p=257 Reference groups : Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform. Conformity : Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. ng

storming. Interacting and interdependent. Adjourning stage : . STAGES OF GROUPS The five distinct groups go through forming. Performing stage : The forth stage in group development. Informal group: A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. appears in response to the need for social contact. Interest group: Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. when the group is fully functional. who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal group: A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure . Task group: Those working together to complete a job task . Command group: A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. characterized by much uncertainty. norming. and adjourning. groomed and trained or specific jobs that match their interests and the needs of the team. Norming stage : The third stage in group development. performing. characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. Friendship group: Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. Group Definition: Two or more individuals.People are recruited. Forming stage : The first stage in group development. characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. Storming stage : The second stage in group development.

4. There is power in numbers. Security : By joining a group. Goal Achievement : There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular taskthere is a need to pool talents. Status : Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. knowledge. Self-Esteem : Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth.The final stage in group development for temporary groups. 6. Group Why do people join groups 1. have fewer self-doubts. Affiliation : Groups can fulfill social addition to conveying status to those outside the group. 2. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. 5. For many people. membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. 3. In such instances.” people feel stronger. . or power in order to complete a job. these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. individuals can reduce the insecurity of “standing alone. characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance. that is. Power : What can not be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. management will rely on the use of a formal group.

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