(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies

,
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JOURNAL OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT –
NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Company for consulting and engineering MAPRO from Vranje, Serbia, publishes
PROCESS MANAGEMENT - NEW TECHNOLOGIES and offers membership and cooperation
for writing scientific papers that, after review and proofreading published under instruction that is
attached.
Company was established in 1990. as a marketing project aimed at public opinion polls and
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Sincerely,
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Kompanija za konsalting i inženjering MAPRO iz Vranja izdaje časopis MENADŽMENT
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S poštovanjem,
Prof. dr Predrag Trajković
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(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
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ASSOCI ATE EDI TORS

Editor PhD Predrag Trajković
Execute editor PhD Svetlana Trajković
Secretary Snežana Manasijević Milkić, Masters of Laws
Technical editor PhD Lazar Stošić
Lector Maja Kostić M.A. in English Language and Literature
Lector Ana Stanković M.A. in English Language and Literature
REVI EWER BOARD MEMBERS


Academic Angel Džambazovski, Macedonia
Academic Radenko S. Krulj, Serbia
PhD Alla Belusova, Russia
PhD Aneta Barakoska, Macedonia
PhD Biljana Petrevska, Macedonia
PhD Dušan Jarić Serbia
PhD Emanuel Soare, Romania
PhD Gabriela Paula Petruta, Romania
PhD Hemanta К. Baruah, India
PhD Jelena Maksimović, Serbia
PhD Jurka Lipičnik Vodopivec, Slovenia
PhD Ka Lok Man, China
PhD Vitus Lam, Hong Kong
PhD Mitrička Stardelova, Macedonia
PhD Miroslav Pavlović, Serbia
PhD Nada Živanović, Serbia
PhD Oksana Baruskova, Russia
PhD Radovan Ilić, Serbia
PhD Ranjan Upadhyaya, India
PhD T. C. Manjunath, India
PhD Vera Naumovska, Macedonia
(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
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CONTENTS

PAGE 1 – 6
Paper 1: Construction of normal fuzzy numbers: a case study with earthquake waveform data
Authors: Dhruba Das, Anamika Dutta, Supahi Mahanta, Hemanta K. Baruah

PAGE 7-13
Paper 2: The exact definition of fuzzy randomness: An application of the mathematics of partial
presence
Authors: Supahi Mahanta, Rituparna Chutia, Hemanta K. Baruah

PAGE 14-19
Paper 3: Computer security and security technologies
Authors: Lazar Stošić, Dragan Veličković

PAGE 19-26
Paper 4: Economic research and analysis of national economy
Authors: Stanka Đurić, Ljiljana Mihajlović Stošić

PAGE 27-33
Paper 5: Small business – alternative to unemployment reduction in economy under recession
Authors: Trajković Svetlana, Trajković Predrag, Milan Ivanković

PAGE 34-43
Paper 6: Consumer’s emotional influence & visual merchandising effects: shopping malls
recession
Authors: Ranjan Upadhyaya, Govind Nath Srivastava

PAGE 44-48
Paper 7: Employer brand and analysis of individual potential
Authors: Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović,
PAGE 49-56
Paper 8: Tourist profile of young-adults in Macedonia and their perception of e-tools
Authors: Biljana Petrevska

PAGE 57-64
Paper 9: Brands and branding - example: Coca-Cola
Authors: Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

PAGE 65-72
Paper 10: Managing environmental policy for tourism development
Authors: Margarita Matlievska, Biljana Petrevska

PAGE 73-77
Paper 11: Mobility skills condition in Macedonia among youth in high school
Authors: Angel Dzhambazovski, Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova, Nevenka Panovska, Selim Alili,
Kjamilj Elmazi

(JPMNT) Journal of Process Management – New Technologies,
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PAGE 77-81
Paper 12: Kinesiology in function of the skeletal-muscle deformation prevention at school age
Authors: Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova, Dimitrinka K. Conkova, V. Krstevska, Nevenka Panovska,
Selim Alili, Angel Dzhambazovski

PAGE 82-86
Paper 13: Toxic effects of chloropicrin and impact of sorbed water steam on protection
Authors: Milena Nikolić, Mladen Nikolić, Dragan Nikolić

PAGE 87-92
Paper 14: Effects of atropine sulfate after poisoning with organophosphorus compounds
Authors: Milena Nikolić, Mladen Nikolić

PAGE 93-96
Paper 15: Harmful effects and monitoring of noise
Authors: Mladen D. Nikolić, Dragan M. Nikolić, Fortuna Dragutin

PAGE 97-104
Paper 16: Methods for ecological design of technical processes and systems
Authors: Slobodan Stefanović, Nadezda Šubara, Radoje Cvejić, Jasmina Stojiljković

PAGE 105-110
Paper 17: Analysis of monitoring of connection between reengineering economic parameters in
small and medium enterprises using the method of creating optimal questionnaire
Authors: Slobodan Stefanović, Dragoslav Ilić, Nataša Bogavac-Cvetković, Radica Pavlović

PAGE 111-116
Paper 18: Detection of radiation contamination obtained by the depleted uranium ammunition in
field conditions
Authors: Mladen D. Nikolić, Fortuna Dragutin , Dragan M. Nikolić
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CONSTRUCTION OF NORMAL FUZZY NUMBERS: A CASE STUDY
WITH EARTHQUAKE WAVEFORM DATA

Dhruba Das
Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
Dhrubadas16@gmail.com

Anamika Dutta
Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
anamika.dut268@gmail.com

Supahi Mahanta
Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
supahi_mahanta@rediffmail.com

Hemanta K. Baruah
Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India.
hemanta_bh@yahoo.com

Abstract: This article demonstrates that a normal
fuzzy number can be constructed from earthquake
waveform data. According to the Randomness-
Fuzziness Consistency Principle, two independent laws
of randomness in [α, β] and [β, γ] are necessary and
sufficient to define a normal fuzzy number [α, β, γ]. In
this article, we have shown how to construct normal
fuzzy numbers using data from earthquake waveform
and have studied the pattern of the membership curve
of the waveform.
Keywords: Superimposition of Sets, Distribution
Function, Membership function.

1. Introduction

A fuzzy real number [α, β, γ] is an interval
around the real number β with the elements in
the interval being partially present. Partial
presence of an element in a fuzzy set is
defined by the name membership function.
Based on the Randomness- Fuzziness
Consistency Principle (Baruah, 2010, 2011a,
2011b, 2011c, 2012), in this article we shall
show how to construct normal fuzzy numbers
using the data of minimum and maximum
amplitudes of every individual oscillation of
the waveform of an earthquake that had
occurred in the city of Guwahati on May 25,
1998.
The basic problem in constructing normal
fuzzy numbers was the lack of understanding
as to how exactly to define partial presence of
an element in an interval. Indeed, various
explanations regarding the possible
relationship between probability and
fuzziness have come up, and no concrete
conclusion could be arrived at. Partial
presence of an element in a set is expressed in
terms of the fuzzy membership function. But
how exactly to construct the membership
function of a fuzzy number mathematically
remained a problem. Baruah (2010, 2011a,
2011b, 2011c, 2012) has shown that two laws
of randomness are necessary as well as
sufficient to define a normal law of fuzziness.
In other words, trying to frame one single law
of probability from a given law of fuzziness,
as had been tried upon while formulating the
existing probability-possibility consistency
principles, was not mathematically
meaningful an exercise, because we need two
laws of randomness, probabilistic or
otherwise, and not one single law of
probability, to define a law of fuzziness. This
has led to a proper measure theoretic
explanation of partial presence, and
construction of fuzzy numbers can therefore
be based on that.
We need to understand that if a variable X
can assume values in an interval [L, U] where
L follows a law of randomness in the interval
[α, β] while U follows another law of
randomness in the interval [β, γ], then we are
in a situation defining fuzzy uncertainty, with
randomness defined in the measure theoretic
sense. In such a case, Baruah’s principle of
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consistency between randomness and
fuzziness states that the distribution function
of L , which is known as the left reference
function also with reference to fuzziness, in
the interval [α, β] together with the
complementary distribution function of U
which is known as the right reference
function also in the interval [β, γ], would give
us the membership function of a normal fuzzy
number [α, β, γ ]. The two concerned laws of
randomness may or may not be geared to laws
of probability because measure theoretically
speaking the notion of probability need not
actually appear in the definition of
randomness in the sense that a probabilistic
variable is necessarily random while a
random variable need not be probabilistic. It
should be noted that the notion of probability
does not enter into the definition of a random
variable (Rohatgi and Saleh, 2001, pages 41 –
43). When a variable is probabilistic, it has to
be random by definition, although when a
variable is random, it need not be
probabilistic. Accordingly, all results of the
classical theory of probability are
automatically applicable to a random variable
defined in the measure theoretic sense.
In what follows, we are going to explain
how exactly a fuzzy number originates. We
are going to show how exactly to construct a
fuzzy number. We shall not assume anything
heuristic in principle. The data collected from
the aforesaid earthquake waveform, we now
proceed to construct a normal fuzzy number.

2. Methodology

We collected data of the waveform of an
earthquake in the city of Guwahati, India. The
earthquake occurred on May 25, 1998. To
represent the waveform in the form of a
normal fuzzy number, we have considered the
part of the waveform that had appeared while
the earthquake was at its maximum amplitude
to zero amplitude. In fact, the waveform of an
earthquake is indeed a combination of two
independent normal fuzzy numbers, one
represented by the waveform from amplitude
zero to the maximum amplitude and the other
represented by the waveform from the
maximum amplitude to zero amplitude. Here
our interest is to study the second case. The
first case can also be studied in the same way.
We have collected 39 observations from
the highest amplitude to zero amplitude of the
waveform. We thus have collected the values
taken by L and U on those 39 observations.
These values are, say
(a
1
, a
2
, a
3,….…,
a
39
)

and

(b
1
, b
2
, b
3,……,
b
39
)

respectively.
Now, using the operation of set
superimposition defined by Baruah (2010,
2011a, 2011b, 2011c, 2012) we may proceed
to construct normal fuzzy numbers as
discussed in (Das et al, 2013), which would
define the uncertainty associated with
waveform variations.
Baruah defined the operation of
superimposition of two real intervals [a
1
, b
1
]
and [a
2
, b
2
] as
[a
1
, b
1
] (S) [a
2
, b
2
]
= [a
1
, a
2
] ∪ [a
2
, b
1
]
(2)
∪ [b
1
, b
2
],
if a
1
< a
2
< b
1
< b
2
,
= [a
1
, a
2
] ∪ [a
2
, b
2
]
(2)
∪ [b
2
, b
1
],
if a
1
< a
2
< b
2
< b
1
,
= [a
2
, a
1
] ∪ [a
1
, b
1
]
(2)
∪ [b
1
, b
2
],
if a
2
< a
1
< b
1
< b
2
,
=

[a
2
, a
1
] ∪ [a
1
, b
2
]
(2)
∪ [b
2
, b
1
],
if a
2
< a
1
< b
2
< b
1
,

where for example [a
2
, b
1
]
(2)
represents the
elements of [a
2
, b
1
] with every element being
present twice. A closer look would reveal that
[a
1
, b
1
] (S) [a
2
, b
2
]
= [a
(1)
, a
(2)
] U [a
(2)
, b
(1)
]
(2)
U [b
(1)
, b
(2)
]
where
a
(1)
= min (a
1
, a
2
),
a
(2)
= max (a
1
, a
2
),
b
(1)
= min (b
1
, b
2
), and
b
(2)
= max (b
1
, b
2
).
Here it was assumed without loss of any
generality that [a
1
, b
1
] ∩ [a
2
, b
2
] is not void,
or in other words that max (a
i
) ≤ min (b
i
), i =
1, 2.
The reader may observe the entry of
ordered values in this expression. This would
now lead us to the exact definition of partial
presence of an element in a set, better known
as fuzziness. Unless one looks into the
matters through this lens, the way to construct
a fuzzy number would not be clear. Double
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representation as such may not be quite
important. However, if the elements in the
intervals [a
1
, b
1
] and [a
2
, b
2
] are presumed to
be partially present with level of presence of
all elements in the two intervals being equal
to ½, then the identity would be
[a
1
, b
1
]
(1/2)
(S) [a
2
, b
2
]
(1/2)

= [a
(1)
, a
(2)
]
(1/2)
U [a
(2)
, b
(1)
]
(1)
U [b
(1)
, b

(2)
]
(1/2)

Here [a
1
, b
1
]
(1/2)
represents the interval [a
1
, b
1
]
where every element of the interval is
partially present with level of presence of
every element being equal to ½.
Now suppose
a
(1)
, a
(2)
,

…, a
(39)
are values of a
1
, a
2
, …, a
39
arranged in
increasing order of magnitude, and
b
(1)
, b
(2)
,

…, b
(39)
are values of b
1
, b
2
, …, b
39
arranged in
increasing order of magnitude. We shall now
superimpose the 39 intervals thus found, and
shall normalize the frequency of occurrences
by dividing by the total frequency.
Superimposing the intervals
[a
1
, b
1
], [a
2
, b
2
], …, [a
39
, b
39
]

and thereafter normalizing in the aforesaid
manner is equivalent to superimposing the
intervals
[a
1
, b
1
]
(1/39)
, [a
2
, b
2
]
(1/39)
, …, [a
39
, b
39
]
(1/39)

with constant level of partial presence 1/39
for every interval. We shall thus get, subject
to the condition that [a
1
, b
1
] ∩ [a
2
, b
2
] ∩ [a
3
,
b
3
] ∩……… ∩ [a
39
, b
39
] is not void,

[a
1
, b
1
]
(1/39)
(S) [a
2
, b
2
]
(1/39)
(S) [a
3
, b
3
]

(1/39)
(S)……….. (S) [a
39
, b
39
]
(1/39)
= [a
(1)
, a
(2)
]
(1/39)
∪[a
(2)
, a
(3)
]
(2/39)

[a
(3)
, a
(4)
]
(3/39)
∪.......∪[a
(39)
, b
(1)
]
(1)

[b
(1)
, b
(2)
]
(38 /39)
∪ [b
(2)
, b
(3)
]
(37 /39)

∪………∪ [b
(38)
, b
(39)
]
(1/39)
,

where for example, [b
(1)
, b
(2)
]
(38 /39)
represents the interval [b
(1)
, b
(2)
] with level
of partial presence of every element being 38/
39 for every element in the interval.
The actual diagram would thus be a
simple function in the measure theoretic sense
from a
(1)
to a
(39)
, and another simple function

from b
(1)
to b
(39)
. The first of these two
simple functions is non-decreasing while the
second is non-increasing. Smoothing of these
two functions will ultimately lead to the
membership function of our normal fuzzy
number representing one half of the
waveform. We shall now proceed to construct
the membership function from the data
collected from an actual earthquake.

1. Construction of the membership curve
for the earthquake waveform

The original picture of the waveform of
the earthquake has been shown in fig. 1,
which has been obtained from an earthquake
measuring device at Gauhati University and
the date of that particular waveform under
study was 25-05-1998.


Fig. 1: Waveform of the earthquake of
May 25, 1998, in Guwahati.

From the waveform, we determined data
regarding the minimum and the maximum
amplitudes for 39 observations. The minimum
amplitudes in increasing order of magnitude
(in cm.) were

-1.15, -1.14, -1.1, -1.05, -0.81, -0.8, -0.7, -0.6,
-0.51, -0.5, -0.49, -0.48, -0.47, -0.46, -0.45,
-0.44, -0.43, -0.42, -0.41, -0.37, -0.3, -0.29,
-0.28, -0.27, -0.26, -0.25, -0.24, -0.23, -0.22,
-0.21, -0.2, -0.19, -0.15, -0.14, -0.13, -0.12,
-0.11, -0.1, 0

and similarly the maximum amplitudes in
increasing order of magnitude (in cm.) were
0, 0.1, 0.11, 0.12, 0.13, 0.14, 0.15, 0.16, 0.17,
0.18, 0.19, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23, 0.24, 0.25, 0.26,
0.27, 0.28, 0.29, 0.3, 0.31, 0.33, 0.35, 0.41,
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0.43, 0.44, 0.46, 0.47, 0.49, 0.5, 0.52, 0.55,
0.57, 0.6, 0.9, 1.05, 1.3, 1.35, 1.45.

We then superimposed the intervals making
them equally fuzzy with constant level of
partial presence equal to 1/39 in every case.
At this point, we would like to define
what is known as an empirical distribution
function in the statistical literature (Gibbons
and Chakraborti, 1992, page- 25). An
empirical distribution function may be
considered as an estimate of the cumulative
distribution function defining the randomness
concerned. For a sample of size n, this
function S
n
(x), is defined as the proportion of
values that do not exceed x. Accordingly, if X
(1)
, X
(2)
, … , X
(n)
denote the order statistics
of a random sample, its empirical distribution
function would be given by
S
n
(x) = 0, if x < X
(1)
,
= k / n, if X
(k)
≤ x < X
(k+1)
,
k = 1, 2, …, (n – 1),
= 1, if x ≥ X
(n)
.
X here being random, so would be S
n
(X).
Writing
Δ
i
(t) = 0, if X
i
> t,
=1, otherwise,
we see that
S
n
(x) = ∑ Δ
i
(x) / n.
Therefore nS
n
(x) will have the law followed
by the sum of n independent Bernoulli
random variables Δ
i
(x). Indeed in such a case,
we would have
Prob [S
n
(x) = k / n]
=
n
C
k
[F
X
(x)]
k
[1 – F
x
(x)]
n - k

for k = 0, 1, …, n. Hence the mathematical
expectation of S
n
(x) would be given by
E [S
n
(x)] = F
X
(x).
Therefore, S
n
(x) converges uniformly to F
X

(x) almost surely. This leads to the Glivenko –
Cantelli theorem that states that the limiting
value of the supremum of the difference
between S
n
(x) and F
X
(x), as n becomes
infinitely large, converges to zero almost
surely.
After plotting the values (Fig. 2), we
have seen that the minimum amplitudes of the
waveform is an empirical distribution
function of a random variable in the interval
[-1.15, 0], while the maximum amplitudes of
the waveform is a complementary empirical
distribution function of another random
variable in the interval [0, 1.45]. Now,
according to Baruah’s randomness-fuzziness
consistency principle, the theoretical
distribution function of the minimum
amplitudes in [-1.15, 0] and the theoretical
complementary distribution function of the
maximum amplitudes in [0, 1.45] together
define a normal fuzzy number [-1.15, 0, 1.45],
which is clear from the diagram given below:


Fig.2 Membership values of one half of
the waveform of the earthquake

Thus, the fuzzy membership function in
this example can be approximated as

( )
( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s s
s s ÷
÷ <
=
45 . 1 0
45 . 1 0
0 15 . 1
15 . 1 0
x if
x if x G
x if x F
x if
x
X
µ


Here F(x) and G(x) are the Dubois –
Prade left and right reference functions. F(x)
is a non-decreasing continuous function from
0 to 1, and G(x) is non-increasing from 1 to 0
for -1.15 ≤ x ≤ 0 and 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.45
respectively.
From the diagram it is clear that the
membership curve for the right reference
function decreases nearly exponentially with
the increase in the amplitudes of the
waveform and that the left reference function
increases nearly exponentially with the
increase in the amplitudes of the waveform.


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3. Fitting of the reference functions

Taking the different values of
amplitudes as an independent variable X and
the membership values as the dependent
variable Y, we can fit the reference functions.
As for the right reference function, let
Y= a. e
bX
where b < 0, X > 0,
such that the maximum of Y will be unity for
X = 0.
Using the method of least squares the
estimates of a and b were computed. We have
found that the estimated values of Y is
1.098383 for the dependent variable X=0. We
therefore had to do a little bit of scaling in the
sense that the estimated value of the
parameter a had to be divided by 1.098383.
The equation thus found was
Y= 1.84118745.e
-0.59969X.
The curve concerned has been depicted in
Fig. 3 below.



Figure 3: The right reference function

The equation of the left reference
function
would similarly be
Y= a. e
bX
where b > 0, X < 0,
on condition that the maximum of Y would be
unity when X= 0. Once again, using the
method of least squares we computed the
estimates of a and b, and did a bit of scaling.
The equation was found to be
Y= 1.51248645.e
0.70178X

The curve has been shown in Fig. 4 below.


Figure 4: The left reference function

After combining the estimated left and
right reference functions, we can construct the
estimated membership curve (fig. 5), where
the right reference function decreases nearly
exponentially and the left reference function
increases nearly exponentially.


Fig.5: Estimated membership curve for the
waveform of the earthquake

4. Conclusions

Two laws of randomness can define a
normal law of fuzziness. From one half of
the waveform of an earthquake, starting
from the maximum amplitude to zero
amplitude, we have been able to show that
the waveform is indeed a normal fuzzy
number. This is how a normal fuzzy
number has to be constructed.


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References

1. Baruah, H. K. (2010), The Randomness –
Fuzziness Consistency Principle, International Journal
of Energy, Information and Communications, Vol. 1,
Issue 1, 2010, 37 – 48.
2. Baruah, H. K. (2011a), In Search of the Root
of Fuzziness: The Measure Theoretic Meaning of
Partial Presence, Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and
Informatics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 57 – 68.
3. Baruah, H. K. (2011b), Construction of the
Membership Function of a Fuzzy Number, ICIC
Express Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 545-549.
4. Baruah, H. K. (2011c), The Theory of Fuzzy
Sets: Beliefs and Realities, International Journal of
Energy Information and Communications, Vol. 2, Issue
2, 2011, 1 – 22.
5. Baruah, H. K. (2012), Construction of Normal
Fuzzy Numbers Using the Mathematics of Partial
Presence, Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier,
Vol. 1, No. 1, 9 – 15.
6. Das, D., Mahanta S., Chutia, R. and Baruah,
H. K. (2013), Construction of normal fuzzy numbers:
case studies with Indian stock exchange data, Annals of
Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics (in press).
7. Gibbons J. D. and Chakraborti S., (1992);
Nonparametric Statistical Inference, Third Edition,
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1992.
8. Rohatgi V. K. and Saleh. A. K. E.,(2001), An
Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Second
Edition, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, John
Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd., Singapore.
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7
THE EXACT DEFINITION OF FUZZY RANDOMNESS: AN
APPLICATION OF THE MATHEMATICS OF PARTIAL PRESENCE

Supahi Mahanta, Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
supahi_mahanta@rediffmail.com

Rituparna Chutia, Department of Mathematics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
Rituparnachutia7@rediffmail.com

Hemanta K. Baruah,

Department of Statistics, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
hemanta_bh@yahoo.com


Abstract: Fuzzy randomness leads to fuzzy
conclusions. Such fuzzy conclusions can indeed be
made in terms of probability. In this article, the concept
of fuzzy randomness has been discussed using the
mathematics of partial presence. Two important points
have been suggested in this article. First, fuzzy
randomness should be explained with reference to the
Randomness – Fuzziness Consistency Principle, and
only then the mathematical explanations of fuzzy
randomness would actually be complete. Secondly, in
every case of fuzzy statistical hypothesis testing, the
alternative hypotheses must necessarily be properly
defined. The authors in this article have described
fuzzy randomness with reference to a numerical
example of using the Student’s t-test statistic.
Keywords: Complement of a fuzzy set, the
Randomness – Fuzziness Consistency Principle,
Student’s t-statistic.

1. Introduction

Fuzzy randomness arises when the
random variables cannot be observed with
exactness. Fuzzy randomness in terms of
uncertain probabilities has been studied by
Buckley and Eslami (2003, 2004) and
Buckley (2003), among others. With
reference to testing of statistical hypotheses,
Goswami et al (1997) and Talukdar and
Baruah (2007, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c, 2011)
have studied randomness with fuzzy
observations. Goswami and Baruah (2008a)
studied the effect of fuzziness on the binomial
probability law. Fuzzy time series analysis
was studied by Goswami and Baruah (2007,
2008b). In all these cases, the parameters
concerned were taken to be fuzzy numbers,
and the statistical analytical matters were
dealt with accordingly.
However, based on a set operation
called superimposition (Baruah, 1999a), it has
meanwhile been established by Baruah
(2010a, 2010b, 2011b, 2011c, 2011d, 2012)
that every law of fuzziness can actually be
expressed in terms of two laws of
randomness, with randomness defined in the
measure theoretic sense, and accordingly
fuzzy randomness should be explained with
reference to two laws of randomness defined
for every fuzzy observation. In this article, we
are going to put forward the exact
mathematical analysis of fuzzy randomness.
The Zadehian definition of
complement of a fuzzy set is defective
(Baruah, 1999b, 2011a). In the Zadehian
definition of complementation, fuzzy
membership function and fuzzy membership
value have been taken to be the same, and that
is where the defect lies. Indeed fuzzy
membership function and fuzzy membership
value are two different things for the
complement of a normal fuzzy set (Baruah,
2011c). The membership function of the
complement of a normal fuzzy number is 1
over the entire real line, with the condition
that it is measured from the membership
function of the normal fuzzy number
concerned. In studying fuzzy randomness,
while testing statistical hypotheses, the
alternative hypotheses of fuzzy null
hypotheses have always been wrongly
defined. In this article, we would discuss
regarding how an alternative hypothesis has
to be stated.
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It should be noted that the notion of
probability does not enter into the measure
theoretic definition of a random variable
(Rohatgi and Saleh, 2001, pages 41 – 43).
When a variable is probabilistic, it has to be
random by definition although when a
variable is random, it need not be
probabilistic. Accordingly, all results of the
classical theory of probability are
automatically applicable to a random variable
defined in the measure theoretic sense. In the
term ‘fuzzy randomness’, as available in the
literature, the word ‘randomness’ has been
taken as equivalent to the word
‘probabilistic’.
In what, follows, we shall discuss in
short Baruah’s Randomness – Fuzziness
Consistency Principle, and we shall state the
axiom defining the complement of a fuzzy
set. Thereafter we shall discuss how exactly
to define fuzzy randomness. Finally, we shall
discuss the matters with reference to testing a
fuzzy hypothesis in the case of the Student’s
t-test.

1. The Randomness – Fuzziness
Consistency Principle

A normal fuzzy number N = [α, β, γ] is
an interval around the real number β with the
elements in the interval being partially
present. Partial presence of an element in a
fuzzy set is defined by the membership
function. A normal fuzzy number N = [α, β, γ]
is associated with a membership function μ
N

(x), where
( )
( )
( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s s
s s
=
otherwise
x x
x x
x
N
, 0
,
,
2
1
¸ | ¢
| o ¢
µ

Here Ψ
1
(x) is continuous and non-
decreasing in the interval [α, β], and Ψ
2
(x) is
continuous and non-increasing in the interval
[β, γ], where
Ψ
1
(α) = Ψ
2
(γ) = 0,
Ψ
1
(β) = Ψ
2
(β) = 1.
In the Dubois-Prade nomenclature,
Ψ
1
(x) is called the Left Reference Function,
and Ψ
2
(x) is called the Right Reference
Function of the normal fuzzy number.
Construction of a normal fuzzy number would
depend on construction of these two reference
functions. Defining the operation called
Superimposition of Sets and using the
Glivenko-Cantelli Theorem (Loeve, 1977) on
Order Statistic, Baruah (2010a, 2010b, 2011b,
2011c, 2011d, 2012) has established the
following result which we shall state as a
theorem that uncovers the missing link
between fuzziness and randomness, which
was being searched for by the workers in
fuzziness since 1965.
Theorem 1: For a normal fuzzy
number
N = [α, β, γ]
with membership function
( )
( )
( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
s s
s s
=
otherwise
x x
x x
x
N
, 0
,
,
2
1
¸ | ¢
| o ¢
µ

such that
Ψ
1
(α) = Ψ
2
(γ) = 0,
Ψ
1
(β) = Ψ
2
(β) = 1,
Ψ
1
(x) is the distribution function of a
random variable defined in the interval [α, β],
and Ψ
2
(x) is the complementary distribution
function of another random variable defined
in the interval [β, γ].
It needs to be mentioned at this point
that the Glivenko – Cantelli theorem on
convergence of empirical probability
distributions can actually be seen as the
backbone of mathematical statistics. This
theorem is about probability distribution
functions, and therefore it will be applicable
for distribution functions of random variables
with randomness defined in the measure
theoretic sense as well (Baruah, 2011b, 2012).
As we have mentioned earlier, in the measure
theoretic sense, if a variable is probabilistic, it
has to be necessarily random, although when
a variable is random, it does not have to be
probabilistic.
It is known that a distribution function
of a random variable is non-decreasing, and
that a complementary distribution function of
a random variable is non-increasing. The
functions are continuous and differentiable.
Differentiation of Ψ
1
(x) and (1 – Ψ
2
(x)) would
give two density functions. This means, one
needs two laws of randomness, one in the
interval [α, β] and the other in [β, γ], to
construct a normal fuzzy number [α, β, γ].
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For a triangular fuzzy number,
differentiation of Ψ
1
(x) and (1 – Ψ
2
(x)) would
give two uniform density functions. It is well
known that the uniform law of randomness is
the simplest of all probability laws. Thus two
uniform laws of randomness lead to the
simplest fuzzy number. When we say that a
normal fuzzy number is of the triangular type,
it actually means that we have assumed that
the left reference function is a uniform
distribution function and the right reference
function is a uniform complementary
distribution function. We have actually found
that the triangular fuzzy number appears very
naturally in defining fuzziness (Das, 2013).
Theorem - 1 can actually be called the
Randomness - Fuzziness Consistency
Principle (Baruah, 2010a, 2010b, 2011c).
Thus according to this principle, the Dubois-
Prade left reference function is actually a
distribution function by definition and
similarly the right reference function is
nothing but a complementary distribution
function. In other words, two laws of
randomness, probabilistic or otherwise, are
not only necessary but also sufficient to
define a law of fuzziness.

2. The Complement of a Fuzzy Set

In the Zadehian definition of the
complement of a fuzzy set, fuzzy membership
function and fuzzy membership value are
taken to be the same, which led to the
conclusion that the fuzzy sets do not follow
the set theoretic axioms of exclusion and
contradiction. For the complement of a
normal fuzzy set, fuzzy membership function
and fuzzy membership value are two different
things, and the complement of a normal fuzzy
set has to be defined accordingly.
If a normal fuzzy number N = [α, β, γ]
is defined with a membership function μ
N
(x),
where
μ
N
(x) = Ψ
1
(x), if α ≤ x ≤ β,
= Ψ
2
(x), if β ≤ x ≤ γ,
and
= 0, otherwise,
where
Ψ
1
(α) = Ψ
2
(γ) = 0,
Ψ
1
(β) = Ψ
2
(β) = 1,
the complement N
C
will have the
membership function μ
N
C
(x), where
μ
N
C
(x) = 1, - ∞ < x < ∞,
with the condition that μ
N
C
(x) is to be
counted from Ψ
1
(x), if α ≤ x ≤ β, from Ψ
2
(x),
if β ≤ x ≤ γ, and from 0, otherwise, so that we
keep a difference between the fuzzy
membership function and the fuzzy
membership value. Baruah (1999b, 2011c)
has forwarded this definition of the
complement of a fuzzy set which is based on
the following axiom:
Axiom 1: The fuzzy membership
function of the complement of a normal fuzzy
number N is equal to 1 for the entire real line,
with the membership value counted from the
membership function of N.

3. The Exact Definition of Fuzzy
Randomness

In studying fuzzy randomness, the
workers used the definition of complement of
a fuzzy set to frame the alternative hypotheses
with reference to the fuzzy null hypotheses.
Whenever a fuzzy null hypothesis was found
rejectable, this wrong definition came into
picture.
While making the statistical
conclusions with reference to fuzzy random
data, there was another lack. If the two laws
of randomness defining fuzziness are indeed
laws of probability, two possibilities can
actually be there. When a non-rejectable
hypothesis is fuzzified, there would still be a
probability that the fuzzy hypothesis would
actually be found rejectable, the probability of
rejection decided by the right reference
function. In the same way, if a rejectable
hypothesis is fuzzified, there would still be a
probability that the fuzzy hypothesis would be
found non-rejectable, the probability of non-
rejection being decided by the left reference
function this time (Baruah, 2011c).
Assume that X is a random variable
following the normal probability law with
mean μ and variance unity. Now if the
parameter μ is fuzzy, with membership
defined in [μ - δ, μ, μ + δ], we would actually
define an infinite number of normal
probability density functions with location
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10
parameter ranging from (μ – δ) to (μ + δ )
with maximum membership assigned at the
value μ. This is where the current definition
of fuzzy randomness ends.
Assume now that we have a normally
distributed population with mean μ and
variance σ
2
. From this population, a sample of
n observations x
1
, x
2,
... , x
n
has been drawn,
and we can then proceed to infer about the
population, based on the sample data. Assume
further that we have fuzzy data and we need
to proceed for statistical analysis with
reference to fuzzy randomness.
The data are in terms of fuzzy
numbers around x
i
, i=1,2,…,n defined as, say,
X
i
= [x
i
- δ, x
i
, x
i
+ δ], δ ≥ 0.
The analysis can now proceed
accordingly. Without loss of generality, and
for computational simplicity, such fuzzy
numbers are usually taken as triangular.
It can be seen that the equivalence of
the definitions of the Dubois-Prade left
reference function Ψ
1
(x), α ≤ x ≤ β, and a
distribution function gives us
( ) ( ) x x
dx
d
1 1
¢ ¢ =
, say
where
( ) 1
1
}
=
|
o
¢ dx x
.
In the same way, the equivalence of
the definitions of the Dubois-Prade right
reference function Ψ
2
(x), β ≤ x≤ γ, and a
complementary distribution function, gives us
( ) ( ) ( ) x x
dx
d
2 2
1 ¢ ¢ = ÷ , say,
where
( ) 1
2
}
=
¸
|
¢ dx x
.
Now, according to Baruah’s
Randomness – Fuzziness Consistency
Principle, a triangular fuzzy number of the
type
| | o o + ÷ =
i i i i
x x x X , ,
with membership function
( )
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
+ s s
÷ +
s s ÷
+ ÷
=
otherwise
x x x if
x x
x x x if
x x
x
i i
i
i i
i
X
i
, 0
, ,
, ,
o
o
o
o
o
o
µ

is in fact defined by two laws of
randomness with distribution functions
( )
i i
i
x x x if
x x
x F s s ÷
+ ÷
= o
o
o
,
1

and
( ) , , 1
2
o
o
o
+ s s
÷ +
÷ =
i i
i
x x x if
x x
x F
so that their densities
( ) , ,
1
1 i i
x x x if x F
dx
d
s s ÷ = o
o

and
( ) o
o
+ s s =
i i
x x x if x F
dx
d
,
1
2

are uniform.
Accordingly, fuzzy randomness
should be defined as follows. First, there
should be a variable following some law of
probability. Secondly, around every
realization of the probabilistic variable, there
should be fuzziness. This fuzziness in turn
will be explained by two laws of randomness,
with randomness defined in the measure
theoretic sense. If it is presumed that the two
laws of randomness are in fact two laws of
probability, then the conclusions can be made
probabilistically.

4. Student’s – t Test with Fuzzy Data

Assume that a random sample of five
students has been collected from a normal
population and their heights are measured.
The heights of the five students are 63, 67, 70,
71 and 73 inches. Let us assume that mean
height of the population is 66 inches.
Now, we want to test whether the data
are consistent with the assumption of a mean
height of 66 inches in the population, i.e., H
0
:
μ=66, against the alternative hypothesis, H
1
:
μ≠66.
Under H
0
, the test statistic is given by
,
1 /
2
0
÷
÷
=
n s
x
t
µ

which follows the Student’s – t
probability distribution with (n-1) degrees of
freedom, where x is the sample mean and
2
s is the sample variance.
Here, the calculated value of t is
1.4364 which is less than the tabulated value
of t i.e. 2.78 at 5% probability level of
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11
significance for 4 degrees of freedom.
Therefore, we may conclude that there is no
reason to reject the null hypothesis that the
sample has come from a population with
mean height 66 inches.
In a fuzzy situation, let us start with
data of the type [x
i
– 1, x
i
, x
i
+ 1] with an
assumption that the data are triangular. The
random variable X of which x is a realization
in the sample was assumed to be normally
distributed. In other words, we would start
with an assumption that the two laws of
randomness, one on [x
i
– 1, x
i
] and the other
on [x
i
, x
i
+ 1], are uniform, for a normally
distributed realization x with mean μ and error
variance σ
2
, say. We would presume further
that these two laws of randomness are indeed
two laws of probability so that we can infer
probabilistically.
Thus, we have the heights of the
students with triangular membership
functions as [62, 63, 64], [66, 67, 68], [69, 70,
71], [70, 71, 72], [72, 73, 74]. The null
hypothesis would be
H
0
: the data of interval type are
consistent with the assumption of a fuzzy
mean height of [65, 66, 67] inches in the
population, i.e.,
H
0
: μ = [65, 66, 67].
The alternative hypothesis is,
H
1
: μ = [65, 66, 67]
C
,
where the complement should be
defined as discussed earlier.
Under H
0
, we have obtained the fuzzy
value of Student’s - t with the following fuzzy
membership function

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
s s
÷ ÷ + ÷ +
s s
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
=
otherwise
x
x x x
x
x x x
x
t
, 0
8 . 4 4364 . 1
,
32
4 16 . 92 64 2 . 11 8 . 76 2 . 11 8 . 76
4364 . 1 2689 . 0
,
32
2 . 20 8 . 12 4 . 35 56 . 2 64 2 . 20 8 . 12
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
µ

Now, this fuzzy number gives the
following two distribution functions
according to the Randomness-Fuzziness
Consistency Principle:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
, 4364 . 1 2689 . 0
,
32
2 . 20 8 . 12 4 . 35 56 . 2 64 2 . 20 8 . 12
2 2
2
2
1
s s
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
=
x
x x x
x ¢
and
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
8 . 4 4364 . 1
,
32
4 16 . 92 64 2 . 11 8 . 76 2 . 11 8 . 76
1 ) 1 (
2
2
2 2
2
s s
÷ ÷ + ÷ +
÷ = ÷
x
x x x
x ¢

This means, the fuzzy value of
t = [0.2689, 1.4364, 4.8]
with left and right reference functions
ψ
1
(x) and ψ
2
(x) defined in 0.2689 ≤ x ≤
1.4364 and 1.4364 ≤ x ≤4.8 respectively,
would be defined by the two densities
( ) x
dx
d
1
¢

and
( ) ( ) x
dx
d
2
1 ¢ ÷
in the respective ranges.
We now proceed to look into the
matters of making a fuzzy conclusion
statistically. The tabulated non-fuzzy value of
t at 5% level of significance for 4 degrees of
freedom is 2.78, which lies between 1.4364 to
4.8.

Figure: The Membership Curve

To the right of the tabulated value of t,
i.e., 2.78, the area under the probability
density function of Student’s t is 0.025. 2.78
is on that part of the interval on which the
right reference function is defined. Now, in
our perspective the probability density
function concerned with the right reference
function is given by
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
8 . 4 4364 . 1
,
4 16 . 92 64 2 . 11 8 . 76 32
256 2 . 11 8 . 76 4 . 22
32
4 . 22
1
2
2
2
2
2
s s
÷ ÷ +
+ +
+ ÷ = ÷
x
x x
x x x x
x
dx
d
¢
Therefore, the probability that t ≥ 2.78
would be the area under this probability
density function for t ≥ 2.78, which is the area
of the right tail beyond 2.78. The area of the
left tail from 1.4364 to 2.78 is (1- ψ
2
(2.78)).
Thus the area of the right tail is ψ
2
(2.78)
again, which is nothing but the membership
value of t at 2.78. ψ
2
(2.78) = 0.3960 is
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therefore the probability that the fuzzy null
hypothesis that the sample has come from a
population with fuzzy mean height 66 inches
would have to be rejected at 5% probability
level of significance. In other words, when a
non-rejectable hypothesis is fuzzified, there
will still be a probability that the fuzzy
hypothesis would actually be found
rejectable. In the same way, if a rejectable
hypothesis is fuzzified, there would still be a
probability that the fuzzy hypothesis would be
found non-rejectable, the probability of non-
rejection being decided by the left reference
function this time.

5. Conclusions

Partial presence of an element in a
normal fuzzy number can be expressed in
terms of two laws of randomness. The
membership function of a normal fuzzy
number [α, β, γ] is actually a distribution
function in [α, β] and a complementary
distribution function in [β, γ]. Based on this
principle, the exact definition of fuzzy
randomness has been forwarded in this article.
Further, the complement of a fuzzy set should
be redefined. In testing of fuzzy hypothesis,
we deal with the alternative hypothesis which
is the complement of the fuzzy null
hypothesis. One should note that for the
complement of a normal fuzzy set, fuzzy
membership function and fuzzy membership
value are two different things. We have
shown that when a non-rejectable hypothesis
is fuzzified, there would still be a probability
that the fuzzy hypothesis would actually be
found rejectable. In the same way, if a
rejectable hypothesis is fuzzified, there would
still be a probability that the fuzzy hypothesis
would be found non-rejectable.

Reference

1. Baruah, H. K. (1999a), Set Superimposition
and Its Application to the Theory of Fuzzy Sets,
Journal of the Assam Science Society, Vol. 40, Nos. 1
& 2, 25 – 31.
2. Baruah, H. K. (1999b), Fuzzy Membership
with respect to a Reference Function, Journal of the
Assam Science Society, Vol. 40, No. 3, 65 – 73.
3. Baruah, H. K. (2010a), The randomness –
fuzziness consistency principle, International Journal
of Energy, Information and Communications, Vol. 1,
Issue 1, 37 – 48.
4. Baruah, H. K. (2010b), The Randomness-
Fuzziness Consistency Principle, Invited Article,
International Congress of Mathematics, Proceedings of
the Satellite International Conference on Probability
and Statistics, Sambalpur University, India.
5. Baruah, H. K. (2011a), Towards Forming a
Field of Fuzzy Sets, International Journal of Energy,
Information and Communications, Vol. 2, Issue 1, 16 –
20.
6. Baruah, H. K. (2011b), Construction of the
membership function of a fuzzy number, ICIC Express
Letters, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 545-549.
7. Baruah, H. K. (2011c), The theory of fuzzy
sets: beliefs and realities, International Journal of
Energy Information and Communications, Vol. 2, No.
2, 1-22.
8. Baruah, H. K. (2011d), In search of the root of
fuzziness: the measure theoretic meaning of partial
presence, Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and
Informatics, Vol. 2, No. 1, 57-68.
9. Baruah, H. K. (2012), Construction of normal
fuzzy numbers using the mathematics of partial
presence, Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier,
Vol. 1, No. 1, 9-15.
10. Buckley, J. J. (2003), Uncertain probabilities
III: the continuous case, Soft Computing – A Fusion of
Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, Vol. 8,
No. 3, 200 – 206.
11. Buckley, J. J. and Eslami, E. (2003),
Uncertain probabilities I: the discrete case, Soft
Computing – A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies
and Applications, Vo. 7, No. 8, 500 – 505.
12. Buckley, J. J. and Eslami, E. (2004),
Uncertain probabilities II: the continuous case, Soft
Computing – A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies
and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 3, 193 – 199.
13. Das, D., Mahanta S., Chutia, R. and Baruah,
H. K. (2013), Construction of normal fuzzy numbers:
case studies with Indian stock exchange data, Annals of
Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics (in press).
14. Goswami, P. and Baruah, H. K. (2008a),
Fuzzy Discrete Distributions: the Binomial Case,
Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 16, No. 3, 671 –
676.
15. Goswami, P. and Baruah, H. K. (2008b), The
Fuzzy ARIMA (1, 1) Process, Vol. 16, No. 3, 721 –
729.
16. Goswami, P. and Baruah, H. K., (2007),
Fuzzy Time Series Analysis, Journal of Fuzzy
Mathematics, Vol. 15, No. 3, 513 -523.
17. Goswami, P., Dutta, P. and Baruah, H. K.
(1997), The Latin Square Design Using Fuzzy Data,
Journal of Fuzzy Mathematics, Vol. 5, No. 4, 767 -779.
18. Loeve, M. (1977), Probability Theory,
Springer Verlag, New York.
19. Rohatgi V. K. and Saleh A. K. E. (2001), An
Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Second
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Edition, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, John
Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd., Singapore.
20. Talukdar, R. and Baruah, H. K. (2007),
Sequential Probability Ratio Test with Fuzzy
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14
COMPUTER SECURITY AND SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES
PhD Lazar Stošić, College for professional studies educators, Aleksinac, Serbia

Dragan Veličković, Master of Laws

Abstract: With the increasing development of
computer and communications technology growth and
increasing needs and development of information systems
security. The problem of security must be approached with
greater caution. With the development of computer and
communication technologies have developed numerous tools
to protect files and other information. A set of tools,
procedures, policies and solutions to defend against attacks
are collectively referred to as computer network security. It is
necessary above all to define and learn about the concepts of
attack, risk, threat, vulnerability and asset value.
During the design and implementation of
information systems should primarily take into account a set
of measures to increase security and maintenance at an
acceptable level of risk. In any case, there is a need to know
the risks in the information system. Sources of potential
security problems are challenges and attacks, while the risk
relates to the probable outcome and its associated costs due to
occurrence of certain events. There are numerous techniques
help protect your computer: cryptography, authentication,
checked the software, licenses and certificates, valid
authorization...
This paper explains some of the procedures and
potential threats to break into the network and computers as
well as potential programs that are used. Guidance and
explanation of these programs is not to cause a break-in at
someone else's computer, but to highlight the vulnerability of
the computer's capabilities.
Key words - computer security, security
technologies, threats, security, protection of computer.


SECURITY

One of the accepted definitions of
security is that security is the maintenance of
the level of acceptable risk. The risk is the
result of accumulation of threats and
weaknesses of the consequences. Since it is a
process means that it must be planned and
systematically monitor the system status and
possible threats that can come from outside.
We can not say with certainty that a system is
fully protected. There is no absolute security.
Everything is relative. When the protection
system is necessary to accept some level of
risk and the possibility that a certain loss i.e.
reasonable level of risk. Since security is a
process it can not pay for the purchase of a
product. Each process is in a dynamic state,
so the safety can be implemented using
several different products and services,
procedures and rules. However, the very
products and services, procedures and rules
are not sufficient in themselves. Need a
proper and timely training of authorized
persons in charge of the protection system.
All that investment in staff training,
procurement of goods and services,
procedures and rules are far more profitable
than paying damages. On the possibility of
losing important data to say nothing. Must
find a balance between investments in safety
and immediate effects in order to reduce risk.
Security is based on four basic steps
as follows:
Evaluation (assess the possible risks
and predictions for their removal),
÷ protection (prevent potential attacks
in order to reduce the possibility of
compromising the system),
÷ discovery (the process of identifying
the attack) and
÷ Answer (a recovery with the
possibility of further work or restoration of
the system itself).
Three basic principles of information
security make up the trinity of ''great'':
 Confidentiality - an attempt to prevent
the intentional, unauthorized disclosure,
 Integrity - data is a system and as such
must remain and must not be changed,÷
 Availability - only certain staff can
access the data.


Three basic principles of information security

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I'm term safety, security, refers to the
preservation and protection of data in
computer systems of an enterprise. Security is
usually divided into safety resources, network
security, security location where the data
(server, etc.) and security services.

Possible attacks and threats

Since we defined that the security
process, the protection system can select
various security products, policies, procedures
and practices. When we speak of the
protection system must be protected from
attacks that threaten the information systems.
To protect against possible attacks have the
ability to predict and know the attacks and the
types of attacks. If you understand the types
of attacks and ways in which they come, we
can more easily monitor and control the risk
of data loss.
Ensuring safety should and must
become the responsibility of each system
administrator. Should always pay attention
and ask: ''What is the probability that
someone will break into a wired or wireless
network, the company where you work and
listen to network traffic? If this happens the
measures taken? ''If you do not take certain
steps there is a likelihood that an attack
occurs or wired wireless network.
When trying to improve security of
information systems are mostly used six
categories of security measures including:
general security policies and procedures,
software, virus protection, digital signatures,
encryption, firewalls and proxy servers.[5]
Security breaches and attacks on information
systems most often arise from the following
sources: employees of firms, hackers,
terrorists, and computer viruses.
The most common steps in the attack
are as follows:
 testing and Assessment,
 exploitation and penetration,
 increased privileges,
 maintenance of access,
 refusal of services.

During the attack may lead to different
consequences and the most common are: the
destruction of resources, theft of resources,
theft of services, refusal of service, corruption
of data and applications.
During normal flow of information
data is moving from one place to another.

Normal flow of information flow

There are several types of attacks but,
generally, all attacks can be classified into
four categories:

1. Cutting or breaking

This kind of attack interrupts the flow
of information in the system. This is a direct
or active attack.

Cutting or interruption of information flow

2. Interception

This kind of attack is difficult to see,
and unlike the previous, active attacks, are a
passive attack. This kind of attack the person
trying to collect information or to perform
monitoring of current performance. After
gathering sufficient data can be exported
active attack or some other kind of attack.


Interception of information

3. Changed

This kind of attack falls into the
category of active attacks, because the attack
on the integrity. There may be a changing of
the data or the whole system.
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Changes of information flow
4. Fabrication

This kind of attack is also an active
attack and an attack on authenticity. This kind
of attack is faking data, traffic etc.

Fabricating information

Attackers could use the software
vulnerabilities in operating systems that allow
remote programs and entities to be entered
into the computer the victim and take control
over it. As such, the computer becomes a kind
of' ''zombie'' PCs that can continue to attack
other computers, to burden the network and
the like. No less dangerous or worms that can
do damage, duplicated and converted into
zombie computers.

Security of wireless networks

Today, PC cards are most frequently
used in home and business networks. All
computers have a security protocol called
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). A device
using an 802.11 card is configured with a key,
that in practice usually consists of a password
or a key derived from a password.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a
protocol for encrypting wirelessly transmitted
packets on IEEE 802.11 networks. In a WEP
protected network, all packets are encrypted
using the stream cipher RC4 under a common
key, the root key1 Rk. Rk is the WEP or root
key and IV is the initialization vector for a
packet. K = Rk║IV is the session or per
packet key. X is a key stream generated using
K. The WEP protocol is designed to provide
privacy to packet based wireless networks
based on the 802.11b standard [7]. The WEP
encrypts by taking a secret key and a per-
packet 3 byte IV, and using the IV followed
by the secret key as the RC4 key. The attacker
is able to retrieve the first byte of the RC4
output from each packet.[6]
The potential risks with the advent of
wireless networks with manifold increase.
Wireless is greatly vulnerable for the simple
reason - incompetence that's been properly
adjusted. We said that there is no absolute
security. The same is true of networks. By
placing an increasing number of ''hot spots''
(the location where the greatest number of
people - cafes, parks for the rest ...) opens up
the possibility that data theft and intrusion in
the user's computer. Wireless networks are
defined in IEEE 802.11, which brought the
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers). Initial version of the IEEE 802.11
standard with the 2.4 GHz frequency and two
data rates (from 1 and 2 Mb/s), which was
formed in mid-1997. year. Formed by
standard formed working groups - group A,
B, D, E, F and G. On the IEEE 802.11
specification is based and Wi-Fi networks. In
the beginning it was designed for mobile
computing devices (laptop computers,
Internet access, VoIP, games ...).
Looking at an organization as a
system, we can say that the wireless network
vulnerable part of the system. Standards often
fail to meet the three basic security
requirements: reliable user authentication,
authorization and user privacy. The first
security mechanism (WEP-Wired Equivalent
Privacy) has shown that it has significant
security vulnerabilities. Relying on this
mechanism without taking additional
measures did not show good results. He later
followed WEP2, EAP, WPA ... Individual
explanation of these mechanisms would take
away too much time and space so we can
keep things in general.
The attacker broke into someone's
system, the wireless network; he must first
catch a signal that now is not so difficult. By
capturing the signal can be performed on
active or passive attacks. In the beginning, are
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generally conducted passive attacks, i.e.
listening for a signal and traffic between
access points and users. The attached is clear
that the attacker must know the physical layer
is defined in the 802.11 standard. For an
active attack, the attacker must have the
proper equipment that can send data to the
network. If the attacker does not have the
service set identifier SSID - Service Set
Identifier, the access point rejects the
connection. However, since all control frames
are not sent in encrypted form, an attacker can
capture the control frames sent by the access
point to communicate with other network
users, find out the SSID and join the network.
What will still work, we assume.

Probability of interception at different locations:[1]
Location Full description Probability of interception
Rural / remote
In his house, which is quite distant from
other houses
Extremely small
Remote
connection
Connection via remote, point-to-point
connection with a wireless Internet
provider, or neighboring network
Small, the targeted nature of
point-to-point connection
Densely
populated urban
place or suburb
In his home, located in a densely
populated area with few houses in the
near abroad
Generally high, especially if
you have neighbors who use
high technology, but actual
attacks are unlikely.
Mixed
The neighborhood, which is a mixture of
commercial and residential buildings
Generally high, because the
business systems attractive
targets, and most probably
use the wireless network
Public places in
the neighborhood
The neighborhood, near public parks, or
in places where parking is allowed on
the street.
Great, because public
networks use different layers
of the population and
anonymous users.
Commercial
buildings
The buildings used by a number of
companies, or companies, or near the
parking lot with the optical visibility of
the building.
Very high, because of the
proximity and attractiveness
of the target.
Roaming
While on the road, in airports, hotels,
cafes and other locations
Generally high, for easy
tracking, but with relatively
low risk because no one
knows just tapping your
network traffic.


Tools to attack wireless networks

In order to best protect the information
system, i.e. wireless networks need to, in
addition to the administrator knows these
things and others familiar with the tools to
attack wireless networks. The purpose of
these schemes is the creation of the attacker
(punishable by law), but shows the possible
intrusion and abuse of wireless networks.
Network administrator is desirable to test
these programs in order to know the
probability and the possibility of attacks that
allow these programs and the ability to protect
against them. Due to abuse of the program
and the names of potential attacks is not
mentioned in this paper. Hereby only draw
attention to how the administrator can better
train and what can and should be ready when
it comes to wireless networks. There are tools
to carry out an attack on the WEP key, tools
to crack WEP encryption and the like.
Closing a wireless network (SSID
hiding) is not a secure solution that the
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network will not be visible. With a little
trouble and patience can be detected network
name. The network can detect many programs
that the commercial to those who are open
source and completely free. Furthermore,
allowing access only to specific network
adapters (MAC addresses) is not safe because
it is not difficult to change MAC address
wireless network adapter. Since the MAC
addresses transmitted over the air,
unencrypted, it is not difficult to catch such
address and assign it your network adapter.

Preventing and limiting public access
computer network

''The public computer network in
terms of criminal law is considered a set of
interconnected computers that communicate
by exchanging data. A public computer
network is the computer network that it is
subject to certain conditions, available to
everyone and it can be global in character as
the internet, regional or local character.
Preventing and limiting public access
computer network protecting the rights of
citizens, that is, communication and
information through computers, and access to
a public computer network sanctioned by
criminal legislation.
By preventing access to the public
computer network involves completely
disabling the second to use the computer
network.
By restricting access to public
computer network involves the creation of
access difficulties and efforts to prevent it.
Prevention or obstruction should be
performed without authorization, otherwise
there is crime prevention and restriction of
public access computer network if there is any
legal basis to prevent someone access to a
public computer network.
Criminal offenses against computer
data is often called cyber crime. The term
"cyber" is often used to describe new
concepts in computer technology and terms
associated with the Internet. Cyber crime
would identify all criminal activities
committed using computers. The Convention
on Cyber crime of the Council of Europe, the
terms "computer" and "cyber" crime is used
as synonyms.
The term "computer" and "cyber"
crime can involve all forms of computer use
in crime. Often this form of high-tech crime,
rather than the word "cyber" uses the term
"cyberspace." The prefix "cyber" is a word
that comes from the ancient Greek word
derived from "cyber", hence the name of
scientific disciplines, "Cybernetics".
With cyber crime, we can distinguish
two types of crimes that can be done by
computer.
In one group, the new criminal
offenses like the spread of computer viruses,
destruction of files or software etc., or crimes
where the computer is a means of attack and
care for the facility required separate
legislation.
In the second group are the classic
crimes such as fraud, child pornography,
gambling, copyright infringement and the
like, where the computer is used as a means
of execution, and that caused it in a new form
of cyber space.
The rapid growth of computer crime
has led to numerous problems, which can be
classified as:
• Technical problems are caused by
rapid changes in technology and the inability
of law enforcement to continually keep up to
date, as well as technical deficiencies that
make it difficult to find and prosecute
perpetrators.
• Legal problems are caused by the
inability of the legal framework to monitor
technological developments.
• Operational problems are caused by
lack of equipment, training and adequate
organizational structure and the need to work
at high speed regardless of time zone,
language and cultural differences.
The main problem is in finding and
gathering evidence.'' [3, 4, 8]

Conclusion

Tools that are available on the
Internet, both commercial and free, they are
not designed for intruder wireless networks.
On the contrary, are designed to indicate the
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potential weaknesses of the system, network
resources and security failures so-called
security holes. Knowledge of these programs
is very important for administrators to better
understand how to protect its network and
prevent data theft. Tools that are available are
usually divided into categories:
1. Tools to search the area to find the
network signal, of the protection
network and the strength of its signal.
2. Tools to intercept the data sent over the
air and convert them into readable form,
breaking the protective key.
3. Using these tools is mostly illegal and
therefore punishable by law. For these
reasons, the names of these tools are not
mentioned in this paper. We draw
attention to the administrators with the
help of these programs can realize
significant errors and omissions in the
networks that can be used to protect
your network and I have an information
system.

References

1. Adam Engst, Glenn Fleishman (2004): Wireless
networking, Computer Library, Cacak
2. Andy Ruth, Kurt Hudson (2004): Security +
Certification, Computer CET Beograd
3. Criminal Code RS art. 112 page 18 and art. 303
4. Expert comment Code of Criminal Procedure in
offenses against the security of computer data
5. James A. Seen (2007): Information technology:
principles, practices, opportunities, computer
library, Belgrade
6. L. Stošić, M. Bogdanović (2012). RC4 stream
cipher and possible attacks on WEP, (IJACSA)
International Journal of Advanced Computer
Science and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 3, march
2012, (pp. 110-114), ISSN 2156-5570 (Online),
ISSN 2158-107X (Print),
https://www.thesai.org/Downloads/Volume3No3/
Paper19-
RC4_Stream_Cipher_And_Possible_Attacks_On
_WEP.pdf
7. LAN/MAN Standard Committee, Wireless LAN
medium access control (MAC) and physical layer
(PHY) specifications, 1999 edition, IEEE
standard 802.11, IEEE Computer Society, 1999.
8. Ljubisa Lazarevic: Commentary of the Criminal
Code of the Republic of Serbia, page. 750, 751
9. http://www.niap-ccevs.org/cc-scheme/
10. http://all.net/books/ir/nswc/incident.handle.html
11. http://www.cert.org/stats
12. http://nvd.nist.gov/






























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ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL ECONOMY

PhD Stanka Đurić, Ministry of Finance, Serbia

PhD Ljiljana Mihajlović Stošić, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia


Abstract: Liquidity is generally the biggest
problem of the Serbian economy. At the end of
November 2012th Serbia's public debt stood at EUR
17.5 billion, which is close to 60% of gross domestic
product (GDP), the debt continued to rise in December
for new debt, so the debt could soon be equal to the
one that had the entire ex- Yugoslavia.
Historically, the growth of the economy,
increasing employment and living standards in Serbia
in the next three years can only be done if you reduce
the deficit in the state budget, curb inflation and the
gap between the inflow and outflow of money abroad.
Keywords: national economy,
macroeconomic research, economic development

INTRODUCTION

Overall economic activity in 2012., as
measured by gross domestic product (GDP)
and are presented in prices last year, will have
a real decline of 1.9% compared to the
previous year. However, the European Bank
for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
announced in mid-January to improve the
prediction of economic growth in Serbia in
2013. by one percentage point, to 2.1%
respectively.

1. THE FALL IN GDP AND DEBT IN
2012.

Real GDP decline in 2012. in Serbia
amounts to 1.9% compared to the 2011th
year. The fall in GDP was the highest in the
sector of agriculture, forestry and fisheries,
and other services sector accommodation and
meals. The decline in industrial production in
2012. was 3.4%, mainly due to the energy
supply sector, gas and steam.
On the other hand, the highest
recorded GDP growth in the following
sectors: information and communication,
professional, scientific and technical
activities, administrative and support service
activities. It is estimated that agricultural
production in 2012. had a real decline of
17.5%.
It is now clear that the only time in the
modern Serbian obliged as the former
Yugoslavia in early 2013. A trend of
borrowing, so that - among other signed
contract to Serbia mortgage an additional
EUR 640 million in the Chinese Exim Bank,
Chinese Corporation for Roads and Bridges
will build two highways: from Belgrade to
Cacak and Novi Sad and Ruma as a tunnel
through the mountain Fruska. Serbia will get
money from Chinese banks for 20 years, and
we will implement most of the projects of
Chinese companies and workers, while local
construction company to dispose of nearly
250 million euros. Despite huge public debt,
the government of Serbia is only in the last
two days of the 2012th when she decided to
borrow nearly a billion euros, bearing in mind
that it signed a contract with the Chinese
company agreed to build a highway for 330
million euros.
The Serbian is only 2012. was only for
11 months, the debt has increased by more
than three billion euros, never in the past 12
years as the debt has not jumped this year. We
literally borrowed more than 100 euros every
second during weekdays and holidays, as
taximeter, the debt grew and the only concern
is that speed can be accelerated, not slowed
down.
Another warning refers to interest that
Serbia must pay. According to the approved
budget for 2013. Serbia will only interest for
the next year will have to pay 900 million
euros.

2. THE UNSUSTAINBILITY OF THE
FOREGIN TRADE DEFICIT SERBIAN

The trade deficit in Serbia 2012. The
amount is close to 7 billion, which is 4.7%
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less than in the same period of the 2011.
Exported goods worth 10.36 billion dollars,
which is 4.4% less than in the same period
last year, while imports 17.19 billion, a
decrease of 4.6%. Export-import ratio was
60.3% and was higher than the same period
last year, when it stood at 60.2%.
In exports, the main foreign trade
partners, were Germany, Italy, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Romania and Russia.
In imports, the main foreign trade
partners, were Germany, Russia, Italy, China
and Hungary.
The external trade was the largest of
the countries with which Serbia has signed
free trade agreements. The EU countries
account for more than half of total trade -
58.5%. The second most important partner of
Serbia to the CEFTA countries, with which
we have a trade surplus of about 1.21 billion
U.S. dollars, which is the result of increasing
exports of agricultural products and exports of
iron and steel.
Observed by countries, the largest
surplus was realized with former Yugoslav
republics - Montenegro, Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Macedonia. From other
countries, according to a surplus with
Romania and Slovakia. The largest deficit in
trade with China and with Russia. Follow
deficit with Germany, Italy and Hungary.
By sections of the Standard
International Trade Classification largest
share in exports were cereals and products
made from them with 777 million dollars,
electrical machinery and equipment - 766
million, non-ferrous metals - 626 million,
vegetables and fruits - and 500 million road
vehicles - 482 million.
The top five sectors with the highest
share of imports are petroleum and petroleum
products to $ 1.57 billion, road vehicles -
about a billion dollars, natural gas - 990
million, electrical machinery and equipment -
754 million, and medical and pharmaceutical
products - 646 million. Department
unclassified goods, which now includes the
goods in the customs warehouse, has a share
of total imports 7.3%.


3. INFLATION ARGET – MYT OR
REALITY
Economic growth, increased
employment and living standards, Serbia over
the next three years can only be done if you
reduce the deficit in the state budget, curb
inflation and the gap between the inflow and
outflow of money abroad. For price stability
is in charge of the National Bank. Its program
of monetary policy in 2013. NBS is
committed to the goal of 4% inflation, leaving
the possibility that fails by 1.5 percentage
points. In fiscal strategy for the next three
years, the Serbian government records that
will, in turn, do all to the growth rate in 2013.
be 5.5%, a year later, five, and in 2015. only
4.5%.
Presumably, the Central Bank will
cost the most disciplined 'fix' interest, which
has so far done. But if the state does not do its
part, by the amount of inflation in the future
we will be champions of Europe infamous. In
this case, it is particularly embarrassing, since
the desired economic growth, increased
employment and standards in the next three
years there will be nothing. The fight against
NBS relatively high inflation over the past
few years have been sufficiently successful.
Despite tight monetary policy, the growth rate
is regularly exceeded expectations.
Because of the restrictive monetary
policy, which will, in all likelihood, take in
the coming year given the high rate of
inflation this year could hurt the recovery of
production, employment and export growth.
Serious threat looming over the economic
reality of Serbia. Nime, and Ako in 2013. lose
time and seriously recover production,
increase employment and exports, justified
fear that we will experience a situation that is
similar to Greece's current economic
situation.
Against inflation can be successfully
dealt with only the central bank. In this battle
must be included antitrust, and the
Competition Commission should be given
much greater rights, but also a lot more
responsibility. In fact, Serbia has much more
serious to confront those retailers and
manufacturers who use the opportunity to be a
little on the market and raise prices as much
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as it suits them - behaving like a monopolist.
You need to apply experience from the world,
legal and practical solutions that can be
implemented decisively. Do not repeat the
situation to the Competition Commission
several times during the last period of a
decision to withdraw part of the proceeds
companies that use illegal Serbian market,
and other relevant institutions to later release
the company from liability.
Scope of monetary policy is limited,
because the Serbian market is ruled by two
currencies simultaneously - our U.S. and
Euro. Economic Policy Challenges Serbia in
2013. That in times of crisis must achieve
harmony between governments, central
banks, unions and employers. All should
agree that neither they themselves favor a
foreign currency, or Euro. It is a condition for
achieving the inflation target and preserve
monetary sovereignty.
In addition, it should be noted that the
inflation target difficult to achieve, if, in
conjunction with measures of monetary
policy, not the application of some measures
and fiscal adjustments. Bearing in mind that
an established large imbalance in the Serbian
economy, and foreign and domestic, so that a
realistic assumption that monetary policy will
not only be able to be successful in this effort
- especially as the only instrument of
monetary policy reference rate. It is true that
it affects the demand for money, but also
makes the economy access to bank loans. For
the money economy is already set, so the
bank probably continue to invest money in
the purchase of government securities.
In fact, the pending reform of Serbia -
can hardly be no significant changes to the
system, it is still sticking to the old Serbian
economic model that has produced the desired
results. This is confirmed by the fact that
industrial production makes up 13% of GDP,
which shows that it has been totally de-
industrialization, and still pushing the same
model - which in the long run simply
unsustainable. Serbia has in the past 12 years,
spent more than generating and hence all our
present and future troubles so far tapped the
last minute to take radical measures. For long-
term stability is needed fundamental reform
of the public sector, which can not be
disposed of, as well as tax reform. For its
implementation requires a general consensus.
However, the expectation is that the
full effect of the measures taken so far
monetary policy on inflation yet manifest, and
the NBS will in the future to assess whether it
is necessary to further monetary tightening.
The Executive Board of the NBS estimated
that inflation in the previous period, due
primarily to the extremely high growth in
food prices and the depreciation of the effects
of the increase in value added tax and excise
duties. Contributed to rising inflation and
high public spending in an election year, and
unfavorable developments in the international
environment. Specifically, from 9.5% at the
inflation growth from April to December
2012. - The contribution to food price
increases related to 6.6 percentage points.
This means that inflation in that period
decisively influenced by the growth of the
price, which was the result of low agricultural
production due to drought and a significant
increase in world prices of primary
agricultural products, and specific food
market in Serbia. Given the high share of food
in the consumer price index - 38.8%, inflation
in Serbia is the price shocks this group
particularly vulnerable.
In addition, because the existing
system solutions in our food prices are much
more volatile than in the neighboring
countries, as can be seen from their higher
growth in that period. Speed toward the goal
of returning inflation to a large extent depend
on the upcoming agricultural season - if it is
average, significantly reducing inflation is
expected from the second quarter of the 2013.
Possibly worse than normal agricultural
season could slow down the process of
reducing inflation. Recognizing that the
nature of the current inflationary pressures
crucially determined by the food market
instability, so we should be promptly
identified and implemented for measures that
would contribute to the stabilization of the
market and reduce volatility in food prices.


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4. SERBIAN GROWTH FORECAST IN
2013.

European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD) announced in mid-
January that the improved forecast economic
growth in Serbia in 2013. by one percentage
point, to 2.1% respectively. As stated in the
January report, "Regional economic outlook,"
the EBRD economists expect a moderate
acceleration of growth in gross domestic
product (GDP) in the region, to 3.1% in 2013.
After a slowdown in economic activity in
2012.. EBRD Chief Economist Erik Berglof
said that for the first time after a long period
sees an opportunity to reduce the risk for the
region, especially due to the weakening of the
crisis in the euro zone. By Berglof: "It is still
too early to say that everything is fine, but
shows signs of stabilization." Serbia's
economy, the report said, is currently showing
a series of weaknesses, registered a decline of
2% of GDP in 2012. due to weak domestic
demand and the impact of the crisis in the
euro zone exports. This, together with
political uncertainty affected the confidence
and investment. The EBRD report was first
presented separately forecast for Kosovo,
which will be as expected, and international
banks, have a GDP growth of 3% in 2013.,
the largest in Southeast Europe.
In addition, it should be noted that the
arrangement will expire Serbia with the
International Monetary fond (IMF), which has
been frozen for almost a year. In Serbia, the
evident importance of the role of the IMF and
a potential new arrangement with the
institution, confidence-building and
stabilization in Serbia. Serbia's GDP to grow
by 2.1% in the second place, followed by
Albania with 2%, Bulgaria (1.9%),
Macedonia (1.8%), Romania (1.4%).
Montenegro, according to the EBRD,
could expect growth of 0.8% in 2013., and the
bottom of the list, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
with growth of 0.6%.

4.1. Penalties for Unused credits?!

In addition to the interest that the
government pays on loans, wage and penalty
fees for loans that are granted to her, and not
being used. Thus Serbia, according to the
Public Debt Administration, last year paid a
total budget of 429.5 million dinars just to
name a commission to approve and
Commitment in respect of borrowing.
Official figures show that there are
loans that are approved and before us five or
six years, and have not yet been fully
exploited. That, however, and that costs
money. However, some loans are withdrawn
in installments, so that the full amount and
can be used immediately.
The biggest problem with the delay in
the use of soft loans from international
financial institutions are unprepared for the
projects they are responsible for their own
debt. Therefore, not only are the investments
and is not relieved by ready money, but to pay
for it and - penalties.
According also to official data from
the European Investment Bank (EIB),
guaranteed by the Serbian, public companies
were used 80% of the totals contracted 924.5
billion in the past 10 years. With a guarantee
by the European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD), the situation is even
worse: as of October, SOEs are pulled only
57.2% of the contracted 550.28 million.
When looking at direct obligations of
domestic companies, the EIB loan was
withdrawn less than half, only 49.1% of the
contracted 596.6 million. And these people
are borrowing, other than the Republic of
Serbia, and small and medium enterprises.
"Serbian Railways" is one of the
companies that did not fully utilize the
contracted loans from international
institutions. From the EBRD approved a loan
for Corridor 10 was withdrawn only a part.
The common interest of Serbian Railways and
the international financial institutions to
expedite all procedures, credit hire as soon as
possible and start decentralization of several
projects of modernization of infrastructure
and rolling stock. Among the companies that
are not fully contracted funds are withdrawn
Power Industry of Serbia, Serbia gas, "Roads
of Serbia", and the Republic of Serbia as the
borrower.
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Of 10.5 billion euros of the total
external debt, the name of the Serbian loans
taken by the European Investment Bank owes
1.42 billion. The total debt of the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development
"heavy" is 375.5 million euros.

4.2. Fund development of serbian - major
state financial institutions

In 2012. were placed 19 billion from
the Development Fund of the Republic of
Serbia. RS Development Fund will provide
the economy in 2013. The soft loans with
longer repayment periods and lower interest
rates. The Fund is the largest state-owned
financial institution that is over five years
invested 13,450 loans worth 100 billion.
The objectives of the Fund are to
promote balanced regional development,
primarily undeveloped areas, encouraging the
development of small and medium-sized
enterprises, competitiveness and liquidity of
the economy and increasing exports of
domestic companies. In 2013. the Fund will
provide 12 billion in lending to the economy.
More than 80% of the loan fund is
intended for small and medium enterprises
and entrepreneurs and at interest rates that are
considerably lower than for commercial
banks. Unlike banks, which only take into
account only the economic viability of the
project, the Fund takes care of the social
justification of funding.
Newspapers that have been introduced
in the work of the Fund in 2013. The
rescheduling of the loan in order to keep the
economy and the growth of employment and
the provision of consultancy services to the
borrowers.

4.3. Subsidized loans for small and medium-
sized enterprises in 2013.

The Serbian government adopted a
decree on subsidized loans for liquidity for
companies. This year's quota is intended
economy will refer exclusively to small and
medium-sized enterprises. Loans will be
implemented after the Ministry of Finance
and Economy to sign contracts with all banks
in Serbia that are interested in this kind of
loan approval. Thus, as of 1 February
interested companies will be able to apply for
this type of loan. Liquidity is generally the
biggest problem of the Serbian economy, and
billions of euros, the state set aside to cover
the interest these loans, contribute
significantly to alleviate this problem at least.
Evidence of the last year has shown
that for this type of loan is a great interest, but
that the company used only for refinancing of
liabilities. Therefore, fear and open large
companies that have used the previous year
subsidized loans for liquidity will have to find
other sources of funding.
Last 2012. the further a certain amount
to subsidize the economy of 300 million
euros. Thanks to that banks had to sell foreign
currencies and sell dinars companies, which
resulted in the stabilization of the exchange
rate. That was the first part of anti-crisis
measures to help the economy. The bank
sanctioned loans with a grace period of five
months and 13 months of repayment, and
firms could use them for liquidity or
refinancing loans. The loan amount is
dependent on the size of the company.
Interest rates were the best on the market.

4.4. Exchange Rate

U.S. never ceases to surprise.
Expectations are that the U.S. will continue to
strengthen. Notice of the loans - all of this has
affected and affects the U.S. as the foreign
exchange market operates in the notice to be
foreign exchange.
Demand for foreign currency is
relatively small, and the dinars stable. Given
that favorable weather condition - in the sense
that it does not require large amounts of
energy supply, demand caused by missing
these seasonal factors, and on the other hand,
there is a certain interest of foreign investors
in local securities, all of which keeps the
course stable level.
It seems to be a realistic forecast that
the euro will be 108 dinars, which is based on
expectations of better economic situation in
Serbia, with economic growth of 2.1%. In
addition, the forecast is based on the
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expectation that the situation in the euro zone
will be relatively stable, as well as the
political situation in the country, the budget
deficit will be lower, and foreign direct
investment at the level of one billion euros.
Finally, in anticipation of a solid year for
agriculture. In support of the economic
situation and go to a new possible
arrangement with the IMF and further
progress of the process of European
integration.
Strengthening of the dinars should be
seen in both the short and medium term. In
fact, at some point the U.S. will have to
decline. As it was not realistic to weaken the
middle of last year, so not real strengthening
of the current exchange rate, because we have
high inflation differential between Serbia and
the euro zone, high budget and trade deficits,
and we have a strong economy that would fit
behind it.

4.5. Price increase energy impact of inflation

The announced price increase of
energy in the first quarter of 2013. should not
cause significant inflationary shock. The
announced price rise of about 12%, about 10
gases, heating for five to seven percent, will
directly affect the growth of inflation by about
1.2%. The indirect effect, however, will be
higher because traders will take advantage of
energy price hikes to increase prices of basic
foodstuffs, and chemicals.
Electricity price increase of 12%
direct inflation increases by 0.8%, gas for
heating and 0.1 to 0.2%, a larger price
increases should not occur due to the fact that
the purchasing power of citizens and demand,
very modest, a stable exchange rate.
On this year is not expected even
greater increase in the price of fuel, which is
one more reason that prices are suspended.
What, however, the concern is that we are
only halfway through the heating season, and
already announced another price increase for
heating and to increase gas prices by about
10%. Since half of a gas plant for which the
purchase price of heating account for more
than 70% of the money, it is reasonable to
expect that those accounts are heated with
district heating will be higher again. This
means that for a 60 square meter apartment
that is attached to the heating plant, and which
is now heating up costing about 6,500 dinars
increase accounts for about 300 dinars. At the
same time the average family of four who pay
a monthly fee of about 4,000 current dinars,
as of February, if the current rise by then, will
pay an increase of 12% to about 480 dinars
more.
Those that are heated in the furnace
TA at night and during the day dogrevaju, so
their monthly bills go up to 10,000 dinars will
pay expensive electricity for about 1,200
dinars. It is certain that if the price increase
was 10 and 12%, so that for a higher amount
in the account at the same number of kilowatt
hours, compared with nearly the same power
consumption, night and day. If, however,
there was a higher consumption in the red, the
most expensive area, as well as changes in the
relationship between the zones, and
automatically make consumers feel it in their
accounts. It is also certain that the power will
not be able to heat or households will also
receive free kilowatts. The average household
of four uses 350 kilowatt-hours, and those
involving about 1,500 heaters. From that they
receive from the state, will pay a fifth of the
account.

CONCLUSION

Inflation in Serbia has seen rapid
growth and at the end of last year was about
13%, reflecting the weakening of the dinars
and rising food prices caused by drought,
which has been badly affected agricultural
production.
The main challenges for the Serbian
government fiscal deficit and reduce public
debt, which has reached 60% of GDP, well
above the legally allowed limit of 45%.
European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD) announced in mid-
January that the improved forecast economic
growth in Serbia in 2013. by one percentage
point, to 2.1% respectively.


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REFERENCES

1. Macroeconomic trends and indicators,
National Bureau of Statistics.
2. "Regional economic outlook," the EBRD
report of January.
3. Program Development Fund of the Republic
of Serbia in 2013.




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SMALL BUSINESS – ALTERNATIVE TO UNEMPLOYMENT
REDUCTION IN ECONOMY UNDER RECESSION
PhD Trajković Svetlana, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia

PhD Trajković Predrag, Mapro, Vranje, Serbia

MSc Milan Ivanković, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Department for rural development,
Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: The decade long trend of
unemployment rate increase, reduction of national
income and salaries of the employees and demand
reduction implies the necessity for taking urgent
measures and counteracting the high inflation rate in
order to reduce the unemployment of both the younger
population as well as the elderly population (older than
50) which is often considered to be unneeded. More
active initiation of small business through
entrepreneurship, even self-employment can be an
impetus for healing the economy.
Education, financial support in the form of
favorable loans together with the fiscal policy of new
entrepreneurs can initiate entering into business of
people with the feeling, awareness and readiness for
innovative work and uncertainty, and those who are
ready to face the risk of anticipating future
developments and market turbulences which are
inevitable companions of modern business.
Key words: recession, small business,
unemployment, national income, salary, inflation,
entrepreneurship, business risk, fiscal policy

Introduction

The transition together wit all the side
effects, which accompanied the economy of
our country (economic isolation, hyper-
inflation, dirty, unfair and inefficient
privatization, tycoonisation etc.) totally
destroyed our economy and economic system,
so that we are returned to the economic level
of the prior decades in an economic sense.
Our economy is nowadays fully economically
devastated, with permanent decline in gross
domestic product paired with recession.
The Western Balkans faced new
recession in 2012, with the largest decline of
2.5 percent expected to target Serbia, while
the recovery will be fairly slow in 2013,
according to the World Bank statement. Debt
levels are too high in some countries.
Moreover, the level of our economy is
comparable to the economies of Albania and
Montenegro, which means that the debt is in
Montenegro, Serbia and Albania is reaching a
very dangerous level, especially in Albania
where it equals 60 percent of gross domestic
product, although it is rapidly growing in
Serbia and Montenegro. World Bank
forecasts for Serbia are the most pessimistic,
because our country has difficulties in
stimulating growth at a time when it seeks to
cut its growing budget deficit. Interview with
the coordinator of the World Bank for the
Western Balkans, Reuters Agency: Jane
Armitage 06/11/2012/
1

The situation in our economy and the
whole society indicates a turning point, which
has only two options (to stop further
deterioration of our economy and turn the
curve in the direction of the progression of
GDP, decreasing the level of indebtedness,
reducing the budget deficit by reducing
unemployment or otherwise to experience
bankruptcy).
Small business development through
entrepreneurship makes one of the powerful
segments, which can stop further deterioration
of the economy, increase in production,
development of services directed to meeting
the needs of consumers, discovery and
development of new demand, and surely
employing the new population with
entrepreneurial visions, as well as motivating
the young people to awake their business
inclination for which they were even not
aware of.
Our country has significant natural
and human resources at disposal, although
they are quite destroyed in technical sense but
this is enough, if there is political will and
readiness of some departments to streamline
the functioning of national institutions for the

1
http://www.studiob.rs/info/vest.php?id=82392
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design and adoption of appropriate business
policies in order to be able to use what we
have and ensure cease of further economic
deterioration.


Entrepreneurship in business

Entrepreneurship is an economic
activity that is focused initiation; organization
and business innovation with the main
objective of creating new value that meet the
needs of people and the resulting profit.
Entrepreneurship is open to all areas and
spheres of human activity. Develops
creativity, enhances developments of ideas
and enriches human needs
2
.
Entrepreneurship is about creating
new values while taking the market risks,
which is full of uncertainty, in order to
satisfactions the customers or users of
products or services and the ultimate goal of
making profit. General elements relevant to
entrepreneurship observed by the means of
analysis of many definitions of this economic
phenomenon can be classified and expressed
in the form of:
- creativity and innovation,
- identifying and gathering of
resources,
- establishing of economic
organization-system and creating
of opportunities for profit and the
acceptance of risk and uncertainty.

Entrepreneurship requires certain
changes in business and management, as well
as managers, and configuration of certain
resources. This indicates the acceptance of the
claim that entrepreneurship is present and it is
reflected in the degree of change and
innovations /software’s, technology,
resources, management/
Schumpeter suggests categorization
of changes as a combination of responses to
the questions:
- Has new product or service been
found?

2
(Penezic N. PhD – 2003.): How to become an
entrepreneur - 2003.
- Are new methods and
technologies being employed?
- Have new target markets been
created?
- Have new sources of supply of
raw materials and resources been
used? and
- Are new forms of organizational
structure being employed?
For contemporary entrepreneurial
activity in the world and our business
communication the term business is used,
which symbolizes the individual or group
business ventures meeting production or
service market needs, in order to maximize
profits. In theory of marketing, the acceptable
concept is that the profits are result of the
quality of meeting the consular needs.
In the theory of economy, such
philosophy is not readily acceptable, but if
one meticulously analyzes the fact that the
customer is an individual investing his money
in order to satisfy his/her needs, he/she will
undeniably not participate in this game
without personal satisfaction. This indicates
that without profit there is no business.
New small enterprises emerge as an
effect of entrepreneurship, and they are
significant creators of new products (tangible
and intangible assets that meet the needs of
individuals, groups or overall economy),
which can be very important in changing the
people's lives. This economic activity can,
should and must result in the creation of new
jobs and economic structure of the system.
Entrepreneurship is usually initiated
with low capital, which makes a business i.e.
a small entrepreneurial activity which
furthermore enables monitoring of all the
factors relevant to the market hence making it
very flexible, to be able to rearrange their
business engagements. Small entrepreneurs,
when it comes to their ability of adaptability
and flexibility, their main advantage is that
they make decisions ahead of time, as well as
they are running first in realization, being
therefore the main precursors of innovation.
History of economics points out that
the world economies have always grew out
economic crisis by means of entrepreneurship
and small business, and therefore one should
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not ignore the opinion, that the small
enterprises are the entrepreneurial engine
of economic development, and even more,
that this business segment promotes private
ownership and entrepreneurial power -
readiness and ability to accept the risk which
is ever present in business, but it almost
always overcomes all obstacles on the road to
success. The dominating opinion accepted in
the economic literature which deals with
entrepreneurship, is that small enterprises are
synonym for the private sector and
entrepreneurship. The concept of
entrepreneurship development as an economic
segment that at least partly solves the
unemployment in a successful way and
contributes to increasing of the national
product, is present in Europe and worldwide,
which indicates that it can be applied to
Serbian case likewise.

Entrepreneur and his/her traits

Since the planning, organization and
implementation of activities that need to
happen in the future can not be fully foreseen,
the final outcome is uncertain. Even the
entrepreneur himself/herself invests own
capital with no guarantee that he/she will be
able to have it recovered, and certainly he/she
is expecting profits from his/her own work
and commitment of resources.
Creativity is reflected in the creation
of ideas, design of the model for the
implementation of the ideas and planning of
the conceptual design for the functioning of
the system. If a person wants to sail the
waters of entrepreneurship only by the means
of ownership transfer of a company, trying to
keep the rest as a whole, there is no
entrepreneurship. It can be said that this is
rather change in ownership structure, which
is abundant in our country, without success
and with many negative effects, which
constitutes one of the causes of this poor
economic situation and brings the economy to
the edge of bankruptcy.
Entrepreneurs are characterized by
specific features, such as: possessing the tank
of knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as
creativity, spirit of initiative, courage,
responsibility, dynamism, commitment to the
business and in particular perseverance and
persistence.
Several arguments indicate that
entrepreneurs ought to be knowledgeable and
skillful, especially in terms of entrepreneurial
decision making which should not be done ad
hoc, by intuition from case to case, but it
should be done based on previous research
and analysis of relevant factors affecting
future events and market changes. An
entrepreneur can not afford weak handling
within his/her business sphere, which is
selected and where overall resources are
employed in order to achieve the set goal. It
does not mean that, if an entrepreneur is a
person with appropriate knowledge, that
his/her career should be based on existing
knowledge. He/she should continuously learn
and acquire new knowledge that is up to date
with technical and technological development
of the society by getting acquainted to new
technology. A special segment of each
entrepreneur's knowledge pool allows him/her
to orientate entirely on the market, which
imposes the necessity to be completely aware
of the market and of all the market
participants. The focus of his/her interest must
be people with their character traits and
abilities.
Entrepreneurial knowledge and skills
are an important factor in work because of:
- easier coping the business
challenges,
- entrepreneur chooses the subject of
business and certainly that the focus is
on what seems to be acceptable,
- entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs
are present in all spheres of human
society, making profit and making the
driving force of human resource
development (education, upbringing,
providing security to partners).
The quality of entrepreneurs is a very
common topic in the theory of economic
analysis, and therefore we highlight Herper,
who lists eight different qualities of
entrepreneurs: /
3

- finders of new opportunities,

3
https :/sistes.google.com/site/
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- focused on the future,
- constantly trying to be the best,
- market-oriented,
- know how to appreciate their
associates,
- realistic,
- diligent and accepting all sorts of
jobs,
- full of life.

Education and discovering the entrepreneurial
spirit
In our country, majority of
entrepreneurs start the adventure of
businesses by inertia, sometimes out of
necessity, not knowing that they possess
unique gift for business. If a person is
business inclined i.e. owns skills of
entrepreneurs, it often come to know by
working hard usually a tedious job, that it is
possible not only to survive but also to
succeed in certain business job. Entrepreneur
is learning through work from the basic
content of business up to a level of being
capable to deal with. Due to business
commitments entrepreneurs do not have time
to develop professionally. Paradox of
entrepreneurial education is often seen here.
"Majority of entrepreneurial training
programmers take place at university or
through informal education, while the
majority of entrepreneurs are people with
primary and secondary education.
Entrepreneurs start to experiment and launch
different ideas and business options at a very
early phase in their lives because of their
spirit and proactive attitude.
Each business requires time and commitment,
which usually leads to the situation that many
entrepreneurs do not have time for a
university education and they tend to follow
various courses and seminars./
4

On the other hand it is convenient to
mention that program curricula at our
universities and colleges are often not based
on the real needs. They have a more
theoretical approach without any specific
methodology for problem setting and solving.

4
/www.cdop.rs/2o11/03/podsticanje preduzetnistva
kroz edukaciju
Teachers are still practicing cabinet research
rather than field research. Students learn
about topics they do not truly need without
being capable of recognizing elementary
details. The curricula need to be adapted so as
to meet the needs of specific entrepreneurship
categories. We need more specialized
education with specific knowledge of a
certain level of entrepreneurship. It is needed
to have appropriate institutions offering
integral and systematic approach of
introducing entrepreneurship as a subject to
relevant authorities at all levels of the
education system. This opinion is based on
analysis of the current state of entrepreneurial
education in Serbia, which is the trend of
good practice in European countries, which
have introduced entrepreneurship into formal
education system. Hence, the government
would take a strategic commitment to develop
education about entrepreneurship, so that the
intention of development of entrepreneurial
education is consistent and logical.
If we introduce entrepreneurial
education at all levels, one should expect a
strong influence on the young population, by
raising awareness and encouraging
entrepreneurship so that entrepreneurial
education could serve to individuals for
starting a business, as well as it can initiate
innovation and entrepreneurial values.

Education can be organized as:

- vocational training, retraining and
additional training of existing staff,
- introduction of financial support
programmers for entrepreneurial activities,
- establishing of institutions for the
collection of information and other relevant
data,
- communication with the information
users in the form of information distribution,
- development and setting up of
entrepreneurial schools and colleges (business
schools, mostly in private hands, where
quality of knowledge that leads to success
should be offered and built, because the self-
employed are not going to invest capital in
the short term, but their main goal would be
creating the knowledge brand).
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Since we do not have the required
profile of teachers in the field of
entrepreneurship, it is necessary to define the
same and work on teacher education for
entrepreneurship.
Given the current state of our
economy, it is necessary to model the system
of economy based on the market economy as
soon as possible, monopoly must be
eliminated, and follow the laws of market.
The core of the economy should be
represented by privately owned small and
medium-sized enterprises as a basic form,
with emphasis on the rapid development of
manufacturing and service industries, for
which we have natural resources.

Administrative support for entrepreneurship

For many people, the motivation and
interest for entrepreneurship awakes at some
point, and then they initiate activities in order
to find out more about entrepreneurship (from
friends, reviewing literature, enrolling the
entrepreneurship courses). This phase is
relatively short and a decision on accepting
that the activity of the business is made. Some
people already have concrete ideas at this
stage and they know what they want and what
they are capable of, whereas a certain number
of others are keen to get to work, but they are
not certain about which direction to move
into. What is it, what the market needs and is
not covered? Can it animate the new needs of
consumers which would be satisfied through
its entrepreneurial activities?
Now the would-be entrepreneurs need
help and free support from the community,
because they are economically still not in a
position to invest in the quest for ideas, the
conceptual design of a business plan, i.e. a
preliminary comparative analysis of income
and expenses and anticipated profits, and
perhaps even not the registration activities -
companies.
In order to solve the problem, which is
expressed in the country's economic situation,
it is necessary to set up agencies for
animation entrepreneurship, which would be
engaged in providing free services.
Community for beginners - those who
are appearing for the first time to register an
enterprise should have gratis the following
activities:
- to regulate simplification of business
registration in terms of legislation - less
forms,
- to reduce as mush as possible the period
from submitting the application to
issuance of a permit and,
- not to limit the possibility of registration
by requesting of the special conditions,
which often mean ban for of entry into
certain business (simply preventing
competition just selectively),
- it is often happening here that entering
into some business is preconditioned by
requesting the profiled personnel and
equipment, as if it was not clear to us that
the entrepreneur, especially a beginner
does not have the funds to spend
unreasonably and engaging in illegal
activities and therefore the business is not
going to start before ensuring the quality,
- to allow and request from entrepreneurs
to introduce internal self-audit in their
business and to preventively control their
business more frequent,
- to allow achieving of the business
requirements phase by phase, where the
process of activities takes place
successively in stages, as there are no
funds available for investing into
equipment and staff, which are not likely
to be used perhaps in the coming few
years,
- to organize and implement preventive
and more frequent control in the form of
advising for beginners in
entrepreneurship, certainly based on the
complexity and on the social importance
of the activity certain entrepreneur is
engaged in (working with people, food,
etc.).

Financial support of entrepreneurial business

In order to start a business, an
entrepreneur needs to have several qualities in
addition to personal qualities (inventiveness,
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courage, knowledge, readiness for self-
sacrifice and maximum commitment), he/she
also needs certain amount of financial assets,
depending on the conceptual design of the
activities relevant for the certain business. It
is difficult to ensure all the previous
conditions because of the following reasons:
- loans from friends-acquaintances are
difficult to obtain because of the
economic situation, there are few if any
able to offer them them in various ways,
- loans from commercial banks come with
a guarantee, which is usually difficult to
obtain for a young entrepreneur,
- borrowing from relatives and parents is
possible but often insufficient,
- alliance with friends and entering into a
partnership is possible, but it is often not
secure,
- funds from seling of an asset if so, which
further increases the risk for young
entrepreneur, but it ensures motivation
for the maximum vigilance and
commitment.

Initial proposal for motivating
entrepreneurs in business:
- normative regulation and organization of
financial support for the beginners by the
institutions - agencies from the fund that
should be established with the specific
purpose, which may take the form of:
grants, interest-free loans with a grace
period of several years, loans with a
favorable interest rate, competition
awards for creative ideas, assistance to
entrepreneurs from international funds
for the development of entrepreneurship
and employment, and in the case of
allocation of subsidized financial
resources it is necessary to establish
criteria that would apply to all. Practice
has shown in our country that such funds
are often provided selectively, which is
equal to crime, or even more that those
funds are spent inappropriately.
- states must make a realistic strategy,
rather than a list of pledged desires for
entrepreneurship development, with
established principles and sanctions if the
recipient fails to comply with conditions,
which are foreseen in the employment
contract providing financial support for
entrepreneurship, it is necessary to
penalize personnel occupying positions
of decision makers regarding the
beneficiaries of the funds if they do not
respect the principles of business -
established policy,
- it is necessary to have adequate control
over all funds involved in the
development of entrepreneurship,
because the experience in the Western
Balkans indicates a wrong approach to
the work entrusted to them.
- the beginners should be made free of
paying the administrative fees, taxes and
contributions for at least for a period of
three years from the moment of the
business start-up,
- criminal policy should be applied for
those who pretends to circumvent laws
by closing the existing enterprise and
they are always the beginners - it is a
crime,
- customs policy should be used to
motivate the business beginners.

Regardless of the fact that it is a very
difficult economic situation, funds are always
available for promising ideas that guarantee
making profit, if a beginner in the business is
not able to realize their ideas otherwise.
Associations of small entrepreneurs need to
be set up with the sole task of funding the
good ideas and programs, which would
consequently motivate young people and
those able to commit to the creation of
inventive ideas.
There are populations that need more
help in the form of the development of social
entrepreneurship and the development of
women's entrepreneurship and others and this
should also be noticed and regulated by law.

Conclusion

Notwithstanding the importance of
small business as an entrepreneurial activity,
it seems that the most responsible people do
not understand the problem and the solution is
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missing for resurrection of the faltering
economy and the partial resolution of
unemployment reducing and the increase of
the people's purchasing power.
It is evident that the appropriate
authorities are aware of the situation in which
the people of this country is, and that we
know the importance of entrepreneurship as a
proven model in dealing with the recession.
Until now, much has been done to motivate
these activities. Business strategies have been
presented, as well as the financing and
development, but the actions are not taking
place. The funds, which have been obtained
from the international community for this
purpose, or they have been set aside in the
budget, are either not properly being directed
or they are often inappropriately being spent.
This suggests that our society did not provide
sufficient and appropriate actions by the
relevant institutions to support
entrepreneurship in the past. There was a very
unfavorable business climate, because many
institutional methods have been used to guide
the activities and resources of the big
companies, which have stifled
entrepreneurship. In these circumstances, it is
only hardly possible for the small business
newcomers to start a business, but it is even
harder to survive and succeed. Big companies
have not perceived small businesses as
manufacturers of the elements for finalization
of their products, and they were solving the
gap through imports and increased foreign
currency demand, which consequentially
caused the weakening of the value of our
national currency.
Competitiveness of small enterprises
is limited by the monopolistic policies of
large companies and a lack of funding, just as
it is also by the high costs of alimentation
funding and launching of entrepreneurial
activities. A particular problem is the
elimination of the effects of the market, not
because of the strength and quality of large
companies, but because of creating such a
business environment. The problem is the fact
that we do not have a sufficient number of
small businesses (entrepreneurs, managers)
who could present their activities to financial
institutions by using their skills. Even if
someone knows, acts he/she independently,
not being able to draw attention of the
institutions to him/herself.
It is necessary to establish associations
of small entrepreneurs through unions,
alliances or some branch organizations, so
that the joint approach draws attention of the
relevant merit institutions ready to support the
development of these activities while
community must get to understand the
importance of entrepreneurial business for the
economic recovery of the country by means
of its economic development strategy.

Reference

1. Klose, Alfred. Poduzetnička etika. Školska
knjiga, 1996.
2. Knoblauch, Jorg. Biti poduzetnik života. Step
press, 2002
3. Kolin, M. Paunovic, Z. (2007) Neprofitni
sektor i socijalna preduzeća u Milan
Podunavac (ed.) Godišnjak Fakulteta
političkih nauka 2007, Čigoja, Beograd;
4. Leburić, Anči i Mira Krneta. Profil
poduzetnika. Naklada Bošković, 2003
5. Lowe, Robin and Sue Marriott. Enterprise:
Entrepreneurship and innovation.
Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006
6. Moorman, Jerry W. and James W. Halloran.
Successful Business Planning for
Entrepreneurs. Thompson South-Western,
2006
7. Penezić N.- 2003 Kako postati preduzetnik-
2003.
8. www.cdop.rs/2o11/03/podsticanje
preduzetništva kroz edukaciju
9. https :/sistes.google.com/si
10. http://www.studiob.rs/info/vest.php?id=82392
11. https :/sistes.google.com/site/

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CONSUMER’S EMOTIONAL INFLUENCE & VISUAL
MERCHANDISING EFFECTS: SHOPPING MALLS
*PhD Ranjan Upadhyaya &** MSc Govind Nath Srivastava, India

Abstract – The research empirically examines
the impact of emotional influence in evaluation and
purchase decision with special reference to goods sold
in shopping malls. Various factors which influence the
consumer decision, such as ease offered by retailer to
customers in defining, selecting and purchasing the
product, brand value, utility of the product, reference
group, value for money, advertising and its appeal etc
are being critically analyzed and its impact is being
empirically assessed. Apart from all the factors,
emotion play a critical role in consumer decision-
making and it strongly influence the consumer’s
choices. Very little efforts have been done in the past
in order to understand the source of emotional arousal
in purchase decision. Emotions are subject to change
and it is subjective in nature. Emotions silently and
unconsciously drive the consumer’s decision at the
destiny, where customers intend to go. Emotions are
not necessarily permanent and it varies from customer
to customer and even for the same customer, it is
different, in different situation, so in order to be
successful in this hyper competitive business era,
organizations need to leverage emotions for business
success, for better brand value, customer satisfaction
and employee management
Key words- Emotional dynamics,
Neuromarketing, visual merchandising, Mannequins,
Emotion Driver.
Introduction

What & why customer buy is most
important aspect of consumer behavior? What
customers buy is well known facts and data
are available regarding consumption pattern
and frequency of the purchase. Why customer
buys is most difficult question of marketing,
this must be answered for diagnosis of
influences, and for incorporating these
influences in marketing mix strategy. The
rational decision making, which is being
based on price benefit relationship and
involves intensive information search have
very strong logical and sound justification
behind the purchase decision, but
unfortunately the consumer’s decision which
is driven by emotions, do not have such sort
of explanation, because emotional attributes
are highly qualitative in nature. Emotions
guide to specific judgment (Barrett and
Campos- 1987). Emotions can guide and
persuade consumers (Andrade and Cohen-
2007).The emotions are all those feelings that
so change men as to affect their judgments,
and that are also attended by pain or pleasure
(Aristotle-2004). Due to qualitative aspects of
emotions most of the retailers are not able to
incorporate emotional strategy in their
marketing strategy. Emotions matters and
emotional connect with the customers delivers
very strong edge to the firm over traditional,
rational appeal. Most of the customers hide
their true desire and emotion and that’s why
their decisions are unconsciously driven by
unspoken desire and emotions. The
customers, who are relatively more driven by
emotion, skip some of the important steps of
consumer decision making process and takes
decision in shortest span of the time. This
increases inventory turnover, return on asset,
and quick return on investment and reduces
inventory-carrying cost. It is no longer
enough to explain to customers what a
product can do for him, infact firm need to
win the emotion of the customer in order to
go deep inside in the heart and mind of the
new generation customers (emotion mics,
Dann Hills). Consumer decision-making also
depends on mood of consumers. Several
studies have shown that in a happy mood
customers are more driven by their first
feeling and emotion and they take quick
intuitive judgment. Intuitive decision-making
is characterized by sense by which customers
perceive an option better than another. The
customers are not necessarily able to find out
the source of this intuition. Sad individuals
are strongly persuaded by strong arguments,
but not by weak arguments, whereas happy
individuals are moderately persuaded by
strong as well as week arguments (Marieke D
Vries, Rob W. Holand and Cilia L.M. Witte
man, Psychology press). Bolte, Goschke and
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Kuhl, 2003 suggested that happy mood
individuals respond more intuitively than
those in bad mood. While choosing an option
from various alternatives customers may rely
on their intuition or customer may decide
deliberately by analyzing pros and cons of
different option before making final decision.
In the world of retailing today almost all the
firms are offering the same benefit and more
than hundred brands are available in one
product category so rational approach of
selling the product and product customization
will no longer deliver benefit to the firm.
Retail firms need to leverage the emotions for
grabbing business opportunity. As most of the
customer are not able to define the product
while purchasing the product and they do not
know exactly what they are looking for in
terms of colour, feature and benefit so firm
should integrate emotions with their
merchandising and visual display for
acquiring competitive edge over competitors.
It is also observed that women are relatively
more driven by emotional influence. Colour,
status of the person who wear a particular
dress in a party or social event, window
display, dress style of mannequin with related
items, fresh arrivals and new fashion
merchandise which is displayed through
fixture and attractive visual aids are account
for emotional arousal which ultimately drive
the purchase decision of customers. It is being
observed in the past that Actress of some
famous serials created a huge demand for
particular dress style and customers blindly
purchased the product without any assessment
regarding usage, quality and price of the
merchandise. In order to succeed in market
place retailer should align his merchandising
strategy with emotional strategy for catering
unspoken desire/ emotion of the customers.

Visual Merchandising as an Emotion Driver

Visual merchandising is the display
tools that transform shoppers into stoppers
and passers into buyers. It should be noted
that visual merchandising does not impose
any idea over customers and works as an
idea person and lead the emotion in the
direction where customers wish to go. As it is
believed that 80% of influence/impression is
created by sight that’s why mannequin and
window display is weightier than thousands
of the words. The impression of different
elements of visual merchandising such as
colour, light, merchandise, odour, sound is
different for different customers as impact of
this encounter is unique for each customer in
terms of emotional influence.

Elements of Visual Merchandising-
Window Display

Window display is like a visiting card
of the store and it is most controllable element
of the store in relation to image building.
Well-designed window display works like a
talking point and communicate with the
customers silently regarding merchandise
story. Attractive window displays not only
draw the attention of the customers and
creates first impression but it also entertain
pedestrians.
Real setting, Atmospheric setting, Semi
real setting, Abstract setting and whimsical
setting of window display creates different
impact over customer’s mind.

Colour

Medical science has proven that colours
have definite and various impact over the
nervous system. Colour can immediately
create the mood and it is biggest motivation
for shopping. Colours cheer us up whenever
we feel bad. Colours are associated with
human emotions and it is highly
individualistic. The problem for the visual
merchandiser is that each person may have
distinct reaction to the same colour. In the
vast and global market place there are cultural
and regional differences in colour preference.
Following are the general feeling of particular
colour.
a) Yellow- caution, cowardice,
treachery
b) Red- passion, love
c) Orange- knowledge, warmth, energy,
force
d) Violet- royalty, depression
e) Blue- fidelity, sobriety, fear
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f) Green- Wealth, outdoors, luck, nature
g) Brown- Maturity, humility
h) White- Purity, truth
i) Black- Death, sorrow, depression

Sources- (Swati Bhalla, Anurag S, Visual
merchandising)

Neuromarketing

Neuromarketing is emerging field that
utilizes medical technologies such as FMRI
(functional magnetic Resonance Imaging) and
EEG (Electroencephalography) to study the
brain’s response to marketing stimuli (P Raj
Devasagayam, Tara Maloney, DIAS
Technology review, vol-6, No-2, Oct-Nov-
2010). FMRI is used by researcher for
measuring the change in the activity of the
brain and to learn what part of the brain is
affecting decision and why consumers take
decision. As it is believed that brand choice of
the customers is based on sub conscious
thought process so Neuromarketing uses
traditional Neuroscientific method to map the
brain pattern against encounter between
stimuli and brain. It also analyzes impact of
these stimuli on consumer decision-making.
The Retailer need to do the research at sub
conscious level to know what customers are
thinking and why and neuromarketing is
believed to give answer of these questions. As
the participants is shown a particular
stimulus, his or her brain is monitored with
neuroimaging monitor such as FMRI, EEG,
PET, TMS, SCR Etc, . Any one of these
monitors can be used for brain mapping.
Eventually the brain pattern is interpreted by
determining whether or not person liked what
he was experiencing and up to what degree.


Views from the field of Neuroscience

1-“The essential difference between
emotion and reason is that emotion leads to an
action while reason leads to conclusion”
(Calne, 2000)
2-“Over 85% of the thought,
emotions and learning occur in
unconscious mind and it can be said that
reasoning strategies are defective
(Damasio, 1999)
3-“The wiring of the brain favors
emotions” (Ledoux, 1996)
(Sources- Advertising journal of Research,
March, 2009, John Pawle and Peter Cooper)

Objectives Of the study

1- To analyze the impact of emotional
influence in consumer decision-making.
2- To identify the most important
influence in consumer decision making
3- To judge the rationality of consumer
decision-making and to find out variation for
the same product category.

Literature Review
John Pawle and Peter Cooper used the
Lovemak grid and incorporated quantative as
well as qualitative insight for measuring
emotions. In their study they found that
actual contribution of emotional factors to the
brand decision-making is significantly greater
than functional factors and ranges from 63-85
% depending on product category. According
to John Pawle and Peter Cooper Human
behavior is is heavily influenced by emotions
not solely by reason. Consumers are highly
emotional and intuitive in their behavior,
operating through emotional center of the
brain directed by their heart and often
independent of conscious control (John Pawle
and Peter Cooper). Robert (2004) developed a
love mark grid in order to understand the
relationship between brand and consumer. In
his study he emphasized that brand not only
need to create respect but it should also earn
respect from customers. Heath-2001 argues
that brand decision is not wholly rational.
Consumers take the decision via senses,
emotions, instinct and intuition. He pointed
out that customers are physically incapable of
making decision based on purely rational
thinking. Kelvin Roberts in his study argued
that human beings are powered by emotion
and whenever there is conflict between
emotion and reason emotion always wins.
Myeong –GU-SEO and Feldman Barrett
analysed the impact of feeling (good or bad)
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over the decision-making performance. They
argued that decision making performance
depends on how people experience, treat and
use their feeling during decision making and
both functional and dysfunctional effects can
be simultaneously managed to maximize their
positive effects and minimize negative
effects. They suggested that affective feeling
can improve decision-making performance by
facilitating and even enabling decision
making process. Damasio (1994) pointed out
that feeling boost the conscious attention and
continued working memory required for any
reasoning or deciding pleasant and unpleasant
feelings can help decision makers to resolve
this dilemma by invoking distinguishable
frame of the mind. Blair Kidwell, David M.
Hardesty & Terry L. Childers argue that EI
and emotional processing play a crucial role
in highest quality of decision and emotional
processing have very strong influence on
consumer outcome. Jennifer S. Lerner
(Howard University), Seunghee Han and
Dacher Keltner Described the significance of
incidental emotion as well as integral
emotion. They defined the integral emotion as
a feeling that is related to judgment or
decision at hand. Marieke D. Vries, Rob W.
Holand, and Cilia L.M. Witte man in their
study argue that compatibility between mood
and decision strategy has very strong
influence over subjective value of decision
outcome. They Examined mood and intuitive
Vs deliberative decision-making. In their
study they mentioned that Deliberative
decision-making is cognition based, precise
and slow. Deliberative decision makers take
their time to thoroughly analyze the positive
and negative aspects of different options.
Luisa Andreu, Enriquebigne, Ruben
Chumpitaz and Valerie Swaen investigated
the impact of retail environment in two
different retail setting (shopping center and
traditional retail area. They established the
linkage between retail environment, emotion,
satisfaction level and behavioral intention of
consumers. They formed three-dimensional
construct for analyzing behavioral intention.
Baron et al described the concept of Retail
Theater for creating pleasant experience for
increasing satisfaction level and loyalty
among consumers. Wakefield and Baker
(1998) found that physical environment play a
very crucial role in determining consumer’s
desire to remain at shopping area. The way
consumer experience emotion determines his
behavioral intention (Yach and Spangenberg-
2000). It is pointed out that Positive emotion
creates approach behavior while negative
emotion produces avoidance behavior. Mooy
and Roben-2002 in their study found that
customer wish to touch the product for better
evaluation and purchase decision. On the
other hand Argo, Dahl and Morales-2006
demonstrated that customers do not want the
product to be touched by the others that they
would like to purchase and view touched
product as a negatively contaminated. Jenifer
J Argo, Darren W. Dahl and Andrea C.
Morales examined that when physical contact
between the product and another person
creates positive outcome for consumers and
how consumers respond when other people of
varying level of attractiveness touch the
product that they wish to purchase.. They
brought new insight regarding impact of
attractive social influence in consumer
decision-making and mentioned that a highly
attractive contact source and received
consumer must be of opposite sex for positive
contagion to occur. Male consumers are more
influenced by attractiveness level of another
woman and that female consumers are more
influenced by attractiveness level of another
man (Abbey1982, Buss 1989). Learner and
Keltner (2000, 2001) used appraisal tendency
Framework (ATF) as a basis for describing
the effect of specific emotions on judgment
and decision making. Ingrid Smithey, Fulmer
and Bruce Barry identified neural system for
incorporating integral emotions and
controlling incidental emotions.

Hypothesis
a) H1- Consumers primarily take
emotional decision driven by emotion
b) H2- Consumers spend less time in
Intuitive decision driven by emotions.
c) H3- Consumers feels joy and
satisfaction in post transaction driven by
emotion.
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Research Design

A structured undisguised questionnaire
is used and sample sizes of 200 were taken for
study. Both male and female respondents
were taken in order to minimize the impact of
gender bias. Data are analyzed through SPSS.
In the study dependent and independent
variables were identified. Consumer’s
judgment and purchase evaluation is
dependent variable while social influence
(Attractiveness of contact person),
compassion, atmospheric, retail setting,
temperature, music, colors, odor, décor,
window dishplay, anger, fear, pride, affection
etc is independent variable. Respondents were
asked to assess their feelings on five point
likert scale in order to find out that when
customers felt joy, anger, fear, contentment
and disgust.

Scope of Research

This research empirically analyzes the
impact of emotional influence in consumer
decision making for goods in different retail
setting. This study can be further extended for
variety of the goods and most importantly the
sources of emotional arousal for each product
category can be identified. As in a retail
setting different factors such as decor, light,
color, odour, music, contact person, window
display are accountable for emotion formation
among the consumers so an effective emotion
matrix can be developed in order to
incorporate this matrix in sensory marketing.

Analysis and Discussion

Total 200 questionnaires were
distributed among the customers in a different
retail setting as each shopping mall have
different architectural design, lay out and
window display. Finally 175 questionnaires
were found usable. Apart from SPSS analysis
tool, pie chart is also used to analyze the data.
Total 16 questions were asked to respondent
to analyze the impact of senses, emotional
influence over customer decision making.
Majority of the customers admitted that they
are strongly driven by their senses in purchase
decision and sight is most important influence
which energies customers to purchase the
goods. Most of the respondent said that they
give priority to first impression in purchase
decision. We also felt in the research that
fragrance, music, light is very important
source of emotional arousal and it influence
consumer decision making up to great extent.
It was also found that most of the customers
take intuitive judgment.

Limitation of the Study

This study is heavily depends on
analysis of feelings of just 175 respondents in
retail setting. As emotion is very subjective in
nature and most of the customers may not be
able to express their feelings exactly so the
result may not be absolutely accurate. Lastly
this study can not be generalized as study is
conducted in NCR region only and emotion
driver, drive the emotions of consumers based
on geographical location.
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Interpretation of the data

Table-1
How strong you are driven by your senses in purchase decision?
Particulars Frequ
ency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly driven 94 47.0 47.0 47.0
Rarely 52 26.0 26.0 73.0
Moderately 52 26.0 26.0 99.0
Not at all 2 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0
Table-2
Which of five senses hold you most during purchase?
Partic
ulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid See 118 59.0 59.0 59.0
Smell 10 5.0 5.0 64.0
Touch 28 14.0 14.0 78.0
Hear 14 7.0 7.0 85.0
Taste 30 15.0 15.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0
Table-3
Do you follow what your senses say during purchasing & up to what extent?
Particul
ars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Always 68 34.0 34.0 34.0
Rarely 62 31.0 31.0 65.0
Sometim
es
68 34.0 34.0 99.0
Never 2 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0









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Table-4
How much passionate you are about your favorite colour in purchase decision?
Particul
ars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Very
Deeply
72 36.0 36.0 36.0
Moderat
ely
102 51.0 51.0 87.0
Rarely 24 12.0 12.0 99.0
Not at all 2 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Table-5
Are you ready to spend more money to get your favorite colour?
Partic
ulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 130 65.0 65.0 65.0
No 70 35.0 35.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Table-6
How much passionate you are about your favorite music?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Very Deeply 96 48.0 48.0 48.0
Rarely Matters 62 31.0 31.0 79.0
Moderately 42 21.0 21.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


Table-7
How much you are driven by your favorite fragrance in purchasing cosmetics?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly 80 40.0 40.0 40.0
Moderately 74 37.0 37.0 77.0
Sometimes 42 21.0 21.0 98.0
Not so
effective
4 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0
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Table-8
Do you feel that music, and fragrance in the shopping mall energies you for purchasing more?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly
agree
56 28.0 28.0 28.0
Agree 106 53.0 53.0 81.0
Disagree 32 16.0 16.0 97.0
Indifferent 6 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


Table-9
Do you get more satisfaction when you purchase the goods based on first impression rather than
deliberately analyzing the pros and cons of product?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 26 13.0 13.0 13.0
Agree 110 55.0 55.0 68.0
Disagree 54 27.0 27.0 95.0
Indifferent 10 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Table-10
How strong are you in distinguishing or identifying stimulus, when you are given blindfold?

Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Always 18 9.0 9.0 9.0
Most of times 82 41.0 41.0 50.0
50-50 82 41.0 41.0 91.0
Rarely 18 9.0 9.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Table-11
Are you so strongly driven by your senses that you overlook your budget?
Particulars
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Mostly it happens 54 27.0 27.0 27.0
50-50 58 29.0 29.0 56.0
Sometimes it
happens
64 32.0 32.0 88.0
Never happens 24 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0
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Table-12
Do you go for analysis of price benefits when you find it as priority of your taste?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Always 58 29.0 29.0 29.0
50-50 98 49.0 49.0 78.0
Rarely 36 18.0 18.0 96.0
Never 8 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


Table-13
How many times conflict takes between emotions & reasons in purchase decision?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Always 22 11.0 11.0 11.0
Sometimes 130 65.0 65.0 76.0
Rarely 40 20.0 20.0 96.0
Never 8 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Table-14
How much time you take to make purchase decision when you are emotionally driven?
Particulars
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Spontaneously 46 23.0 23.0 23.0
Discuss and consult with
friends
96 48.0 48.0 71.0
Think of pros and cons 50 25.0 25.0 96.0
Try to contect user/users 8 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Table-15
How emotional influence is important for you and it affect your purchase decision?
Particulars Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Very important 36 18.0 18.0 18.0
Moderately important 110 55.0 55.0 73.0
Not important 38 19.0 19.0 92.0
Indifferent 16 8.0 8.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0



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Table-16
Do you give priority to emotion over reason during the purchase decision?
Particulars
Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Always 18 9.0 9.0 9.0
Sometimes 104 52.0 52.0 61.0
Rarely 24 12.0 12.0 73.0
Never 16 8.0 8.0 81.0
Both emotion and reason
are equally important
38 19.0 19.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0



Conclusion

Most of the customers hear to their
emotion while taking decision that’s why
their decision is primarily driven by the
emotion and emotional influence play a very
important role in consumer decision making
process. It is also found from the research that
intuitive decision driven by the emotion
provide more post purchase satisfaction and
pleasure .It is also found during the study that
emotion based decision take less time in
purchase decision as compared to reason
based decision making.


Reference

1) John Pawle and Peter Cooper ‘Measuring
Emotion-Love marks, the future beyond brands’,
Journal of advertising Research-March-2006,
2) Lisa Feldman Barrett ‘Being emotional
during decision making good or bad? An empirical
investigation’, Academy of management journal, 2007,
volume-50,
3) Blair Kidwell, David M. Hardestyand Terry
L.Childers ‘consumer emotional intelligence’,
Advances in consumer research, vol-35, 2008
4) Lennifer S. Lerner, Seunghee Han and
Dacher Keltner ‘Feelings and consumer decision
making-Extending the appraisal tendency framework’,
Journal of consumer psychology
5) Marieke Dvries, Rob W. Holand and Cilia L.
M. Witteman ‘Fitting decisions: Mood and intuitive
deliberative decision strategy’, Psychology press
6) Jennifer J. Argo, Darren W. Dahl and Andrea
C.Morales ‘Positive consumer contagion: Responses to
attractive others in a retail context’, Journal of
marketing research, vol-xlv, dec-2008, pp-690-701

7) Ingrid Smithey Fulmer and Bruce Barry
‘Managed hearts and Wallets: Ethical issues in
emotional influence by and within the organisation’,
Business ethics quarterly 19.2, April-2009
















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EMPLOYER BRAND AND ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL POTENTIAL
PhD Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia

Abstract: As companies and individuals to
live their best release? What should companies and
individuals were the most successful? What job would
bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further
development? What would be the fastest way led to the
realization of corporate goals and their own?
Answers to these questions can be obtained
through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of
individual potential (AIP). Employer brand analysis
and analysis of individual potential is the process of
identifying the strengths and potential of the company
as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is
that a company or person works best, how to motivate
people and to the field of application of discovered
talent. The main objective of this procedure is the
development of an overall as well as personal and
professional development of individuals in the
direction of those activities and areas that will bring
long-term satisfaction.
Keywords: employer brand, the analysis of
individual potential, organizational culture

INTRODUCTION

The easiest way to find out the answer
to the question of whether to Serbia
recognizes the importance of employer brand
is to be flipped Newspapers and look for job
listings. We will see that most multinational
companies are concerned about their own
brand, and in many local companies, there is
still not the case. Often we come across
advertisements that contain only a job title, a
list of tasks and requirements that students
must meet. Those ads do not give any
information about the employer, the employer
who is, what it stands for and what we offer to
the successful candidate. On the ads we
encounter partly because certain employers do
not consider the role that the brand has in
attracting and retaining appropriate candidates
because they want to save it by taking a
smaller inventory. [1]
However, you should know that in this
case the big question when and how to attract
a given position, and the cost generated by
selecting the wrong candidate is much greater
than the cost of an adequate advertising.
However, this is not the most serious flaw,
even bigger omission is based on the ad to
show that the employer does not comply with
certain legal provisions, such as for example
the prohibition of discrimination, well, let's
say, clearly states the age limit up to which
the applicant may apply. Are you in this case
is that the employer does not have a full
Labour candidates or bills that do not know
the legal provisions or is a habit that in
Serbia, many laws are passed, but few are
implemented and respected. Whatever it
comes to know that unnecessarily put
themselves at risk to be punished with fine
which may amount to a million dinars, or
prohibition of activity, in the worst case. In
this regard, the analysis of individual potential
involves the following steps: determining
personality traits, motivations, talents, values
and inhibiting efficiency.

FIRST EMPLOYER BRAND

Brand actually make intangibles such
as perceptions, emotions and associations that
exist in one's mind of the employer. The
ultimate goal in creating the brand is
attracting and maintaining customers just as
in this case, the consumer current or future
employees. The brand has become a tool for
attracting, hiring and retaining candidates.
Reflects the core values and vision of the
company, an offer that is unique and different
from the competition and meaningful message
that is sent to the target group.

1.1. Of which depends on the success of the
brand?
The most important prerequisite for
the success of the brand's credibility. The
brand should reflect the organizational culture
firm. If the brand is not consistent with the
organizational culture CCE candidates will be
drawn on the basis of false images and
promise, which is also a waste of time and a
waste of money. Brand should not be based
primarily on what the company aspires to
that, but first of all on what the company is,
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because it is based on an employer's ability to
fulfill the promise. In a word, the employer
needs to understand their organizational
culture, to turn into a brand that employs and
in accordance with it.

SECOND TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE

There are several different divisions,
but it is most useful division of the following
types of organizational culture [2]:
 First guild,
 Second ad hoc,
 3rd hierarchical, and
 4th market.
Key values that are in the clan culture
insists the unity, harmony, background, taking
part in decision-making, teamwork, loyalty,
trust.
In an ad hoc organizational culture
insists on entrepreneurship, innovation,
creativity, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance,
and all because they are looking for new
markets and new development opportunities.
Hierarchical organizational culture deals with
herself and poorly directed outward, turn the
key values, rules, monitoring and control.
Market organizational culture
develops competitive spirit and orientation on
performance, and the highest value is to
achieve results.
How to determine the organizational
culture of their own companies? The
organizational culture of most companies is in
fact a mixture of two or more cultural type,
where, however, stands one who dominates.
Setting up simple questions such as: what are
the relationships in our company, as the work
is done by us, who can advance in the
company to help us determine our
organizational culture. How important is it to
know its own organizational culture and
recruit according to her is the fact a recent
survey according to which 75% of the main
reason for the failure of the executive director
does not indicate a lack of expertise, but their
incompatibility with the organizational
culture of the company. This fact is not
surprising since all the employees and
management have to live the brand or
company organization culture and
contribution to the chief executive (CEO) is a
critical and invaluable, it has to be a model
corporate value. The person making the
recruitment and selection should assess how
the candidate fits into the organizational
culture of the company. The assessment is
made on the basis of the knowledge of the
value system of organizational culture on the
one hand and the value system of the
candidates on the other.
Attempts to define organizational
culture through the key competencies at the
corporate level and seeking candidates with
competencies date have failed. If a company
believes that its organizational culture reflects
teamwork, communication and interpersonal
skills that is too broad framework for
decision-making, as all companies require
teamwork and communication skills and
interpersonal skills, while in terms of
organizational culture are different. Recently
there has been in the United States tested a
new instrument assess cultural fit titled
"Culture link" that provides reliable
information to the employer's organizational
culture and on the candidate's work style,
specific approach and philosophy of life and
their compatibility with the employer's
organizational culture.
There are several ways to display the
value system of candidates, but it is most
useful for practical purposes, it scales from 32
values on which candidate should be self-
assessment. According to the scale candidate
can be important different things such as
achievement, advancement, authority, balance
between professional and private life,
belonging, contribution, creativity, nursing
homes, enjoyment, excitement, fame, family,
freedom, friendship, professional
development, independence, integrity,
knowledge, loyalty, money, success, power,
quality, recognition, religion, security, self-
realization, kindness, spirituality, stability,
teamwork and victory. [3]
It is important that the candidate be
offered employer to recognize in addition to
psychological and material gain, and
emotional income. Recall that research has
shown that the salary in the last place on the
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list of reasons why employees leave the
company.


3. ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL OF
INDIVIDUAL

The analysis procedure of individual
potential is created within the Institute for
Cognitive Management in Stuttgart. In our
country it is conducted by psychologists these
centers, certified for application of this
procedure.
Analysis of individual potential
involves the following steps: determining
personality traits, motivations, talents, values
and inhibiting efficiency.
Personality traits - a person's tendency
to act in a certain way. In the process of AIP
is very important to determine whether our
talents based on relevant personality traits.
Motivation - gives us the answer to the
question: What drives us? Why we do certain
activities? Motives can sometimes be
functional (positive) and functional
(sabotaging). Applying AIP to determine
what it is that drives a person and whether it
is useful for her.
Talent - an ability of a person to an
activity performed better than all the other
activities that may take place. Talents, defined
through AIP, and they all have the need to
find them. They can be cognitive, verbal,
creative, social, motor ...
Value - indicates the field of
application of our talents. They show us why
it is important and significant that we do what
we do. In choosing our area further
development, values play a very important
role.
Blockade efficiency - indicate thinking
and behavior that we can block and impede
the development of their own potential. One
of the tasks of the AIP and identifying them
and giving suggestions for overcoming them.

3.1. The analysis procedure of individual
potential

The procedure involves AIP specially
structured interview aims identify talent,
motivation, values and inhibiting efficiency,
while personality profile is determined
personality tests. An integral part of this
process is the part of the reporting and
advisory services, with particular emphasis on
the application of specific talents and areas
for further professional and personal
development of the person.
AIP is intended:
a) Individuals who want to make a
decision about a career change, further
professional training and development.
b) Companies that want to optimize
operations through better knowledge of its
employees, through this process the company
will provide useful information about
employees on the basis of which they can
make decisions on promotion and
development of personnel.
People who complain and grumble all
day long they can live longer than others,
according to a research group of German
scientists at the University of Jena. Scientists,
who have been followed more than 6,000
patients, have come to the conclusion that
people who tend to express negative mood are
less affected by physical or mental illness,
reported today the French media.
In contrast, people who hold negative
emotions in themselves are vulnerable to
cardio-vascular disease, high blood pressure,
cancer or kidney disease.
The scientists, whose research is
published in the scientific journal JHP (Health
Journal Psychologies), however, did not
specify how many years the "advantages" of
those who express a bad mood, but noted that
it is good for people to express negative
emotions.


4. INTRODUCTION ENTERTAINMENT IN
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
STRONGER EMPLOYER BRAND

Entering the entertainment business
stronger employer brand which increases the
company's ability to attract quality candidates,
and employees become more satisfied, more
engaged and motivated, and to a greater
extent invest in the company. Then, reduce
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the amount of stress at work, increase team
spirit all of which contributes to a longer
retention of employees in a company or in the
absence of fluctuations are reduced. With all
that fun at work starts increasing productivity
and creativity, and all together it has a
positive impact on the profitability of the
company. That these are not idle claims
testify studies conducted on the subject.

4.1. The desirability of fun at work

The group of American university
professors has conducted research on the
desirability of fun at work among senior
students. The results were published in a
publication called "The fundamental role of
entertainment at work in attracting
candidates" ("The Fundamental Role of
Workplace Fun in Applicant Attraction" issue
of Journal of Leadership & Organizational
Studies, 2012). The study involved nearly
four hundred university students at three U.S.
universities. The subjects were asked to read
and evaluate the desirability of different ads
for the fictitious company's business, which is
called for recently graduated candidates.
Ads have differed among themselves
as to whether it offers fun on the job, earning
prestige or the possibility of rapid
advancement.
After you read the ad respondents
answered a series of questions in terms of the
extent to expect that the work will be
interesting and fun, assess the extent that they
fit into the organizational culture of the
company and what would be likely in real life
to report on one such ad.
The results showed that the extent to
which respondents perceived to have a fun job
positively influence their decision to apply for
jobs and assessment to fit right into the
organizational culture of the company. Also,
the extent to which respondents perceived to
have a fun job has a greater positive impact
on their assessment that would fit right into
the organizational culture of the company
compared to the profit or prestige possibility
of rapid advancement.
Nevertheless, the results are related
primarily to those who are just entering the
labor market so that they can not be
generalized. Therefore, the conclusion that
can be made is that the offering as an integral
part of the entertainment business and one of
the key corporate values should be the main
way to recruit graduates. In support of this is
the fact that in 2012. The Google ranked first
company on the Fortune 100 list of the most
desirable companies to work for you (2012
FORTUNE "100 Best Companies to Work for
it), among others, and because the company
did make it fun to be a part of doing business
with the firm.
After all that has been said, the
question that arises is how to enter the
entertainment business, entertainment and do
business. [4]

4.2. Creating fun at work

There are countless ways you can
become a fun part of the job. But here are
some suggestions that can be found on the
Internet [5]:
1. Give each employee a certain
freedom and resources to design decorate
their work space and that in a way that you’re
personal touch. Then select the best decorated
corner commending the work of originality
and creativity.
2. Use bright colors in the interior.
Color bar are not expensive and can
significantly improve mood.
3. Place the posters on the walls. Faces
of celebrities can be replaced by a person
employed who seems ridiculous, but also
motivating.
4. Make a party on the occasion of the
upcoming holidays are a great opportunity to
socialize employees.
5. Celebrate success; treat yourself
with cookies or other food.
6. Enter the day of wacky clothing.
7. Declare open day for pets, children,
parents.
8. Smile. Rejoice. If you as a manager
moody and lethargic so will everyone around
you.
9. Set up a playroom in the room
where people spend a break or lunch.
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10. Play music and organize dance or
karaoke party. Capture and record all the
ridiculous poses.
11. Enlist a professional photographer
to take pictures of your employees, and most
successful showcase photos in a prominent
place.
12. If your employees wear uniforms
stitched to order an original, fun, funny
uniform.
13. Enter a pause of several minutes
for the collective exercise or relaxation.

Namely, what are unexpected are the
new and fun, and everything that the child be
employees or customers instead adult. For
example, if training on communication call in
the usual way as communication skills that
may seem boring as something that has
already seen a hundred times, but if they have
the skills and tactics training call, then it
sounds more interesting.

CONCLUSION

For employers to decide whether to be
an employer of choice or compulsion. And to
remind you, to what we have noted in the
previous issue dedicated to the concept of
social responsibility of the company to play
an increasingly important role in building
brand employer.
In any case, all that fun has the power
to initiate energy, attract and motivate why
should plan to bring entertainment into the
organizational culture of the company and
make the job fun because it's one of the ways
to attract and retain quality people in your
company, especially when it comes of young
people who are entering the labor market and
who are generation Y.

REFERENCE

1. Mihajlović, S. Lj. ( 2011) Marketing, VŠPSS,
Vranje.
2. Mihajlović, S. Lj. (2012) Organizacija
poslovnih sistema, VŠPSS, Vranje.
3. Subotić, D. (2009) Poslovna etika i veština
komuniciranja, Beograd
4. Cvetković, Lj. (2008) Poslovno
komuniciranje,MB Grafika, Niš.
5. www.singipedia.com pristup: 28.12.2012





























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TOURIST PROFILE OF YOUNG-ADULTS IN MACEDONIA AND
THEIR PERCEPTION OF E-TOOLS

PhD Biljana Petrevska, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics, Goce Delcev” University - Stip,
Macedonia, e-mail: biljana.petrevska@ugd.edu.mk


Abstract: The paper intends to create a tourist
profile of young-adult consumers as well as to
examine their attitude towards e-tools. More
precisely, the study examines how young people
percept the Internet as rapidly evolving medium,
and do they use the on-line social networks (OSN)
in sharing experiences. In both cases, the main
research area is tourism and travel. So, the aim and
objective of the paper are to determine a tourist
profile among young population in Macedonia and
simultaneously to determine the level of application
of e-tools. For this purpose, a survey was conducted
among undergraduate students. The results point to
interesting conclusions regarding travel habits and
interests, planning activities, type of
accommodation, preferences and other data that
support the created tourist profile. With regards to
research hypotheses, the outcomes confirm solid
causality between tested variables concluding that
young population in Macedonia use e-tools for
travel and tourism purposes. Such findings one may
find useful for tailoring strategies to the specific
characteristics and initially created tourist profile of
young consumers in Macedonia.
Key words: Tourist profile; Young-adults; Internet;
OSN; Tourism.

1. Introduction

There is an inevitable relationship
between tourism and information.
Moreover, it is a widely‐recognized the
fact that information and decision‐making
have become the foundation for the world
economy (Wang, 2008).In the other side,
bigger number of tourists and travelers also
means potential source for strengthening
the national economy. However that is not
a trouble-free process, particularly in
turbulent environment. Moreover, by
mediation of digital environment, it is
noticeable the obvious tourists’
transformation from“passive audiences” to
“active players” (Prahalad and
Ramaswamy, 2000). A noteworthy change
was made from just passive searching and
surfing to creating content, collaborating
and connecting. Hence, the development of
the Internet and the on-line social networks
(OSN) empowered the "new" tourists who
became knowledgeable and ask
exceptional value for their money and time
(Buhalis and Law, 2008).
Whether a potential tourist will be
interested in a certain item depends on the
preferences. Although may sound fragile,
but the vast majority of today’s tourists
know exactly what they are looking for.
They are very demanding and have
complex, multi-layered desires and needs.
Today’s so called “postmodern tourists”
have specific interests and individual
motives which results in tailored made
tourist products according to their
particular preferences. They are often high
experienced in travelling and demand
perfect tourism products rather than
standardized ones.
In this line, each generation has a
different motivation for travel and tourism.
The seniors want to be active, feel useful,
and meet with other people to gain new
friends (Ekerdt, 1986). The young people
want to gain new skills, to be part of the
community and to enjoy life. Being ICT
literate, they use the technology for various
purposes. So, in Macedonia 92.1% of
computer users aged 15-24 years, are
registered that have ever used a computer.
Among them, 89.0% are Internet users
with high and exceptional frequency of
86.0% of Internet usage on daily basis.
Furthermore, from all activities on the
Internet (like: e-correspondence;
telephoning; reading or downloading
online news; finding information about
goods or services; listening/watching
radio/TV; playing or downloading games,
images; Internet banking etc.), 89.7% goes
on posting messages to chat sites, OSN,
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blogs, newsgroups or online discussion
forum and use of instant messaging.
Among all user groups aged between 15-
74, the group consisted of young
population between 15-24 years use the
most mobile phones or smartphones
representing 77.8%. They even access the
Internet away from home via mobile
phones or smartphones in 28.1% (State
Statistical Office, 2012: 5-6). So, it is easy
to conclude that Facebook, MySpace,
Twitter, Friendster, Bebo or some other
OSN supported by mobile device are
among favorite things the youngsters in
Macedonia are addicted to. Generally, to
this conclusion one may add regional or
even world approach.
This study, specifically intends to
answer the following research questions,
which address the young-adult tourism
consumers in Macedonia:
1. What are their travel and tourism
preferences, interests, needs and
expectations?
2. Do they use the Internet and OSN
for travel and tourism purposes?
3. Do they share travel and tourism
experiences by e-media?
In order the meet the research
questions, the paper is structured in several
parts. After the introductory part, Section
two makes a brief overview on some
relevant literature referring e-tools and
their application in tourism purposes.
Section three incorporates the
methodology and research design. The
results, analyses, discussion and evaluation
are noted in section four. Section five
includes conclusions and future research
directions.
Generally, the contribution of this
paper lies in the fact that makes an attempt
to create a tourist profile of young-adults
which may be used for tailoring a tourism-
segmented strategy for young consumers in
Macedonia. Additionally, it presents some
interesting findings regarding their
perception of e-tools and their application
in travel and tourism purposes.
2. Literature review on Internet, OSN and
search engines in tourism

In very short time, the Internet was
introduced as a rapidly evolving medium
for travel and tourism. It successful
introduction to e-tourism is fully supported
by the search engines which became a
dominant source in tourists’ use to access
particular tourism and travel products
(Schonland and Williams, 1996). In this
respect, the OSN gain in significance as
well. It is known that social networking is
a platform, or a site that focuses on
building and reflecting of social networks
or social relations among people, who have
similar or somewhat similar interests,
backgrounds or activities and share them
simultaneously. Although social
networking is possible in person, it is most
popular on-line by application of the
websites. As the increase in popularity of
the OSN is on constant rise, the OSN find
its application in travel and tourism
purposes. It is often a case to be used for
sharing travel and tourism information and
experience with one another.
Due to its significance, the issue of e-
tools and their application in tourism
domain raised an interest within academia.
Generally, they argue regarding the
understanding how search engines work
and how travelers use the Internet and
booking systems as tools in e-tourism
(Morrison et al., 2001; Singh and
Kasavana, 2005; Connolly and Lee, 2006;
Pan et al., 2007; Buhalis and Law, 2008;
Pan et al., 2011; Xiang and Pan, 2010).
Moreover, the success of search engine
marketing requires a good understanding
of consumer behavior in order to provide
the information desired by different
consumers. Furthermore, the necessity of
developing digital technology that will
support the personalized services to
address individual needs is fully justified.
Tourism actors should collect customer
information before, during and after a visit
in order to better understand consumer
behavior choices and determinants
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(Buhalis and O'Connor, 2005). Additional
insights regarding the progress of IT in
tourism domain is noted in many research
findings (Kluge, 1996; Kirk and Pine,
1998;Frew, 2000; O’Connor and Murphy,
2004; Leung and Law, 2005 and 2007;
Law et al., 2009).
Some researches address different
approaches dealing with variety of
relationships that appeared in e-tourism.
So, Weber and Roehl (1999) explored
demographics between Internet users and
tourists at the same time. However, little
research has been done on the travel-
related behaviors of Internet travelers. In
this respect, Morrison et al. (2001) found
that some book travel on-line, while others
go to travel agents or call the toll-free
numbers of travel providers after getting
travel information on-line. With regards to
the behavioral dimensions, it may be
utilized to segment travel markets as a
powerful tool in managing e-tourism
(Hennessey et al., 2008). Regardless the
approach, it must be underlined that
tourism needed this kind of information
some years ago, while today we are faced
with tourists with different travel patterns
which cause different activity while
travelling.

3. Methodology and research design

The study mainly took a quantitative
approach to answer the research questions
noted in the introductory part. The data
were collected by a self-administered
questionnaire survey in three locations in
Macedonia: Skopje, Stip and Gevgelija.
The survey was conducted during March
2012 among undergraduate students in
tourism studies. They were previously well
informed about the survey’s aims in order
to avoid any attempt to manipulate the
survey process and possibly bias the
results. Since young people are eager to
consume, as well as are conscious of their
experience, they are valid consumers for
this study (Sproles and Kendall, 1986).
The structured questionnaire
consisted of three sections. Section 1
contained demographic attributes of the
respondents. Section 2 was consisted of
fifteen items pointing to travel and tourism
preferences, attitudes, desires and motives
towards various points. Section 3
contained ten items measuring the
application of e-tools. A total of 520 copies
of the questionnaire were distributed, out
of which 502 were deemed complete and
usable, thus having response rate of 97%.
The collected data were transferred to a
common scorecard database in SPSS 20.0.
Some descriptive statistics and
nonparametric statistical tests were used
for creating an initial tourist profile among
young-adults. The research hypotheses
were tested by χ
2
- test.

3.1. Creating a tourist profile

For the purpose of creating a tourist
profile of young respondents, the data
gathered by Section 1 and Section 2 were
acquisitioned. In order to assess
respondent’s ratings the Likert scale and
the semantic different scale were applied.
So, the respondents had to choose a rating
for the items from Section 2 on a adopted
4-point Likert scale, whereas 1=poor,
2=average, 3=good and 4=very good.
Simultaneously, the satisfaction perceived
by the respondents was measured by a 4-
point semantic different scale, whereas
1=far below ideal, 2=very close to ideal,
3=better than expected and 4=very
satisfied.






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Table 1.Demographic profile of respondents (n = 502)
Characteristic Valid
n
%
Gender
Male
Female

246
256

49.0
51.0
Age
˂ 30
˃ 30

484
18

96.4
3.6
Place of living
Town
Village

404
98

80.5
19.5
Geographical area
Skopje
North-East
East
South-East
Vardar
Pelagonija
South-West
Polog

103
26
210
137
10
4
7
5

20.5
5.2
41.8
27.3
2.0
0.8
2.8
1.0
Marital status
Married
Single

30
472

6.0
94.0
Working status
Employed
Unemployed

35
467

7.0
93.0
Monthly household income (€)
≤ 250
250-300
˃ 300

133
242
127

26.5
48.2
25.3

Table 1 presents the demographic
attributes regarding: gender, age, place of
living, geographical area, marital and
working status, as well as monthly
household income. It is noticeable almost
ideal gender equality among respondents,
whereas the vast majority is under 30 years
of age. Furthermore, majority live in urban
areas (81%), being single (94%) and
generally come from three (out of eight)
geographic regions in Macedonia (Skopje -
21%, East - 41% and South-East - 27%).
Since the sample is consisted of university
students, it is expected to be unemployed
(93%). The monthly household income is
between €250-300 (48%) presenting an
average salary in Macedonia.


With regards to questions that refer
to frequency of making a holiday, duration
of stay, companionship, planning activities,
type of transport and accommodation, the
profiling is as follows:
- Travels once per year with a
duration of 5-10 days;
- Travels in a group of 3-5 persons,
very rarely with family members;
- Aim of travel: fun;
- Always travels in season (summer);
- Travels by car, generally within
Macedonia, and sometimes in neighboring
countries;
- Always plans the holiday one week
in advance;
- Type of accommodation: hotel with
3 stars or private accommodation - BB.
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With regards to questions that refer
to type of holiday, level of consumption,
sources of financing, methods of payment
and level of satisfaction with services, the
profiling is as follows:
- Likes active holiday;
- Spends on additional tourism
consumption between € 100-300, mostly
on food and fun;
- The price is the main factor for
making decision for travel and tourism;
- Very rarely, almost never uses a
tourist guide;
- The holiday is paid by others
(parents or partners);
- Always pays in cash for services;
- In case of being unsatisfied with the
services, almost never undertakes measures
and actions.

3.2. Research hypotheses

Based on research questions stated in
the introductory part, the study intends to
reach the following objectives: (a) to gain
an in-depth understanding of application of
Internet among young-adult consumers in
Macedonia, and (b) to empirically tests the
application of the OSN in tourism and
travel purposes and sharing experiences.
Hence, the following hypotheses
are proposed:
Q1: Young-adults use Internet for
travel and tourism purposes.
Q2: Young-adults apply OSN for
sharing travel and tourism experiences.

4. Results, analysis, discussion and
evaluation

As noted previously, for testing the
research hypothesis we applied the χ
2
- test
to test the association between the
variables. Since, the significance level was
set at 5%, the variables whose mean value
was ˃ 0.05 were considered under relation
oriented.

Table 2.Test of hypotheses (n = 502)
Q1
Value Degree of freedom p-value
Pearson χ
2
6.752 2 .034
Likelihood Ratio 6.939 2 .031
Linear-by-Linear Association 6.223 1 .013
Q2
Value Degree of freedom p-value
Pearson χ
2
18.099 9 .004
Likelihood Ratio 21.623 9 .010
Linear-by-Linear Association 9.771 1 .002

In this line, we test both research
hypotheses. Namely, the tests for Q1 refer
to association between travel and tourism
needs and the Internet among the young-
adults in Macedonia. The tests for Q2 are
in line of detecting whether there exists
relationship between the OSN and sharing
travel and tourism experience among
young population in Macedonia. The
results are presented in Table 2. The
research indicated positive effects for both
hypotheses i.e. substantial results since the
Pearson χ
2
value for Q1 is 0.034 and for Q2
is 0.004. In both cases the values are less
than the significance level. Further data
presented in Table 2 additionally support
the significant outcomes towards Q1 and
Q2, thus confirming solid causality
between the variables.
The next step is the evaluation of the
research. Different tests may be applied to
reinsure the research results. Among the
variety of concepts, the reliability and
validity of data (Yin, 1994) are introduced
in addition. The reliability is regularity and
soundness of a tool used for measurement
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of data. It shows how much reliable is the
measurement which has been adopted to
measure the collected data. More precisely,
the reliability tells if the repeated
replications research happens the same
results would be achieved. It explains how
far away the approaches yield the same
conclusion. The concept of validity is used
for the measurement of quantitative data. It
is described as to what extend the
conclusion can reflect the accurate
conclusion, leading to conclusion that the
findings are valid and trustworthy.
Moreover, the validity is degree to which
adopted measurement tools may be helpful
to measure the asked questions.
Furthermore, we introduce the
Cronbach α coefficient as a coefficient of
reliability. It is commonly used for
measuring internal consistency or
reliability of a psychometric test score for a
sample of examinees. The results indicated
Cronbach α for questionnaire (502 items)
was 0.901 representing excellent internal
consistency. Furthermore, the results
pointed from good to acceptable internal
consistency. So, the Cronbach α for
individual variable of perceived fit was
(0.857); perceived usage (0.821) and
sharing experiences (0.794).

5. Conclusion and future work

This study investigated the initial
tourist profiling of young population and
their attitude towards application of e-tools
in tourism and travel purposes. In this
respect, besides creating a tourist profile of
a typical young tourist and traveler of
Macedonia, two additional aspects were
particularly addressed: the perception of
Internet as an e-medium for travel and
tourism, and the application of OSN in
sharing travel and tourism experiences.
A survey was conducted on a
sampling consisted of undergraduate
students as representatives of young
population. The outcomes from the
profiling process confirmed some already
known facts but posed some new as well.
Namely, the fact that youngsters spend 5-
10 days on holiday, which is bigger than
the average stay of domestic tourists in
Macedonia (4.8 days) implies that this
group should be considered as serious
potential consumers. Since their main aim
of travel is fun, one may argue the
necessity of enhancing this kind of
facilities that are in favor of supporting
active holiday. Interesting, but not
surprising is the fact that young-adults
prefer to travel in small groups up to five
persons who are not family members. As
the student vacation is in summer,
normally they use it as a main travel and
tourism season. The modest travel budget,
limits them to travel within the country or
to neighboring countries the farthest, being
accommodated in three-star hotels with BB
service. Yet, surprising is the finding that
although being juniors, they always plan
their holiday one week in advance, which
points to a preference to reduce the risk for
unpleasant surprise. Due to fact of being
unemployed category (since the
respondents were students), they are
categorized as consumers with low
consumption power whereas the price is
the main factor for making travel
decisions. Generally, their parents or
partners are the main source of financing.
Obviously they are not very responsible
with money spending, since always pay in
cash for services and not use credit-cards.
The finding that they almost never use a
tourist guide underlines the necessity of
undertaking measures for advanced
informing about the important role that
tourist guides play in travel and tourism
process. Although being full with energy,
the data showed that in cases when not
being satisfied with the services, they
never undertake measures and actions.
Another aspect of this paper was to
find out whether young population in
Macedonia is keen on applying CT for
travel and tourism. Through statistical
analysis it was identified that generally,
they use the Internet as a basic source for
travel and tourism information. The vast
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majority of respondents has a profile page
on the OSN and uses it for sharing travel
and tourism experiences. So, the young
population in Macedonia identified the
OSN as a cradle for sharing info from their
trip and holiday.
Furthermore, the study was limited
by several factors that may be addressed in
some future research. Because only cross-
sectional data were collected through a
questionnaire survey, the study may suffer
from common method variance effect. The
sample size was also not big enough to
verify the factor structures. Namely, the
analysis took a snapshot of a selected
sample in Macedonia referring university
students who have generally limited travel
and tourism experience. Moreover, the
results address 90% of respondents coming
only from three geographical areas
(Skopje, East and South-East). To gain a
better overview of this research area, future
studies may expand the sample to include
young population from other statistical
planning regions in Macedonia in more
equal manner. Thus, it may not be possible
to generalize the results to whole young
population in Macedonia. As this research
represents a relatively small sample size,
future work may also focus on extending
the number of respondents and other
aspects of investigation. Despite these
limitations, the study is reach on useful
findings and poses some valuable
directions for further research.

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BRANDS AND BRANDING - EXAMPLE: COCA-COLA
PhD Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović, Collage of applied professional studies, Vranje, Serbia


Abstract: The most valuable brand in the
world is still "Coca Cola", and the highest increase
was recorded value "Apple" because that's who
entered the top ten most valuable brands.
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia makes a
significant contribution to the local economy. In
three bottling plants, distribution centers and sales
offices in Serbia and employ over 1500 people.
Taxes that are paid regularly Serbian authorities are
yet another way of contribution to the national
economy.
Keywords: brand, branding, marketing,
Coca-Cola

1. INTRODUCTION

The word brand (trademark) is an
English word and its first application was
the cowboys of the Old West, which they
branded their cows to distinguish them
from the other cows on the prairie. From
the business point of view on the market,
branding is very similar branding at the
ranch. The purpose of branding is to
differentiate your product in the market
from other cows. Even if most of the cattle
in the prairie are very similar to each other,
the perception of your product must be
different.
The rivalry between the world's
largest manufacturer of soft drinks, "Coca-
Cola" and "Pepsi" is more than a century.
List as most valuable global brands
dominate brand in the U.S., which has a
total of 49th From Europe is on the list of
38 brands and from Germany, France,
Switzerland, Italy, Britain, Sweden, the
Netherlands, Finland and Spain. The other
brands are from Japan, Korea, Canada, and
one each from Mexico and Taiwan. The
research is based on a complex
methodology developed by "Interbrend".
Use the form that combines the power of
brands future and its role in creating
demand. Firms must be publicly available
financial data, and a third of revenue must
come from abroad.
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia is one of
the largest companies in the non-alcoholic
beverages in the country and authorized
bottlers of Coca-Cola. To justify its
leadership position in the market, regularly
conducts research and a variety of actions
in terms of improving their own business
and improve the environment.

The most legendary SAGA two brands:
Coca-Cola and Pepsi

In fact, it is one of the most iconic
stories ever on the fight between the two
brands in the business world. Portal
CnnTees researched and wrote a
chronological tale of two competitors that
includes all of the well-known soft drink
producers. 'Saga' begins in the 1886th
when John S. Pemberton developed the
original recipe for the "Coca-Cola".
"Pepsi-Cola" appeared 13 years later by
pharmacist Caleb Bradhama. At that time,
"Coca-Cola" has already sold over a
million liters of beverages a year. "Coca-
Cola" soon develops a "cult" and a bottle
expands to European market.
Meanwhile, the "Pepsi" is bankrupt
because of the First World War, and eight
years later, again faced with bankruptcy,
but soon coming into her own, and
increases sales.
During World War II "Pepsi" is
increasing its marketing investment and
begin to sell their drinks in cans. During
the fifties, "Coca-Cola" is a strong focus
on television advertising, and "Pepsi" it is
accompanied, not wanting to lose the fight.
1962nd "Coca-Cola" comes to the
stock market, and will soon launch a new
brand - Sprite - which quickly became one
of the world's most successful brands.
Connecting to snack producer, the "Frito
Lay", "Pepsi" has brought many benefits
and helped him considerably, especially in
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the last decade. On the other hand, "Coca-
Cola" has remained in the beverage.
Although "Pepsi" brands of drinks
may not be as strong, the job with the
production of snack foods, so-called. Nail
them literally booming. "Coca-Cola" has a
bigger market share drinks, but "Pepsi"
because of the wide range of businesses
earn higher incomes.
Each of the brands on his side a
whole brigade of celebrities, for her
marketing job, of course, very well paid.
From its founding until the day, and
"Coca-Cola", "Pepsi" was implemented
numerous changes in the appearance of
their logos. Wholeheartedly embraced the
popularity of digital media and take
advantage of all the marketing advantages
of social networks today provide
companies.

2. THE MOST VALUABLE BRANDS

Brand (after Coca-Cola) are
leading the top ten on the list of brands
that are just in the United States. From
another country is best placed 11th at
Toyota place. Coca-Cola is located at the
head of the ladder since 2000. when he
began to research and to publish. Last
year, its value increased by 2% to 71.861
billion dollars. Second place belongs to
IBM, Microsoft and third. From
technology companies among the top ten
are, and Google, on the fourth, seventh
Intel, Apple in eighth and Hewlett-Packard
as tenth.
Ladder ten most valuable brands
complement the General Electric GE-fifth,
McDonald's, Disney, and the sixth to ninth
place. Apple's brand value increased by
58%, so the manufacturer of your favorite
iPhone and iPad climbed to eighth position
from the previous 17th Apple's value has
increased mainly due to the dominant
position in the market of tablets.
The biggest drop was sustained
brand Nokia which has slid to 14th place,
with eight, and its value is reduced 15%.
Nokia last year was the most valuable
European brand, and now it's Mercedes at
the 12th place. Nokia has lately been
struggling with problems and had to lay
off workers, mainly due to strong
competition in the smart phone market.
The new company, which is among
the top 100 most valuable brands, the
Taiwanese mobile phone manufacturer
HTC, which came in 98th place. This is
the first time the company found itself on
the list of Taiwan.

3. COCA-COLA HBC SERBIA

Coca-Cola HBC Serbia is one of
the largest companies in the non-alcoholic
beverages in the country and authorized
bottlers of Coca-Cola. The company
manufactures and distributes a unique
range of quality brands for around 7.9
million inhabitants of Serbia, bringing
enthusiasm in marketing of products,
while taking a leadership role in the area of
corporate social responsibility.
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia operating
in Serbia since 1997. With headquarters in
Zemun, has three bottling plants across the
country. In addition, distributing products
from four distribution centers. It employs
over 1,300 people and indirectly affect
employment 10 times more people who are
in the value chain. Their goal is to provide
our customers become the number one
supplier to provide and support programs
to more than 37,000 customers who sell
products to consumers.
This company is part of Coca-Cola
Hellenic Group, one of the largest bottler
of Coca-Cola in the world and the largest
in Europe. Coca-Cola Hellenic operates in
28 countries, offering products for more
than 570 million people. You're sitting
company located in Athens, and the
company is listed on the stock exchange in
Athens, New York, London and Sydney.

3.1. The product range

Coca-Cola HBC Serbia produces,
sells and distributes a wide range of
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beverages, most of which are the
trademark of Coca-Cola. Our product
portfolio includes:
• Leading brands: Coca-Cola,
Coca-Cola light, Coca-Cola, Fanta and
Sprite
• Local brands such as Rosa, Next,
SU-Fruit, Joy
• Brands licensed from other
companies, such as Nestea, Burn, Ultra
Energy and Schweppes.
Continuously consider
opportunities to expand its product range
in order to offer consumers the ability to
Serbia as diverse choices. We do our best
to provide the highest quality of its
products.

3.2. Sustainable Development

To ensure long-term success, Coca-
Cola HBC Serbia impact on the
environment to a minimum and
contributing to the quality of life in local
communities. Long term and are
committed to constantly meeting these
goals. Given the growing number of
sustainability challenges, focus on issues
that are a priority for the business. These
are:
• Management of water resources
• Climate protection & protection
of energy resources
• Packaging & Recycling
• Consumer Health
• Developing people
• Engaging suppliers
• The well-being of the local
community
• United Nations Global Compact
For each of these issues are set
objectives, monitoring and measuring the
progress equally rigorous as in other
segments of its business. Follow the
leading standards and methodologies and
operations transparent reporting on the
progress made in the report on corporate
social responsibility (CSR).


3.2.1. Management of water resources
The needs for fresh water in our
environment are increasing, and climate
change affect traditional forms of
precipitation. As the number of inhabitants
in the country, the needs for drinking water
are becoming alarming.
Capacity Business Development,
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia is directly related
to the availability and quality of local
water resources. Therefore the greatest
efforts are directed towards managing
water resources and taking an integrated
approach to this issue, which is of key
importance:
First Improving water use
efficiency: it is to reduce the amount of
water needed for the production of
beverages
Second Working in partnership in
order to protect local rivers and promote
sustainable management of water
resources, works with partners whose
number is getting bigger
The bottlers are closely monitoring
water resources in order to amount of
water pumped to a minimum. Introducing
water-saving technology on the production
lines, made more efficient use of water.
For example, to install a washing systems
which operate on the principle of high
pressure, significantly reduce the
consumption of water, water that is used
for the five lines washer is collected and
used for the toilets; syrups is made in the
program in which the last flush with water
sanitation collected and used as the starting
point for the next sanitation, for Water
treatment devices are installed that
measure water consumption for each
product line, which significantly improved
monitoring of water consumption in the
production.
Each bottling plant regularly to
assess risk. Regularly to study and monitor
the quantity and quality of local water
supplies taking into account the legal
requirements and the environment. Based
on the assessment made in order to create
an action plan to mitigate the risks.
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Although they managed to increase
water use efficiency to a great extent, will
never be able to influence the reduction of
the amount of water in the products. What
is being produced greater amounts of
alcohol, it will use more water. Therefore,
it is extremely important to continue to
work on the efficient use of water. This is
exactly the reason I constantly investing in
new, more modern technology.
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia provides all
the water that is returned to the Danube, is
processed to a level that allows the fish to
live in it. The bottling plant in Serbia have
waste water treatment plants located on the
factory grounds, and Vlasinka and Fresh &
Co using public utility systems for water
treatment. Treated water is returned to the
environment is suitable for use in
agriculture and safe for plants and aquatic
life.

3.2.2. Partnerships

In order to successfully cope with
problems related to water resources, Coca-
Cola HBC Serbia is cooperating with other
stakeholders through a series of
partnerships.
Green Danube Partnership for there
for many years. Together with the
International Commission for the
Protection of the Danube River, to
participate actively in the struggle to
preserve the river and conduct a variety of
activities aimed at raising awareness both
in Serbia and in nine other countries that
lie in the basin of this river. These
activities include the annual Danube Day
celebrations in which take part in the tens /
hundreds of thousands of people.
Celebration organized by Coca-Cola HBC
Serbia, in partnership with the Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Water
Management - Republic Directorate for
Water, the City of Belgrade, Secretariat of
Environment of Belgrade, Recycling
Agency of Republic of Serbia, Secretariat
for Utilities and Housing for the city of
Belgrade, Tourist Organization of
Belgrade, Faculty of Applied Ecology,
University of Belgrade, NGO world and
the Danube and many other associations,
representatives of ministries and relevant
media partners. It also sponsors the first
conference on groundwater, and began a
project to protect the river Vlasina.
At the international level, the Coca-
Cola Hellenic is a signatory of the CEO
Water Mandate the establishment of the
UN Global Compact. This initiative aims
to tackle the problem of sustainability of
water resources in operations, supply
systems and communities as well as to
work closely with government and non-
governmental organizations involved in
shaping policy in this area. In order to
achieve a better understanding of water use
in the domestic supply system, Coca-Cola
is also working with Water Footprint
Network.

3.2.3. Energy Efficiency

Climate change is the biggest and
most alarming challenge facing our planet.
It takes quick and decisive action to ensure
that our society is focused on the
development path that will feature a low
carbon economy. The business sector,
which has a capacity for innovation and
investment, plays a key role in the
transformation of large-scale.
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia wants to
take a leadership position so that there will
be adapting their business demands and
opportunities of the economy characterized
by low carbon emissions. Therefore, all
efforts directed towards the areas of
operations that derive the greatest amount
of energy: bottling plant, vehicles and
refrigeration equipment.
• The Coca-Cola bottling plant
Serbian expanding the program Safe and
Eco-Driving
• The transportation services
beyond the use of hybrid vehicles and
alternative fuels. Also, through the "Safe
and Eco-driving" influence creation of
good habits in the run.
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• Coca-Cola HBC Serbia has a new
energy-efficient refrigeration equipment
that emits 50% less CO2 compared to the
results from 2004.
• Combined heat and power: The
largest reduction in carbon dioxide from
the bottling plant will just come from
plants that combine electricity and heat
(CHP), and for developing plans and
receive approval on CHP approval of
construction in Serbia and elsewhere in the
Group. Cleaner and much more efficient
than conventional power plants, the
combined units located within the plant
bottling supplier of electricity, heating and
cooling. When you finish, the program
will lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions
originate from all manufacturing plants to
20%, while Coca-Cola HBC Serbia and up
to 40%.
• energy-saving programs: The
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia during bottling is
the application of energy-saving, which
will lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions
per liter of beverage produced. It is
interesting that even though their
production facilities use more energy than
office space and other applications, certain
measures are taken in terms of reducing
CO2 emissions in those areas. For
example, the Green IT program works to
change the computer equipment used in
creating good user habits. Using audio,
video and on-line conferencing, reducing
business travel and hence CO2 emissions.
• Energy efficient refrigerator:
When thirsty, consumers expect in
restaurants and stores find products,
chilled and ready for consumption.
Because of this, an important part of the
business strategy of Coca-Cola HBC
Serbia involves setting up cooling systems
and equipment in buildings buyers.
Although not produce themselves, and
they do not operate this equipment, they
are liable to affect the reduction of CO2
emissions resulting from these devices.
Therefore, working with suppliers to
increase the energy efficiency of the
equipment used. Thanks to the
development of new models of
refrigeration equipment and devices to
control energy use, the equipment is
purchased now, in terms of energy
consumption, 50% more efficient than the
one in 2004. year. We are also conducting
training programs for its employees to
ensure proper use of these devices on the
market.
In addition, working to avoid
hydro-fluor-carbonate (HFC) compounds,
greenhouse gases, which are widely used
in refrigeration equipment in homes and
businesses.

3.3. Partnerships

At the international level, the Coca-
Cola Hellenic is one of the founders and a
signatory of the UN Global Compact on
Climate Protection, the world's largest
business association centered around
issues of climate protection. In Serbia, an
active member of UNGS and early 2009.
was selected as the chair of the group for
the environment in which it will focus this
year will be very energy efficient.

3.4. Packaging and recycling

Packaging plays a vital role in the
safe delivery of products to customers and
consumers. However, once the product
takes, it becomes a quality packaging
material for recycling, leaving the burning
furnaces that produce waste heat energy -
or ends up as landfill waste.
We strive to reduce our impact on
the environment which originates from the
packaging in any part of its life cycle. Our
integrated approach includes:
• Reducing the amount of
packaging we use
• Increase recycled content in the
composition of new packaging
• Promote recycling and
renewability
The ultimate goal is to close the
circle of recycling, conversion of used
packaging in the new one. Bottle-to-bottle
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recycling plant whose establishment in
Austria just helped Coca-Cola Hellenic,
the company now supplies high quality
and very affordable recycled material from
which to make new bottles. In addition to
working on to reducing packaging waste to
a minimum and also try to reduce our
waste production and bottling.
Reducing the amount of packaging
we use to a minimum, which is one of the
most important ways in which generally
reduce the impact on the environment by
reducing the amount of material used for
packaging, this also leads to an overall
reduction in CO2 emissions generated
during the life cycle of packaging of
production through transportation to
disposal or recycling. Rosa Danube PET
bottles is one of the lightest on the market.
Weighing just 15 grams and is nearly three
times lighter than the one that preceded it.
Ultra-glass bottle which is used to produce
one-third less glass, is now in use in Serbia
and 16 other countries in which Coca-Cola
Hellenic conduct business.
Packaging consists primarily of
recycled material: PET, aluminum, glass
and steel. Since these are the most
common materials recycled, the only thing
that can be done to reduce the impact of
our packaging on the environment is that
in these materials is steadily increasing
content of recycled materials. Using
recycled aluminum for cans, saving up to
95% of the energy normally required when
using non-recycled aluminum. Our
aluminum cans and glass bottles already
contain up to 60% recycled material.
Turning recycled PET bottles in our
challenge in terms of availability and cost.
Although the recycling of PET widespread
(in Serbia is much cheaper and easier to
use the same in the production of other
goods, such as clothing or carpets, as well
as the industry itself does not require such
high standards necessary when it comes to
packaging for food products) .
In the seven countries where the
company operates and to use 15% recycled
PET material.
3.4.1. Promoting recycling

Coca-Cola HBC Serbia strongly
helps establish the necessary infrastructure
for recycling and encourages consumers to
recycle packaging. We are working on
establishing a scheme of packaging waste
management in Serbia, as they have done
in other countries in which Coca-Cola
Hellenic operates. They are one of the
founders of Sekopak organization that
advocates for the adoption of the legal
framework in the field of packaging and
packaging waste on the model and in
accordance with the regulations that exist
in the EU Directive 94/62/EC on
packaging and packaging waste posed
Agreement to utilization and recycling
before all entities in the chain to the end
user - the producers, packers / fillers,
importers, distributors and retailers,
putting them in position to make reuse of
packaging placed on the market by the
percentage that the State may determine.
This principle of "responsibility of waste
generators" is incorporated into the
Serbian Law on Waste Management and
the Law on Packaging and Packaging
Waste, adopted in May 2009. by the
Parliament of Serbia. So far, the company
has helped establish the system in 19
countries and is the co-owner of 17
companies involved in recycling and waste
recovery.

3.5. Staff development

Business objectives can be
achieved only with the help of talented and
committed people. Therefore we strive to
attract skilled people and develop their full
potential.

3.5.1. Training and Development

One way in which this is achieved
Coca-Cola HBC Serbia lies in providing
exceptional opportunities to build a career.
They invest heavily in formal training,
which combined with other tasks and
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projects of equal development
opportunities. This structured approach
allows you to develop leadership skills
necessary for the successful conduct of the
business now and in the future.

3.5.2. Employee Engagement

To ensure motivation and
commitment of employees at Coca-Cola
HBC Serbia regularly make information of
employees and listen carefully to their
views. This is done in various ways,
through: internal magazine, suggestion
boxes, bulletin boards, internal TV and
other means of communication with
employees. On an annual basis conduct
research on engagement, which allows
employees to express their views on a
range of topics? Then carefully examine
the data and based on their suggestions and
make action plans.

3.5.3. Competitive labor

Salaries of employees of Coca-
Cola HBC Serbia are getting competitive
in the market. In order to comply with the
competition, comparing regular
compensation received by employees in
return for other successful companies.

3.5.4. Fair working environment

Coca-Cola HBC Serbia respects the
fundamental rights of employees and
strives to create an open and positive
working environment that provides equal
opportunities to all. Policies are well
known and are an integral part of the
training program manager. Also, the
guiding principles for suppliers ask the
same expectations and vendor
environments.

3.5.5. Human rights

Coca-Cola HBC Serbia Politics of
Human Rights includes monitoring
provisions of the UN Global Compact and
the UN Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. Employment of children is
prohibited, and accordingly shall be
permanent and checks during the hiring
process. Employees and managers are
trained regarding the use of human rights
in their daily operations, and regularly
performs and monitoring actual
performance.

3.5.6. Equal Opportunity

Dedicated to creating an
environment in which all employees to act
in a fair and equitable manner. Equal
opportunities policy protects employees
from discrimination and ensuring that
there is equal opportunity and fair
treatment for all. Although men
predominate among employees, in part
because of the physical nature of the work,
a significant number of our managers are
women - 25% of total management.
Almost all the managers of Coca-Cola
HBC Serbia at higher positions are from
Serbia. Where are temporarily appointed
managers from foreign countries, local
talented employees are sent on
assignments abroad to acquire new skills.

3.5.7. Relationship with employees

The Coca-Cola HBC Serbia
respects the right of employees to freedom
of association: whether or not to join
unions or engage in collective bargaining.
Regularly holds consultations employees,
unions, and office of the European Council
for labor in terms of major business
decisions and matters of common interest.

3.5.8. Health and Safety

The aim of Coca-Cola HBC Serbia
is to provide its employees a safe working
environment and in this respect a culture
of safety at work. To achieve this, apply
the internationally recognized OHSAS
18001 management systems and strives to
achieve full certification.
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Implemented a program to promote
healthy and active lifestyles of employees.
• Each year, they organize "Sports
Day" for its employees and their family
members.
• provide support to employees
who are engaged in recreational sports,
and bear part of the cost of membership in
a number of centers of fitness.
• A healthy lifestyle is
knowledgeable and management through
the "Fit for the Future" organized by the
Academy of Coca-Cola Company.

3.6. Creating economic value

Coca-Cola HBC Serbia makes a
significant contribution to the local
economy. In three bottling plants,
distribution centers and sales offices in
Serbia and employ over 1500 people.
Taxes that are paid regularly Serbian
authorities are yet another way of
contribution to the national economy.
In addition, they provide a range of
other, indirect benefits. For example, the
"multiplier effect" that business has seen in
the fact that for every job that exists in this
system goes ten times as many jobs
provided by vendors and buyers. Given the
fact that one of the main investors in
Serbia, helping introduction and
development of new technologies and
thereby influence the attraction of new
investments.

CONCLUSION

Old rule is that a company that
cares about its products, constantly
examining and verifying their market
position, contributing to the creation of
brand products.
It is believed that the most
important function of marketing today just
building a brand. What's more, many of
the world's leading marketing experts
believe that the main function of marketing
and only building a brand. What is
accelerating this trend is steadily declining
sales of classic vision and the ways to be
exchanged goods and money in the
market. Today, most products on the
market are not sold are purchased.
Consumers themselves are directly
confronted with the products (brands), and
the decision to buy is up to them. Bearing
the aforementioned in mind, Coca-Cola
HBC Serbia is a leader in the market of
non-alcoholic beverages.

Reference

1. Stošić Mihajlović, dr Lj. (2012)
Marketing, VŠPSS, Vranje
2. Stošić Mihajlović, dr Lj. (2011)
Istraživanje marketinga, VŠPSS, Vranje
3. www.coca-
colahellenic.rs/Productsandbrands

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MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT
PhD Margarita Matlievska, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Goce Delcev University – Stip, Macedonia,
margarita.matlievska@ugd.edu.mk
PhD Biljana Petrevska, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics, Goce Delcev University – Stip,
Macedonia, biljana.petrevska@ugd.edu.mk

Abstract: Based on variety of impacts
that tourism poses over national economies, each
country is interested in supporting its
development. Moreover, everyone urges measures
for increasing the number of tourists who are
eager in meeting their travel and tourism
preferences. Since the motive for tourism flows
lies in natural or cultural background, it is
necessary to find solutions for enhancing such
basis. This paper supports the fact that tourism
development may not be addressed if environment
is neglected. For that purpose, the research is
focused on environmental policy as a precondition
for preserving safe and sound grounds for tourism
development. In this respect, the case of
Macedonia is investigated with its corpus of
environmental laws being in a state of
approximation with the ‘horizontal’ legislation of
the European Union. So, the contribution of this
paper lies in the fact that provides overview and
facts at glance not only on the environmental
protection legislation in Macedonia, but on the
constitutional regulation as well. The research
outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis
for obtaining national environmental legislation
fully in line with already established international
standards. Hence, one may argue that
environmental policy provides basis and legal
opportunities for strengthening tourism
development.
Keywords: Environment; Tourism;
Development; Management.
Introduction
It is more than obvious the existence
of inevitable relationship between tourism and
environment. Moreover, one may note that
tourism is environment by itself. Without safe
and well preserved nature, tourism will not be
in a position to offer something sustainable.
So the aspect of developing management
practices and philosophies that protect natural
environments while reinforcing positive and
orderly economic growth, must be addressed.
In this respect, Macedonia is one of
the countries which have identified tourism as
a mean for generating various micro and
macro-economic impacts. Consequently, a
National Strategy for Tourism Development
2011-2015 was prepared with a main vision -
Macedonia to become famous travel and
tourism destination in Europe based on
cultural and natural heritage. Yet, up-to-date
the results in terms of economic prosperity by
tourism development are modest, but the
negative effects on environment cannot be
stopped. Environmental pollution, depletion
of natural resources, loss of biodiversity,
ozone layer depletion, climate change, with
all its severity imposed on the global scene. It
becomes clear that to preserve the
environment means preserving the life. Hence
the tendency of each country declaring itself
as a responsible one, to build legislation that
would provide a higher level of environment
protection as much as possible.

1. Snapshot on environmental policy
beginnings
Since each country applies different
approaches for legally regulating the
environmental issue, they all urge to update
and amend its existing legislation. As to the
legislation concerning the protection and
improvement of the environment, the
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European Union (EU) appears as a leader in
the world.
Macedonia initiated the relations with
the EU in 1992 with the main objective to
become its member state. For this purpose,
the government reaffirmed its readiness to
join the Union by developing relationships
and placing membership in the EU as a
national goal of the highest priority. In 1995,
Macedonia established diplomatic relations
with the EU, and six years later in 2001, the
Stabilisation and Association Agreement
between the European Communities and their
Member States, of the one part, and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, of
the other part
5
(Council of the European
Union, 2001) was signed. In 2004, the
Government submitted the application for
membership in the EU, and in 2005 it was
given the status of a candidate country. The
principle of partnership was legalized by a
Decision in 2006, when the EU Council
adopted the European Partnership with
Macedonia.
The Membership requirement for a
candidate country is to harmonize its legal
system with the EU legislation, the so-called
Acquis Communautaire that covers all
membership obligations and criteria. The
process of integrating the "European" law in
national legal administrative system is called
“process of approximation”. It is consisted of
three main components: legal transposition of
EU legislation, its practical implementation
and control of the implementation of
legislation.
In December 2006, the Ministry of
Environment and Physical Planning, as a
governmental body responsible for
environmental issues, adopted a new
administrative and organizational structure in
accordance with the different environment
sectors. It corresponds to obligations imposed

5
Macedonia is the first country that signed
Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU
in the region.
by transposed legislation in order of effective
implementation of new powers and
responsibilities. In order to meet the criteria
for full membership, in April 2007 Macedonia
adopted a National Programme for the
Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA II). It
contains plans for harmonization of national
legislation with the EU and the necessary
dynamics of institutional strengthening for the
implementation of the legislation. Further on,
the NPAA contains the necessary resources
for the implementation and an Action Plan.
It is believed that the Environment
Chapter is one of the hardest, most abundant
and most complex chapters on
implementation out of 33 EU Acquis
Communautaire chapters. In the NPAA the
environment is covered by Chapter 27 and is
comprised of 10 sectors: horizontal
legislation, water management, air quality,
waste management, industrial pollution
control and risk management, nature
protection, forests, chemicals, genetically
modified organisms and noise.
In the past period, Macedonia has
adopted several policy strategic documents in
several sectors of the environment. In most
cases, the government policy aiming in
improving the environment is clearly defined
(Vision 2008, National Strategy for European
Integration, National Environmental Action
Plan II). Yet, the main responsibility for
implementing the legislation is located in the
Ministry of Environment and Physical
Planning. One may note that other sectorial
ministries have responsibilities in
environment protection (Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management,
Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Transport
and Communications, Ministry of Health,
Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Interior).
The status of the transposition of EU
environment legislation was perceived on the
basis of the conducted legal analysis of the
shortcomings of previous laws for different
areas of environment. Generally, the legal
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transposition in different environment sectors
is in a different stage, and in a significant
number of directives, the transposition is in
the early stages. However, it is very important
the horizontal legislation transposition to get a
high priority and to progress, because
legislation in this sector has an impact on
many other sectors. Furthermore, the Law on
Environment belongs to horizontal legislation
and therefore, it is important to assess the
level of transposition with the directives of
the Union.

2. Constitutional approach towards
environmental issue

The Preamble
6
of the Constitution of
Macedonia reads: "The citizens of
Macedonia, …taking responsibility for the
present and future of their fatherland ... and
responsible to future generations to preserve
and develop everything that is valuable ... ".
From this formulation, it is obvious that the
Constitution emphasized the accountability
that present generation have in front of future
ones to maintain and develop all that is worth
keeping and developing, knowing that the
descendants will collect the fruit. But what is
it that is valuable, not only to preserve but to
develop as well? The Constitution (Art. 56,
par. 1) gives the answer to this question: "All
the natural resources of the Republic of
Macedonia, the flora and fauna, amenities in
common use, … , are amenities of common
interest for the Republic and enjoy particular
protection. With this formulation, the
Constitution transferred what Robert Redford
thought when he said: "I think the
environment should be put in the category of
our national security. Defending our resources

6
This is referred to in item 1 of Amendment IV of the
Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia. Item 2
says: "Item 1 of this Amendment replaces the Preamble
of the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.”
Amendment IV was published in the Official Gazette
of RM No. 91 of 20 November 2001.
is just as important as defending abroad.
Otherwise, what is there to defend?".
In this respect, the Art. 8 states that
one of the fundamental values of the
constitutional order of Macedonia is
”ecological protection and development”. So,
the Constitution establishes fundamental
human rights and freedoms, among which:
Everyone has the right to a healthy
environment to live in. Everyone is obliged to
promote and protect the environment. The
Republic provides conditions for the exercise
of the right of citizens to a healthy
environment (Art. 43). Furthermore, the Art.
43, beside the right of every person to a
healthy environment, determine his obligation
to promote and protect the environment. In
this line, the Constitution includes an
obligation for Macedonia to provide
conditions for enjoying the citizens’ right to a
healthy environment. The same article
introduces a right and an obligation as well. In
this context, it is important to note that the
obligation is an integral part of the
fundamental rights and freedoms of man and
citizen. That is the reason that the
constitutional text regulates the obligations
along with fundamental freedoms and rights
as an inseparable whole. The duty for
environment and nature protection directly
emanates of the human right to a healthy
environment. And it must be so, if we want to
come up with a change in our behavior
towards the environment and if we want a
certain change to prevail. It must be so if we
want to respect what Gandhi said: "Be the
change you want to see in the world.”
With the Art. 55 (par. 1) "The freedom
of the market and entrepreneurship is
guaranteed." In the same article, par. 3 states
that: "The freedom of the market and
entrepreneurship san be restricted by law only
for reasons of the defence of the Republic,
protection of the natural and living
environment or public health”. From this
article, it is evident that the possible negative
impact on the market and entrepreneurship on
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nature and environment is anticipated, and,
although the freedom of the market and
entrepreneurship is defined fundamental value
(Art. 8, par. 1, line 7) and the same is
guaranteed (Art. 55, par. 1), it may be
restricted by law for the reason, among others,
of preserving the nature and environment. In
this article, it is interesting that the nature and
environment preservation is stated after the
defense of the country (as the primary social
interest of the citizens of each state), and even
before the people health.
It is indisputable that the Constitution
of Macedonia specifies the environment as a
fundamental value, as a freedom and as a
right. Furthermore it defines its protection and
improvement as a duty and an obligation of
the citizens of Macedonia. So, generally, it
lays down the foundation and provides the
basis for development of environment
legislation. The first Law regulating the
environment after Macedonia’s independence
was the Law on Environment and Nature
Protection and Promotion (Official Gazette
No. 69/96, 13/19, 41/00, 96/00 and 45/02)
representing a framework law on
environmental protection.
However, Macedonia's aspiration to
become a member state of the EU imposed a
need of preparing a new law, which was to
meet the requirements in accordance with the
obligations arising from the Union's so-called
horizontal directives in this area.
Consequently, the new Law on Environment
was prepared and adopted in 2005 (Official
Gazette No. 53/05, 81/05, 24/07).
3. Overview on horizontal directives
The rules apply to all environment
media and waste, are part of the so-called
Horizontal EU legislation and are regulated
by the so-called Horizontal Directives. In the
new Law on Environment, several horizontal
directives of the EU are transposed.
The Directive 2003/4/EC
7
addresses
the issue of public access to environmental
information. It aims to guarantee the right of
access to information in the field of
environment that are owned by the public
authority or are possessed for the public
authorities. This Directive makes an effort to
ensure that the environment information
progressively become more available. Further
on, it secures that this information are
published with the intention of their widest
possible systematic dissemination to the
public through electronic media and using
computer telecommunications. It contains the
terms in which public authorities should make
information available and strictly defined the
cases in which public authorities can refuse a
request for information.
The Directive 2001/42/EC
8
refers to
the assessment of the effects of certain plans
and programs on the environment. This
directive is one of the more recent legal acts
of the EU. Its goal is to enable a higher degree
of environmental protection, as well as to
contribute towards environmental issues
integration when preparing plans and
programs. This means that its intention is to
guarantee the assessment of plans and
programs that may have significant effects on
the environment.
The Directive 85/337/ЕЕС
9
and the
supplementary Directive 97/11/EC
10
argue on
the assessment of the effects of certain public

7
Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and
of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to
environmental information and repealing Council
Directive 90/313/EEC.
8
Directive 2001/42/ec of the European Parliament
and of the Council of 27 June 2001on the
assessment of the effects of certain plans and
programmes on the environment.
9
Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment
of the effects of certain public and private projects on
the environment 85/337/EEC.
10
Council Directive 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997
amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of
the effects of certain public and private projects on the
environment.
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and private projects on the environment. This
Directive regulates the environment impact
assessment of public and private projects
which are likely to have a significant
environmental impact. The environmental
impact assessment identifies, describes and
assesses the impacts that a project has on
humans, flora and fauna, soil, water, air,
climate and landscape, material assets and
cultural heritage.
The Directive 96/61/EC
11
is concerned
with the integrated pollution prevention and
control. This Directive contributes towards
achievement of integrated prevention and
control of pollution arising from the activities
or the activities of the installations listed in
Annex I of the Directive. It is consist of
measures designed to prevent or reduce
emissions to air, water and soil as a result of
the above mentioned activities, including
measures concerning waste, in order to
achieve a high level of environmental
protection in general.
The Directive 96/82/EC
12
puts an
accent on the control of major-accident
hazards involving dangerous substances. This
Directive enables prevention of major
accidents involving dangerous substances and
limitation of their consequences for man and
the environment in order to ensure a high
level of environment protection in a
consistent and efficient manner.
4. Analyses, findings and discussion
The level of transposition of European
Horizontal Directives in the two Laws (the
previous one - the Law on Environment and
Nature Protection and Promotion, and the new
adopted one - the Law on Environment) was
the main criteria for undertaking comparative

11
Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning
integrated pollution prevention and control, IPPC.
12
Ciuncil Directive 96/82/EC of 9 December 1996
on the control of major-accident hazards involving
dangerous substances.
analyses. In doing so, we detected four areas
as hot-spots that are differently regulated.
In this sense, the Law on Environment
and Nature Protection and Promotion does not
regulate precisely the rights and obligations
regarding access to environment information
and the right of access to justice, as well as
the procedures for impact assessment of
certain projects, plans and programs on
environment. Furthermore, this law lacked
provisions that would have provided the basis
for ensuring integrated environmental
management. This might have been the case
through a separate system of integrated
permits, as well as prevention and protection
against accident hazards.
As to the first element, the rights and
obligations regarding access to environment
information and the right of access to justice,
the national legislation contained several
provisions relating to the active and passive
dissemination of information, in various acts,
but they were not clear enough. For example,
the past law stated that data on quality and
environmental phenomena endangering
public, without explanation whether they
should be actively disseminated or passively,
simple with responding the request for
information. In this law, interpretation of the
provisions in this area was too limited to that
which is in accordance with the definition of
environmental information according to the
Directive 2003/4/ES (as according to the
Aarhus Convention
13
(UNECE). According
to that Directive, it was necessary to
determine which bodies are obliged to
disseminate information actively and to
respond to the requests for information. The
same Directive also contains provisions on
the application of procedure and provision of
information that should be considered when
regulating this matter, as well as provisions
for legal protection when the request for
information is denied or insufficiently
answered. So, the general impression is that

13
It entered into force on 30 October 2001.
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the legal framework in this area was weak
(despite the efforts of the authorities for
transparent operation), which required an
entirely new approach - an approach that is
contained in the new, Law on Environment.
Regarding the second element, the
procedure for assessment of the impact of
certain projects, plans and programs on the
environment, in accordance with previous
legislation, the adoption of plans and
programs of the state administration was
conducted with no assessment of their
environmental impact. With the new Law on
Environment, the procedure (laid down in
Directive 2001/42/ES) aimed at the
environmental consequences to be identified
and assessed during the preparation and
before the adoption of certain plans and
programs was enforced. Pursuant to the Law
on Environment, the public and the authorities
can give their opinion and all conclusions are
integrated and taken into account in the
ongoing proceedings.
After the adoption of the plan or
program, the public is informed of the
decision and the way it was made. Moreover,
the Government informs the public about its
work and the annual program for
implementation, while according to the Law
on Local Self-Government, the municipal
authorities have an obligation to inform
citizens about the plans and programs that are
important for the development of the
municipality and public participation is only
at the initiative of the citizens.
According to Directive 2001/42/EC,
public participation is seen as an individual
right and obligation of the competent
authority and therefore it must be placed in a
legal text, which is done by the Law on
Environment
14
.
Further on, it should be stressed that
the procedure for environmental impact

14
Bylaws allow achieving full transposition of the
Directive.
assessment of certain public and private
projects (provided for in the Directives
85/337/ЕЕС and 97/11/EC) is associated with
the procedure for building permit issuance. In
previous legal practice in Macedonia it was
not requested the opinion (which gives the
body of the state administration responsible
for the affairs of the environment) to be
binding on the competent authority issuing a
license to carry out the project, which was not
in accordance with Directive. The public
should be informed about the project
implementation and it should be given the
opportunity to express its opinions or to
participate in the process of decision making.
The inclusion of the public and the cross-
border effects should be taken into account.
Chapter eleven of the new Law, along with
the bylaws (secondary legislation) provided in
it, fully transposing this Directive.
Associated with the third element,
integrated environmental management
through a separate system of integrated
permits, as an obligation to join the EU, the
new Law provides a procedure and time limits
for complying the economic sector with new
norms and standards for the environment
protection.
The EU has a set of rules for permits
for industrial installations. All installations
covered by Annex 1 of Directive 96/61 are
required to obtain permission from the
competent authorities in the country. If they
do not have a permit, their operating will be
banned. Permits must be based on the BAT
concept (Best Available Techniques). For
these installations, the Directive gives 11-year
transition period to comply with the
requirements of the Directive from the date of
entry into force of this Directive.
Previous Macedonian legislation
encompassed more types of permits related to
the environment, but none of them was issued
only by the state administration responsible
for the affairs of the environment. With other
words, environmental aspects were taken into
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account through consultation between
ministries. By contrast, the Law on
Environment developed a separate system of
issuing licenses and it sets rules and deadlines
for achieving conditions in a manner as
required by the Directive permits and
according to the experience of the Member
States of the EU.
With regards to the fourth element,
prevention and protection of accidents
hazards, in the previous legislation, the
measures to protect the environment and
people from accidents caused by hazardous
substances were contained in many acts. The
new Law on Environment unifies activities
and measures taken to damage prevention and
protection in a single act and fully in
accordance with the requirements of Directive
96/82/EC.
5. Concluding remarks
Since the Constitution of Macedonia
guarantees the citizen the right to a healthy
environment, simultaneously provides basis
for tourism development. Based on fact that
the Constitution also sets out the duty of the
state to enable the fulfillment of this right, it
means that it is spotted a necessity for
planning and managing tourism flows.
Without well preserved nature, Macedonia
may not be able to fulfill strategic objectives.
The research found that the Law on
Environment is a framework law made
according to the pattern of western laws
where basic principles and horizontal issues
are regulated in one, basic law. The
comparative analysis resulted with findings
that this law is a kind of a general
environmental law that covers common issues
regulated by sectorial laws for the different
environmental media and waste management,
such as laws on water, on waste management,
on nature protection and on ambient air
quality. Furthermore, this law struggles to
meet the requirements contained in the EU
Directives that are approximated in it. Yet, the
in-depth analysis showed that this law
differently regulates matters regarding the
environment. It determines and specifies the
rights and obligations regarding access to
environment information, and the right of
access to justice. Also, this law sets out
environment impact assessment procedures of
certain projects, plans and programs.
Additionally, it contains provisions that
provide the basis for integrated environmental
management, through a particular system of
integrated permits, and provisions for
prevention and protection against accidents.
So, the research findings stipulate that
the Law on Environment establishes overall
legal framework for management, supervision
and protection of the environment in
accordance with the principles of
professionalism and competence, and
provides a multi-sectorial approach to
environmental protection. As so, it may serve
as a solid base for enhancing tourism
development issue. Generally, the current
environmental policy confirms that
Macedonia has an integrated environmental
protection system, and regulation in line with
established international standards in this
area. Thus, one may argue the possibilities for
providing background for integrated
environmental management of tourism
development.
References
1. Amendment IV of the Constitution of the
Republic of Macedonia. Official Gazette of
the Republic of Macedonia No. 91 of 20
November 2001.
2. Directive 2001/42/EC of the European
Parliament ond of the Council of 27 June
2001on the assessment of the effects of certain
plans and programmes on the environment.
Official Journal of the European
Communities. NO L 197/30. 21.7.2001.
(Available at http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri
=OJ:L:2001:197:0030:0037: EN:PDF).
3. Law on Environment and Nature Protection
and Promotion. Official Gazette of the
Republic of Macedonia No. 69/96, 13/19,
41/00, 96/00 and 45/02.
4. Law on Environment. Official Gazette of the
Republic of Macedonia No. 53/05, 81/05,
24/07, 159/08, 83/09, 48/10, 124/10, 51/11.
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5. National Strategy for Tourism Development
2011-2015. Government of the Republic of
Macedonia (2012). Skopje.
6. Stabilisation and Association Agreement
between the European Communities and their
Member States, of the one part, and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, of
the other part. Council of the European Union,
2000. (Available at http://ec.europa.eu
/enlargement/pdf/the_former_yugoslav_repub
lic_of_macedonia/saa03_01_en.pdf).
7. UNECE Convention on Access to
Information, Public Participation in Decision-
making and Access to Justice in
Environmental Matters. (Available at
http://www.unece.org/env/ pp/treatytext.html).
8. Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the
assessment of the effects of certain public and
private projects on the environment
85/337/EEC. Official Journal NO. L 175.
05/07/1985 P. 0040 – 0048 (Available at
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/full-legal-
text/85337.htm).
9. Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24
September 1996 concerning integrated
pollution prevention and control.
OFFICIAL JOURNAL L 257. 10/10/1996 P.
0026 – 0040. (Available at http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri
=CELEX:31996L0061:EN: HTML).
10. Council Directive 96/82/EC of 9 December
1996 on the control of major-accident
hazards involving dangerous substances.
OFFICIAL JOURNAL L 010. 14/01/1997 P.
0013 – 0033. (Available at http://eur
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri
=CELEX: 31996L0082:EN:HTML).
11. Council Directive 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997
amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the
assessment of the effects of certain public and
private projects on the environment. Official
Journal No. L 073. 14/03/1997 P. 0005.
(Available at http://ec.europa.eu/
environment/eia/full-legal-text/9711.htm).
12. Directive of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 28 January 2003 on public
access to environmental information. Official
Journal of the European Union NO L 41/26.
14.2.2003. (Available at
https://www.elaw.org/system/files/EU.20034E
CDirective.pdf).
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MOBILITY SKILLS CONDITION IN MACEDONIA AMONG YOUTH
IN HIGH SCHOOL

Academic-DHK-Angel Dzhambazovski Center for scoliosis - Department of Anthropological kinesiology, Skopje,
Macedonia

Associent Prof. Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova - PhD in Medicine, Faculty of Physical Culture, Department of Kinesiology
Anthropology, Skopje, Macedonia

D-r.med. Nevenka Panovska Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy in Skopje, Macedonia

M PhD. Selim Alili freelancer cooperator, scoliosis and physiotherapy center, Skopje, Macedonia

MA. Kjamilj Elmazi freelancer cooperator, scoliosis and physiotherapy center, Skopje, Macedonia

Abstract - Within this research, the
manifestation of the ontogenetic differences degree in
some motor manifestations between male and female
pupils is investigated, which attend a regular course in
physical (Kinesiology) and health education in the
secondary education in the Republic of Macedonia
related to age. The total male pupils are 320 students,
and 280 of female students in 8 colleges from urban
and rural areas in the whole territory of our country.
These samples are divided into four sub samples of the
respondents for each sex separately, which are males:
from I-st grade (N = 75), II-nd grade (N = 85), III-rd
grade (N = 75) and IV-th grade (N = 65) . For the
assessment of the status of the respondents the mobility
applied battery of tests based upon EUROFIT children
program. From the obtained results the significant
differences can be stated from the ontogenesis
development between male and female pupils from
different chronological age, suggesting a demand for
differentiated programs for mobility development and
kinesiology and health education.
Keyword - teaching, education, female
students, male students, physical kinesiological
education, morphological, mobility, differences,
ontogenesis EUROFIT.

INTRODUCTION
Due to physical and health education
course, the evaluation, regarding and defining
of the ontogenetic development level of the
motor skills to students, presents one of the
basic prerequisites for the implementation of
appropriate education contents. Depending on
the level of the pupil’s development mobility
it is required to anticipate and implement the
teaching adequate contents that will have the
optimal effect. Namely, through the
evaluation of the total condition related to the
mobility student status, as well as the
functional ability, followed and analyzed by
the intellectual and personality characteristics,
it is necessary to make an inspection of the
possibilities and pupils capacities based on
the objective indicators, which are
manifested, to be transferred towards
differentiated approach in the implementation
of the realization of the education itself. An
initial step in the analysis of the level of
development of the mobility, is enlighten of
the certain represents of the balance of the
relationship by recording the differences in
the ratio by the age of the students. In our
present research the degree is defined through
the manifestation of differences in some
mobility indicators between female and male
pupils who attend a regular course in physical
and health education in secondary education
in the Republic of Macedonia. In other
researches we will perform complete analysis
of the mobility, functional, intellectual and
corrective personality characteristics, to
examine the correlation between them.

THE OPERATION METHOD

The total sample consists of 320male
students, and 280 of female students from 8
colleges from urban and rural areas in the
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whole territory of our country. These samples
are divided into the four sub samples-the
respondents for each sex separately. For the
evaluation of the mobility status of the
respondents, the battery of tests based on
EUROFIT children program was applied. For
the evaluation of the mobility skills, the
balancing tests on the bench, the tapping with
hand, deep reach on bench, the jump in
length, dynamo measurement by hand, lifting
of the body within 30sec. the knuckle
endurance, running 20 meters and * 5 meters
and more gradually progressive run - 20m, as
well as running 20 meters of sprint.
For the determination of the
differences in the degree of manifestations in
the overall analyzed area the multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) are applied,
while the single differences in each variable
are determined by analysis of variance
univariance (ANOVA). In order to define the
differences Univariate between pairs of
groups of respondents in every age and every
single analyzed events, is applied to the
testing of these differences by appliance of
the LSD (Last differences significant) test,
with which actually the level of significance
of the differences between each with each
group in every single variable is defined.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based upon the applied multivariate
analysis variance, which is determined by the
differences in the overall analyzes between
the mobility area surveyed by male and
female respondents, the significant difference
between the groups can be concluded in the
level of significance of 0003 and 0005 related
to their age. Univariate differences between
the groups are significant in each variable
mobility single analyzed in the both samples,
were registered in all analyzed variables,
except the variables in the balance of the
bench (MRAM), tapping with hand (MTAP)
and the hand shake (MSTIS).
On the basis of the defined univariate
differences, it was concluded that with the
pupils of both sex the proportion is evident
into the increase in the overall mobility
(compared to the observed area) with the
chronological age of the students.

Evaluation
The Level of
Importance
Vilkov
lambda
.751624
Рао Р
(33,595)
1.837385 .003
Table 1. Multivariance analyzes of variance
of the male sub samples.


















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kals mram mtap mdlp mskok mstis mstom mzgib m10*5 mleg m20m
1 10.15 10.96 50.79 182.68 25.50 19.21 11.91 22.57 36.40 4.08
2 10.66 11.26 47.18 186.15 27.71 19.29 15.70 21.86 38.01 3.88
3 9.97 10.94 48.35 193.71 27.62 20.32 17.50 21.43 37.89 3.87
4 10.77 10.43 44.34 205.52 27.63 22.74 22.20 20.04 43.45 3.70
Table 2. Middle evaluation of the mobility variable of the male sub samples
Mobility variable Effect Ф(df1,2) The Level of Importance
MRAM 7. .093 .964
MTAP 4. 1.123 .341
MDLP 288. 4.540 .004
MSKOK 3616. 2.997 .032
MSTIS 73. .680 .565
MSTOM 84. 4.637 .003
MZGIB 716. 3.576 .015
M10*5 40. 5.019 .002
MLEG 286. 5.149 .002
MTR20M 1. 4.790 .003
Table3. Univariant of analyze of variance of the female sub samples.
Evaluation The Level of Importance
Vilkov lambda .63
Рао Р (31.43) 1.83 .005
Table 4. Multivariance analyzes of variance of the female sub samples.
k
las
mram mtap mdlp mskok mstis mstom mzgib
m10*
5
mleg
m20
m
1 10.11 11.46 51.19 152.16 23.20 15.54 8.87 24.57 35.43 4.88
2 10.21 11.24 48.14 166.17 23.51 16.43 9.54 23.86 36.64 4.34
3 10.01 11.13 49.32 173.11 23.32 18.31 9.94 22.43 37.62 4.20
4 10.32 11.17 47.24 184.62 23.81 20.64 10.25 23.04 39.53 3.89
Table 5. Middle evaluation of the mobility variable of the female sub samples
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Mobility
variable
Effect F(df1,2) Importance Level
MRAM 6. .086 .876
MTAP 7. 1.102 .315
MDLP 300. 4.431 .001
MSKOK 3537. 2.675 .035
MSTIS 71. .578 .565
MSTOM 79. 4.547 .002
MZGIB 721. 3.486 .019
M10*5 37. 5.631 .001
MLEG 275. 5.026 .003
MTR20M 1.01 4.672 .004
Table 6. Univariable analyses of the variance of the male sub samples

4. CONCLUSION
From the results of applied analysis
that defined the differences in each
individual morphological and mobility
manifestation among male and female
respondents, in terms of chronological age,
it reveals significant differences between
the pupils and students of different
chronological age. Defined individual
events of separately age, should be taken
as the total content of the subject area
(physical) kineziological health education
in the secondary education. Besides the
complete research of ontogenetic
development among students in terms of
mobility-functional capabilities, the
antropometric, intellectual abilities and
features are demanded.
For the purpose of the sport it is
necessary selection to be done in all above
mentioned capabilities without training as
early as preschool and early school age
would be developed and genetic
kinesiology and children's manifest
capabilities that sport is destined and what
level will can be trainned.
Finally we can conclude that the
need for a hour kinezioloshko (physical)
health education is needed in the
prevention against disease hipokinesis of
the civilizational achievements.

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KINESIOLOGY IN FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL-MUSCLE
DEFORMATION PREVENTION AT SCHOOL AGE

Associent Prof. Mitrichka Ks. Stardelova - PhD in Medicine FKK, Department of Kinesiology Anthropology,
Skopje, Macedonia

Associent Prof. Dimitrinka K. Conkova VTU, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

Dr.med. V. Krstevska Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy in Skopje, Macedonia

D-r.med. Nevenka Panovska Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy in Skopje, Macedonia

M PhD. Selim Alili freelancer cooperator, scoliosis and physiotherapy center, Skopje, Macedonia

Academician - DHK Prof. Dr.. Angel Dzhambazovski Center for scoliosis and physiotherapy, Skopje -
Macedonia

Abstract: The research is conducted on
1000 male respondents from the eighth grade all
the way to the completion of their secondary
education. The deviations of the foot and the spinal
cord malformations as well as the bad body posture
with chest deformities were mainly analyzed.The
visual method was used for the registration of all
the malformations that represent a deviation from a
normal body posture. Analysis of orthopedic and
aesthetic bodily disorders were carried out by the
abovementioned authors on a thousand students
from 15 to 19 years of age. Deviations were found
in the normal form of foot 23.8%, spinal cord
deformities 20.5%, and the bad body postures with
chest deformities 16.3%. The main reason for this
situation are the hypokinesis, and in order to be
solved it is recommended private and the state
property centers for aesthetic and orthopedic
kinesiology and physiotherapy to open.
Keywords: Kinesiology Medicine,
Physiotherapy, Kinesiotherapy, diseases of
nowadays, malformations.

1. INTRODUCTION

Kineziology Medicine -
Physiotherapy and Kinesiotherapy are
relevant in the presence of pandemics of
diseases of nowadays, such as: skeletal
deformities, cardiovascular, degenerative
diseases, hormonal etc.. This results as a
lower physical burden of children
activities due to growth and development
stage of their body-lately the orthopedic
deformities are present with a very high
percent. The analysis of different health
checks within Balkan countries and
Europe showed an increase of
malformations among students. The
reasons for this situation despite hypo
kinesis are also the wrong diet, the long
sitting in front of the TV Set, computers,
improper seating, creating of wrong
stereotyped posture models, as well as the
switching the night-time with the day-time
sleep.
The biggest problem for this
situation are the densely populated urban
areas where the physical activity is
reduced to zero. If ever a man mentally
used to perform 1% of his survival
activities, and the rest he was shiftin
through the personal physical effort and
gravitate up to 100%, the physical effort
today in urbanized areas is reversed, so
that the physical effort gravitates toward
zero, and the intellectual up to 100 %.
Such a condition of hypokinesia is one of
the reasons for the huge percentage of
skeletal-muscle malformations.




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2.0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

From our research it is shown that
the percentage deviation from the normal
development of the body of the child in the
process of growth and development is very
large. Having in mind that 23.8% of
children have a deviation from normal
physiological-morphological structure of
the foot, with a lowered arch, called flat
foot. We assume that that this situation
arose due to lack of physical effort, rarely
walking of children with barefoot. It is
interesting to note that children who have
flat feet usually have vertebral deformities,
so that their percentage is 20.5%, and
many of them have deformities of the
chest 16.3%. General and the main reason
for this situation are the hypokinesis and
they result with the appearance of gained
vertebral deformities known as: one-sided
or two-sided distortions columna
vertebralis, generally called skoliosi,
meaning lateral curvature of the spine,
then curved front-rear direction, known as
lordosi and kifosi, also the false feet called
planus pedis, and various deformities of
the chest.
Similar results in a larger study by
the Institute of Public Health of the
Republic of Macedonia obtained data for
alarming deterioration of back-
deformations. Thus, the Institute for
Healthcare Macedonia analyzed over 2000
students from primary, secondary and
higher education, respectively in 1995 and
the same population was examined in
2006. From the results in 2006 compared
to the 1995, there has been a kifozite
deterioration in 18.5%, in skoliozite
26.9%, lordozite between students and
upper classes showed deterioration 86.2%
comparatively speaking in terms of pre ten
years ago today. Which results with a
constant deterioration.
According to the National Institute
of Public Health in Republic of Macedonia
Research results (published on 12.02.2007
in the daily Newspaper "Vreme" p.2
entitled "Computers hunched the
children"), are following:
1.0. Deformities among primary
school students
1.1. Foot deformities 22.6%
1.2. Spinal cord deformities 17.6%
1.3. Bad body posture 17.3%
2.0. Deformities among high
school students
2.1. Bad posture 22.5%
2.2. Foot deformities 17.6%
2.3. Spinal cord deformities 15.9%
The results are published in the
percent of a thousand children.

3.0. CONCLUSION

Nowadays diseases, the skeletal
deformities - cardiovascular and
degenerative hormonal diseases, according
to other studies, also follow our obtained
results. These skeletal-muscle apparatus
condition diseases are the nowadays
diseases and are result of insufficient
physical children and adults activity, a
condition generally known as hypokinesia
that genuine concerns and probably is
confirmed as the main cause for the spinal
cord deformities. Beside the hypokinesis,
the lifestyle is also important, the nurture,
the material conditions, the general quality
of life etc.. The cause of the hormonal
disorders, apoplexy, heart attacks, high
blood pressure and other nowadays
diseases are also already above mentioned
factors.
Within a situation like this, the
State University of Physical Education
should present in front of the state
authorities a special program for the
prevention of the skeletal-muscle
deformations, as well as the functional-
motor disabilities preventively to be
stopped, i.e.by increasing of the number of
hours of physical and health education at
least three hours per week starting in first
grade. To increase the teaching quality of
aesthetic body shaping and to control the
physical development of the students, to be
followed by the teacher and to monitor the
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biological formation of the student
together with the doctor, referring to
children who have vertebral deformities to
instructing them to the kinesiotherapy
centers. The demand for the establishment
of private offices – a cabinet for
orthopedic and aesthetic kinesiology
becomes greater. Creating preconditions
for mass physical culture among the
population, infrastructure as well as
enrichment opportunities with sports
facilities.Motivating and guiding
graduated people for specializations for
two semesters for orthopedic and aesthetic
kinesiology, and the master's degree to
perform the function of cocoordinating
theory with practical knowledge and
differential efforts to be put into operation
needs of the kineziology -medical practice.
The demand of larger state investment in
these diseases prevention is the need and
necessity of the 21st century.

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TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHLOROPICRIN AND IMPACT OF SORBED
WATER STEAM ON PROTECTION
Milena Nikolić, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia milena_nikolic@yahoo.com

Mladen Nikolić, College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

Dragan Nikolić, College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia dragannikolic60@yahoo.com


Abstract: Chloropicrin is a chemical
substance that has a very toxic effect. Exerts its effect
on the respiratory system. Causes pulmonary edema
and difficult breathing and suffocating effect.
Respiratory protection may be carried into execution
respiratory filters. On the protective power filter based
on active coal affects adsorbed water vapor. This paper
presents the results of the adsorption of water vapor on
activated carbon from 5% to 25%. Was used for the
experiment apparatus for dynamic adsorption, the
results showed that the humidity of 5% coal provides
most power protection, while humidity of 25%
minimum protective power.
Keywords: toxic, Chloropicrin, filter,
adsorption, water vapor, relative humidity, activated
carbon, protective power

1. Toxic effects of Chloropicrin

Chloropicrin was first obtained by the
action of chlorine lime picric acid. Besides
insecticide Chloropicrin effect acts as a
fungicide, herbicide and nematocid. Has an
important application in soil disinfection.
Restricted used for disinfection and
storage space due to its toxicity to humans.
Chloropicrin is a colorless oily liquid
and a characteristic pungent odor. Obtained
by light green-yellow color due to
decomposition of chlorine and nitrogen
oxides. Solubility in water is 0.16%. In
organic solvents to dissolve well.
Chloropicrin is stable compound and a
derivative of methane preserved the properties
of saturated hydrocarbons.At elevated
temperature and the boiling temperature of
slightly decomposed. Chloropicrin hydrolysis
does not take place in an aqueous medium,
even at elevated temperatures.
Chloropicrin is a strong poison that
adversely affects the lungs. Liquid
Chloropicrin causes severe damage to the
skin. Concentration of 0.002 mg/dm3
suzavačka cause of action for a period of 3 to
30 seconds, and the concentration of 0.05
mg/dm3 was unbearable. Higher
concentrations cause nausea, vomiting and
stomach.Damage to the respiratory system
occurs at concentrations greater than 0.1
mg/dm3, and death at a concentration of 2
mg/dm3 and exposure of 10 minutes.
The main mechanism of action is
occurrence of pulmonary edema. Pulmonary
edema occurs due to disturbance alveolar
capillary permeability and causing the output
of fluid from the blood into the alveolar
spaces. The increase in lung vascular
permeability is the result of direct action of
the poison and disorder nervous regulation of
capillary function. Poison, and the reaction
products act on the receptors of the lungs,
where the vagus nerve impulse is sent through
the central nervous system. Effector impulses
back to the effector organ via the sympathetic
nerves. Reflex defenses are manifested by
creating fluid in the alveoli lungs. In further
reflection of the pathologic character, which
leads to an increase in pulmonary edema. The
occurrence of pulmonary edema initially
difficult, and later disables reception of
oxygen from the blood into the alveoli and
excretion of carbonic acid from the blood into
the alveoli. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation
decreases and at the moment of death is
almost no oxygen.

2. Protection from Chloropicrin

Respiratory protection of Chloropicrin
may be provided with respirators. Filling most
suitable respirator is activated carbon.
Activated carbon is one of a group of
materials that have a highly developed
porosity. Carbon atoms are held together by
covalent bonds, are arranged in a plane in the
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form of hexagonal rings. The distance
between the planes is higher than that of
graphite. A number of these two planes
placed one above the other, form crystallites.
Crystallites of activated carbon are each
different in size, they are not properly lined
up next to each other, and therefore have high
surface heterogeneity.
Micropores are the smallest pores with
a diameter below 15-16 x 10-10 m. Based on
tests Dubinina, a large number of
microporous activated carbons have
micropore diameters in the range of 4 - 8 x
10-10 m. The size of these pores coincides
with the size of molecules adsorbujućih.
Micropore volume of activated
carbons ranges from 0.20 to 0.60 cm3 / g, a
surface area of 1000 - 2000 m2 per gram.
Transitional pores larger than
micropores and have diameters of 15 - 16 to
1000 to 2000 x 10-10 m.
Transition pore volume of activated
carbons was in the range of 0.02 to 0.10 cm3 /
g. Area per gram in the range of 20 - 70 m2.
Effective transition pore diameters are in the
range of 40-1000 x 10-10 m.
Have a radius of macropores above
1000 - 2000 x 10-10 we are most massive
pores of activated carbon. Macropore volume
ranges from 0.2 to 0.8 cm3 / g, and the area
per gram within the limits of 0.5 - 2 m2.
Some carbon atoms in activated
carbon are not at the same energy level. These
include unsaturated carbon atoms valence that
allows chemical bonding with other
molecules, atomic groups and radicals.
Gaseous substances adsorbed onto
activated carbon is of particular importance to
oxygen. Oxygen can be adsorbed onto
activated carbon in two basic ways:
• physically adsorbed and
• chemisorbed.
Which of these modes dominates,
depends on temperature. At lower
temperatures, the oxygen is adsorbed mainly
physical adsorption, and as the temperature
increases, and increases the reaction
hemisorpcije, where oxygen molecules are
dissociated into atoms, which react
chemically with the atoms of coal and
generate the surface oxide layer.
Oxidized surface, formed at
hemisorpciji oxygen at high temperatures,
unless there is a shift in the gas phase, they
differ from those of stability of chemisorption
formed at lower temperatures. In this case,
there is a great diversity of surface oxygen
composition. When the surface of activated
carbon oxidized atmospheric oxygen, at a
temperature of about 300 0C hemisorpcije
process there is an increase, and the
maximum level is formed at a temperature of
400-450 0C. At higher temperatures, the
oxide breaks down into several parts, and at a
temperature of 900 - 1000 0C most of the
unbuilt.
Carbon surface can be reduced by
hydrogen at high temperature, or increasing
hydrogen pressure.
Presence of chemisorbed oxygen on
the surface of carbonaceous substances has an
important effect on the adsorption of water
vapor.
Pierce and Smith described the
adsorption of water, where the water
molecules bind to the primary adsorption
centers. The adsorbed water molecules are
subsequently act as secondary centers, which
builds multimolekularna the adsorption
pressure increased.
When the pressure is sufficiently high,
the micropores are filled, and with further
increase in pressure multimolekularna
adsorption continues to create the surface of
the membrane, and in large enough pore
capillary condensation builds, the water vapor
pressure sufficient for saturation.
Dubinin and coworkers have found
that the work for the process of interaction of
active carbon and oxygen characteristic two
extreme cases:
- At a temperature of 0 - 1000C on
activated carbon surface oxides are formed
the base character and
- At temperatures above 2000C the
interaction of activated carbon and oxygen
leads to the formation of surface oxides
primarily acidic character.
Some research has shown that the
presence of acidic surface oxides of abnormal
adsorption capacity of activated carbons by
polar molecules.
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Dubinin and conspiracy investigated
the adsorption isotherm of water on samples
of activated carbon. They found that there is a
substantial influence of surface oxides on the
ability of activated carbon with absorption by
water vapor.
Dubinin and coworkers laid the basis
of the theory of adsorption of water vapor,
based on hemisorpciji the primary adsorption
centers, ie, the surface oxides.
Water chemisorbed on oxides, via hydrogen
bonds, creating new secondary centers
suitable for further chemisorption.
Both types of surface oxides,
especially acidic character, show a significant
influence on the adsorption of water vapor on
activated carbon. At relative humidity greater
than 40-50%, water vapor molecules bind
with the free polar centers of the lattice and
the previously adsorbed water molecules
through hydrogen bridges, so that a
significant increase in the adsorption of water
vapor, which can be seen on the adsorption
isotherms of water vapor.
When the carbon surface is covered
with almost complete monomolecular covers,
with a further increase of the relative pressure,
are formed Pore volume is filled at the point
when the water vapor is adsorbed on opposite
walls combination. When activated charcoal
that does not contain a proportional
relationship transition pore volume of
adsorbed water vapor at saturation pressure is
equal to the volume of micropores. Hysteresis
loop can not be compared with the capillary
condensation of water vapor, because the
same thing happens on activated carbon,
which is no transition pore, and hysteresis
loops show a striking effect of molecular
sieves.
When activated carbons that have
developed transitional pores, they become
full-induced capillary condensation at high
relative pressures, it becomes a permanent
case of monomolecular and multimolekularne
adsorption on the walls of the pores.
Water vapor adsorption on activated
carbon with developed porosity transition
progresses in two phases hysteresis on
adsorption isotherms. At lower relative
pressures, a hysteresis loop is determined by
the polarity of groups at higher relative
pressures, capillary condensation in
transitional pores.
Kiselov and his colleagues concluded
that the adsorption of water vapor on
activated carbon, depending on the degree of
oxidation of the surface and porosity of coal,
and that the primary role in the adsorption of
water vapor capillary condensation.
Daceya, Clunier and Thomas during the
experiment, water vapor adsorption on
activated carbon, found no hysteresis loop
which explains the high microporous structure
of activated carbon.
Research adsorption of water vapor
state that is the same as a function of chemical
structure and porosity of activated carbon and
also quite far from the end of the possible
solutions. However adsorbed water vapor, and
to a certain extent and relative humidity affect
the protective power, or on the adsorption of
toxic substances within the meaning of
increase or decrease in the protective power
which depends on the physico-chemical
properties of adsorbing matter.

3. Experimental research

Used for the experiments of the
apparatus shown in Figure 1 The apparatus
was composed of the following parts: 1
Rotometar air, 2 Court with concentrated
sulfuric acid, 3 Court with water,
4.Psihrometar, 5.Mixer , 6 Rotometar for
secondary air, 7 Wash with concentrated
sulfuric acid, with a dry 8.T ower solid
adsorbent, 9 Wash with Chloropicrin, 10 Way
stop cock, 11 Respiratory filter, 12
Respiratory filter to be tested, 13.Collon with
dry activated carbon, 14 Quartz heating tube,
15 indicator
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Figure 1. Aparatus for filter testing


Through the respiratory filter is
a mixture of vapor permeable
Chloropicrin and air mixture at a flow
rate of 0.5 dm3 / s with a concentration
of 0.5% Chloropicrin Cmdr. The
amount of air mixed with 24 dm3/min
air mixer and passed through
respiratory filter. Chloropicrin mixture
of air and breaking through the
respiratory filter is carried out through
a quartz tube that is directly heated
burner, and then sent to indicator.
Chloropicrin when going through the
quartz tube leads to its destruction.
Chlorine, which is created by
decomposition of Chloropicrin in
contact with the indicator as active
iodine from potassium iodide
suppressed and newly formed
elemental iodine with starch builds a
blue discoloration of the end of the
experiment.

4. Results and discussion

The effects of water vapor
adsorption on activated carbon in the
respiratory protective power filter are
given in Table 1 and Graph 1.
From the table (1) and graphics
(1) shows that the adsorbed water
vapor on activated carbon has an
impact on the protective power of
Chloropicrin filter. Increasing water
vapor adsorption on activated carbon
adversely affects the protective power
filters. Adsorbed water vapor
adsorption space is occupied by active
carbon, so that the cut surface of
activated carbon, which is available
Chloropicrin. Chloropicrin is not
susceptible to hydrolysis, which further
reduces the adsorption power of coal.
In Respiratory protection of
Chloropicrin should strive to charcoal
filters, which are filled with a
minimum sorbed water vapor.
Table (1) Effect of water vapor
adsorbed at a relative humidity of 50%
in the protective power




Moisture of
activated
charcoal
(%)
Relative
humidity
(%)
The protective
power of filter
min s
5 50 48 32
10 50 45 15
15 50 43 40
20 50 39 35
25 50 37 27
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Graph 1. Protective power of time to
Chloropicrin filters depending on the
adsorption of water vapor

5. Conclusion

For filtration of air
contaminated with Chloropicrin can be
used filters based on activated carbon.
Aivated charcoal may have, depending
on usage conditions, different
humidity, and can be used at different
relative humidity. Desorbed water
vapor on activated carbon was
important for the sorption of
Chloropicrin. chloropicrin is not
susceptible to hydrolysis and adsorbed
water vapor adversely affects the
protective power filters. The study
showed that activated charcoal
humidity of 5% provides protective
power of 48 min and 32 s, while
activated charcoal humidity of 25%
reduces the protective power of filters
at 37 min and 27 s.

References

1. Brajović M.: Chemistry of poison
gases, Belgrade (1983)
2. D. Nikolic, R. Biočanin: activated
carbon NBC protection function, Bulletin
NBC, Krusevac (1995)
3. D. Nikolic: Influence of relative
vlažosti air purification air pollution in order to
protect the ecosystem, Ekologika 3, (1996)
4. D. Nikolic: Protection against the
effects of toxic substances and effects of NBC
weapons, SC NBC Krusevac (1997)
5. Nikolic D.: Geometry of filters for
respiratory protection, environment and
ecosystem from toxic gases and vapors,
Bulletin NBC, Krusevac (1996)
6. Stanković D.: Medicine, Medical
Books Belgrade-Zagreb (1986)





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EFFECTS OF ATROPINE SULFATE AFTER POISONING
WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
MSc ph Milena Nikolić, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac, Serbia
milena.nikolic.1987@gmail.com

Mladen Nikolić, College for chemical-technological school, Serbia mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

Abstract: Organophosphorus
compounds are most toxic synthesized
substances. This group consists of the
substances used in the composition of
chemical weapons. Less toxic substances in
this group are used as insecticides. These
compounds are inhibitors of the enzyme
esterase-holing. First aid and treatment of
poisoning with these substances is achieved by
atropine sulfate.
Keywords: organophosphorus
compounds, insecticides, toxic effects, atropine
sulfate, first aid


1. Introduction

Development of organo-
phosphorus compounds begins in the
nineteenth century. They penetrate
organism through the respiratory
system, skin and digestive tract. They
act directly on the central nervous
system, depending on the dose can in a
short period of time, lead to death. At
higher doses, there is a so-called
momentary effect, death occurs
immediately. For this substance is also
typical to have a cumulative effect.
The organophosphorus com-
pounds are among the most toxic
compounds synthesized and their part
in chemical weapons and insecticides
is significant.

2. Toxic Substances

The most important repre-
sentatives of the toxic chemicals from
the composition of chemical weapons,
here in after referred to PCS, as sarin,
soman and tabun. The mechanism of
action of the substance is the same.
Chemically speaking, all PCS paralytic
nerve activity are organophosphorus
compounds. There are over a thousand
different organophosphorus
compounds, in addition to soman, sarin
and tabun.
Between themselves PCS this
type there is a difference in the level of
toxicity that can be manifold.
Tab. (1) Inhalation toxicity of
paralytic OHS neural activity in the
form of vapor or aerosol to people of
average weight
OHS
Lethal
contretation
LC
50
(mg in
min/m
3
)
Start
of
effect
(min)
VX-
poison
4 –5 4-10
Soman 45 – 70 1-15
Sarin 70 -100 2-15
Tabun 300 – 400 10-15

PCS nerve paralytic effects are
irreversible inhibitors of cholinesterase
in the human body. Inhibition of this
enzyme leads to the accumulation,
endogenous acetylcholine'', so that
each new quantity of the release of
acetylcholine cause a longer and more
intense effects on organs. Excess
acetylcholine in the body initially
stimulates and then paralyzes impulse
transmission at all synapses where
acetylcholine appears as a mediator, in:
- The central nervous system,
- Neuromuscular coupling,
- Sensory nerve endings,
- Ganglionic synapses
holinergic and adrenergic (sympa-
thetic and parasympathetic) nerves,
- Post ganglionic drenergic
nerve terminals that innervate glands
and blood vessels,
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- Adrenergic nerve terminals
(without ganglionic synapses) in the
adrenal gland and
- Post ganglionic cholinergic
nerve terminals.
When it comes to toxico-
dynamics, there are three main
activities of the effect of acetylcholine.
- The biochemical structures
innervated cholinergic nerves, leading
to stimulation of bronchial smooth
muscle, organs, abdomen, heart
muscle, sweat and mucus glands and
others., These effects are also called
acetylcholine muscarinic and, due to
the analogy with the effect of alkaloid
muscarine,
- The biochemical structure of
ganglion cells and nerve endings in the
cross-striped muscle. This action is
called nicotian, because of the
similarity with the effects of nicotine,
- The biochemical structure of
the central nervous system that has
muscarinic and nicotian receptors.
These substances do not cause
any inflammatory changes in the points
of entrance in the body and thez don’t
cause irritation of nerve endings
sensible nerves.
Volatile substances are non
polarised, with high liposolubility,
which is very well absorbed from the
mucous membranes, even through
intact skin. At these features is their
use as agents. Repeated exposure of
the organism to low doses repeatedly
in a relatively short period of time can
cause poisoning and even death.
Disorders that cause these
substances are grouped into the
following categories:
- Acetylcholine-cholinesterase
system,
- Nervous system,
- Respiratory system,
- Cardiovascular system
- Digestive system and
- Certain organs.

On the nerve endings there are
specific microscopic entities on which
delivery is made through nervous
impulses from one neuron to another
or from the nerve to the effector organ.
These structures are called synapses.
Submissions of impulses in the
synapses are made by the mediator. In
the peripheral nervous system mediator
is acetyl-choline. In the central nervous
system, there are multiple mediators,
and plays an important role of acetyl-
choline. That is, the transmission of
nerve impulses in a healthy organism
is produced by a compound acetyl-
choline. Created acetyl-choline,
influenced enzyme cholinesterase
breaks down and it stops the muscle
contractions that seemed. PCS
paralytic nerve activity is associated
with the enzyme cholinesterase,
resulting in the accumulation of acetyl-
choline. The increased amount of
acetyl-choline in the body cause
disorders that impair the normal
functioning of all organs, especially of
the respiratory and circulatory system.
In normal conditions, the effect of
acetylcholine is a millionth of a
second, and the active center of
cholinesterase in these conditions can
be hydrolyzed 300,000 molecules of
acetylcholine.
More serious forms of
poisoning have the following layout
and flow: secretion from the nose,
chest tightness, constriction of pupil
(miosis) and visual impairment-
eclipse, difficulty in breathing, fascial
muscle spasms, excessive sweating,
nausea, vomiting, uncontrolled release
of urine and diarrhea, muscle
twitching, staggering, severe headache,
confusion, drowsiness, convulsions
and death by paralysis. These
symptoms develop rapidly and death
can occur in about 10 minutes.
Code for mild poisoning or
exposure at lower concentrations, show
the following symptoms of poisoning:
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pupil constriction and impaired vision,
chest tightness and shortness of breath,
anxiety, eye pain and headaches. In
further developing the symptoms of
poisoning are severe, but in a milder
form. In the use of antidotes atropine
sulfate syringe these symptoms are
starting to lose after several hours.
When PCS neural effects of
paralytic effects on the nervous system
it can be concluded that:
- Central nervous system
stimulant react at first, and later
inhibition,
- In the pathological process all
parts of the central nervous system are
involved and
- The rate of participation of
certain parts of the nervous system in
the pathological process of distortion
and intensity of its functions is not
equal, that is the most sensitive cortex.
PCS paralytic nerve activity
and cause of disruption in the work of
the organs and glands that have smooth
muscle fibers (eye, intestines, bronchi,
gland).
It also causes disturbances in
motor nerves and muscles, a
consequence of convulsive contraction
of muscle spasms muscle fibers muscle
weakness, etc..
The immediate cause of death in the
PCS effects of neural activity is a
paralytic disorder breathing function.
Breathing disorder occurs in
the early stages of poisoning, and
under the influence of small amounts
of these substances these disorders
arise from effects of action on the
central nervous system, the peripheral
nervous system and the effector
organs.
The disorder breathing function
involved several factors:
- Bronchospasm (a conse-
quence of the effects on the structure
holino reactive bronchial broncho-
spasm may be one of the reasons for
the occurrence of death, bronchospasm
and is the main reason for the heavy
breathing and the occurrence of man
feeling of tightness in the chest),
- Respiratory center (changes
can be quantitative and qualitative
changes in the flow in two phases that
in the first short-term toxicity observed
irritation of respiratory center, which
was later reduced long-term depre-
ssion, but if you are organized enough
to resuscitate a long (2 to 3 hours) may
be established functions of breathing),
- Respiratory muscles (pois-
oning causes characteristic changes in
the muscle's breathing muscles as well;
appear jerky muscle contractions,
tremors muscle fibers, partial or
complete muscle weakness).
PCS paralytic nervous activities
also act on the cardiovascular system.
In this system, there are changes of
vascular tone and the functional state
of the heart muscle.
These substances slow the heart
rate and reduce the force of contraction
of the muscle as a result of the action
of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors
in the heart. With this disorder leads to
the disruption in the electrical
conductivity of the nervous system of
the heart.
PCS nerve paralytic causes
heavy salivation, increased secretion of
glands and increased contractions of
the stomach and intestines, which
among other things has resulted in
listless bowel movements.
A sign in the action of these
substances is miosis (constriction)
pupils. It is stable and
depending on the concentration of the
poison that has acted may last for days.
Toxic chemical type VX for its
toxic effects belonging to the group of
toxic chemicals neuro-paralytic action,
or a group of toxins that irreversibly
inhibit cholinesterase. In its chemical
structure are organophosphorus esters.
VX most toxic poisons are
toxic chemicals. From other listed
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toxic nerve agents are up to a hundred
times. Work quickly through
respiratory, skin and digestive tract.
Act as poisons and neuro-
paralytic or block cholinesterase and
cause general poisoning organism.
Symptoms of poisoning toxic
chemicals VX types are: muscle
tremors, difficulty breathing, excessive
salivation, convulsions, muscle
paralysis and death. First aid are used
as antidotes for nerve agents such.

3. Organophosphorus insecticides

Insecticidal effects of organo-
phosphorus compounds have been
known since 1935. During the
synthesis of these insecticides it was
found that in addition to insecticidal
properties are very toxic to warm-
blooded animals, especially humans.
After detection of these insecticides, it
was found that the basic mechanism of
the toxic action of the enzyme acetyl-
cholinesterase inhibition.
All insecticides of this group
share a common structure and are
considered esters of phosphoric acid or
tiono phosphoric. Thus phosphorylated
inactivated enzyme is very stable and
there is no hydrolysis and recovery of
enzyme activity depends on the
synthesis of new enzyme compounds.
The mechanism of toxic effects are a
group of general functional toxin.
Figure 1. Degradation of
acetyl-choline by ache
.
After penetration in to the
organism into the bloodstream and
maturity, uniformly transmitted to all
organs and tissues. The effect of these
compounds is based on the irreversible
inhibition of the enzyme
acetylcholinesterase (AChE).
The clinical picture of
poisoning by organophosphorus
pesticides is displayed through three
effects:
- Muscarinic effect, which is
manifested by chest pain,
coughing, shortness of breath,
pulmonary edema, diarrhea,
pupils, narrowed, blurred
vision, slow heart operations
and a drop in blood pressure,
- The effect of nicotine, which is
manifested muscle twitches,
fine muscle tremors, muscle
weakness, muscle cramps and
all
- The effect of the central
nervous system that is
manifested by dizziness,
pressure in the head,
restlessness, drowsiness,
headache, uncertainty in gait
and coma.
- Great importance in the
development of
organophosphorus insecticides
had fluorophosphates ester
synthesis (soman and sarin)
1930. Year 1935. showed
strong physiological effects of
organophosphorus compounds,
and originated the rapid
development of insecticides.
- A certain number of
organophosphorus compounds
have systematically insecticide-
effect, or when adsorbed by
plants, included in the vascular
system of the plant and insect
remains in the body.
- Organophosphorus insecticides
are usually liquid. Have high
vapor pressure and act via the
respiratory tract. Good to
dissolve in fats and penetrate
through the skin. Some
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organophosphorus insecticides
are not toxic, but only after it
became transformation in the
liver (cholinesterase inhibitor
parathion has not been
transformed into paraoxon,
which is an inhibitor).
The most important types of
organophosphorus insecticides are:
- Tionophosphorous acid esters-
tionophosphate representatives
are parathion, fenthion and
others.,
- Esters of phosphoric acid
(phosphate), representatives are
mevinfos, fosfamidin, mono-
crotophos and others.,
- Ditiofosforne acid esters
(dithiophosphate), represent-
atives are disulfon and
tiometon,
- Pirofosforne acid esters
(pyrophosphate), Represen-
tative: sulfotep,
- Esters of phosphorus acid
(phosphonates), Represen-
tative trihlorfon.
USE OF atropine sulfate
poisoning organophosphorus
compounds
Atropine Sulfate is a tool
without which it is impossible to
imagine a first-aid and treatment of
people poisoned by organophosphorus
compounds. Clinical experience has
shown that the organism is poisoned
with organophosphorus compounds,
tolerated doses of atropine'' enormous,
and in the first hour after adminis-
tration and in the later stages of
treatment.

Tab. (2) Average dose of atropine required for effective treatment of different
stages of acute poisoning
Stage of
poisoning
Oral
atropisation
in first hour
(mg)
Atropisation
maintainance
In next three
days since
poisoning
(daily dose
in mg)
Easy 2-3 4-5
Medium -
Heavy
20-25 30-50
Heavy 30-50 100-150

Atropine sulfate in large doses
effectively antagonises the muscarine-
like manifestations of poisoning in the
periphery and partly in the central
nervous system. Relatively ineffective
against the actions of the mediators in
the autonomic ganglia and has no
effect on muscle weakness.
Pharmacologically speaking, atropine
sulfate acts by blocking muscarinic
receptors, making them, in effect''
insensitive to acetylcholine.
Therapeutic effects of the
substance can be explained in two
ways:
First Reactivation of inhibited
cholinesterase allows the enzyme to
exhibit the physiological function of
acetylcholine degradation accumul-
ated,
Second Creating complex
reactivators-venom in most cases
makes the poison harmless and allows
the organism to various metabolic
processes release toxins.
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It is theoretically possible that
every person, regardless of clinical
form of poisoning be saved by
appropriate treatment. However there
are the following problems that can
occur:
-Presence of the treatments in
the immediate vicinity and in sufficient
quantity,
-Vocational training to provide
therapy
-Evaluation of dose in relation
to the image of poisoning and others.
No matter whether you are a
first aid or treatment is necessary:
-Break contact between the
toxin and the man,
-Immediately inject 2mg
atropine sulfate intramuscularly with
autoinjectors or Syringe,
-Repeated injection of atropine
sulfate every 3 to 10 minutes until the
occurrence of signs atropisation,
-If there are conditions,
atropine sulfate may be injected and
intravenously.

On the first day of treatment,
especially in severe poisoning, it is
necessary to use up to 50 mg of
atropine sulfate. Easy to maintain a
degree of atropisation giving oral
atropine sulfate (1 to 2 mg) in
appropriate intervals, and as long as
there is any symptom of poisoning.
When there are signs of marked
disturbance of pulmonary ventilation
and the patient shows signs of
cyanosis, artificial respiration should
be given to the disappearance of these
symptoms, and then access the
injection of atropine sulfate. Injection
of atropine sulfate during cyanosis is
contraindicated, as administration of
atropine sulfate in a state of anoxia can
cause fibrillation cardiac chambers.
To remove a local disturbance
in the eyes-miosis, it is necessary to
instill atropine 1% solution.

Conclusion

Organophosphorus compounds
are highly toxic substances and only
some natural toxins, such as botulinum
toxin, is more toxic of these toxins.
Synthesized over a thousand
different organophosphorus comp-
ounds, in addition to soman, sarin and
tabun, and there are several extremely
toxic.
These substances are most
toxic substances from the family of
synthetic poisons. They act very
quickly, and in high concentrations
rapidly.
These compounds are inhibitors
or blocking or decreasing the activity
of cholinesterase in the human body.
Except as may be used in the
composition of chemical weapons,
many of the family of compounds that
are less toxic and are used as
insecticides. These compounds have a
cumulative effect. First aid and
medical treatment can be carried
through atropine sulfate.

5. References

1. Bunevski R.: Military Toxicology,
CVTŠ Zagreb (1984)
2. Daničić M., PetkovićM., Mechanism
of action of organophosphorus
compounds, Bulletin ŠC NBC-7,
Krusevac (2001)
3. Dreisbach RH: Poisoning, diagnosis
and treatment, administration of
modern Belgrade (1980)
4. HPRang, MMDA, JMRitter,
PKMoore: Pharmacology, data status,
Belgrade (2005)
5. JovićR., W Djarmati., JovićN.:
Pesticides, chemistry, toxicology and
application protection IRO Belgrade
(1988)
6. M. Milosevic, S. Vitorović:
Fundamentals of toxicology with
elements of ecotoxicology, Scientific
Book, Belgrade (1992)
7. Soldatović D. et al: Toxicology of
pesticides with analytics, Economic
Survey, Belgrade (1980)
8. Vojvodić V.: Toxicology of poison
gases, Viz, Belgrade (1981)
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HARMFUL EFFECTS AND MONI TORING OF NOISE
Mladen D. Nikolić, dipl. ing. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

PhD Dragan M. Nikolić, prof. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
dragannikolic60@yahoo.com

MSc Fortuna Dragutin, College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia

Abstract. High noise levels can contribute to
different health problems. This paper shows the results
of monitoring of noise in urban enviroment. Fonometer
has been used for measuring. The measurements were
made on five different places. The measurements were
made at day, dusk and at night. Five measurements
were made at each site. The results shows that the
noise level at certain sites is higher than allowed (by 20
dB). In order to minimize noise level some counter
measures has to be done.
Key words: noise, fonometer, monitoring,
traffic, measuring sites.

1. Introduction

Noise is every unwanted sound. that
means that every sound effect (roistering,
murmur…) that disrupts work or reposing can
be represented as noise. To make a sound
called noise it needs to be lound enough,
different that other sounds in that moment.
In basics, we can define two types of
noise, by its source: noise of natural sources,
and manmade noise.
Noise in urban enviroment can be
partitioned on noise in working enviroment
and noise in living enviroment.
Effects of noise can be partitioned on
auditory, extraauditory, and psychogenic. By
frequency characteristics it can be partitioned
on: the effects of audible noise spectrum,
infra sound, ultrasound and vibration effects.
It should be noted that man does not
permit either absolute silence, what is the
example of a completely isolated chambers.
Then the noise of the body, such as: heart
rate, respiration, digestion and blood flow
becomes very loud and unpleasant.
When background noise of over 60 dB
and 80 dB above particular note is the
relatively rapid increase in symptoms of
sympathetic tone, that the increased intensity
becomes very pronounced and occur in a
short time after the beginning of exposure.
The aforementioned effect is manifested in
blood pressure increase, decrease stroke
volume of the heart and reduces peripheral
blood circulation. Changes in breathing,
changes in bowel movements, changing the
function of the central nervous system and
overall metabolism. And endocrine
disturbances occur, expressed in particular in
release of adrenal glands, pancreas then, and
pituitary. All this is accompanied by fatigue,
irritability, insomnia and vegetative
disturbances of various degrees.


Fig.1. Noise levels from various sources 1

Noise sources can vary, some sources
which can create a certain level of noise is
shown in Figure (1). For communal
environment of particular importance is the
noise generated by the internal combustion
engine and of traffic.

2. Aim and methods

The aim of this study was to measure
the value of noise in the urban environment.
The measured values are compared to the
allowable noise levels.
Noise measurement was conducted in
the city of Krusevac. Noise measurement was
performed on five measuring points: Fountain
Square, the United Nations Settlement,
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Bagdala Park, Pools - Sports Centre Lazarica-
direction to Kraljevo, and the results are
compared to the allowable noise levels.
To measure the noise level
Phonometer was used. Dynamic range of
sound level meters from 26 dB to 140 dB,
thus providing noise monitoring on the widest
range.


FIGURE 2. PHONOMETERS 1

Terms noise measurements are shown in Table. (1)
Day period
from 06:00 am to 06:00 pm
Dusk period 06:00pm to
10:00pm
Night period
10:00 pm to -
06:00 am
I
Measurement
II
Measurement
III
Measurement
IV
Measurement
V Measurement
09-11:00 am 12:00 am 02:00 pm
08:00 pm
10:00 pm
10:00 pm
00:00
00:00
06:00 am
Table 1. Terms of measurement


3. Measuring sites

Municipal noise measurements
were made at five stations. During
measurement followed by the number
of vehicles that have passed since the
noise is mainly caused by traffic.
1. Trg Fontana, measurements
were carried out in addition to the
memorial monuments and fountains
surrounded by two very busy streets. In
the vicinity of the building, and the
noise of the traffic originates.
2. United Nations settlement,
3.Park Bagdala, the
measurement was carried out in the
park, which is surrounded on three
sides by roads. Noise originates from
traffic from neighboring areas and
activities catering object.
4. Bazeni - Sports Centre, noise
originates mainly from traffic. The
street is lined with one-story and multi-
story buildings with shops for different
purposes.




5. Lazarica-time in Kraljevo, the noise
comes from the traffic. The street is
lined with single-storey and single-
storey building with shops for different
purposes.

4. The results

The measurement and allowed
noise levels are shown in Table (2):
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Measurin
g
site
(average
No of
vehicles
light/hev
y hourly )


I
Measurement
( day )


II
Measureme
nt
(day)


III
Measurement
(night)


Allow
ed
level
of
noise


IV
Measur
ement

(night)


V
Measur
ement

(night)


Allowed
level of
noise
1. Square
Fontana
1052/36

65

62

63

65 dB

60

56

55 dB
2.
Settlemen
t UN
64/10

46

47

46

55 dB

48

42

45 dB
3. Park
Bagdala
48/6

60

48

53

50 dB

60

54

40 dB
4. Pool
center

443/11

63

64

62

60 dB

65

53

50 dB
5.
Lazarica-
road to
Kraljevo
562/42

69

70

70

55 dB

64

64

45 dB
Table 2. The results of the noise measurements

5. Discusion


Measuring point no 1. Fountain
Square.
Exceeding the noise level
during the day was 3dB, 2dB during
the evening were exceeded, and at
night it was overrun by 5 dB. During
the measurements it was found that the
communal noise has uncontinual flow
and that largely comes from traffic.
The average number of vehicles on the
measuring site was easy/tough vehicles
1052/36.
Measuring point no.2 United
Nations settlement .
Exceeding the noise level
during the day and the evening was not
until overdraft for the night was 3 dB.
During the measurements it was found
that the utility uncountinued flow noise
and largely comes from traffic. The
average number of vehicles easy/tough
vehicles 64/10 .
Measuring point No. 3.
Bagdala Park.
Of exceeding the noise level
during the day it was up to 7 dB, for an
evening of up to 5 dB, while the night
was exceeded by up to 20 dB. During
the measurements it was found that the
noise has uncountinued character and
is mainly derived from the vehicle in
park and the activities of the citizens
especially during the night. The
average number of vehicles was an
easy 48/6 heavy in one hour.
Measuring point No. 4. Pools-
Sport center. Exceeding the noise level
during the day it is up to 2 dB, to 5 in
the evening and during the night dB to
15 dB. During the measurements it was
found that utility for continuous flow
and noise that comes from traffic. The
average number of vehicles easy/tough
vehicles 443/11 .
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Measuring point # 5. Lazarica
road to Kraljevo. Exceeding the noise
level during the day was up to 15 dB
during the night to 15 dB, and at night
to 19 dB. During the measurements it
was found that the utility for
continuous flow noise and is mainly
derived from traffic. The average
number of vehicles was an easy 562/42
on a heavy vehicles per hour.

6. Proposal measures

-Divert heavy vehicles on the
roads around the city, or the
prohibition of heavy vehicle traffic
through the city zone,
- Control of noise emitted by
motor vehicle technical control in
everyday traffic
- Automatic traffic control and
synchronization of traffic lights at
some junctions
Introduction-timers at traffic
lights that last longer than one min,
especially at intersections with major
significance,
- Planning and setting up of
green shelterbelts and plantations of
different scheduling multistory tree,
shrub species, Linden, Berlin poplar,
oak, hornbeam, Canadian poplar, birch
and evergreen shrubs along the roads
of traffic in order to reduce noise
pollution.

7. Conclusion

The measuring cycle, noise
pollution at the observed locations
were significantly higher for the day,
but for the night before all the sites, all
located in a residential zone.
The noise in the middle of the
utility derived from the observed
counts of transport (public transport
buses, heavy trucks, light vehicles)
especially on the observed counts,
which are actually the main traffic
routes.
Measured values of noise
pollution, exceeded especially at night,
may adversely affect the relaxation and
general health of the people in
particular how their effects for
continuous characters.
Noise problem that is
increasingly present in the human
living and working environment,
achieves gradual culmination. It is
sufficient to note that hearing loss by
noise are present in the most visible
problem occupational pathology.
When we add the other, non auditory
effects of noise on humans, it is clear
what are the possible repercussions of
pollution of our environment by noise.
Do not forget to follow the noise and
vibration, and ultrasound and
infrasound who can not be heard, but
they have a harmful effect on humans
which is why this whole issue even
more.

Reference

1. Preobraženski N.A.: Tugouhost,
,,Medicine’’ Moskva 1978.
2. Schulltz T. J. Communiti Noise
ratings, Applied Science Publishers, London
1972.
3. Simonović M., Kalić D., Pravica P.:
Buka štetna dejstva merenje i zaštita, Niš
1982.
4. Simonović M.: Zvuk i vibracije,
Buka, <<medicina rada, Sarajevo 1978.
5. Vaičić I.: Buka i njeno štetno dejstvo.
Institut zaštite na radu, Niš
6. Yost W. A, Nielsen D. W.:
Fundamentls of Hearing, Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, New York 1979.
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METHODS FOR ECOLOGICAL DESING OF TECHNICAL
PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS
Slobodan Stefanović
1
, Nadezda Šubara
2
, Radoje Cvejić
3
, Jasmina Stojiljković
4

College of Applied Professional Studies, Vranje,
2
Railway High School, Belgrade,
3
Faculty of strategic and
operational management, Belgrade, Serbia

Abstract: The basic concept (the default), the
designer in design for manufacturing system is to
integrate production equipment, transport means,
equipment and harmonious introducing modern
technology for monitoring systems and processes to
integrate and manage computer equipment. The main
technological machine projects must meet both general
and mechanical conditions.
Key words: technical - mechanical projects,
health and safety, plastic returnable materials.

1. INTRODUCTION
General conditions in the major
mechanical and machine projects regulate
relationships and responsibilities of
participants in the implementation
(construction) of technological systems:
- Assignment of works based on the law
on the construction of the facility and its
amendments,
- Conclusion of the contract between
the investor and the contractor,
- All bidders receive a project for
review,
- The offer must be included in the
price,
- The investor assigns work best
bidders,
- The contract is considered concluded
when the parties declare in writing to build
the plant and the price (cost, time, quality,
method of payment, control ...),
- A natural person who works and
manages a natural person for supervision,
- Deviations from the project permitted
only with approval of planners,
- Building permits and water + energy,
- The warranty period for the quality of
the installation (run from the technical
preparations),
- Defects,
- Damages,
- Material that is installed must be new
and of good quality,
- For smooth functioning of the system
is responsible contractor,
- In the event that the proposed solution
to a bad and wrong, the investor provides the
change project,
- The estimate of the subsequent works,
Attest, security measures, leading to
construction and building log book,
- Must be carried out technical
acceptance,
- There must be a project as built in
three copies,
- The face of the supervision provided
by the investor,
- The contractor is responsible only
supervisory authority,
- Testing the contractor shall,
- A completed examination consists of
the records,
- End: The contractor shall submit a
written report to the supervisory authority of
the completion of works,
- Technical examination (complete
documentation),
- Commission for technical inspection
of its opinion,
- Contractor removes the shortcomings
found,
- Permission to use a supervisory
authority,
- Probationary,
- The investor and the contractor after
obtaining permission to use the facility are
required to perform the statutory deadline and
hand over the final settlement of all derivative
works.


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2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
RELATING TO THE SPECIFIC PROJECT

Prescribe the characteristics of the
equipment is installed, installation
requirements, type testing and installation,
etc.
The practices are:
- Technical requirements for the
installation of central heating
- Technical requirements for the
installation of air conditioning and ventilation
- General technical requirements
- Specifications
- Technical requirements for city gas
pipeline network
- Requirements for construction works
- Technical conditions of construction
of city gas pipeline network of steel pipes
- Technical conditions of construction
measuring and regulating stations for gas
- Specification for general piping
installation
- Technical requirements for the
installation of a divorce cold, producing hot
water and hot
- Technical installations for divorce by
conditions komprimanovog air

3. CONTRIBUTION OF THE PROJECT
APPLIED SAFETY MEASURES

Protection Act at work relates to the
field of labor relations, environmental
protection, personal work, etc. The concept of
safety includes appropriate measures whose
implementation ensures the protection of life
and health at work, the working environment
of health and safety risks.
ZNR enjoy all persons who are in any
respect the legal and physical entities.
Provision of ZNR is an obligation, which can
be realized starting from the design of the
building, facilities and installations, through
their construction and use.
The prescribed measures to protect the
dignitary included in the technical
documentation and made it into the special
favor of the measures applied ZNR.
Safety measures can be classified into
three groups:
- General - the ones that apply to all
assignments in all business activities (health
conditions, noise and vibration,
transportation, movement of workers, the
effect of electrical energy, damaging
radiation, hazardous and noxious substances,
first aid worker, investment structures, tools
to work, rescue workers and resources for
personal protection ...)
- Special measures ZNR - determine for
specific types of technological processes and
operations that can be considered general. The
positions at which the next application of
safety measures during design, construction
and use of buildings can’t eliminate the risk
of injury and occupational disease having the
character of places with special conditions for
work.
- Preliminary measures ZNR - relate to
investment structures designed to support and
work rooms, facilities where the investment
process work takes place outdoors (tools for
working in the mechanized plant), as well as
means for personal protection.
The special contribution of the project
measures to protect the work, made for each
type of project (building - architectural,
machine - technological, electrical ...) and
signed by the responsible planners for each
area. Each contribution should include:-a list
of all the risks and hazards related to the
purpose facility that can occur during
construction and operation - provides for
measures to eliminate these dangers and
hazards, and regulations that cause - general
notes and obligations - Conclusion.
In addition to special reports on health
and safety, the project may include a special
report on the measures applied to protect
against fire, if there is a special nature of the
technological process of an increased risk of
having stirred up.
The fire protection measures include:
ways to prevent the occurrence of fires, fire
alarm systems, fire alarm systems for
hazardous concentrations of flammable gases
or vapors, fire hydrant systems to protect
against the cellular anti-fire equipment.

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4. METHODS OF DESIGNING
TECHNOLOGICAL – ECOLOGICAL
SYSTEMS FOR THE TREATMENT OF
RETURNABLE PLASTIC MATERIJALS

The term'' plastic'' refers to the
specific properties of matter plasticity - the
ability to create. In many languages,
commonly referred to as'' artificial'' material,
but also the nature of plastics products (peat,
tar, natural rubber, etc.) Plastic can be
obtained from many natural materials and
most of the hydrocarbons. One tenth of
refined crude is used for the production of
plastic materials. Plastic materials are used for
years for packaging, although a problem in
terms of environmental protection. The
reasons for increasing the use of low cost raw
materials, low weight and different
possibilities of technology. The specific
energy consumption (per unit of packed
product) is much lower for the production of
plastic packaging materials, as compared to
glass or Aluminum.
The basic problem of feedback plastic
materials (plastic waste) is that most often
ends up on landfill disposal (often due to
human impact and other external influences).
Dumps a large number of cities in developed
countries practically are completed and new
ones (due to high prices) does not build the
right speed.
For plastic packaging waste, this
waste is removed with a way particularly
unfavorable due to taking a large space (large
volume), non-compostable under the
influence of atmospherically changes,
especially from the standpoint of energy loss
(indefinitely) for obtaining new materials
related to polymers. In our country there are
no conditions for the collection, sorting and
efficient processing of plastic waste.
Theoretically, from the ecological standpoint,
it is not wrong use of synthetic materials, with
regard to plastic bags and other products can
be used several times, and it is feasible and
recycling. In current conditions, however, and
organized recycling of plastic materials, waste
collection and disposal of prescribed, plastics
can’t be regarded as neutral for the
environment.
Synthetic materials are separated in
the thermoplastic (soften at high
temperatures, thermostable plastics) resistant
to high temperatures (with an increase in heat
curing) and elastomers, which are elastic and
Foamed materials (like rubber). All three
types of synthetic material combustion,
developing high temperature and this feature
can be applied for recycling, with caution
when burning PVC, must not allow spreading
through the chlorides. (Come) into the
atmosphere. From the ecological point of
view, recycling of synthetic materials is
acceptable, since it can’t be re-used even hard
plastic bottles.
Another solution is to replace PVC
with PET (PETE) - unipolimer plastic, which
could be recycled indefinitely if the organized
collection of used mass. To produce one
(PET) bottles must be 60% of energy used in
glass or 25% of the energy needed to
manufacture aluminum cans. These economic
initiative are significant from the standpoint
of what the empty bottle can produce goods
for other purposes, e.g. in the U.S. are made
from recycled bottles for cable insulation,
new bottles, foil, etc.
Plastics used in the household (since
they are not naturally degradable) require the
research and solutions for natural
disintegration in a manner similar to the
degradation of other organic matter. The latest
experiments are built out of plastic bags of
natural sugar (bio-degradable and are
degraded to a purely natural way
bacteriologically). This solution is still in
research phase, I expect good results and
extensive application. This could be the
primary way of utilization of waste plastic,
and a secondary combustion. Synthetics from
natural, renewable sources appears again in
some products in construction. Their basis is
not a hydrocarbon, but the natural materials as
well as jazein, formalin, cellulose, natural
rubber, natural asphalt, tar or bitumen. They
can be regarded as renewable materials and
plastic products are not harmful to the
environment. Hydrocarbons with time will
surely expensive (impoverishment of stock)
and researchers are new natural resources.
Until then you can use the environmental
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benefits of synthetics such as good thermal
insulation, light weight and durability for
which they can’t compete with traditional
materials. Green plan favors simple recycled
materials that have special properties, but
with a compromise between the possible
environmental damage and safe use.
Products from plastic materials are of
current use, but creates long-term problem for
the environment. Amount of plastic materials
in municipal waste are very great, the
CONSIDERATIONS Liquid from households
account for 30%. Since the plastic is not
dissolved and remains as a solid mass,
increases the amount and volume of waste.
(PVC) is made up of many plastic materials,
obtained by the polymerization of vinyl
chloride, which is a toxic gas and the toxicity
is very problematic. From vinyl chloride
plastics are slowly released into the air and
sealed in food, and slowly destroys the liver,
nervous system and totally destroys the testes
and immunity. Because of the toxic additives
such as phthalate (Phthalate) lead and
kadminum (PVC) are difficult to recycle. If a
ignite 1kg (PVC)-A mass, relieve the amount
of 0.5kg chloro acid.
PC polycarbonate plastics used to
manufacture bottles for child nutrition,
kitchen, microwave ovens, the inner lining
cans and plastic polytetraflourethylene
(PTFE), known as taflon are toxic polymers.
Unfortunately, the desire for profit in the
market enabled the development of some new
types of polymers. The only question is when
will the time be scientifically proven and
discover that the toxic elements from the
packaging into the water crossing.
Plastic bottles in Serbia, although the
light cover even 30% is the decay lifetime
longer than 100 years. And there are
allegations of large profits from the so-called
(so called), PET (PETE) packaging
(polyethylene terephthalate), but for us, these
problems are still not considered. (Unlike
other European states and known standards).
It is believed that only make the plastic
bottles because of the large volume and that
does not pollute the environment. The data
show that only registered Serbia wastes (other
locations are not considered) daily amount of
PET bottles - 100 tons! If all this division
with 50 grams of weight which is the bottle,
get the information that we have a daily two
million plastic bottles. The biggest problem in
Serbia is an organized collection of reuse PET
bottles. In 2005 we imported the 34.000
.
tons
of granulate for PET bottles as part of
municipal waste occupy a large volume of our
landfills.
The biggest problems occur if there is
burning, where the stand is very toxic gases.
Preventive methods are implemented projects
and recycling facilities in order to protect eco-
systems and irreplaceable economic effects.
Discarded bottles are a major problem of our
rivers. Going to the hydro power plant at the
Danube Kalda inflict huge amounts of PET
bottles.
Plastic bottles, containers and other
packaging are one of the oldest and most fully
realized systems for labeling. Although the
world uses more system identification, one
can say that they all generally based on the
standard (ISO 1043 -1) with small
modifications to the look and it is given in the
table 1.
Symbols are important users of dual
indicating whether packaging can be recycled,
recyclers and the type and characteristics
plastic matter.











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Table 1. Symbol and meaning
Symbol
Meaning

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PETE)
The most widespread species of plastic material because they are mostly
used for the bottle of water, juice, and etc., containers for food and other
packaging.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Used for a bottle of milk, cream, juice, water, detergent and other
chemical products.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Also used for bottles for detergents, shampoos and other chemical
preparates, cables and many other building material.

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Used for flexible bottles, bags for bread, and frozen food.

Polypropylene (PP)
Aloes used for the bottles of yogurt, syrups, ketchup, medical bottles,
and cap for a bottle

Polystyrene (PS)
We can use it for a tightly packking, plates, glasses, and medicines
boxes.

Other
Plastic packaging and other (mention above) - specified products.

Draft Law on the management of
packaging and packaging waste defines the
processing of packaging waste as well as
exploiting its valuable properties and
constituents for the purpose of production
(including recycling), for energy purposes, in
order to reduce the amount and volume of
packaging waste, and partial or complete
removal and recycling of hazardous
characteristics as processing of packaging
waste for its original purpose.
According to the Directive of the
European Parliament and the Council on
packaging and packaging waste by recycling
means:
 processing of waste materials in the
production process for the original
purpose or for other purposes
including organic recycling but
excluding energy recovery,
 obtain energy by using burnt
packaging waste for the purpose of
producing energy through direct
incineration (burning) with or without
other waste for obtaining heat and
 organic recycling process as aerobic
(composting) or anaerobic
(biomethanisation), under control
cconditions and using micro-
organisms, biodegradable parts of
packaging waste, which produces a
stable composition of organic or
methane.
 recycling of technical products is
defined as "re-use or use of products
or parts of products within
the roundabouts. "This definition was
first mentioned as a roundabout and it
makes sense considering the origin of
the word recycling, (recycling: re ..."...
back, back ..." + cycle "roundabout,
cycle").


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5. DESING PROCESS FOR RECYCLING
PLASTIC METERIALS

Plastic materials back into solid form
mixed with other types of materials in
municipal solid waste (heterogeneous) were
very dirty. For the purpose of recycling, it is
necessary to collect and prepare. In the
preparation, plastic waste is separated from
the other, identify and separate the species. In
the recycling process is crushed, washed,
dried and re granulate processed and the
packaging or in some other products. To
perform these operations require specific
equipment, obtaining a set of recycled
materials. It was found that the whole process
of treatment was less expensive and simpler if
the plastic waste material collected by a
separate, containers. Allocation of necessary
materials from the waste can be organized in
or by the citizens themselves (in households,
schools, shops, non-manufacturing
businesses, streets, etc..).
And centralized system of special
plants (plants with a complete technological
line).

6. DIFFERENTIATING FEEDBACK
PLASTIC MATERIALS

The recycling process is the most
important similarity material. As a rule, can
be achieved relatively expensive previous
classification. To obtain high-quality plastics,
should be processed only homogeneous
plastic mass. Separation of plastic materials
can be divided into identification and
separation:
IDENTIFICATION, characterization
and complete identification of plastic
materials is a very big task that requires
complex analytical procedures and the most
modern equipment. In some cases, however, it
takes only an approximate estimate or
determines the type of the tested plastic
material. Developed and adopted a simple and
rapid method of identification. Recognition of
used packaging polymer is easiest if it is the
symbol for recycling with the listed types of
polymer materials it is made.
SEPARATION sorted plastics and
crushed plastic material is performed
according to him caused by physical
properties such as density, connectivity, and
electrical conductivity.
For the industry are of particular
importance to the procedures based on
differences in density. Using these procedures
can be a mixture of plastics separated
fractions and up to 98% purity. Difficulties
arise in the separation of soft (PVC) type.
Principle hydrocyclone technique is based on
the separation of fractions of different specific
weight (density) in the action of centrifugal
force. In addition to these methods of
separation are known methods of separation
and flotation, separation based on different
electrical conductivity (electrostatic device
for sorting), etc.
Used plastic products can be reused or
processed by different processes (depending
on the goal, but also because of the reduction
of the deposited mass) and a number of ways
(see Figure 1:
- melting, with no change or
little change macromolecular structures,
- chemical, hydrolysis and
alcohol are available monomers, or
hydrogenation of the starting material can get
organic raw materials such as gases and oils,
- controlled burning, from which
you get heat and combustion products are
carbon dioxide (CO
2
) and water (H
2
O).
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Picture 1: Treatments of plastics feedback matters.

Processing of fusion. Re granular
molding is one of the oldest and most
common methods of recycling. The basis of
this method of recycling is the ability to re-
melt as much as possible with the
thermoplastic.

7. CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
ARE GROUPED INTO TWU GROUPS

The first group of chemical treatment
processes include chemical reactions which
are macromolecular (polymers) are translated
into low molecular weight substances. Thus,
the obtained polymers or poly condensation
reactions poly addition method to recycle the
starting monomer in the presence of certain
reagents. This way you can recycle many
types of plastic materials such as polyesters,
polyamides, polyurethanes, polycarbonates,
etc. Because they have the active chemical
and easily shared connection. These processes
can be characterized general notion of
solvolysis. Depending on the presence of any
solvent to the reaction (alcohol, water...)
speaks of the hydrolysis, alcoholysis,
glycolysis, aminolysis or methanolysis.
Application of recycled materials
obtained by this procedure so far is still
limited. It is a known application procedure
methanolysis or glycolysis in the processing
of drinking bottles of PET. This procedure to
obtain raw materials for hygienically clean
PET and PUR, which can be used for
packaging of foodstuffs.
Another group of chemical treatment
processes include chemical reactions in which
the macromolecules containing the plastic
waste hydrocarbons can be obtained in the
form of gas or oil, which can be further,
processed in refineries petrochemical
processes. This set of procedures can be
performed reductive (e.g. Hydrogenation or
pyrolysis) or oxidative (e.g. Obtaining
synthesis gas) mode. These procedures are
known as extrusion Degradation,
hydrogenation, pyrolysis and gasification.
Incineration of plastic waste is
intended to obtain heat. Direct use of oil for
energy production from the point of
"sustainable development" in the long run,
does not make sense. Given that the products
stored in plastic virtually total energy of oil,
of great benefits that the energy accumulated
oil in plastic products used for energy
purposes, but only at the end of their life
cycle. This method of using plastic waste
should be applied only when it cannot be
recycled in other ways.
Deposition. Since plastics are
relatively new materials for a longer period of
deposit are present many unknowns.
In foil and thin parts are already
processes of decomposition, but did not show
visible degradation phenomena. Found, also,
that microorganisms do not have any
influence on the decomposition of certain
types of plastic materials such as PP
(polypropylene) and PE (polyethylene), while
in other species, e.g. with polystyrene or
polyurethane they sped up the process of
decomposition.


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8. CONCLUSION

Plastic materials with other waste, in
the present conditions of our development,
shall be deposited in landfills for municipal
solid waste. It can be assumed that due to the
decreasing space in the rapidly growing costs
of future deposits and to present solutions for
the disposal of waste will not be able to keep.
It should be noted that the plastic materials in
regulated landfills polluting the smallest
streams (not dissolved in water) and do not
pollute the air.
In contrast to materials whose
recycling is done for economic reasons since
ancient times, recycling of plastic materials is
technologically and economically
problematic, and in some areas is the subject
of intense research. What is the procedure of
processing to be applied, depending on the
degree of dirt and sorted waste and the
desired end product quality?
Processing of material melting process
of the same type and pure plastic waste can be
obtained recycles quality selection that can be
used as a replacement for the original raw
material, the same or similar quality. Such
waste is generated in the production of plastic
materials and production of the packaging.
Waste materials from household’s
characterized heterogenetic, and depending on
the system of collecting, plastic materials
contamination. Processing costs for a high
value product, beyond the cost of new
materials.
Technological solutions for processing
mixed plastic waste were found (typically not
sorted because of the demanding and
expensive process of sorting and the lack of
separation conducted by the consumer).
However, the resulting recycles are lower
quality and the market cannot compete with
new material (and current production facilities
are ready to expand its product portfolio and
based on recycled materials).
The advantages of chemical treatment
are the possibility of processing mixed plastic
waste (often dirty), the saving of fossil fuel
supply with the market for products, but
currently high price does not cover the cost of
recycling.
Processing procedures are considered
one of the ways with which it can
significantly alleviate a serious environmental
problem, but only if it becomes profitable and
industrial activity.

REFERENCE

1. N. Subara: "Ecology in traffic," CIP 502.17:656
628.2/.3 66 074 COBISS. SR-SR-ID 134317836
ISBN 86-7307-190-9 "Želnid" Belgrade, 2006.
2. N. Subara, S. Stefanovic: Green logistics,
TEHDIS, Belgrade, 2008.
3. N. Subara, S. Stefanovic: Traffic Ecology,
Society for Energy Efficiency, Banja Luka,
Serbian Republic, 2008.
4. S. Stefanovic, R. Cvejic: Environmental
Management, TQM Center, Zrenjanin, 2009.
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ANALYSIS OF MONITORING OF CONNECTION BETWEEN
REENGINEERING ECONOMIC PARAMETERS IN SMALL AND
MEDIUM ENTERPRISES USING THE METHOD OF CREATING
OPTIMAL QUESTIONNAIRE
1
Slobodan Stefanović,
2
Dragoslav Ilić,
3
Nataša Bogavac-Cvetković,
4
Radica Pavlović

1
High School of Applied Professional Studies of Vranje, Serbia. slobodanstef@gmail.com

2
JKP "Water" Zajecar, Serbia. dragoslav.dragi@gmail.com

3
Faculty for Business Studies, Belgrade, Serbia. ncvetkovic@megatrend.edu.rs

4
Faculty for Business Studies, Požarevac, Serbia. rpavlovic@megatrend.edu.rs


Abstract - The analysis of this type of
connecting economic parameters by using re-
engineering is reflected through the formation of an
Optimal questionnaire
o
G which allows connecting
the N parameters by the question of connection
between , ¿
e
= ¿
e L l
l
h
M m
m
q with the basis
m
a and
value
l
c so the divergence stem of economic effects
with the root
o
x is as follows :
( ) 1 1 + ÷ ¿
e
=
m
a X
M m
m
q N , and their peaks are
arranged into a descending set in terms of their
ranks.
Key words: Questionnaire algorithm ,
Questionnaire Graph,parameters of reengineering
monitoring.

1. Introduction – qestionnaire algorithm

The publication of this kind of
questionnaire can be presented through Algorithm
(George WR (1990)).
Algorithm: A questionnaire has been
given regarding the connection between re-
engineering economic parameters G
differentiating set E from N economic
parameters
i
y with the weights of connection
( ) N i
i
y p ,..., 3 , 2 , 1 , = , the help of Q questions
imposing when it comes to their connection
where the questions
m
q have the bases
( ) M m
m
a e , i
l
h questions have the values
( ) L l
l
c e ,

i (Adamović Z., Stefanović S., (2008)).
The transformation of the initial questionnaire on
the connection between economic parameters of
re-engineering G should be transformed into an
optimal questionnaire
o
G .
1. Two lists are formed using the weight of
economic parameters and bases and values of
the questions from the questionnaire on the
connection of parameters G
, being
: list 1 –
weights ( ) ( ) , ,.. 2 , 1 ,
1
N k
k
z p
k
z p =
+
s and list 2 – a
pair of bases and values of connection
questions ( )
j
c
j
a , where the bases are
arranged into a non-descending set
( ) ( ) , ,.. 2 , 1 ,
1
N j
j
a
j
a =
+
s and the values in the
ascending set are ( ) ( ) . ,.. 2 , 1 ,
1
Q j
j
c
j
c =
+
> For
the analysis we usually accept j+1.
2. The pair 2 ( )
j
c
j
a , from the list refers to the
questions of connection beween economic
parameters
i
x of the optimal questionnaire
o
G , i.e., it is regarded as follows: ( )
j
a
j
x a = i
( )
j
c
j
x c = .
j
a of the first weights are erased
from the list 1 and are accepted as the weights
of the first adherents of the questions of
connection between economic parameters
j
x .
Defining the weight of the questions of
connection
j
x is: ( ) ( ).
1
k
z
j
a
k
p
j
x p ¿
=
=
3. List 1 is modified, keeping the unerased
weights in it and including the question
weight ( ).
j
x p Those weights are arranged into
a non-descending set. They check the
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accurateness of j: in case of Q j s , then they
increase j to 1 and return to p2; in case of
Q j > then they cross over to p4.
4. The finishing of the optimal questionnaire
o
G
formation.
The presented methodology for the
analysis of the connection between the re-
engineering economic parameters shall be carried
out on the re-engineering model. The general
algorithm model shall be formed on the basis of
economic parameters of groups 1,2,3. It shall
serve as the initial questionnaire on the
connection between re-engineering economic
parameters G . For its formation we shall use the
groups of parameters with weight records,
determined on the grounds of the significance in
the following table, and they shall include their
values from 0 to 1 regarding the significancies in
the process of re-engineering in the candidate's
opinion (Bateson J (2002)).
Questionnaires
i
G are presented in Table
1 for the three parameters of the groups:
( )
2 1 0 1
, , x x x x , ( )
3 2
x x , ( )
4 3
x x for 24 events
( )
24 2 1
,...... , y y y . The events' and questions'
weights are shown parallelly with the
corresponding peaks, numbers without brackets,
and questions' values with numbers in brackets
(picture 1.). The events' values were chosen
regarding the priorities of re-engineering
parameters' significancies in the order shown in
Table 1., while the candidate himself has
suggested the significancies' values based on his
experience gained while monitoring the re-
engineering process in small and medium
enterprises in our country (Bonn MA (2003)).

2. Group of algorithm

Group 1) The first and third type in Table
1. are comprised by: Total expenses
¿
=
5
1 ts bifore.cos i
UKN arising in the course of applying
the research subject and are defined as the bearers
of economic parameters in the carrying out of the
re-engineering, are expressed by the adding up of
parameters (Sefanović S., (2010)),

( )+ = = ¿
=
NP
NEE
NO
NEE
i
UKN
5
1
ts bifore.cos NP
NEE +
SP
NEE +
PR
NEE +
PP
NEE +
NSR
NEE . (1)

The marks of this group of parameters are:
economic parameters created by the completion
and documenting of the detailed re-engineering
project comprising of: a new organisation model
in the enterprise as well as the characteristics and
roles of new jobs within that new organization;
/parameter
NP
NEE
NO
NEE = ,
NO
NEE - parameter
of the economic effect bearer relating to the new
organization model and it exclusively depends on
NP
NEE - parameter of the economic effect bearer
relating to the characteristics of new jobs within
the new organization of small and medium
enterprises by applying re-engineering; Economic
parameters created by carrying out the system
support in the new organization in small or
medium enterprises; /parameter
SP
NEE -
parameter of the economic effect bearer relating
to the carrying out of the system support;
economic parameters created by carrying out the
“pilot solution'', i.e. the system support within the
new organization of small or medium enterprise
by testing the enterprises through applying the re-
engineering on small-scale production;
/parameter
PR
NEE - parameter of the economic
effect bearer relating to the carrying out of the
“pilot solution''; Economic parameters which are
general and are related to the introduction of the
employees with the planned changes and the
application of the plan during the re-engineering
carrying out in phases; /parameter
PP
NEE -
parameter of the economic effect bearer relating
to the invested time needed for the carrying out of
the planned changes and the application of the
plan during the carrying out of re-engineering in
phases in the enterprise; Economic parameters
which are general and relate to the training of
employees for the new process and the new
system of work with the planned changes and
application of the plan in the process of re-
engineering carrying out in phases; /parameter
NSR
NEE - parameter of the economic effect bearer
relating to the expenses arising in the course of
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the employees' training for the new system of
work; Economic parameters of the financial
recovery of small or medium enterprises
FS
NEE ,
by introducing re-engineering comprising of the
introduction of an integral logic system into a
small or medium enterprise; Economic
parameters securing the functioning of
entrepreneurship for the carrying out of re-
engineering
KP
NEE ; Economic parameters
securing the processes of functioning of all
structures and quality systems in small and
medium enterprises by introducing re-
engineering
SK
NEE ; Economic parameters
securing the competitiveness of the products'
prices on the market
CP
NEE created in the
conditions of production applying the re-
engineering.

Table 1. Values of events in optimal questionnaires
i
G for three parameters of groups
Group
parame
ters
Events

1
|
.
|

\
|
¿
=
5
1
. 0
i
troskovi pred
UKN x
1,0
NP
NEE y =
1

0,5
SP
NEE y =
2

0,2
PR
NEE y =
3

0,1
,
4 PP
NEE y =
0,1
NSR
NEE y =
5
0,1
( )
PP
R x
1

1,0
¿
=
· =
n
i
i CIM
P INT y
1
6

0,25
¿
=
· =
n
i
j CIM
T INT y
1
7

0,25
¿
=
· =
n
i
k CIM
I INT y
1
8

0,25
¿
=
· =
n
i
i CIM
C INT y
1
9

0,25
( )
SK
NEE x
2

1,0
,
10 FS
NEE y =
0,25
KP
NEE y =
11

0,25
SK
NEE y =
12

0,25
CP
NEE y =
13

0,25
2
( ) CENE x
3

1,0
P
TR y =
14

0,25
VNM y =
15

0,25
CN y =
16

0,25
PT y =
17

0,25


3


( ) VEF x
4

1,0
M
R y =
18

0,25
NR
R y =
19

0,25
| 20 Md
R y =
0,25
P
R y =
21

0,25
PKP
R y =
22

0,33
EFF
R y =
23

0,33
VZP
R y =
24

0,33

NOTE: Meanings of re-engineering group parameters' symbols (Sefanović S., (2010)).


The second type of parameters in Table
1. includes the Cartesian product of the Computer
Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) integration rules
– of the enterprise and the given set of
components influencing the re-engineering
carrying out in the following form (Stefanović S.,
Cvejić R. (2010)):

( ) (2)
1 1 1 1
¿
=
¿
=
+ ¿
=
+ + ¿
=
· ÷
n
i
n
i
l
C
n
i
k
I
j
T
n
i
i
P
CIM
INT
PP
R

where:
PP
R - is the integration rules product; CIM
– Computer Integrated Manufacturing business
activities (Computer Integrated Manufacturing);
¿
=
n
i
i
P
1
- the sum of new competitive products (or the
sum of new production programmes); ¿
=
n
i
j
T
1
- the
sum of new high production technologies; ¿
=
n
i
k
I
1
-
the sum of new high information technologies ;
¿
=
n
i
l
C
1
- the sum of high communication
technologies (networked business people).

Group 2 This type of Table 1. includes the
following parameters of the market and prices as
manufacturing factors analysis as the basis for the
re-engineering application, being: production
costs, i.e. the value of the goods that needs to be
converted into money
P
TR ; the value of the
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monetary material used to express the value of the
goods VNM ; the value of the price measure used
as the value measuring unit CN ; the ratio of
supply to demand PT .

Group 3 Table 1 includes the non-
economic factors VEF i.e. the general financial
parameters of small and medium enterprise
functioning which causatively influence the
carrying out of re-engineering under the conditions
of transition and they comprise of: process
management ( )
PR
R ; Luirao Marketing function
( )
M
R ; scientific and research function ( )
NR
R ; the
function of management approach in production
planning ( )
| Md
R ; the function of financial planning
for the purpose of enterprise development ( )
P
R ;
the function of planning and controlling of
business ( )
PKP
R ; economic and financial function
( )
EFF
R and the function of connecting salaries
with the performances ( )
VZP
R .

Picture 1. shows the graph of connection
between re-engineering parameters for the
formation of algorithm and the monitoring of its
carrying out in small and medium enterprises'
organization.

3. Relization of algorithm formation

Relations for the formation of algorithm -
questionnaire graph are as follows (Stefanović S.,
and sar.(2007)).

Algorithm
1
A for questionnaire
1
G
STEP 1: Record1: relations
( ) =
13 2 1
,...... , y y y values
(0,5;0,2;0,1;0,1;0,1;0,25;0,25;0,25; 0,25;
0,25; 0,25; 0,25; 0,25);
Record 2: relations
.
3 1
1
2
1 3
2
1
3 1
1
1
1 3
1
1
3 3
1 1
3 1
1
0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
x x x x x

For the two relations' adherents we will note the
first and last weight ( ) 5 , 0
p
µ i ( ) 25 , 0
k
µ .

STEP 2: The total mid value of algorithm
weight in step 1 is: ( ) 375 . 0
2
25 , 0 5 , 0
1 =
+
= p that's the
value of the question of connection between re-
engineering coefficients for group (1) parameter.

Picture 1. Questionnaire graph (General model of algorithm for re-engineering monitoring)
(Sefanović S., (2010))

Algorithm
2
A for questionnaire
2
G
STEP 3:
Record1:relations
( ) =
17 16 15 14
, , , y y y y values
(0,25;0,25;0,25;0,25);
For the two relations' adherents we will note the
first and last weight ( ) 25 , 0
p
µ i ( ) 25 , 0
k
µ .

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STEP 4: The total mid value in algorithm in step 3
is: ( ) 25 . 0
2
25 , 0 25 , 0
2 =
+
= p that's that's the value of
the question of connection between re-engineering
coefficients for group (2) parameter.

Algorithm
3
A for questionnaire
3
G
STEP 5:
Record1:relations
( ) =
21 20 19 18
, , , y y y y values
(0,25;0,25;0,25;0,25);
For the two relations' adherents we will note the
first and last weight

( ) 25 , 0
p
µ i ( ) 25 , 0
k
µ .

STEP 6: The total mid value in algorithm in step 5
is: ( ) 25 . 0
2
25 , 0 25 , 0
2 =
+
= p that's the value of the
question of connection between re-engineering
coefficients for the group(3 – I group) .

STEP 7: Record 1: relations ( ) =
24
,
23
,
22
y y y values
(0,33;0,33;0,33);

For the two relations' adherents we will note the
first and last weight

( ) 33 , 0
p
µ i ( ) 33 , 0
k
µ .
STEP 8: The total mid value of algorithm weight
in step 7 je: ( ) 33 . 0
2
33 , 0 33 , 0
2 =
+
= p that's the value
of the question of connection between re-
engineering coefficients for the group (3 – II
group).

STEP 9: The total mid value of algorithm weight
in steps 5, and 7 is: ( ) 295 . 0
2
33 , 0 25 , 0
3 =
+
= p that's
the value of the question of connection between
re-engineering coefficients for the group (3).

4. Conclusion

Mid values of algorithms, regarding the
significance of total weights, are:
( ) 375 . 0
2
25 , 0 5 , 0
1 =
+
= p ,
1
G
( ) 25 . 0
2
25 , 0 25 , 0
2 =
+
= p ,
2
G
( ) 295 . 0
2
33 , 0 25 , 0
3 =
+
= p ,
3
G
which points to the conclusion that during the
carrying out of re-engineering parameters in small
or medium enterprises one should conduct the
questionnaires
1
G and
3
G and then the
questionnaire
2
G comprising the event parameter
groups. Picture 2 represents a graphic display of
the monitoring algorithm dependence curve
(Sorad Dj. (1979)). .
Algoritam (Ai)
p(i)
A1 A2 A3
0.25
0.29
0.375
G1 (A1, 0.375)
G3 (A3, 0.29)
G2 (A2, 0.25)

Picture 2. Curve of dependence of reengineering monitoring algorithm on the parameter significance
weights
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References

1. Adamović Z., Stefanović S., (2008). RE-
ENGINEERING OF BUSINESS
PROCESSES IN SMALL AND MEDIUM
ENTERPRISES, a Scientific and Expert
Conference ''Proactive machine maintenance''
, 15th – 16th May 2008, Vrnjacka Banja.
2. Bateson J (2002). Consumer performance and
quality in services. Manage. Serv. Qual.,
12(4): 206-209.
3. Bonn MA (2003). Employee service quality
issues, Meeting the needs of our internal
customers. In Managing employee attitudes
and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality
industry, ed. Salih Kusluvan, Hauppauge,
NY: Nova Science. pp. 433-452.
4. George WR (1990). Internal marketing
organizational behaviour: A level, J. Bus. Res.
20(1): 63-70. partnership in developing
customer-conscious employees at every.
5. Sefanović S., (2010). Economic effects of
reengineering in small and medium
enterprises, PhD thesis, MEGATREND
UNIVERZITET, Beograd, 2010.
6. Sorad Dj. (1979). Economic and
Mathematical methods and models, the
Faculty of Economics, Subotica, 1979.
7. Stefanović S., Cvejić R. (2010). Conducting
projects from the aspect of mathematic
modelling, „TQM“ Centar, Zrenjanin, 2010.
8. Stefanović S., Cvetković S., Grbić N.,
Veljković M., (2007). Defining the minimum
and maximum by using simplex method, a
Scientific and Expert Conference ''
Development, use and maintenance of
hydraulic and pneumatic components and
systems“, Collection of studies on CD, no. of
study HIP 45, Vršac, 16th November 2007 ,
ISBN 978-86-83701-08-7.
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DETECTION OF RADIATION CONTAMINATION OBTAINED BY
THE DEPLETED URANIUM AMMUNITION IN FIELD CONDITIONS

Mladen D. Nikolić, dipl. Ing. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
mladennikolic2603@yahoo.com

MSc Fortuna Dragutin College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia

PhD Dragan M. Nikolić, prof. College for chemical-technological school, Kruševac, Serbia
dragannikolic60@yahoo.com

Abstract: The paper discusses the characteristics
of transmission imaging DECT who are most commonly
used to detect radioactive contamination caused by the
application of depleted uranium (DU), 30 mm, under field
conditions, during and after the NATO bombing. In a
separate section of the paper discusses the Protection of
beta emitting nuclei of DU projectiles.
Key words: depleted uranium, a portable X-ray
detector, detection of radioactive contamination, beta
radiation

1. Introduction

During the air strikes on the territory of
the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY),
NATO in 1999. he used ammunition with
projectiles (30 mm) from the OU. Characteristics
of the resulting radioactive contamination have
been described in the literature [1, 2, 3].

Figure 1. 30 mm caliber bullet and core from the
OU

The core of the projectile (30 mm) from
the OU, emits alpha, beta, gamma and neutron
radiation. Strength equivalent dose of gamma
radiation at 5 cm from the projectile nucleus is
approximately 2.7 μSv / ha to 1m less than 0.1
μSv / h [4, 5]. Theoretical maximum equivalent
dose of gamma irradiation of the whole body is
25 μSv for 1h [6]. Neutron radiation is within the
limits of variation of natural background neutron.
Surface velocity emission of alpha particles, the
surface of the projectile nucleus of 1 cm2, is 23 to
27 1s alpha particles in a volume calculated
equivalent doses of alpha radiation (in direct
contact with the core of the missile) is 0.4 to 0.5
Sv / (h ∙ cm2) [7]. Surface velocity emission of
beta particles from the surface of the projectile
nucleus of 1 cm2, were 841 1s beta particles in a
volume calculated equivalent doses of beta
radiation (in direct contact with the core of the
missile) is 1.4 mSv / (h ∙ cm2) [7] . OU is in the
open field through efficiently detect beta
radiation emitted [4, 5, 8, 9].
OU is a mixture of isotopes, including a
strong emitter of beta radiation 234mPa (Emax. =
2.3 MeV), which is in radioactive equilibrium
with 238U. 238U is represented in percentage
with 99.8%. In practice, the control of radioactive
contamination of DU is reduced to running,
suitably protected beta probe, via contaminated
surfaces, the (1-3) cm. The probe is protected
from contamination by thin nylon film.
Depending on the thickness of the foil used beta
radiation detection efficiency decreases to about
(5-20)%. Speed control adjusts inercionoj
constants instrument. Counting Speed is
compared with the response of the surface
activity of 90Sr-90Y (or thin-source uranium).
Response to surface activity is determined
experimentally for each particular type of beta
probe, before using them. Under field conditions,
the soil cover and aerosol penetration into the
deeper layers of the OU land, protected beta
counting speed probes on the contaminated soil is
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Figure 2 Set MRK-M.87
1. MRK M.87
2. Power adapter from the vehicle
3. Carrying Case
4. Sources of Power
5. Plastic bags for protection against contamination
compared with the speed of counting the beta
particles uncontaminated soil (about 100 yards
outside the area affected by DU projectiles). A
suitable place to perform a more detailed
expertise, including response to surface activity
and taking soil samples for laboratory analysis.
The counting rates of beta probes at a distance of
1 cm, gamma photons involved with (5-7)%.
Control of radioactive contamination is
performed with the use of appropriate protective
equipment. Radioactive contamination from DU,
beyond the sensitivity limits of the beta probe is
determined by taking soil samples and their
analysis by mass spectrometry, alpha
spectrometry and gamma spectrometry.
In addition to uranium isotopes (238U,
235U, 234U) projectile nucleus contains trace
236U, 237Np and Pu 239.240 indicating that the
missiles used to produce uranium waste from the
processing of spent nuclear fuel [10].
Upon detection of radioactive
contamination from the use of DU ammunition
was used a number of instruments of domestic
and foreign production. This paper describes the
radiological detectors that are used in the most
radioactively contaminated sites [1].
2. Radioactive contamination meter M87 (MRK-
M87)

Layout set for MRK-M.87 has been
shown in Figure 2.
MRK-M.87 is a handheld device designed
for dosimetry in determining the amount of
radioactive contamination of people, water, food,
weapons, equipment, facilities and vehicles
contaminated with radioactive fission products.
The degree of radioactive contamination, as well
as the DR-M.3, is determined by the gamma
method. Unit reliably detects radioactivity
missiles and missile components (30 mm),
specific radioactivity of the soil with high levels
of radioactive contamination (so-called "hot
spots") and radioactivity holes penetrating
missiles on combat and non-combat vehicles.
Because of the low detection sensor surface,
inadequate measurement units, unadjusted for
ergonomic control surface contamination and a
long response time, MRK-M.87 can not be used
for a detailed radiological control soil
contaminated with DU and performance testing
carried out decontamination work in the field.
MRK-M.87 can be used on contaminated sites to
measure the natural background gamma radiation.

3. Modified universal monitor radiation KOMO-
TN

The appearance of the universal sets
modified radiation monitor KOMO-TN is shown
in Figure 3.
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Universal monitor radiation KOMO-TN is
an integral part of the transmission sets of
radiometric laboratories LARA-2. The basic
version is a device intended to measure the
radiation fields of gamma radiation, beta activity
measurements of samples contaminated with
fission products, determination of the degree of
contamination of various surfaces and assessment
of alpha contamination. Modification, with the
added and modified parts (4, 5, 6 and 8 in Fig. 3),
obtained significantly improved device
characteristics. Due to the satisfactory sensitivity
for surface contamination and the possibility of
beta emitters alternating use of standard probes
and new probes (large detection area), the
modified universal monitor radiation KOMO-TN
can be used to control radiological contamination
of land with DU and performance testing carried
out decontamination work in the field.

4. Universal radiation monitor KOMO-TM

The appearance of the universal radiation
monitor KOMO-TM is shown in Figure 4.

Universal monitor radiation KOMO-TM
is an integral part of the pack radiometric
laboratories M.2 (LR-M.2) and LARA-10. The
device is designed to measure the radiation fields
of gamma radiation, beta activity measurements
of samples contaminated with fission products
and the determination of the degree of radioactive
contamination of various surfaces. When working
in the field conditions, the device needs to be
done to improvise or carry strap and handle the
probe. The installation was done additional probe,
large detection area (90 cm2), 3 gm tubes (the
same as the type of KOMO-TN). Due to the
satisfactory sensitivity for beta radiation and the
possibility of using a standard AC probes and
additional probes (large detection area), the
universal radiation monitor KOMO-TM can be
used to control radiological contamination of land
with DU and performance testing carried out
decontamination work in the field.


5. Contamination monitor ADK 6150

The contamination monitor ADK 6150 is
shown in Figure 5.

Figure 4. Universal monitor radiation
KOMO-TM
Figure 3. The set of modified universal
detector
1. detector, 2. sources of supply, 3. Standard
probe(GM tube ZP 1451), 4. speaker cable and
connector,5. new detection probe with 5 gm
tubes, 6. aluminum holders detection probes,
7. leather case with strap for detector carrying,
8 speaker connector, 9 connection detection
probes, 10 LCT 3B17 GM tube
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Monitor contamination ADK 6150 (Fig.
5) is structurally solved so that I fit the meter
mounted on top, "useless" proportional surface
probe with handle. Guardrail may be extended
with additional aluminum handle, sets the
monitor contamination. The meter is available in
more variants (6150 AD1, AD2 6150, 6150 AD3,
AD4 6150, 6150 and 6150 AD5 AD6) and a
central unit to which, according to the
characteristics of the meter, I can connect the
appropriate detection probes with different
characteristics. There are variants to the correct
type of meter is set to other types of stationary or
portable devices (alarm station, teletektor et al.),
Then making them one functional unit. When
using the monitor contamination can be easily
and functionally protected from radioactive
contamination. The device is used in INN
"Vinca" to perform specific tasks of the institute.
Because of the very high sensitivity for beta
radiation, excellent sound indications, good
ergonomics, high reliability and large detection
area of the probe, contamination monitor 6150
ADK can be used to control radiological
contamination of land with DU and performance
testing carried out decontamination work in the
field. For contamination control can be used and
the combination meter 6150 AD6 with alpha-
beta-gamma probe 6150 AD-17. This probe has
similar characteristics as the measurement
standard universal probe radiation monitor
KOMO-TN.

6. Universal monitor LB 123 (Umo LB 123) with
a probe LB 1231

Apperance of Umo LB 123 with probe
LB 1231 is shown in figure 6..

Umo LB 123 with a probe LB 1231 is a
contemporary, portable proportional counter. In
memory stored data on the calibration factors of
surface activity for 25 radionuclides that are in
practice often occur as contaminants. This device
has a high sensitivity for beta radiation and very
good sound indication. It is possible (in soil
density of 1.24 g/cm3) detect missile (30 mm)
from OU to a depth of 26 cm [2]. With Figure 8
Umo see that LB 123 LB 1231 A probe is not
suitable for continuous measurement of surface
radioactive contamination of large areas of land.
It was used at Cape Arza to verify the existence
of radioactive contamination OU in that place,
which is detected by other instruments and
performance testing carried out decontamination
[2].

7. Beta radiation of the core of depleted uranium
projectiles

The largest contribution to the dose from
external radiation from the nucleus of DU
projectiles in its immediate vicinity, gives beta
radiation [21]. Most commonly, the classic
radiation protection pays attention to gamma
radiation in this case, at a distance of 1 cm,
represents only 7% of the total dose from external
radiation. Therefore, in one laboratory exercises,
in order to optimize radiation protection, and the
measured beta radiation radioactive nuclei of DU
projectiles (30 mm), which was placed in a
Plexiglas box (5 mm thick). Measuring method is
shown in Figure 7.

Figure 5. Contamination monitor ADK 6150

Figure 6. Universal monitor LB 123 (Umo
LB123) with probe 1231
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Was used for the measurement of
multifunctional imaging detector AN/PDR-77
[22]. Beta / gamma probe AN/PDR-77, with an
open window as shown in Figure 9, the measured
beta radiation absorbed dose of 0.1 μGy / h to 5
cGy / h. Data on the absorbed dose of beta
radiation in the air, at different distances from the
nucleus of DU projectiles, obtained by the Monte
Carlo method, taken from literature [21]. The
calculated and measured values of the absorbed
dose intensity of beta radiation are shown in
Table 1.

The results on the strength of the absorbed
dose of beta radiation in air, obtained by Monte
Carlo, (dD / dt) MC, corrected cumulative
attenuation coefficients for Plexiglas and air
layer, X, and is obtained by calculating the value
of the absorbed dose of beta radiation in the air,
after the passage of different type of absorber,
(dD / dt) x. Measured values of the absorbed dose
of beta radiation in the air marked with (dD / dt)
m. Measurements were carried out in an
automatic forfeiture regime phon. The
measurement results were analyzed using the
Statistical EduStat 4.05. Attenuation coefficient
was calculated by the formula [23]:
K
s
= e
–[ µ(β, p)·ρ(p)· x(p)]
· e
–[ µ(β, v)·ρ(v)· x(v)]


where are;

• μ (β, p) - ratio of mass energy absorption
of beta radiation in plexiglass (cm2 / g),
• ρ (p) - Plexiglas density (1.18 g/cm3),
• x (p) - the thickness of Plexiglas (cm)
• μ (β, v) - ratio of mass energy absorption
of beta radiation in air (cm2 / g),
• ρ (p) - the density of air (0.001293
g/cm3) and
• x (p) - air layer thickness (cm).
Mass energy absorption coefficients of
beta radiation, plexiglass and air, were calculated
by the formula [23]:
µ(β,p) = 17 (E
max
)
-1,14
(cm
2
/g) i µ(β,v) =
16 (E
max
– 0,036)
-1,4
(cm
2
/g).

Emax is taken for the value of 2.3 MeV.
Table 1. Calculated and the measured
values of the absorbed dose of beta radiation from
the surface of the core of DU projectiles (in a
plexiglass box)
DISTANC
E FROM
CORE
SURFACE
MISSILE
(cm)

(dD/dt)
MC
(µGy/h)

K
s


(dD/dt)
x
(µGy/h
)

(dD/dt)
m
(µGy/h)
0 1960 - 1960 -
5 144
0,02
06
2,97
2,349 ±
0,042
10 46
0,02
13
0
,98
1,088 ±
0,092
Note:
At a distance of 1 cm was measured
absorbed dose of beta radiation of about 6
μGy / h but due to lack of proper values in
the literature [21], obtained by Monte Carlo,
was not included in the table.

The results of calculations and
measurements indicate the importance and
necessity of taking proper care of beta radiation
when working with projektilia from OU,
regardless of whether they are carrying out
rehabilitation works and laboratory exercises.

Conclusion


Figure 7 Measuring the intensity of the
absorbed dose of beta radiation
1. beta / gamma probe AN/PDR-77
2. nucleus of DU projectiles in a plexiglass
box
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During the air strikes on the territory of
the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY),
NATO in 1999. he used ammunition with
projectiles (30 mm) from the OU.
For the detection of radioactive
contamination caused by the application of
depleted uranium (DU), 30 mm, under field
conditions, during and after the NATO bombing
kotišćeni the DECT portable imaging such as
radioactive contamination meter M.87 (MRK-
M.87) , modified universal monitor radiation
KOMO-TN, universal monitor radiation KOMO-
TM monitor contamination ADK 6150, universal
monitor LB 123 (Umo LB 123) with a probe LB
1231 and others. Depleted uranium is in the open
field through efficiently detect beta radiation
emitted, and the test results indicate the
importance of the need for protection against beta
radiation when working with missiles based on
OU.

Reference

[1] B. Djurovic et all, Depleted Uranium
(detection methods, direct repair
effects and prevent late consequences), Draslar
Partner, Belgrade, 2011., pp. 31-36
[2] P. Vukotic, Anđelić T., Zeki R., M. Kovacevic,
V. Vasic, N. Ristic, D. Fortune,
Dosimetric experience decontamination Arza from
depleted uranium, XXI
JDZZ Symposium Proceedings, Belgrade, 2001.,
pp. 201-208
[3] S. Petkovic, M. Zaric, Z. Devic, use of
depleted uranium ammunition in
NATO aggression against the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, Chemical Industry No2, Belgrade
2002nd, pp. 62-68
[4] UNEP, Depleted Uranium in Serbia and
Montenegro, Post-Conflict Environmental
Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
Switzerland, 2002.
[5] UNEP, Depleted Uranium in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Post-Conflict Environmental
Assessment, Switzerland, 2003.
[6] S. Fetter, Von Hippel F. N., The hazard posed
by depleted uranium munitions, Sci.
Global Security 8, 1999., Pp. 125-161
[7] D. Ristic, R. Benderać, Vejnović Z., M. Orlic,
S. Pavlovic, ammunition used by
NATO forces in Bosnia made from depleted
uranium, INN Newsletter
"Vinca" no. 4, 1997., Pp. 205-212
[8] D. Fortune, D. Dimitrijevic, Senic women.,
Practical aspects of the detection of radiation
contamination caused by the application of
depleted uranium, chemical
Industry No2, Belgrade, 2002., pp. 98-100
[9] G. Pantelic, G. Kolarević, Z. Ivkovic,
Dosimetric control shell PGU-14 / B
API penetrator of depleted uranium, XXI
Symposium JDZZ, Proceedings
contractors, Beograd, 2001., pp. 375-378
[10] V. Bar, Radenkovic M., Paligorić D., Djuric,
J., Alfaspektrometrijska analysis
missiles with depleted uranium, XXI Symposium
JDZZ, Proceedings
contractors, Beograd, 2001., pp. 69-72
[11] Radiological detector M.3 (DR-M.3), VIZ,
Belgrade, 1978.
[12] The meter of radioactive contamination M87
(MRK-M87), VIZ, Belgrade, 1989.
[13] I. Dimitrijevic, S. Mihajlovic, Detection and
dosimetry of radiation, VIZ,
Belgrade, 1982., Pp. 400-405
[14] Portable X-ray radiation meter KOMO-TN
Description with instructions for handling,
IBK "Vinca", Belgrade, 1980.
[15] I. Dimitrijevic, S. Mihajlovic, Detection and
dosimetry of radiation, VIZ,
Belgrade, 1982., Pp. 374-392
[16] P. Markovic, Ristic DJ., Mirić I., P. Miric,
Calibration of instruments for measuring
surface contamination, IBK-93, IBK "Vinca",
Belgrade, 1964.
[17] Philips data handbook, Electron tubes, Book
T6, 1986., Pp. 97-100
[18] Radiological contamination meter KOMO-
TL, Description with instructions for handling,
IBK "Vinca", Belgrade, 1985.
[19] Dose rate meter 5/6/k 6150 AD, Operating
Manual, Automess GmbH, 1995.
[20] Operating Manual, UMO LB 123, Berthold
Technologies, EGG Berthold, 1993.
[21] R. Pollanen et all, Characterisation of
projectiles composed of depleted uranium,
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 64
(2003), pp. 133 -142
[22] Radiac Set AN / PDR - 77, Technical Manual,
New Jersey, 1995.
[23] J. Martin E. Physics for Radiation Protection,
Second Edition, Strauss GmbH,
Mörlenbach, 2006.
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