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Also by Arnold Schoenberg FUNDAMENTALS OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION edited by Erwin Stein ARNOLD SCHOENBERG : LETTERS ARNOLD SCHOENBERG PRELIMINARY EXERCISES IN COUNTERPOINT EDITED AND WITH A FOREWORD BY LEONARD STEIN ST. MARTIN’S PRESS New York First published in the United States, 1969 First paperback edition, 1970 © 1963 by Gertrude Schoenberg Eduor’s Foreword ® Leonard Stein 1983 All rights reserved For information, write ‘St, Martin's Pres, Ine. 175 Fifth Ave. New York, N.Y. 10010 This book i fly protected by copyright and no parts may be reproduced without written permission Jrom the publisher Printed in Great Britain 919230 ISBN 0 312 63875 2 CONTENTS EDITOR'S FOREWORD PARTI SIMPLE COUNTERPOINT IN TWO VOICES THE FIVE SPECIES IN MAJOR 1, FIRST SPECIES “Addition ofan woper or lower voice 10a given voice, called the cantus feraus (CF), which Sell elways consisy of whole notes inthis book {51-4 Rules and Advice: Intervals, Consonances and Dissonances ‘5-6 The Voices and the Clefs $7 Melodic Voie Leading HEE Independence ofthe Voice ‘§§ 10-LL Establishment of Tonality IT-L¢ Advice and Ditetons fr the Fist Species ton Examples in Fist Spc, Exs. -9 Exampies 9 I, SECOND SPECIES “Addin of an vpper oF lower voice in haf notes to the cantysfemus 15.17 Advice and Directions {B [6-19 The First Conventionalized Formula: The Passing Note {$8 20-25 The Ending in Second Species ‘Comment on Examples in Second Species, Exs. 10-18 Examples 10-18 WL FHIRD SPECIES . Addition ofan vaper or lower voice in quarter notes 10 the eantes fms §§ 24-28 Advice and Directions ‘8 29-32 The Second Conventionalized Formula: The Cambiats $33 Passing Note on the Strong Beat $36 The Ending in Third Species $35 Use of Triple Meters: 3/4, 3/2 and 6/4 ‘Comment on Examples in Third Species, Exs. 19-26 Examples 19-26 poge xi B 14 7 3 4 33 35 36 » IV. Fo CONTENTS RTH SPECIES Syncopated half notes and suspensians in upper and lower voices added tothe canto Sirus. $536.38 3947 V. PIF Advice and Directions ‘The Thicd Conventionalized Forméia: The Suspension Comment on Examples in Fourth Species, Exs. 28-29 Examples 27-29 TH SPECIES Mixed notes added tothe eats emus 43-53 85457 Advice aad Directions: Raithms “The Fourth Comentionslied Formula: The Interrupted Resolution Comment on Examples in Fifth Species, Exs. 30-31 Examples 30 and 31 VI. THE MINOR TONALITY 558-63 eum Derivation of Minor ‘The Four Turning-Poiots and the Process of Neutralization Comment on Examples in Minor, Exs. 32-39 Examples 32-39 VIL, FIRST COMPOSITIONAL APPLICATION: CADENCES WITHOUT 872-83 e489 vu 9092 59395 59697 598.99 100 5101 CANTUS FIRMUS CCadences and the Expression of Tonality How to Proceed without a Given Cautus Firmus Comment on Cadences, Ex. 40 Example 40 SECOND COMPOSITIONAL APPLICATION: CADENCES TO ‘VARIOUS REGIONS; MODULATION Regions and Modulation ‘The Relationship of Regions Modulations to Related Regions Major to Relative Minor and Minor to Relative Major ‘Comment on Modulations Between Relative Major and Minor Regions, Exs. 41-42 Examples 41 and 42 ‘Modulations with a Gives Voice ‘Comment on Modulations with Given Voices, Ex. 43 Example “Modulations to other Regions cea it te neo ta Sma ae ae iste Baa e wees RPDS aaa a a 8 8 a4 85 86 86 87 87 ® CONTENTS PART II SIMPLE COUNTERPOINT IN THREE VOICES I. FIRST SPECIES (Cantus firmus and to added voices In whole notes 102-10 General Considerations: Consonances and Dissonances in Three Voices G11 Hidden Parallels in Three Voices $112 Advice and Directions forthe First Species ‘Commeat on Examples in First Species, Ex. 52-53 Examples 52 and $3 Il, SECOND SPECIES ‘Two voices added to cantus firmus: one in whole notes and one in half notes, or both in half poses, {113-15 Advice and Directions ‘Comment on Examples in Second Species, Exs. 54-55 Examples 54 and 55 $116 Two Voices in Half Notes ‘Comment on Examples with Two Voices in Half Notes, Exs. 56-57 ‘Examples 56 and 57 ML THIRD SPECIES Addition of four quarter notes 10 a cantus firmus and whole notes or half notes in the ‘hid voice WLITAI8 Advice and Directions ‘Cornment on Examples in Third Species, Ex. $8-61 Examples 58-61 IV. FOURTH SPECIES Addon of syncopated half notes to a cantus firmus and whole notes, half notes or quarter notes in the third voice 119-22 Advice and Directions 123-5 Suspensions in Three Voices ‘Comment on Examples in Fourth Species, Exs. 62-63 Examples 62 and 63, 126 — Syncopations with Added Voice in Half Notes or Quarter Notes {8 127-30 Suspensions as Seventh Chords and their Inversions 11-2 Othee Types of Suspension ‘Comet on Suspensions with Added Voice ia Quarter Notes, Exs. 64-65 ‘Examples 64 and 65 BESRe 101 101 103 106 106, 108 110 no 13 116 7 18 nB 19 120 12 123 red