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Derive describing functions for static nonlinearities

Predict stability and existence of periodic solutions through

describing function analysis

Material:

Slotine and Li: Chapter 5

Chapter 14 in Glad & Ljung

Chapter 7.2 (pp.280290) in Khalil

(Chapter 8 in Adaptive Control by strm & Wittenmark)

Lecture notes

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Course Outline

Lecture 1-3 Modelling and basic phenomena

(linearization, phase plane, limit cycles)

Lecture 2-6 Analysis methods

(Lyapunov, circle criterion, describing functions)

Lecture 7-8 Common nonlinearities

(Saturation, friction, backlash, quantization)

Lecture 9-13 Design methods

(Lyapunov methods, Backstepping, Optimal control)

Lecture 14 Summary

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Example: saturated sinusoidals

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

4

time [s]

in

p

u

t

s

ig

n

a

l

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

time [s]

o

u

t

p

u

t

s

ig

n

a

l

Sine Wave

Scope

Saturation

The effective gain ( the ratio

sat(Asint)

Asint

) varies with the

input signal amplitude A.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Motivating Example

r e u y

G(s)

0 5 10 15 20

2

1

0

1

2

y

u

G(s) =

4

s(s 1)

2

and u = sat (e) gives stable oscillation for r = 0.

How can the oscillation be predicted?

Q: What is the amplitude/topvalue of u and y? What is the frequency?

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Motivating Example

r e u y

G(s)

0 5 10 15 20

2

1

0

1

2

y

u

G(s) =

4

s(s 1)

2

and u = sat (e) gives stable oscillation for r = 0.

How can the oscillation be predicted?

Q: What is the amplitude/topvalue of u and y? What is the frequency?

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Recall the Nyquist Theorem

Assume G(s) stable, and k is positive gain.

The closed-loop system is unstable if the point 1]k is

encircled by G(i)

The closed-loop system is stable if the point 1]k is not

encircled by G(i)

0

e u y

k

G(s)

1]k

G(i)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Motivating Example (contd)

Heuristic reasoning:

For what frequency and what amplitude is

"the loop gain" f G = 1?

Introduce N(A) as an amplitude dependent approximation of

the nonlinearity f ().

0

e u y

f () G(s)

1]N(A)

A

G(i)

y = G(i)u ~ G(i)N(A)y = G(i) =

1

N(A)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Motivating Example (contd)

8 6 4 2 0

10

8

6

4

2

0

G(i)

1]N(A)

Introduce N(A) as an amplitude dependent gain-approximation

of the nonlinearity f ().

Heuristic reasoning: For what frequency and what amplitude is

"the loop gain" N(A) G(iw) = 1?

The intersection of the 1]N(A) and the Nyquist curve G(i)

predicts amplitude and frequency.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Motivating Example (contd)

8 6 4 2 0

10

8

6

4

2

0

G(i)

1]N(A)

Introduce N(A) as an amplitude dependent gain-approximation

of the nonlinearity f ().

Heuristic reasoning: For what frequency and what amplitude is

"the loop gain" N(A) G(iw) = 1?

The intersection of the 1]N(A) and the Nyquist curve G(i)

predicts amplitude and frequency.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Motivating Example (contd)

8 6 4 2 0

10

8

6

4

2

0

G(i)

1]N(A)

Introduce N(A) as an amplitude dependent gain-approximation

of the nonlinearity f ().

Heuristic reasoning: For what frequency and what amplitude is

"the loop gain" N(A) G(iw) = 1?

The intersection of the 1]N(A) and the Nyquist curve G(i)

predicts amplitude and frequency.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

How do we derive the describing function N(A)?

Does the intersection predict a stable oscillation?

Are the estimated amplitude and frequency accurate?

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Fourier Series

Every periodic function u(t) = u(t T) has a Fourier series

expansion

u(t) =

a

0

2

n=1

(a

n

cos nt b

n

sin nt)

=

a

0

2

n=1

_

a

2

n

b

2

n

sin|nt arctan(a

n

]b

n

)|

where = 2]T and

a

n

=

2

T

_

T

0

u(t) cos nt dt b

n

=

2

T

_

T

0

u(t) sin nt dt

.

Note: Sometimes we make the change of variable t ]

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

The Fourier Coefcients are Optimal

The nite expansion

u

k

(t) =

a

0

2

k

n=1

(a

n

cos nt b

n

sin nt)

solves

min

u

2

T

_

T

0

_

u(t) u

k

(t)

2

dt

if |a

n

, b

n

are the Fourier coefcients.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

The Key Idea

0

e u y

N.L.

G(s)

Assume e(t) = Asint and u(t) periodic. Then

u(t) =

a

0

2

n=1

_

a

2

n

b

2

n

sin|nt arctan(a

n

]b

n

)|

If [G(in)[ [G(i)[ for n = 2, 3, . . . and a

0

= 0, then

y(t) ~ [G(i)[

_

a

2

1

b

2

1

sin|t arctan(a

1

]b

1

) arg G(i)|

Find periodic solution by matching coefcients in y = e.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Denition of Describing Function

The describing function is

N(A, ) =

b

1

() ia

1

()

A

e(t)

u(t)

N.L.

e(t) u

1

(t)

N(A, )

If G is low pass and a

0

= 0, then

u

1

(t) = [N(A, )[Asin|t arg N(A, )|

can be used instead of u(t) to analyze the system.

Amplitude dependent gain and phase shift!

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Idea: Use the describing function to approximate the part of

the signal coming out from the nonlinearity which will survive

through the low-pass ltering linear system.

e(t) = Asint = Im (Ae

it

)

e(t)

u(t)

N.L.

u(t) =

a

0

2

n=1

(a

n

cos nt b

n

sin nt)

e(t)

u

1

(t)

N(A, )

u

1

(t) = a

1

cos(t) b

1

sin(t)

= Im (N(A, )Ae

it

)

where the describing function is dened as

N(A, ) =

b

1

() ia

1

()

A

== U(i) ~ N(A, )E(i)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Existence of Limit Cycles

0

e u y

f () G(s)

1]N(A)

A

G(i)

y = G(i)u ~ G(i)N(A)y = G(i) =

1

N(A)

The intersections of G(i) and 1]N(A) give and A for

possible limit cycles.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for a Relay

H

H

u

e

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

e

u

a

1

=

1

_

2

0

u() cos d = 0

b

1

=

1

_

2

0

u() sin d =

2

_

0

H sin d =

4H

4H

A

.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for Odd Static Nonlinearities

Assume f () and p() are odd static nonlinearities (i.e.,

f (e) = f (e)) with describing functions N

f

and N

p

. Then,

Im N

f

(A, ) = 0, coeff. (a

1

0)

N

f

(A, ) = N

f

(A)

N

f

(A) = N

f

(A)

N

f p

(A) = N

f

(A) N

p

(A)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Limit Cycle in Relay Feedback System

r e u y

G(s)

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.1

G(i)

1]N(A)

G(s) =

3

(s 1)

3

with feedback u = sgn y

3]8 = 1]N(A) = A]4 = A = 12]8 ~ 0.48

G(i) = 3]8 = ~ 1.7, T = 2] = 3.7

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Limit Cycle in Relay Feedback System (contd)

The prediction via the describing function agrees very well with

the true oscillations:

0 2 4 6 8 10

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

u

y

G lters out almost all higher-order harmonics.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for a Saturation

H

H

D D

u

e

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

u

e

N(A) = 1, if A D then for (0, )

u() =

_

Asin, (0,

0

) (

0

, )

D, (

0

,

0

)

where

0

= arcsin D]A.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for a Saturation (contd)

a

1

=

1

_

2

0

u() cos d = 0

b

1

=

1

_

2

0

u() sin d =

4

_

]2

0

u() sin d

=

4A

_

0

0

sin

2

d

4D

_

]2

0

sin d

=

A

_

2

0

sin2

0

_

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for a Saturation (contd)

If H = D

N(A) =

1

_

2

0

sin2

0

_

, A D

For H ,= D the rule N

f

(A) = N

f

(A) gives

N(A) =

H

D

_

2

0

sin2

0

_

, A D

0 2 4 6 8 10

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

N(A) for H = D = 1

NOTE: dependance of A shows

up in

0

= arcsin D]A

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

3 minute exercise:

What oscillation amplitude and frequency do the describing

function analysis predict for the Motivating Example?

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Solution: Find and A such that G(i) N(A) = 1;

As N(A) is positive and real valued, nd s.t.

arg G(i) = ==

2

2 arctan

1

= == = 1.0

which gives a period time of 6.28 seconds.

[G(1.0i)[ N(A) = 2 N(A) = 1 == N(A) = 0.5.

To nd the amnplitude A, either

Alt. 1 Solve (numerically) N(A) =

1

1

_

2

0

sin2

0

_

= 0.5,

where

0

= arcsin(1]A)

Alt. 2 From the diagram of N(A) one can nd A ~ 2.47

0 2 4 6 8 10

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

N(A) for H = D = 1

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

The Nyquist Theorem

Assume G(s) stable, and k is positive gain.

The closed-loop system is unstable if the point 1]k is

encircled by G(i)

The closed-loop system is stable if the point 1]k is not

encircled by G(i)

0

e u y

k

G(s)

1]k

G(i)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

How to Predict Stability of Limit Cycles

Assume G(s) stable. For a given A = A

0

:

A increases if the point 1]N

f

(A

0

) is encircled by G(i)

A decreases otherwise

0

e u y

f G(s)

1]N(A)

G(i)

A stable limit cycle is predicted

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

How to Predict Stability of Limit Cycles

1]N(A)

G()

An unstable limit cycle is predicted

An intersection with amplitude A

0

is unstable if A < A

0

gives

decreasing amplitude and A A

0

gives increasing.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Stable Periodic Solution in Relay System

r e u y

G(s)

5 4 3 2 1 0

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

G(i)

1]N(A)

G(s) =

(s 10)

2

(s 1)

3

with feedback u = sgn y

gives one stable and one unstable limit cycle. The left most

intersection corresponds to the stable one.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Periodic Solution in Relay System

The relay gain N(A) is higher for small A:

orbit

Growing amplitudes

Shrinking relay gain

Stable

periodic

orbit

Unstable

periodic

Growing relay gain

One encirclement

Shrinking amplitudes

Growing relay gain

Small amplitudes

High relay gain

No encirclement

Shrinking amplitudes

Big amplitudes

Small relay gain

No encirclement

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Automatic Tuning of PID Controller

Period and amplitude of relay feedback limit cycle can be used

for autotuning.

Process

PID

Relay

A

T

u y

1

Time

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for a dead-zone relay

D

D

u

e

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

e

u

Let e(t) = Asint = Asin. Then for (0, )

u() =

_

0, (0,

0

)

D, (

0

,

0

)

where

0

= arcsin D]A (if A D)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Describing Function for a dead-zone relaycontd.

a

1

=

1

_

2

0

u() cos d = 0

b

1

=

1

_

2

0

u() sind =

4

_

]2

0

Dsind

=

4D

cos

0

=

4D

_

1 D

2

]A

2

N(A) =

_

0, A < D

4

A

_

1 D

2

]A

2

, A D

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Plot of Describing Function for dead-zone relay

0 2 4 6 8 10

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

N(A) for D = 1

Notice that N(A) ~ 1.3]A for large amplitudes

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Pitfalls

Describing function analysis can give erroneous results.

DF analysis may predict a limit cycle, even if it does not

exist.

A limit cycle may exist, even if DF analysis does not predict

it.

The predicted amplitude and frequency are only

approximations and can be far from the true values.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Example

The control of output power x(t) from a mobile telephone is critical for

good performance. One does not want to use too large power since

other channels are affected and the battery length is decreased.

Information about received power is sent back to the transmitter and

is used for power control. A very simple scheme is given by

x(t) =u(t)

u(t) = sign y(t L), , 0

y(t) = x(t).

Use describing function analysis to predict possible limit cycle

amplitude and period of y. (The signals have been transformed so

x = 0 corresponds to nominal output power)

y(t) = x(t)

x(t)

y(t L)

s

e

sL

u(t)

x(t) y(t) y(t L)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

The system can be written as a negative feedback loop with

G(s) =

e

sL

s

and a relay with amplitude 1. The describing function of a relay

satises 1]N(A) = A]4 hence we are interesting in G(i)

on the negative real axis. A stable intersection is given by

= arg G(i) = ]2 L

which gives =](2L).This gives

A

4

= [G(i)[ =

=

2L

2

. The period is given by

T = 2] = 4L. (More exact analysis gives the true values

A = L and T = 4L, so the prediction is quite good.)

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Accuracy of Describing Function Analysis

Control loop with friction F = sgn y:

_

_

G C

Friction

y

ref u

F

y

Corresponds to

G

1 GC

=

s(s b)

s

3

2s

2

2s 1

with feedback u = sgn y

The oscillation depends on the zero at s = b.

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Accuracy of Describing Function Analysis

1 0.5 0 0.5

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

b = 4]3

b = 1]3

DF predicts period times and

ampl. (T, A)

b=4]3

= (11.4, 1.00)

and (T, A)

b=1]3

=(17.3,0.23)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

1

0

1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

y

y

b = 4]3

b = 1]3

Simulation:

(T, A)

b=4]3

= (12, 1.1)

(T, A)

b=1]3

= (22, 0.28)

Accurate results only if y is sinusoidal!

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Analysis of OscillationsA summary

There exist both time-domain and frequency-domain methods

to analyze oscillations.

Time-domain:

Poincar maps and Lyapunov functions

Rigorous results but hard to use for large problems

Frequency-domain:

Describing function analysis

Approximate results

Powerful graphical methods

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Todays Goal

To be able to

Derive describing functions for static nonlinearities

Predict stability and existence of periodic solutions through

describing function analysis

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

Next Lecture

Saturation and antiwindup compensation

Lyapunov analysis of phase locked loops

Friction compensation

FRTN05 Lecture 6 Automatic Control LTH, Lund University

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