explosive provides an indicator of its ability to do work and determines whether it is a high brisance or low brisance explosive. Vd .5. 7 .m/s) Is = Side-On Impulse (kg.m 1/3 Table 17: Scaled Impulse on Individuals 7 7. Impulse General impulse The decisive parameter for the damage caused by air blast is the positive overpressure impulse.IATG 01.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Cr = Pr / Ps Cr = Reflection Coefficient Pr = Peak Reflected Pressure (kPa) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) Table 15: Reflection Coefficient 6. It can be approximated as shown in Table 18: Pdet = 2.m/s) Ps = Peak Side-On Pressure (kPa) t = Time (s) Table 16: General Impulse 6.2 TNT equivalence The majority of air blast and impulse equations predict for TNT. t. (D/0. defined by the total area below the pressure-time curve). and it is therefore desirable to convert the explosive mass into equivalent TNT charge mass. It should be determined by integration of the positive over-pressure phase. dt Is = Side-On Impulse (kg.2.5.

14 1.035 .96 Pressure Range (MPa) 0.350 0.07 1. mortar bombs and missile warheads. These are accurate enough for design purposes. and Grenades.09 1.08 1.700 Table 20: TNT Equivalence 8 8.IATG 01.06 1.00 0.1 Ballistics Gurney 13 The Gurney Equations are a range of formulae used in explosives engineering to predict how fast an explosive will accelerate a surrounding layer of metal or other material when the explosive detonates. Aberdeen. This determines how fast fragments are released on detonation of an item of ammunition.035 . W. Mexp MTNTe = TNT Equivalent Mass (kg) Edexp = Specific Detonation Energy of Explosive (J/kg) EdTNT) = Specific Detonation Energy of TNT (J/kg) Mexp = Mass of Explosive (kg) Table 19: TNT Equivalence Table 20 contains pre-calculated TNT equivalence factors for a range of high explosives.0.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) MTNTe = (E d exp/E TNT) d . These are beyond the scope of this IATG and have hence been excluded.350 0.19 1.27 1. 17 There are other Gurney equations for symmetrical. This initial fragment velocity can then be used with other ballistic equations to predict either danger areas or fragment penetration.035 . The Initial Velocities of Fragments from Bombs.070 .0.0.11 1. asymmetrical.06 1.0.0. 1943.00 1.0.350 0.700 0.98 1.021 . Shells.140 Standard 0. BRL-405.01 1. USA.14 1. 8 . R. Cylindrical Charge Equation -1/2 (V/√2E) = ((M/Cexp) + ½)) 14 Spherical Charge Equation -1/2 (V/√2E) = ((M/Cexp) + 3/5)) 15 V = Initial Fragment Velocity (m/s) √2E = Gurney Constant for a given explosive (m/s) M = Mass of Fragment (kg)16 Cexp = Explosive Charge Mass (kg) Table 21: Gurney Equations17 13 Gurney.035 .700 0.0. Ballistic Research Laboratory. open faced and infinitely tamped sandwiches.07 Impulse 0.09 1.37 1. 15 Use for military grenades and some cluster bomblets.035 . 16 For an artillery shell this is usually the base for which an estimate of mass is made from the total body mass. Explosive Composition B Composition C3 Composition C4 Octol 75/25 PETN RDX RDX / TNT 60/40 (Cyclotol) Tetryl TNT Tritonal TNT Equivalent Mass Peak Pressure 1. Maryland. 14 First order approximation for most high explosive artillery shells.

72 1.438 2.499 2.972 2.700 Gurney Constant √2E (m/s) 1.530 2.71 1.72 Detonation Velocity (m/s) 6.63 1.570 6. 8) target composition etc. This information was obtained from a UK MOD KGH/Safety Services Organisation paper on Danger Areas dated 31 July 1990. Mott Fragmentation etc.830 8.20/01 Estimation of Explosion Danger Areas (Version 2.71 1. AWE Foulness.100 7. They may be used for ‘quick planning’ on demolition ranges with existing danger areas.700 8. 22 These equations are based on work conducted by Mr Pilgrim. Geneva.81 1.920 7. 9 . but as it does not reflect any of the characteristics of the munition. 6) effects of gravity.2 Simple fragment range estimation19 A simple equation to predict the range of a fragment is at Table 23.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) The Gurney Constant √2E is usually very close to 1/3 of the Detonation Velocity of the explosive.896 2.926 2.480 8. If used on demolition areas with no formal danger 18 19 Densities and detonation velocities are approximate as explosive mixtures vary. 2) fragment shape. GICHD. 3) material density.316 Table 22: Gurney Constants 8.71 1.800 7. 20 Air Drag. 5) drag coefficient. it should be used with great caution: R = Range (m) V0 = Initial Fragment Velocity (m/s) g = Gravity (m/s2) θ = Launch Angle (Radians) Table 23: Simple Range Prediction R = (V0/g) . 7) ballistic flight stability.IATG 01. 18 Table 22 contains the Gurney Constants for a range of high explosives: Explosive Amatol Composition B Composition C4 HMX Octol 75/25 PETN RDX RDX / TNT 60/40 (Cyclotol) Tetryl TNT Tritonal Density 3 (kg/m ) 1. nor account for drag.78 1.0). Fragment Slow Down.886 2. 4) initial velocity.260 8. Further details on their use are available there.1 Simple range safety distances22 Basic equations The following simple safety distances can be used to estimate range danger areas when planning the destruction of ammunition by open detonation.402 2. 20 9 9.774 2.800 8.926 2.62 1.71 1. See Technical Note for Mine Action (TNMA) 10. Sin 2θ More accurate predictions rely on a range of complex ballistic equations due to the large number 21 of variables involved. UK. Therefore more detailed range analysis should only be used by qualified personnel and hence are not discussed further in this IATG.860 6. QInetiQ uses derivatives of these equations in their trials work. 21 For example: 1) fragment size.82 1.

1/3 D = 314(AUW) For multi-item fragmenting munitions.1 and 9. Results from the equation in Table 25 compare favourably with those for the public access denied equation in Table 24: a) b) c) the ordnance is arranged in a linear array and NOT a stack. 1/6 D = 444(AUW) For bare exposed explosive only. the ordnance is detonated simultaneously. 1/3 D = 130(AUW) Table 24: Simple Range Safety Distances D = Distance (m) AUW = All Up Weight of Ammunition or Bare Explosives (kg) 9.3 Vertical danger areas The equations to estimate the vertical danger areas necessary to warn air traffic of demolitions taking place on the ground differ slightly from Clauses 9. For single ammunition item only. D = 370(AUW) 1/5 D = Distance (m) AUW = All Up Weight of Ammunition or Bare Explosives (kg) Table 25: Simple Range Safety Distances (Alternative) 9. For fragmenting munitions when public access is possible to the demolition range area. and the items are GREATER than one charge diameter apart.2 Basic equations (alternative) The Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) conducted research in March 1997 into multi-item demolition of ammunition and explosives.IATG 01. 1/6 D = 634(AUW) For fragmenting munitions when public access is denied to the demolition range area.2 as no ballistic parabola needs to be taken into account. They concluded that fragmentation explosion danger areas for multi-item demolitions can be reduced to that of the largest Net Explosive Quantity single munition in the demolition provided. They are NOT absolutely safe. 1/5 D = 470(AUW) Table 26: Vertical danger Areas D = Distance (m) AUW = All Up Weight of Ammunition or Bare Explosives (kg) 10 .80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) areas the user should remember that the distance produced by these equations is that distance outside which no more than one fragment would be expected to fly.

CB Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired with extensive work. The blast effect of explosions. Partial demolition of walls up to 25% of the whole. Partial or total collapse of roof structure. Houses requiring repairs to remedy serious inconvenience but remain habitable. Does not exceed minor structural damage. elasticity and ductility. Remarks 50% . trials and war damage data. This analysis correlates the structural damage with the distance from the explosion and the charge mass involved.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 9. 26 Through the work of: 1) Scilly N F and High W G. 11 . UK. 4) diffraction loading effects.IATG 01. Severe damage to load bearing partitions necessitating demolition and replacement. Houses so badly damaged they are beyond repair and require demolition. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 1968. 2) structure material strength. 10. 7) local topography etc. Partitions and joinery wrenched from fittings. Loss prevention and safety promotion 5. Explosion induced damage categories for brick built housing have been developed which may be used in explosion consequence analysis to illustrate the potential severity of the effects of an undesirable explosion: Category A B Definition Houses completely demolished. 1999. Derivation of the British Explosives Safety Distances.1 Air blast Rough estimates for structural damage due to air blast may be obtained from empirically derived models based on an analysis of accidents. 6) building orientation to blast loading. Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired reasonably quickly. Remaining walls have gaping cracks that are unrepairable. 3) structural response to blast loading. and 2) Jarrett D E. 23 24 Source: QinetiQ Shoeburyness. 1986. Article 1. The most extensive data is available for brick-built structures due to studies undertaken in World 26 War 2. CA D Table 28: Brick Built Housing Damage Categories The data analysis used to produce Table 28 led to an empirically derived formula to estimate damage range. The EU maximum permissible noise level for a single event. 5) drag loading effects. Damage to ceilings and tiling. 25 For example: 1) structure type.75% of external brickwork destroyed. Minor fragmentation effects on walls and glazing.4 Simple noise prediction 23 24 The following equation can be used to predict the distance at which 140dB expected to be achieved: D = 215 (Mexp) 1/3 of sound could be D = Distance (m) NEQ = Net Explosive Quantity (kg) Table 27: Simple Noise Prediction 10 Effects on structures The prediction of weapons effects on structures is a complex undertaking due to the large number 25 of variables involved and the impact that these variables have on structural response to blast loading. 152.

8 .80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Rx = (Kx .2 Fragmentation The extent to which fragments will penetrate structures on impact is dependent on a range of 28 variables. 10 (((D . This data is often held by the military and hence classified. V 1. 10 (((D .IATG 01. 1994.8 5. The revised values take account of the casing factor. 4) fragment material strength. 27 Gilbert S M. Therefore the prediction of fragment induced structural damage from hypothetical explosions cannot be easily predicted without access to a massive range of data.8 .6 10. Minutes of the 26th US Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board Seminar. d )/s ) . ductility and elasticity. thereby reducing the air blast energy available. 4d )) 2 1/2 x = 2. V For x/d > 2 -5 1/5 1/2 -5 1/5 1/2 1.6 28. Lees and 27 Scilly. USA.0 56. 3) fragment shape on impact. The example at Table 31 is for the penetration depth of flat-faced cylindrical fragments impacting on concrete. 28 For example: 1) building material strength.3 42. d + d) Table 31: Structural Penetration (Concrete v Flat Faced Cylinder) 10. which is the degree of energy imparted to the primary fragments from the casing. A Model Hazard Assessment of the Explosion of an Explosives Vehicle in a BuiltUp Area. For x/d < 2 x = Fragment Penetration Depth (m) d = Fragment Diameter (m) D = Fragment Density (kg/m3) s = Compressive Strength of Concrete (Pa) V = Fragment Velocity (m/s) x = (2.4 21. hence leading to very complex expressions for each possible case. 3) fragment mass.0 Table 30: ‘K’ Factors for Table 29 Gilbert. Kx for Damage Category A B CB CA D Jarrett 3.8 7. 2) fragment velocity. 12 . Mexp ) / ( 1 + (3175/Mexp) ) 1/3 2 1/6 Rx = Range for Damage Level ‘x’ (m) Kx = Constant for Damage Level ‘x’ (See Table 29) Mexp = Mass of Explosive (kg) Table 29: Damage Range to Buildings Estimation Values for Kx were initially derived by Jarrett and subsequently revised by Gilbert.3 Ground shock Ground shock can be understood as a vibration wave travelling through the ground.74 . ductility and elasticity etc. Miami.74 . d )/s ) .1 12. The wave takes the form of a sin wave and hence amplitude is a characteristic parameter.6 9. Lees and Scilly 4. Lees F P and Scilly N F. These expressions are empirically derived for specific building materials and fragment combinations. It may be used in an ECA as an example of damage that could be expected to modern building structures.

secondary blast injuries are those caused as a direct consequence of damage to buildings or structures. Third Edition. These include internal displacement of body organs or injuries caused by impact when the body is thrown against hard surfaces. The Modern technique of Rock Blasting. 11. tertiary injuries are those caused by body movement induced by the blast wave. ((K/Mexp )/D)) 1/2 A = Amplitude (m) x = Constant Mexp = Mass of Explosive (kg) K = Constant29 D = Distance (m) Table 32: Ground Shock Estimation30 Buildings of solid construction are unlikely to be damaged by amplitudes of less than 2 x 10 m whilst those of a more vulnerable construction should remain undamaged if the amplitude remains -5m 8 x 10 . major cracking damage can be expected to occur at ɸ values of 3/2 1.IATG 01. lacerations.m whereas for structures built on harder rock the degree of damage may be expected at a 3/2 lower ɸ value of 0. 2) secondary.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) A = x . The most common injuries are eardrum rupture and lung haemorrhage. For a continually exposed person. 13 . A damage index ground: 31 -4 has been developed which relates the mass of explosives and the type of ʃ = Mexp/R 3/2 ɸ = Damage Index Mexp = Mass of Explosives (kg) R = Range (m) Table 33: Damage Index For structures built on soft rock. may be used to support quantitative risk assessments (QRA) where the Individual Risk of Fatality (IR) as a result of an undesired explosion is compared to ‘tolerable risk’ of other activities or industrial processes. Explosion Hazards and Evaluation.25 kg. Therefore the Annual IR can be defined as: IR = Pe x P f l e x Ep Pe = Events per Year Pf I e = Probability of Fatality32 Ep = Probability of Exposure to Hazard Table 34: Annual Individual Risk of Fatality (IR) 29 30 31 32 The value of K is inversely proportional to the hardness of the ground. Examples of x and K may be found in Baker W E et al. AWE/GERBERS.1 Individual risk Risk is defined as ‘likelihood x consequences’ and. 11 Effects on people There are three modes of blast injury to people: 1) primary. when measured quantitatively. suffocation and crushing. Sweden. 1983. Amsterdam. a) b) c) primary blast injuries are caused by direct action of the blast wave on the body. These include blunt trauma. 1978. Langefors U and Kihlstrom B. and 3) tertiary.m . Elsevier.0 kg.

38 0. 36 These equate to the damage levels at Table 29. 11. (34. UK. Selection and Use of Explosion Effects and Consequence Models for Explosives.5 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 m.5kPa for onset of hearing damage.0 0. UK Explosive Storage and Transportation Committee. which is based on a review 35 of available literature on primary and tertiary blast effects. Lees and Scilly developed probability values for building occupants suffering fatal. See Chapter 3 to UK Health and Safety Executive. HSE.kg .84 0.66 0.047) /100) Table 35: ESTC Outdoor Blast Model 1/3 The ESTC Model is only valid within the limits of the scaled distance ‘S’ (S = R/M ) where 2. Probability Probability (Fatality or Serious Injury) Probability (Fatality.0 0. These are shown in Table 36.96 0. 207kPa for lung damage and 690kPa for fatality).2 Primary blast injury levels These should be estimated from: a) b) use of Kingary to estimate blast over-pressure at range.006 33 34 35 Bowen. Estimate of Mans Tolerance to the Direct Effects of Air Blast.62 0.096 Cb Ca 0. Houses demolished.71 0.3 Secondary blast injury levels Gilbert.13 0 0. October 1968. 34 33 An alternative methodology is to use the ESTC Outdoor Blast Model. serious 36 or light injuries. and compare blast over-pressure to injury threshold levels derived from Bowen curves. Pfatality = Probability of Fatality e = Exponential R = Range (m) M1/3 = Cube Root of Explosive Mass (kg) Pfatality = (e (-5.3 m.IATG 01. P (K + I) 1.5m. (R / M1/3) +19. Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired with extensive work. Serious Injury or Light Injury) Damage Category Aa Ab A B Damage Definition (Fatality) P(K) Houses totally demolished.kg < S < 5. For S > 5.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) 11. Houses so badly damaged they are beyond repair and require demolition.009 0.3 m.kg the fatality probability is zero whilst for S < 2.kg 100% fatalities should be expected.002 0. Houses rendered uninhabitable but can be repaired reasonably quickly.043 0.15 P (K + SI + LI) 1. 2000.785 .57 0. 14 .82 0. with the addition of Aa for complete demolition and Ab for almost complete demolition. Houses almost completely demolished.

where θ is the angle from the tunnel centre line in degrees. Where: IBD = 77 x HD x LD 1/3 HD = Hydraulic Diameter of Tunnel Mouth LD1/3 = Loading Density (kg/m3) Where: A = Cross-sectional Area of Tunnel Entrance (m2) C = Circumference of Tunnel Entrance (m) 3 HD = 4A/C LD1/3 = NEQ (VCh+ VTunnel) VCh= Chamber Volume (m ) VTunnel = Tunnel Volume (m3) Table 37: Inhabited Building Distance (IBD) (Blast from Tunnel Adit) 37 38 D = 27.4. (Fatality) P(K) D 0 P (K + I) 0 P (K + SI + LI) 0 Table 36: Probability Values for Secondary Blast Injury 12 Underground storage IATG 02. 38 15 . Chapter 3. which should be derived from the formula MF = 1 / (1 + (θ/56)2)0.76. They are repeated here for completeness of the formulae IATG. Serious Injury or Light Injury) Damage Definition Houses requiring repairs to remedy serious inconvenience but remain habitable.4 x HD x LD1/3 As above Table 38: Process Building Distance (PBD) (Blast from Tunnel Adit) 37 The distance in a non-axial direction may be reduced using a multiplication factor (MF). Clause 3. A more accurate methodology is in AASPT-1.20 Quantity and separation distances.IATG 01. Annex M contains formulae to be applied for the estimation or calculation of quantity and separation distances for underground storage. This is a simple approximation.3.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Damage Category Probability Probability (Fatality or Serious Injury) Probability (Fatality.1 (b) and (c).

which. Members of ISO maintain registers of currently valid ISO or EN: a) IATG 01.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition. The latest version/edition of these references should be used. subsequent amendments to. National authorities. For undated references. parties to agreements based on this part of the guide are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. and can be read on the IATG website: www.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Annex A (normative) References The following normative documents contain provisions. employers and other interested bodies and organisations should obtain copies before commencing conventional ammunition stockpile management programmes. constitute provisions of this part of the guide. through reference in this text. any of these publications do not apply.40:2010[E] Terms. 16 . The UN Office for Disarmament 39 Affairs (UN ODA) holds copies of all references used in this guide. glossary and definitions. the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. 2010. 39 Where copyright permits. However. A register of the latest version/edition of the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines is maintained by UN ODA. UNODA. For dated references.un.IATG 01. or revisions of.

un. employers and other interested bodies and organisations should obtain copies before commencing conventional ammunition stockpile management programmes. The UN Office for Disarmament 40 Affairs (UN ODA) holds copies of all references used in this guide.IATG 01. 40 Where copyright permits. Elsevier. UNODA.org/disarmament/convarms/Ammunition.10:2010[E] Introduction to Risk Management Principles and Processes. 17 . National authorities. UK Health and Safety Executive. UK. which should also be consulted to provide further background information to the contents of this guide: a) b) c) d) Explosion Hazards and Evaluation. 2010. 1983. and can be read on the IATG website: www. The latest version/edition of these references should be used. Geneva. GICHD. (ISBN 0 7176 1791 2). 2000. W E Baker et al. IATG 02.80:2011[E] 1st Edition (2011-10-01) Annex B (informative) References The following informative documents contain provisions. A register of the latest version/edition of the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines is maintained by UN ODA. (ISBN 0 444 42094 0).0).20/01 Estimation of Explosion Danger Areas (Version 2. Amsterdam. and Technical Note for Mine Action (TNMA) 10. Selection and Use of Explosion Effects and Consequence Models for Explosives.