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B.G. Sidharth B.M. Birla Science Centre, Adarshnagar, Hyderabad - 500 063, India

Abstract Attempts for a geometrical interpretation of Quantum Theory were made, notably the deBroglie-Bohm formulation. This was further rened by Santamato who invoked Weyls geometry. However these attempts left a number of unanswered questions. In the present paper we return to these two formulations, in the context of recent studies invoking fuzzy spacetime and noncommutative geometry. We argue that it is now possible to explain the earlier shortcomings. At the same time we get an insight into the geometric origin of the deBroglie wavelength itself as also the Wilson-Sommerfeld Quantization rule.

Introduction

One of the fruitful approaches to Quantum Mechanics was the so called deBroglie-Bohm hydrodynamical formulation [1], which originated with Madelung and was developed by Bohm using deBroglies pilot wave ideas. In this formulation, while the initial position coordinates in a Quantum Mechanical trajectory, are random, the trajectories themselves are determined by classical mechanics. Quantum Mechanics enters through an inexplicable Quantum potential which is again related to the wave function. This has been a stumbling block in the acceptance of the formulation. Much later, Santamato further developed the deBroglie-Bohm formulation by relating the mysterious Quantum potential to fundamental geometric properties, by invoking Weyls geometry [2, 3, 4]. The net result was that the mysterious Quantum eects were shown to be related to the geometric structure of space specically to the curvature. Unfortunately, Weyls theory itself did not nd favour [5]. Apart from 1

anything else, the theory sought to unify electromagnetism with gravitation, but on closer scrutiny, in this geometrical structure the two interactions were actually independent and ad hoc entities as noted by Einstein himself [6]. We will now reexamine all this in the light of recent developments in fuzzy spacetime and noncommutative geometry, and argue that infact, once the underlying fuzzyness is recognized, then the above apparent diculties disappear.

Let us briey review the above theory [7]. We start with the Schrodinger equation h2 2 h = +V (1) t 2m In (1), the substitution h = ReS/ (2) where R and S are real functions of r and t, leads to, + (v) = 0 t 1 2 R 1 V 1 S + (S)2 + 2 =0 h t 2m 2m R h where = R2 , v = and h S m (3) (4)

h2 (2 R/R) (5) 2m Using the theory of uid ow, it is well known that (3) and (4) lead to the Bohm alternative formulation of Quantum Mechanics. In this theory there is a hidden variable namely the denite value of position while the so called Bohm potential Q can be non local, two features which do not nd favour with physicists. Let us now briey review Weyls ideas. He postulated that in addition to the general coordinate transformations of General Relativity, there were also gauge transformations which multiplied all components of the Q 2

metric tensor g , by an arbitrary function of the coordinates. So, the line elements would no longer be invariant. In its modern version, the metric tensor is normalized so that its determinant is given by [5], |g | = 1, while it now transforms as a tensor density of weight minus half, and not as a tensor. This leads to the circumstance that there is now a covariant derivative involving an arbitrary function of coordinates given by = , (6) where the s denote the Christofell symbols. Weyl identied in (6) with the electromagnetic potential. It must be noted that in Weyls geometry, even in a Euclidean space there is a covariant derivative and a non vanishing curvature R. Santamato exploits this latter fact, within the context of the deBroglieBohm theory and postulates a Lagrangian given by L(q, q, t) = Lc (q, q, t) + ( 2 /m)R(q, t), h He then goes on to obtain the equations of motion like (1),(2), etc. by invoking an Averaged Least Action Principle I(t0 , t1 ) = E

t t0

= minimum,

with respect to the class of all Weyl geometries of space with xed metric tensor. This now leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation t S + Hc (q, S, t) ( 2 /m)R = 0, h h t = (1/2m) [( / g) gA ]g k ( k + Ak ) h h + [V ( 2 /m)R] = 0, h (9) (8)

As can be seen from the above, the Quantum potential Q is now given in terms of the scalar curvature R. We would now like to relate the arbitrary functions of Weyls formulation with a noncommutative spacetime geometry, as was shown 3

recently. Let us write the product dx dx of the line element, ds2 = g ddx dx , as a sum of half its anti-symmetric part and half the symmetric part. The line element now becomes (h + h )dx dx . This leads us back to the Weyl geometry because the metric tensor h now becomes a tensor density [8, 9]. In other words it is the underlying fuzzyness of space time as expressed by [dx , dx ] l2 = 0 (10) l being a typical length scale 0(dx ), that brings out Weyls geometry, not as an ad hoc feature, but as a truly geometrical consequence, and therefore also legitimises Santamatos postulative approach of extending the deBroglie-Bohm formulation. At an even more fundamental level, this formalism gives us the rationale for the deBroglie wave length itself. Because of the noncommutative geometry in (10) space becomes multiply connected, in the sense that a closed circuit cannot be shrunk to a point within the interval. Let us consider the simplest case of double connectivity. In this case, if the interval is of length , we will have, using (5), whence

c

mV dr = h

S dr = h =

dS = mV = h

(11)

h (12) mV In (11), the circuit integral was over a circle of diameter . Equation (12) shows the emergence of the deBroglie wavelength. This follows from the noncommutative geometry of space time, rather than the physical Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Remembering that in (11) stands for the angular momentum, this is also the origin of the Wilson-Sommerfeld quantization rule, an otherwise mysterious Quantum Mechanical prescription.

Discussion

1. We would like to stress that Santamatos treatment via Weyls geometry, of the deBroglie-Bohm formulation was postulative (Cf. equations 4

(7), (8), (9)), while the Weyl formulation itself had not found favour for its original motivation. Perhaps this was the reason why Santamatos formulation was not taken so seriously. On the other hand, we have argued from the point of view of the noncommutative geometry (10), which, after many decades, is now coming to be recognized in the context of Quantum Superstring theory and Quantum Gravity. 2. It is well known that the so called Nelsonian stochastic process resembles the deBroglie-Bohm formulation, with very similar equations [10, 11]. However in this former case, both the position and velocity are not deterministic because of an underlying Brownian process. In this formulation the diusion constant of the theory has to be identied with, h = m These are the extra features in this stochastic formulation, rather than the Quantum potential, which also appears in the equations. It has been shown by the author [12, 7], that both the similar approaches infact can be unied for relativistic velocities, by considering quantized vortices originating from (11)of the order of the deBroglie, now the Compton scale l. This immediately brings us back to the fuzzy noncommutative geometry (10). At the same time it must be pointed out that the supposedly unsatisfactory non local features of the Quantum potential Q become meaningful in the above context at the Compton scale, within which indeed we have exactly such non local eects [13]. It may be pointed out that more recently we have been led back to the background Quantum vaccuum and the underlying Zero Point Field, now christened dark energy by the observation of the cosmological constant implied by the accelerated expansion of the universe [7] and it is this ZPF which provides the Brownian process of the stochastic theory. As pointed out by Nottale [14], such a Brownian process also eliminates the hidden variable feature of the deBroglie- Bohm formulation. Interestingly it has been argued by Enz [15] that a particle extension, as is implied in the above considerations in the form of a quantized vortex or fuzzy space time, is the bridge between the particle and wave aspects. Infact at this scale, there is zitterbewegung, reminiscent of deBroglies picture of a particle as an oscillator. Originally Dirac had interpreted the zitterbewegung oscillations as unphysical, which are removed by the fact that due to the Uncertainty Principle we cannot go down to arbitrarily small space time intervals, so that our space time points are averages over Compton scale intervals (Cf.[7, 16] for a dis5

cussion). 3. It is also interesting to note that Santamatos tying up of the Quantum potential with the curvature R has been interpreted as being the result of cosmic uctuations [17], this being a special case of a more general but identical earlier result of the author [18, 19]. 4. Finally we observe that a complete geometrication of Quantum Theory is now possible. Via equation (2) we have introduced in the wave function the (mass) density and the phase S of the wave function . As we have seen the phase S is directly related to the determinant of |g| infact we have S = (ln |g| Further in the above formulation (Cf.ref.[2]) infact we have = (ln) Thus the mass and gravitational and electromagnetic forces (as also the strong and electroweak interactions Cf.ref.[7]), are related to the basic metrical properties of spacetime.

References

[1] A.I.M. Rae, Quantum Mechanics, IOP Publishing, Bristol, pp.222. [2] E. Santamato, Phys.Rev.D. 29 (2), 216, 1984. [3] E. Santamato, J. Math. Phys. 25 (8), 2477, 1984. [4] E. Santamato, Phys.Rev.D 32 (10), 2615, 1985. [5] P.G. Bergmann, Introduction to the Theory of Relativity, Prentice-Hall, New Delhi, 1969, 245. [6] A. Einstein, Meaning of Relativity, Oxford & IBH,New Delhi, 1965, 93-94. [7] B.G. Sidharth, Chaotic Universe: From the Planck to the Hubble Scale, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2001, p.12 and references therein. [8] B.G. Sidharth, Annales de la Foundation Louis de Broglie, 27 (2), pp.333, 2002. 6

[9] B.G. Sidharth, xxx.physics/0210109. [10] E. Nelson, Physical Review, Vol.150, No.4, October 1966, p.10791085. [11] L. Nottale, Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics:Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity, World Scientic, Singapore, 1993, p.312. [12] B.G. Sidharth, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12(1), 2000, 173-178. [13] S. Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1972, pp.619. [14] L. Nottale, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 4, 3, 1994, 361-388. [15] U. Enz in Deductions in Microphysics, Fondation Louis deBroglie, Paris, 1993, pp.131-144. [16] B.G. Sidharth, Extension, Spin and Non-Commutativity, Foundation of Physics Letters, October 2002, (In Press). [17] M. Inaba, Int.J.Mod.Phys.A., 16(17), 2001, p.2965-73. [18] B.G. Sidharth, Int.J.of Mod.Phys.A., 13(15), 1993, pp2599. [19] B.G. Sidharth, Cosmology of Fluctuations, to appear in Chaos, Solitons and Fractals.

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