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# RFID/Wireless System Application

Home Work-1
[Pick the date]

Question-1

## PRODUCT USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT:

Barcode for this cell was studied at Wal-Mart for the following various factors: 1. Occlusions 2. Angle of view 3. Distance (Range)

1. OCCLUSION When the first and the last line of the barcode is covered and read by the scanner, it reads the barcode perfectly. When other parts of the barcode are covered the scanner fails to read it. The pictures explain the above observation made with a greater clarity.

## FIG. Reads when the first line of the barcode is covered

2. ANGLE OF VIEW: The barcode was placed in different angles and using the scanner it was scanned and we got the following observation: 1. When the barcode is kept at 90 degrees it couldnt scan. 2. The barcode was read at all angles where the light could focus the entire barcode. 3. When the light was inclined and a portion of the barcode wasnt scanned it didnt read otherwise at all inclined positions in the space the scanner could read.

## FIG. Scans at all other angle in the space

FIG. When the barcode is kept at an angle tilted to the scanner and doesnt cover the entire barcode it fails to read(multiple red lines indicating it couldnt read)

3. RANGE : The maximum distance upto which the scanner was able to read the barcode was found out to be approximately 40 cm.

## ENCODING OF THE IDENTITY OF AN OBJECT IN THE BARCODE:

A barcode is made up of white and black lines Each and every number under the barcode is defined by four lines. Four lines vary in thickness. Thinnest line is given as 1 and so on. (the thickest as 4) Each bar code starts and ends with 101. There are two sets of code manufacturer code and product code which is separated by a set of 3 lines called as guard bars.

This was the observation we made during our experiment on how the information on the barcode is encoded

Question 3: Perform patent (Google/patents and freepatentonline are appropriate locations) search to identify 3 biometric and 3 non-biometric AIT patents. For each patent you have identified, please do the following Three Biometric AIT Patents with their details:
1.

Title: Biometric identification of individuals by use of subcutaneous vein patterns Inventor: David Oswald Clayden Original Assignee: British Technology Group Ltd. Issue date: Jul 28, 1998 Patent number: 5787185

Fig.1 is a perspective view of apparatus suitable for scanning vein pattern. How the AIT works: An individual whose identity is to be verified is positioned by gripping to a reference handle. An optional side stop (5) against which the side of the hand abuts provides an additional constraint. Lights (7, 9, 11, and 13) are provided from four different directions to provide an infra-red-rich emission spectrum. A video camera (15) is positioned above the hand and produces a raster-scan image of the back of the hand. The image taken of the hand is transferred to a frame store where the first signal processing step begins. The amplitude of each pixel is weighted to enhance the local contrast and sent for comparison with a pre-stored image of the person's hand.

Merits: 1. Helps determine the location of arteries and veins in the human body and can show any variance in position from a previous reading; this can help understand the condition of the artery or vein 2. Helps in criminal prosecution of an individual based on a previous image of the person body part. De-merits: 1. Difficulty in locating the presence of blood vessels on the body due to body hair, non-planar surface and bad lighting.

Example of Application: We found this particular biometric amusing owing to its application by the CIA/FBI in the sentencing of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed an Al-Qaeda terrorist for the murder of Wall street journalist Daniel Pearl
2.

Title: Improved race timing system Inventor: Daniel Howell Original Assignee: Chronotrack Systems, LLC Issue date: May 28, 2010 Patent number: EP2435989 A1 (EP European Patent)

14. RFID Antenna 16. A Timing Tag 12. Controller 18. Remote Server How the AIT works: An electronic timing system for timing of athletic events comprising: a radio-frequency identification antenna; a portable timing controller having one or more radio-frequency identification readers, a touch-panel computer electrically

coupled to said one or more readers to manage data coming into said one or more readers, first input/output means for exchanging data with said radio-frequency identification antenna, and second input/output means for exchanging data with a remote server; and a radio-frequency identification timing tag that is configured for attachment to an athlete, said timing tag and said antenna having means for wirelessly communicating data between one another. Example of Application: We found a true story on how this invention came into being , a story about a how a father witnessed his son in an off road motor-cycling accident. This is technology collecting information from a drivers helmet via a bar code. Merits: Now days this technology is used to calculate the drivers lap times and can show a difference between two drivers up to a 400th of a second in difference. The accuracy stands at 99.8% and does not interfere with EMI from external sources as the driver crosses the RFID antenna. De merits: Distances less than 400th of a second cannot be calculated accurately without a certain margin of error and this can increase as the time between two drivers decrease

3.

Title: Iris Imaging and Iris based Identification Inventor: Abramovich, Gil (Niskayuna, NY, US) Perera, Ambalangoda Gurunnanselage Amitha (Clifton Park, NY, US) Tait, Robert William (Niskayuna, NY, US) Wheeler, Frederick Wilson (Niskayuna, NY, US) Original Assignee: General Electric Company (Schenectady, NY, US) Issue date: 10/01/2009 Patent number: 20090245594

How the AIT works: The iris of an individual is illuminated with the help of electromagnetic radiation that is chosen based on the color of the iris. The illumination from the spectrum chosen details information from iris and this can be used to identify a specific person of interest. Merits: 1. This technology is widely used in industries where security of information is of utmost importance. 2. The Patterns of the iris are apparently stable throughout life and do not change meaning that the results stay the same. 3. The time required to ID a person is generally less than a second De merits: 1. The iris scanned would have difficulty in reading the iris if the distance is more than 1 meter 2. Partially closed eyes cannot be read 3. The illumination should not be visible or bright light

Three Non-Biometric AIT Patents with their details: 1. Title : High temperature RFID tag Inventor: Nicholson, Mark (Scotts Valley, CA) Monahan, Brian (Santa Cruz, CA) Issue Date: 10/26/1999 Assignee: Escort Memory Systems (Scotts Valley, CA) Patent Number: 5973599 How the AIT Works: A high temperature RFID tag is described which has a survival temperature in the range of approximately -40 C. to 300 C. and an operating temperature of approximately -20 C. to 200 C. The RFID tag comprises a housing comprising a first thermally resistant material and having a base and a top, and a circuit board substrate comprising a second thermally resistant material which is encapsulated within the housing.

The system typically contains of one or more RFID transponders or tags (Fig.10) . Fig.12 is an antenna used to communicate with at least one of the tags and Fig. 14 is a controller used to for managing the communication interface. The host system Fig.16 interfaces with the controller (14) and directs the interrogation of the tags (10) disposed on or embedded in the product carriers (11) and any following action via parallel or serial or bus communication (18).

Merits: 1. It has a wide range of application that include Vehicle parts and toxic waste dump tracking 2. The setup cost involved is very cheap

Demerits: 1. Owing to the high temperatures these RFIDs are made to work under their longevity is low

Application: 1. Toxic waste disposal trucks 2. Inventory management for laboratory and medical equipment

2.Title: GPS receiver Inventor: Matsumoto, Kazumi (Shiojiri, JP) Terashima, Maho (Matsumoto, JP) Issue date: 1/19/2010 Awardee: Seiko Epson Corporation (Tokyo, JP) Patent Number: 7649494 How the AIT Works: A GPS receiver which performs correlation processing by using replicas of C/A (Clear and Acquisition or Coarse and Access) codes generated in the GPS receiver after a GPS signal received from a GPS satellite is subjected to accumulating processing, wherein in the accumulating processing, a plurality of signals for integrating in the GPS receiver by predicting modulation of the GPS signal by a navigation message are integrated with the received GPS signal, and results of the integration are accumulatively added. GPS works on triangulating the co-ordinates of the object across a plane.

Merits of the GPS: 1. The system employed is a robust one meaning there no sensitive instruments in this device 2. The accuracy provided by a GPS device is very high with a margin of error of about 1 foot to 1.5 feet on average.

Demerits: 1. It susceptible to RF jams and interferences. 2. Obstacles like buildings and trees can deflect the signal, causing your position on the GPS screen to be off by as much as 100 feet Although a very common RFID used in daily life, we found this patent very helpful in understanding how the GPS works in greater detail

3.Title: System and method for detecting emplacement of improvised explosive devices Inventor: Steadman, Robert L. (Mansfield, MA, US) Fitzgerald, James (Westford, MA, US) Original Assignee: Textron Systems Corporation (Wilmington, MA, US) Award Date: 10/04/2011 Patent Number: 8031068

How the AIT works: An explosive device detection system includes sensors and base station that detect and report on suspected Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) or landmine emplacement activity within a geographic area. When disposed within a geographic area, each sensor forms part of a wireless communications network which allows communication among neighboring sensors. As a sensor detects activity in its proximity, such as activity that indicates emplacement of an IED, the sensor transmits a reporting signal through the network to the base station.

The neighboring sensors receive and transmit the reporting signal in a sequential manner toward the base station. Because the reporting signal takes multiple hops toward the base station, the sensors do not require large amounts of power to transmit the signal. Furthermore, the detection system allows detection of IED emplacement within the geographic area as the activity occurs. As a result, the base station can direct mobile response units to take immediate responsive action to prevent detonation of the IED's. An indication of how the display would look if an IED was detected,

Merits of this RFID: 1. Power consumed to run the device is extremely low 2. The representation provided by these devices tends to be very lucid amid a 3D terrain as can be seen above

Demerits: 1. There is always a possibility that the signal can be disrupted by electromagnetic waves

Question 4: Implementing RFIDs in Guns: Off late we have witnessed school massacres made by guns not owned by the accused but in many cases from their parents or friends or stolen from their owners. Looking at this one solution that would cross our mind would be to implement an RFID in a gun that would link it to the user. This would mean that only when the user holds the gun would the trigger activate and even if the gun were to be close to the owner it still wouldnt unlock. The diagram below contains the circuit diagram of this RFID along with an explanation of how it works:

Working Principle and Design of Product: Here we have a passive a RFID linked to the user in the form of a ring or watch. A unique number is embedded in this RFID. The gun is fixed with an RFID reader that can identify the unique number from the user once this has been done the command for approval or denial is sent to the micro controller as can be seen from the figure. The objective of the micro controller is to either signal the solenoid to remain stationary or to move releasing the trigger from its locked position based on the verification obtained. The circuit diagram appears to be very simple to implement and is also very cheap. We would estimate that the total cost should not be more than 50 USD. The RFID would work on a frequency of about 10-15 MHz

Addressing the relevant concern: Once the above idea is implemented, the user of a gun can be certain that his gun cannot be used without him holding the trigger. So even if the user was for example 15 cm away from his gun the antenna is designed to not be able to verify the ID of that person unless he holds the handle of the gun and if someone were to steal your gun and aim it at you the trigger would just not pull. One of the main advantages of this technology is the time it takes to verify the user and release the trigger from the locked position. This should not take more than a quarter of a second. So if you decided to shoot when you are ready, the gun would be ready too.

We strongly believe that implementing this would definitely decrease gun related deaths in the U.S drastically as can be seen from the Newtown massacre where the suspect used his mothers guns for the rampage.