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1 The systems development life cycle
1.1 Purpose 1.2 Strengths, weaknesses, and limitations 1.3 Inputs and related ideas 1.4 Concepts 1.4.1 Information systems 1.4.2 The system life cycle 1.4.3 Methodologies 1.4.4 The waterfall method 1.5 Key terms 1.6 Software 1.7 References

1.1 Purpose
The purpose of a methodology is to specify a set of well-defined steps or phases, coupled with a set of clear, measurable exit criteria, for solving a complex problem (such as developing an information system). The system development life cycle (SDLC) is a set of steps that serves as the basis for most systems analysis and design methodologies.

1.2 Strengths, weaknesses, and limitations
A methodology (such as the system development life cycle) acts as a memory aid by imposing discipline, thus reducing the risk that key details will be overlooked. Communication is enhanced because the methodology imposes a consistent set of documentation standards. The steps in the methodology enhance management control, providing a framework for scheduling, budgeting, and project management. The tools associated with a good methodology make it easier to solve the problem. Finally, a good methodology increases the likelihood that significant errors are detected early. There are dangers associated with using a methodology, however. Some people become so bogged down in the mechanics of following the steps and completing the exit criteria that they fail to solve the real problem. (There is a fine line between discipline and rigidity.) Additionally, no matter what methodology is chosen, there will be problems for which that methodology is (at best) inappropriate, and it is a mistake to try to force the application to fit the tool. There is always a concern that the system developed may not accurately reflect the current business environment. The elapsed time between the initial proposal and system completion can be quite lengthy (often one or more years). Many methodologies require that specifications be “frozen” as work progresses from one step to the next, and user

but no methodology can convert an unskilled. such as expert systems and real-time processing systems. A system is delimited from its environment (its suprasystem) by a boundary. A process is an activity that changes the system in some way. Many traditional methodologies. The traditional methodologies are not optimal for developing some types of information systems.1) is a set of interrelated components that function together in a meaningful way. the points at which the various systemcomponents communicate or interact. the more complex the system. control. with complex tasks decomposed into smaller phases (stages.4 Concepts A system (Figure 1. untrained person into a competent analyst. such as Martin’s information engineering (# 2) and Orr’s structured requirements definition (# 4).requirements do change over time. The project management life cycle is similar to the system development life cycle. and a given system might be divided into several sequential or concurrent projects. steps) that are easier to achieve. Given the fast pace of technology. the more interfaces a system contains. that a given project might encompass several related systems. The system development life cycle implies a phased approach. fourthgeneration. A good methodology makes a competent analyst more productive. and objected-oriented languages require modifications to the traditional approach.3 Inputs and related ideas The system development life cycle provides a framework or structure for virtually all the tools and techniques discussed in this course. emphasize the phased approach. Additionally. As a general rule. however. Note. fifth-generation. 1. Practicing analysts often deviate from the rigidly phased approach defined by the methodology. 1. Sometimes management is tempted to believe (or hope) that technology can replace technical experts. A system accepts inputs at its boundaries. this problem is particularly acute with hardware and/or software selected early in the process. Of particular interest are the interfaces. with clearly defined entrance and exit criteria for each individual phase. Outputs flow back across the boundaries. however. with stages or phases defining a schedule and triggering resource allocations. and manage. .

1. interfaces. a change in the nature of the problem or increasing maintenance costs degrade the value of the system. After the system is developed. software.1 A system. it grows until it reaches maturity. human. and procedural components intended to provide the right data and information to the right person at the right time. 1.2 The system life cycle Every system has a life cycle (Figure 1.1 Information systems This course is concerned with the analysis and design of information systems. the system reacts by attempting to adjust itself. so it “dies” and a new or replacement system is born to take its place. An information system is “born” when a problem is recognized. and outputs. Eventually.4. processes.2). If the feedback suggests a deviation from the expected value (the control). data. An information system is a set of hardware.Figure 1. Feedback is the return of a portion of the system’s output to its input. .4. In addition to inputs. the system also includes control and feedback mechanisms that together allow the system to determine if it is achieving its purpose.

measurable set of exit criteria. there is considerable feedback between the various steps or phases.Figure 1.4. and rules used by those who work in a discipline or engage in an inquiry.2 The system life cycle. 1. It is sometimes called the waterfall method because the model visually suggests work cascading from step to step like a series of waterfalls.) .4.3 Methodologies A methodology is a body of practices. A key purpose of a methodology is ensuring that nothing is overlooked in the process of solving a complex problem (such as developing a complex information system). procedures.3). (Note: In reality. each of which ends with a clear. Often. 1. a methodology is implemented as a set of welldefined steps or phases.4 The waterfall method The basis for most systems analysis and design methodologies is the system development life cycle or SDLC (Figure 1.

and tested. Processes are converted to manual procedures or computer programs. Databases and files are initialized. analysis begins. Procedures are written and tested. and outline a strategy for solving it. the system’s logical elements (its boundaries. During design the analyst’s focus shifts from the logical to the physical.Figure 1. some experts prefer to use other labels. The hardware components that support the programs and the data are defined. The objective of analysis is to determine exactly what must be done to solve the problem.3 The system development life cycle is sometimes called the waterfall method.) Programs are coded. screens. and data) are defined during analysis. reports. the . The first step is problem definition. debugged. After the system passes its final test and any remaining problems are corrected. files. Once the system is developed. for this stage. The objective of design is to determine how the problem will be solved. New hardware is selected and ordered. it is tested to ensure that it does what it was designed to do. documented. The intent is to identify the problem. processes. Typically. determine its cause. The system is created during development. and databases. (Note: Because the entire process is called the system development life cycle. End-user documentation is prepared. Given a clear problem definition. such as system creation. Data elements are grouped to form physical data structures. Users are trained.

each of which ends with a clear. Development — The fourth step in the system development life cycle (following design and preceding testing) during which the system is created. Control — An expected value that can be compared with feedback. Feedback — The return of a portion of the system’s output to its input. and a strategy for solving it developed. Interface — A mechanism or point of interaction between two or more system components. the system reacts by attempting to adjust itself. Process — An activity that changes a system in some way. Problem definition — The first step in the system development life cycle during which the problem is identified. its cause determined.5 Key terms Analysis — To attack a problem by breaking it into sub-problems. human. . Design — The third step in the system development life cycle (following analysis and preceding development) during which the responsible people determine how the problem will be solved by specifying the system’s physical components.system is implemented and released to the user. After the system is released. If the feedback suggests a deviation from the expected value (the control). and procedural components intended to provide the right data and information to the right person at the right time. 1. The objective of maintenance is to keep the system functioning at an acceptable level. Boundary — An entity that serves to delimit or separate a system from its environment. measurable set of exit criteria. Information system — A set of hardware. Maintenance — The final step in the system development life cycle (following implementation) intended to keep the system functioning at an acceptable level. software. Methodology — A body of practices. Often implemented as a set of well-defined steps or phases. Implementation — The sixth step in the system development life cycle (following testing and preceding maintenance) during which the system is installed and released to the user. The second step in the system development life cycle (following problem definition) during which the responsible people determine exactly what must be done to solve the problem. data. procedures. maintenance begins. and rules used by those who work in a discipline or engage in an inquiry.

development. CA. Modell. Wadsworth Publishing. 4. . 3. Irwin. 1.. K. L. Macmillan.. System development life cycle (SDLC) — A set of steps for solving information system problems. M... and Kendall. System — A set of interrelated components that function together in a meaningful way. Englewood Cliffs.6 Software Not applicable. and Dittman. C. Richard D. McGraw-Hill. The stages are birth. System Analysis and Design with CASE Tools. Whitten. W. Kendall. Testing — The fifth step in the system development life cycle (following development and preceding implementation) intended to ensure that the system does what it was designed to do. Systems Analysis and Design Methods. growth..... Bentley. 5. S.Suprasystem — A system’s environment. Systems Analysis and Design. IA. L. L. New York.7 References 1. Fertuck. Business Systems Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. E. Prentice-Hall. Laudon. 1996. System life cycle — A model that stresses the stages of system usefulness. Brown Publishing. K. K. and Laudon.. A Professional’s Guide to Systems Analysis. 1. New York. J. New York. maturity. 1997. J. Davis. 2. J. 1992. NJ. Managing Information Systems: A Contemporary Perspectives. C. William C. the basis for most systems analysis and design methodologies. Dubuque. 1994. D. E. 1991. Belmont. E. 1992. and death. P. 6.

based on subject code and branch code.Etc using these voting system students will vote for lectures and colleges. This project will help education institutions to check there standers and improve their education structure for providing better education for engineering students. After analyzing the results on education standards based on voting system this application will provide results through graphical charts. bad. Subject knowledge. This website will provide features like semester results. Time sense. Students are provided with five options excellent. good. facilities. Students will go through different levels before submitting his feedback style of teaching..Student information system project will provide admin module through which universities should update information about their education system. lectures of each branch and subject. . very good. Using user module user will register in to this online web application using his registration number. Voice strength and behavior.

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